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I. Composition, Missions, and Capabilities of Army Rear Service Units and Installations

The army's rear service is organized in the form of a mobile establishment so that it may quickly and effectively meet all of the army's material requirements during the conduct of the operation. It is a relatively strong establishment with 7,000 personnel and 2,500 vehicles. The composition of the army's rear service includes the following elements:
----- -- army mobile base (APB): (see printed notes);
------ - rocket mobile base: (see printed notes);
----- - separate road construction and traffic battalion: (see printed notes);
----- - separate bridging company: (see printed notes);
----- - armored vehicle evacuation battalion: (see printed notes);
----- - motor vehicle evacuation company: (see printed notes);
----- - separate engineer repair and evacuation company: (see printed notes);
----- - medical units (see printed notes
----- - veterinary detachments. (see printed notes


Missions of Army Rear Service

Rear service support is a number of measures taken on organization of rear service, preparing and using communication routes and transport means, material, technical, medical, and other types of troop support and services. Missions of the rear service are as follows:
----- - providing troops with all types of material means, timely establishment of material reserves and maintaining the stock of material reserves at prescribed norms and their constant transportation to the troops;
----- - preparing the supply routes and supporting the operation of supply routes and transport means and organizing traffic services on army supply routes;
----- - collecting and evacuating damaged vehicles and repairing damaged vehicles when the army is reinforced (given) repair units;
----- - providing medical assistance (aid) and treatment of wounded and sick; evacuation of wounded and sick to front medical bases; conducting antiepidemic measures and taking measures on hygiene and preventive medical service in the army;
----- - organizing protection, defense, and security of rear service targets and maintaining order in the army's assigned service area;
----- - providing quarters and veterinary support and exploiting captured material.

The rear service is controlled by the army commander through the deputy army commander of rear service and his staff and chiefs of branch of arms and services who are directly under the army commander. The following services are directly under the army's chief of rear services:
----- - foodstuff supply service;
----- - POL supply service;
----- - clothing supply service;
----- - medical service;
----- - veterinary service;
----- - military communication;
----- - quarters and housing section;
----- - military commercial establishment.

The following services are directly under the army commander:
----- - rocket and artillery armament;
----- - armored and motor armament;
----- - engineer service;
----- - chemical service.

The area of army's rear service in the departure area for the attack is specified by the chief of front rear service, where elements of army's rear service deploy and operate. The boundaries of the army's rear service area are as follows:
----- - on the flanks - the boundaries with adjacent armies;
----- - at the rear - the boundary of the front's rear service area;
----- - at the front - the lines of first-echelon division depots.

The rear service of the army and the division are fully mobile and relocate behind the advancing forces and conduct the supply of troops.


II. Organizing the Army's Rear Service in Offensive Operations

Organizing the rear service in an offensive operation consists of a series of measures taken by the army commander, chief of rear services and his staff, and other related elements to insure uninterrupted and effective rear support service during the operation. The most important measures are as follows:
----- - making the decision by the deputy chief of army commander for rear service on organizing and planning rear service support;
----- - conduct of measures on preparing, deploying, and positioning rear service units and installations during the preparation of the operation and their relocation during the operation;
----- - assigning missions to rear service units and installations;
----- - all-around support of the troops;
----- - interaction (coordination) of rear service support;
----- - continuous and sustained control of the rear service and continuous communication;
----- - continuous control of execution of given orders and instructions.

Planning Rear Service

Planning of the rear service in army offensive operations is conducted on the basis of following:
----- - the directive of the front's chief of rear services on rear service;
----- - the decision of the army commander for the operation;
----- - the decision of the deputy army commander for rear service (chief of the rear service) on organizing rear service support;
----- - information (data) about the volume of material reserves, number and composition of our own forces, etc.

A unified plan is prepared for the operation with or without the use of nuclear weapons. The plan is organized in terms of the army's missions during the operation. Support measures during the conduct of the immediate mission (during the first two to three days), are worked out in more detail. The annexes to the plan such as the supply of the material means, support of desants, regrouping of forces, etc. are also prepared.

The army's rear service support plan is part of the plan of the operation. The plan of the rear services fully contains all elements required in troop control documents. The plan must reflect the important issues in a condensed form. The plan should be organized consistently with the concept of the operation and the army's missions. The main effort of the rear service must be concentrated on the support of the grouping of forces conducting the main mission. The plan reflects rear service support measures conducted by the deputy army commander for rear services and service elements directly under his control. The plan also reflects support of the troops by ammunition and equipment (in terms of units of supply measurement and weight) because the chief of the rear service is responsible for their timely delivery. Supply of troops with rockets and their transportation by special transport means, as well as technical support of armament, armored vehicles, motor and tractor, and other equipment are reflected in separate plans of the chiefs of related services who are not under the deputy commander for rear services. The plan of army rear service reflects the following:
----- - area of responsibility of army rear service;
----- - principle tasks of rear service;
----- - composition of rear service;
----- - redeploying rear service while preparing the operation and relocating it during the operation;
----- - army communication routes and their restoration in case of destruction;
----- - material support of army troops;
----- - medical support of army troops;
----- - protection, security, and defense of the army's rear service;
----- - organizing the control of rear service and rear service control points in the departure area and its relocation during the operation;
----- - army's attack sector and its missions, areas of deployment of the important elements of the army's combat formation in the departure area;
----- - rear service control points and rear service elements of divisions in the departure (FUP) area.

The army's rear service support plan is prepared on a 1/200,000 or 1/100,000 map with written instructions, or it is prepared in written form with a map annex. The plan is signed by the deputy army commander for rear service (chief of the rear service) and his chief of staff. It is cleared with the army's chief of staff and approved by the army commander.


III. Establishment of the Army's Rear Service in Offensive Operations and its Relocation During the Operation

The establishment of the rear service is a series of measures on creation (stockpiling) of material and technical reserves, their distribution to troops, employment of rear service forces and means, and creation of conditions for uninterrupted supply to the troops of material means during the operation. The establishment of the rear service includes the following:
----- - preparation of rear service units and installations for action and work;
----- - deployment and relocation of rear service units and installations;
----- - measures on protection of rear service targets against mass-destruction weapons, providing for their defense and security.

The rear service is established in accordance with the commander's decision for the operation and the conditions of the situation. Organization of rear service is tailored in compliance with the grouping of forces and means.
Preparation of rear service units and installations for action and support of troops during operations is achieved through augmentation of rear service units and installations with personnel, equipment, and material means; conduct of combat, political and special training, and preparation of rear service equipment for operation.

Preparation of the rear service is conducted during peacetime, at the beginning and during the conduct of the war. In peacetime measures are taken on maintaining constant combat-readiness. At the beginning of the war preparation of rear service includes measures on bringing rear service units and installations to the state of full combat readiness. During the war measures are taken to insure uninterrupted supply of the troops.


IV. Requirements of the Army for the Principal Types of Material Means in Offensive Operations, Volume of Reserves, and Their Echelonment

The expansion of the scope of the army's operation, increasing number of technical equipment in the army and their intensified use increase the consumption of material means in troops and complicate the support of the troops.

The army's requirement for material means is determined on the basis of its consumption during the preparation and conduct of the operation, as well as the amount of material reserves planned to be maintained at the end of the operation. The consumption of material means depends on the scope of the operation, character of combat action, number of personnel in the army, terrain and weather conditions, time of the year etc.

At the end of the operation the material reserves must be replenished so that the army can initiate the subsequent operation.

In comparison to the Second World War, the requirements for material reserves have increased 3-5 times with POL constituting 10-40% of the total weight of the army's material means. The expenditure of ammunition in battle without the use of nuclear weapons is high. During the first day of the operation the expenditure rate of artillery rounds reaches 1.5-2.5 units of fire. The expenditure of ammunition in battle without the use of nuclear weapons is 1.5 times more than in operation with the use of nuclear weapons.

Echelonment of Material Reserves in the Army
Ammunition (units of fire) POL (refill) Rations


Inf. Arty &




Tank Air


Gas Diesel
Total in army for 6-7 days 1.15 1.3 1.3 2.65 2.5 2.16 3.1 15
At army depots (2 days) 0.15 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.46 0.7 2
In troops (4-5 days) 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.25 2.0 1.7 2.4 13
In div depots 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.5 2
In units 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.75 1.5 1.4 1.9 11

Army's Requirement for Material Means During Offensive Operations
Ammunition (units of fire) POL (refills) Ration (daily)
Inf. Arty. & Mtrs Tank Air Defense Rocket Gas Diesel
Expenditure in the operation With nuclear weapons 1.0-1.6 2.1-3.2 2.4-3.2 3.5-5.6 1.4-2.4 2.8-4.0 7-8
Without nuclear weapons 1.8-2.0 1.5-5.0 3.0 4.0 1.4-2.4 2.8-4.0 7-8
To establish material reserves at the end of operations 1.15 1.3 2.65 2.5 2.15 3.1 15
Total requirement for operations With nuclear weapons 2.15-2.75 3.4-4.5 5.05-5.85 6.0-8.1 3.56-4.56 5.9-7.1 22-23
Without nuclear weapons 2.95 5.8 5.65 3.15 6.3 6.65 22-23


V. Organization of Control of the Rear Service, Composition of the Army's Rear Service Control Points

Control of rear service is part of troop control and includes control of action of rear service units and services and installations directed toward timely and fully support the army troop with material means. Rear service control should provide the following:
----- - maintenance of high morale of personnel;
----- - constant readiness of the rear service for continuous support of troops;
----- - planning and organization of rear service support;
----- - assignment of missions to rear service units and installations;
----- - interaction regarding rear service support;
----- - continuous control of the accomplishment of given orders and instructions;
------ - establishment of uninterrupted communication of the rear service.

In modern conditions, the rear service must be firm, uninterrupted, and flexible and should provide the following:
----- - timely deployment of the rear service units and their relocation;
----- - continuous supply of material means;
----- - quick restoration of communication routes and damaged equipment;
----- - timely medical support;
----- - effective use of rear service forces and means and their maneuver;
----- - taking measures on protection, defense, and maintenance of the rear service.

Firm and reliable control of rear service in a modern operation is possible when controlling elements of the troops and of the rear service both fully know the principles of the conduct of operations, forms of rear service support of modern means of combat, and their impact on the rear service.

Control of rear service and support of army troops is conducted by the commander himself through his staff, his deputy for rear service, rear service staff, as well as through chiefs of engineer, chemical, and chiefs of services such as ordnance (artillery armament), mortar, and armored service. The commander is fully responsible for the rear service support of the army troops.

Control of rear service is exercised from the rear service control point and is conducted by the deputy commander for rear service. The following are positioned in the rear service control point:
----- - rear service staff;
----- - branches and services providing support to the troops;
----- - control elements not integrated into the command post.

The rear service control point is established in a place from where uninterrupted control of rear service and communication with the command post (10-15 km behind the command post) are achieved. The relocation of the rear service control point is conducted only with the permission of the army commander in line with the relocation of the command post.

When the rear service control point becomes out of commission, the control of the rear service is temporarily conducted by the head of the rear service operational group attached to the command post or by the chief of army's mobile base. The responsibility may also be delegated to the rear service of one of the divisions.

The rear service signal battalion deploys close to the rear service control point and provides the communication for the rear service control point with other necessary organs and establishes the signal center of the rear service control point.

The signal battalion is composed of two radio and two telegraphic and telephone companies. The battalion by its organic equipment can establish the signal center of the rear service control point in two locations simultaneously with providing radio and radio relay communication. Therefore, the battalion is capable of establishing radio and radio relay communication from the rear service control point to army's large units and units and to the rear service units from two locations.