I. Role, Composition, Missions, and
Principles of Artillery's Combat Employment in Front Offensive
Contemporary artillery troops have the following capabilities:
-- VG 1 enormous firepower;
---- longer range;
---- accuracy of fire;
---- capability to launch massive, concentrated fires quickly to great depths;
---- capability to destroy various targets with a high rate of fire
resulting in a high density of fire;
---- quick initiation (opening) of fire on targets;
---- high maneuverability provides for concentration of the bulk of the
artillery on decisive directions quickly and discretely.
The role and significance of artillery will change according to characteristics
of combat actions and conditions of the employment of nuclear rocket weapons
systems. In a nuclear war the artillery, within its range and capabilities,
supplements nuclear strikes in the following areas:
-- VG 2 where nuclear weapons are not planned to be used;
---- where limited use of nuclear weapons is planned;
---- areas in the immediate vicinity of the line of contact with the enemy.
Therefore, even in nuclear war artillery is one of the direct support means of
the attacking troops.
Under conditions when nuclear weapons are not used, the significance of
artillery is greatly increased. In this case artillery constitutes the
principle means of firepower of the ground forces.
-- VG 3
The composition of the front's artillery is determined by the
---- composition of the artillery organically subordinate to the
---- artillery organic to the front's formations and large units;
---- availability the Supreme High Command artillery elements to be attached to
The quantity of Supreme High Command artillery attached to the front
is determined by the general staff during peacetime on the basis of the
-- VG 4 missions to be assigned to the front during the operation;
---- composition and characteristics of likely actions of opposing enemy
----nature of employment of various means of destruction.
The front must be reinforced by artillery to insure the successful
actions of the troops during the attack without using nuclear weapons. This is
the case in which artillery is charged with the principle missions while the
forces are penetrating the enemy' forward defense line or other fortified
defensive lines in his operational depth, i.e., the period during which
artillery is required to accomplish a large number of tasks to inflict losses
on enemy targets within its effective range.
A contemporary front with a composition of three to four combined
armies, one to two tank armies, and five to seven reserve divisions reinforced
by three artillery divisions and two antitank artillery brigades may be
equipped in the following manner:
-- VG 5 5,000 guns, mortars, self-propelled guns, and reactive (multiple
---- 700 antitank guns;
---- about 2,000 antitank guided missile weapon systems.
Organization of Artillery Large Units and Units
The organization of artillery large units and units is as follows:
-- VG 6
---- High Command Artillery Divisions: A total of 246 guns and mortars are
included in the divisions.
---- Antitank Artillery Brigade of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command:
Includes four battalions each composed of four batteries, three equipped with
100 mm guns and one equipped with antitank guided missiles (nine in the
battery). Total weapons in the brigade are as follows:
---- 100 mm guns - 72;
---- ATGM - 36.
Army's Artillery Brigade: Includes four artillery battalions with two
battalions composed of 130 mm guns (thirty-six guns in two battalions) and two
battalions of 152 mm howitzers (thirty-six howitzers in two battalions). The
total number of artillery pieces in the brigade is seventy-two.
Army's Antitank Artillery Regiment: Includes three battalions, each with two
batteries of 100 mm guns (twelve guns) and one battery of antitank guided
missiles (nine in a battery). The number of weapons in the regiment totals
sixty-three as follows"
---- 100 mm guns - 36;
---- ATGM - 27.
Artillery of Motorized Rifle Division:
---- division's artillery regiment;
---- two battalions of 122 mm howitzers each with eighteen howitzers, a total
of thirty-six howitzers in two battalions;
---- one battalion of 152 mm howitzers with eighteen howitzers a total of
fifty-four in the regiment.
---- division's separate multiple rocket launcher artillery battalion which is
composed of three batteries, each battery having six BM-21 multiple rocket
launchers, with a total of eighteen in the battalion.
- VG 7
Division's Antitank Separate Battalion: Includes three batteries each composed
of six 100 mm guns, a total of eighteen guns in the battalion.
Motorized Rifle Regiment's Artillery:
---- one battalion of 122 mm howitzers of eighteen howitzers;
---- one antitank guided missile battery of nine ATGMs.
Motorized Rifle Battalion's Artillery: Includes one battery of six 120 mm
mortars and one antitank platoon, consisting of four ATGM weapons and two RPG-9
-- VG8-19 (Org charts)
[Note: The composition of artillery as discussed above and the number of
artillery pieces in artillery units and large units reflects the notes taken in
the Academy Voroshilov in 1975. More recently the composition and organization
of artillery units and large units has expanded with the numbers of their
organic guns and mortars increased. For example the current artillery division
of the Supreme High Command reserve is said to be composed of more than 500
guns and mortars.]
Missions of Artillery in front Offensive Operations
Artillery has the following missions in front offensive operations:
-- VG 20
---- destroy and suppress enemy nuclear delivery means;
---- repulse enemy aggressions and destroy his groupings of forces which have
penetrated friendly territory;
---- support deployment of first-echelon large units;
----organize support of the passage of front forces through enemy
---- destroy the enemy in meeting engagements;
---- support breakthroughs of enemy defensive lines;
---- support attacking forces during operations in the depth of the enemy
defenses with assault supporting fire and accompanying fire;
---- support the front when crossing water obstacles;
---- participate in repulsing enemy counterblows (counterattacks);
---- support commitment of second-echelons of armies and the front in
---- assist in destroying enemy encircled groupings of forces;
---- support consolidation of seized lines and areas;
---- cover gaps, open flanks, and boundaries across the front.
Main Principles of Employment of Artillery
-- VG 21
The following are the main principles of the employment of artillery:
---- massive employment of artillery on important directions of the
---- close interaction with motorized rifle, tank troops, and the air force;
---- support attacking troops with fire in a continuous form;
---- firm and continuous control of fire and maneuver.
The role and importance of artillery is so great that it is called "the
God of the war." Experiences from the Great Patriotic War indicate that
achieving fire superiority over the enemy on important directions is considered
a required condition for the success of combat actions of troops in operations
without nuclear weapons. This may be achieved only through superiority in
numbers of fire means, primarily artillery and the air force. Fire superiority
enables the destruction and suppression of enemy weapons affecting friendly
motorized and tank troops. The more this task is accomplished with success, the
fewer the losses sustained by friendly troops will be. The enemy possesses an
increasing number of modern artillery weapons in his composition of forces
including nuclear artillery, the destruction of which is a very important task
of the artillery. The enemy's artillery is mostly self-propelled and it has
wide maneuverability, which enables the artillery to relocate frequently.
Increased numbers of artillery pieces and shells are needed to fight such
artillery. Contemporary defense makes use of large numbers of the following:
-- VG 22
---- self-propelled guns;
---- armored fighting vehicles (BMP type vehicles);
---- antitank guided missiles with high maneuverability.
Moreover, engineer work in the defense is highly developed. Using modern
technical equipment, the enemy may quickly fortify his position and may
effectively cover his personnel, weapons, and equipment. This further
necessitates a larger number of artillery pieces and ammunition to fight the
enemy. The required fire superiority must be established in the direction of
the main attack so that enemy defenses are effectively penetrated and attacking
troops may quickly advance into the depth of enemy defenses. Systematic supply
of artillery ammunition in accordance with the progress of the attack is one of
the requirements of the offensive operation.
II. Organization of Combat Employment
of Artillery in Front Offensive Operations
The organization of the combat employment of the artillery in front
offensive operations is the sum of a number of measures conducted by the
front's chief of artillery and rocket troops and his staff that
include the following:
-- VG 23
---- make decisions on employing artillery and rocket troops;
---- plan combat employment of artillery and rocket troops;
---- group, distribute, and allocate artillery for accomplishing assigned
---- assign (convey) missions to rocket troops and artillery;
---- organize interaction (coordination);
---- prepare FUP areas for the attack and positions for the artillery and
rocket troops to cover the deployment of the main groupings of forces;
---- collect and stockpile material means;
---- organize political affairs of rocket and artillery troops;
---- organize all combat supporting measures;
---- organize troop control, preparation of command posts and signal systems;
---- prepare troops for combat action;
---- maintain high combat-readiness of troops for accomplishing assigned
Planning the combat employment of the artillery includes the following
-- VG 24
---- determine the needs of first-echelon armies for attached artillery (for
---- distribute the Supreme High Command's artillery to front organic
---- organize movements of artillery to cover deployment of main groupings of
front forces, and to repel likely enemy aggressions, and to support
initiation of the attack by friendly forces;
---- organize actions of the artillery during the conduct of the following
---- during conduct of artillery preparatory fire, assault support fire,
accompanying fire, and covering boundaries, flanks, and gaps by fire;
---- while repulsing enemy counterblows (counterattacks);
---- during assault crossings over water obstacles;
---- while committing second-echelon troops into combat;
---- while conducting meeting engagements;
---- while conducting other important front missions.
---- determine the composition of front antitank reserves and specify
their likely missions and the method of movement of front antitank
reserves during offensive operations.
---- organize the front's supply formations with artillery equipment
Determining Requirements for Artillery
The front's requirements for artillery are determined by the needs of
first-echelon armies and the number of artillery required for establishing
front antitank reserves. The requirements for artillery are greater
while breaking through the enemy's prepared defensive lines, particularly his
forward defensive line where larger portions of enemy weapons and means are
concentrated and the defensive positions are better fortified by engineer work.
In such cases artillery will be required to accomplish a large number of
missions to suppress simultaneously all targets within its effective range. In
order to determine the army's need for artillery the number of targets in the
following areas are calculated:
-- VG 25
---- on enemy forward defensive lines;
---- in penetration areas.
-- VG 26
These targets are to be engaged simultaneously during artillery preparatory
fire. The number of targets to be hit by the air force is deducted from the
sum. To destroy the remaining targets the necessary number of artillery pieces
are determined on the basis of the established norms for destroying
(suppressing) typical targets. From the number of required artillery, as
calculated above, the army's organic artillery is deducted, the balance
represents the army's additional requirement for artillery (artillery
reinforcement). The sum of first-echelon armies' requirements for artillery
constitutes the front's need for artillery. The second-echelon armies
receive artillery reinforcement (attached artillery) when they are committed
into combat. At this time they are given artillery reinforcements by diverting
(resubordinating) Supreme High Command's artillery units and large units
attached to first-echelon armies. Therefore, needs (requirements) of
second-echelon armies for artillery do not count while assessing front
requirements for artillery.
When necessary information about the targets is not available, and during
peacetime planning, the number of artillery pieces required is calculated by
the required concentration of artillery for a penetration sector of 20-25 km
frontage. In this calculation 90-100 guns per kilometer of front (against U.S.
forces) are taken as the norm.
For artillery fire in penetration areas not only the artillery of the division
conducting the penetration is assigned, but also the army artillery, and under
favorable conditions the artillery of the second-echelon divisions of the army
is also called to participate.
The front's second-echelon army's artillery is unavailable to be
called to participate in artillery preparatory fire since its return movement
of 200-300 km will be difficult. (It is located with its parent army at this
depth from the frontline). By the same token calling artillery of other
first-echelon divisions to penetration areas is not practiced so that those
divisions are not stripped of their artillery. Moreover, maneuver of the
artillery parallel to the front is difficult. In some conditions only reactive
(multiple rocket launcher) artillery of the divisions adjacent to penetration
areas may be called since they have high maneuverability.
To support the penetration of the army in a zone composed of the adjoining
penetration areas of two adjacent divisions at a seven to eight km frontage,
seven-hundred to eight-hundred guns and mortars are required. If three armies
operate in the front first-echelon, a total of 2,100-2,400 guns and
mortars are required to support penetration at the front level.
The following organic army artillery may be called to operate in penetration
-- VG 27
---- artillery of two motorized divisions: 126 + 126=252;
---- army's artillery brigade=72;
---- artillery regiment and reactive (multiple rocket launchers) artillery
battalion of army second-echelon divisions=72;
-- VG 28
Therefore, the army must be reinforced by 300-400 guns and mortars which
amounts to nearly 1.5 artillery divisions (if one artillery division contains
246 guns and mortars). Thus front requirements for artillery depend on
artillery needs of front first-echelon armies.
The required number of artillery may be decreased in the following ways:
-- VG 29
---- extending the duration of preparatory fire;
---- assigning aircraft and tanks;
---- reducing the penetration areas.
The front must have a sufficient number of artillery in its
composition to insure successful accomplishment of the mission.
In order to establish front first-echelon armies' antitank reserves on
tank threatened directions, two to three antitank brigades of the reserve of
the Supreme High Command are needed. One to two of these brigades constitutes
the front's antitank reserve. This front antitank reserve may
cover an area of twenty to twenty-five km wide, on tank threatened directions,
in cooperation with first-echelon large units and may repel the attack of one
to two enemy armored divisions or reestablished exhausted antitank reserves for
one to two armies.
Distribution of Artillery and Establishment of Artillery
-- VG 30
---- Artillery is distributed and organized in groupings in accordance with
concepts and conditions of front offensive operations.
---- At the front level only an antitank reserve is established.
Front antitank reserves may include, in addition to one to two
antitank brigades, tank and engineer subunits.
----During operations on tank threatened directions, the army must be given in
addition to one artillery division, two to three antitank battalions.
The tank army without organic artillery, is primarily given (attached)
long-range artillery (to fight enemy nuclear delivery means and artillery).
When the army has organic army artillery it is given (attached) reactive
(multiple rocket launcher) artillery.
Artillery groups of armies and divisions are composed of organic and attached
artillery in accordance with characteristics of actions and assigned missions.
Efforts must be made toward providing self-sufficient divisions and regiments
to accomplish assigned missions. The division attacking on the main direction
must be given four to five artillery battalions. Other divisions are given one
to three artillery battalions.
In order for the army commanders to have their own assets for exerting
influence on the situation and the enemy (particularly while conducting
penetration on adjoining flanks of first-echelon divisions), an army artillery
group composed of eight to ten artillery battalions, including four to five
long-range artillery battalions is established. The army assists its divisions
by the army artillery group, particularly those divisions which attack on main
Principle Missions of the Army Artillery Group (AAG)
The army artillery group has the following principle missions:
-- VG 31
---- destroy enemy nuclear delivery means and fighting against them;
---- destroy and suppress enemy artillery;
---- reinforce first-echelon division's fire, particularly divisions attacking
on the main direction;
---- destroy and suppress enemy immediate reserves, particularly on directions
of penetration and main attacks;
---- fire assistance (support) of large units operating on directions of main
---- disrupt enemy command and control.
When divisions operate in a wide area, the concentration of army artillery
groups (AAG) in one area in one group does not seem logical. Therefore, in such
cases artillery units of the army artillery group are attached to divisions
operating in areas where the AAG or divisions newly committed into combat are
The army artillery group (AAG) may be divided into several sub-groups. The
number of sub-groups is determined by the number of divisions operating in
first-echelon on directions of main attacks.
The greater capability of reactive (multiple rocket launcher) artillery, and
its availability as an organic component of artillery divisions of the reserve
of the Supreme High Command (which are attached to the front) provide
for and necessitate establishment of the army reactive artillery group (AGRA)
for centralized employment in the direction of main attacks and to conduct
rapid maneuver of artillery to required directions in order to carry out
missions inflicting loszes on main enemy groupings.
-- VG 32
Division Artillery Group (DAG)
The division artillery group is composed of four to six artillery battalions
consisting of the following:
-- VG 33
---- reactive (multiple rocket launchers).
Division artillery group's missions are as follows:
-- VG 34
---- fight enemy nuclear delivery means;
---- destroy and suppress enemy immediate reserves;
---- destroy and suppress enemy artillery;
---- reinforce fire of regiment's artillery groups.
Some of the artillery battalions of the division artillery group are assigned
to support first-echelon regiments.
In second-echelon divisions and regiments artillery groups are established
after their commitment into combat.
Regiment Artillery Group (RAG)
-- VG 35
The regiment artillery group is composed of three to four artillery battalions.
It is assigned to conduct missions directly in the interest of its related
regiment, particularly to fight against enemy mortars. It may also be called,
as needed, to participate in destroying the artillery.
Part of the artillery battalions of the regiment artillery group is assigned to
support first-echelon battalions. During the attack and after seizing defensive
positions of enemy first-echelon battalions, these artillery battalions may be
attached to motorized rifle and tank battalions.
III. Planning Actions of Rocket and
Artillery Troops in Front Offensive Operations
The chief of rocket and artillery troops makes plans for front rocket
and artillery troops after clarifying missions and decisions from the
front commander on employing rocket and artillery troops and
instructions from the staff of the higher echelon on employing rocket and
artillery troops. He then conducts a thorough and all-around assessment of the
situation and makes decisions on combat employment of rocket and artillery
The details of planning the combat employment of rocket and artillery troops
are shown in the plans for combat employment of front rocket and
artillery troops. The elements are a principle part of the front
operational plans and the principle document of the rocket and artillery staff.
The plan is prepared on a 1:500,000 or 1:200,000 scale map along with written
Graphic Part of the Plan
The graphic part of the plan depicts the following points:
-- VG 36
---- enemy situations, his important groupings, and targets of rocket troops;
---- situations and missions of front and armies and boundaries
---- missions of rocket troops in initial and subsequent nuclear strikes to
include specific targets, yields of nuclear rounds, types of bursts, the rocket
sub-units and units launching strikes on specific targets, and the time of
launching the strike;
---- employment of rocket troops against enemy means of counternuclear weapons
---- directions of movement, position areas (deployment and assembly areas) of
rocket troops, rocket technical units and large units, and artillery and their
relocation during the operation;
---- groupings of armies' and division's artillery;
---- penetration areas and density of artillery there;
---- areas of location and directions of action of antitank reserves of armies
---- areas of location and direction of actions of front antitank
---- maneuver of rocket and artillery troops during operations;
---- areas of radar coverage and positions of air defense artillery;
---- other elements of combat formations.
Annexes to the plan include the annex of the initial nuclear strike and the
written instructions. The written instructions contain the following:
-- VG 37
---- specific numbers of nuclear and chemical rockets allocated for the
operation and their distribution in terms of the initial nuclear strike,
front missions, and among different armies;
---- availability and distribution of conventional rockets in terms of
front missions and among armies;
---- combat composition of front rocket and artillery troops,
distribution of artillery of the Supreme High Command (attached to the
front), and front artillery among armies and their
regroupment during the operation;
---- distributing of artillery ammunition in terms of front missions
and among armies;
---- composition of antitank reserves.
In addition to these, the following points are reflected in other work
-- VG 38
---- method, time of preparation, and delivery of rockets to troops;
---- calculations of the time for bringing artillery and rocket troops to a
state of full combat-readiness;
---- expenditure of conventional rounds;
---- measures for protecting troops against mass-destruction weapons.
The plan for employing rocket and artillery troops is signed by the
front chief of artillery and his chief of staff. It is approved by the
Organization of Measures for Artillery Combat Support
Well organized combat support measures constitute one of the main factors in
achieving success in accomplishing assigned missions. The following are combat
support measures for artillery:
-- VG 39
---- artillery reconnaissance;
---- prepare artillery positions, protected places (shelters) for personnel,
covered areas for vehicles and equipment, observation posts and facilities, and
protected places for ammunition;
---- (maskirovka) conceal positions in terrain, engineer work, and
weapons and combat equipment;
---- air defense against enemy air strikes;
---- protect troops against mass-destruction weapons;
---- supply ammunition and artillery equipment;
---- topogeodetic, topographic, and hydrometeorological support;
---- radio-electronic combat.
There are three levels of combat-readiness in rocket and artillery troops.
-- VG 40
---- 1. Constant Combat-Readiness: Units and sub-units are kept at full combat
strength as much as possible. Units conduct their daily training in accordance
with the plan. They are capable of conducting assigned missions. Weapons and
equipment are ready for combat employment. Weapons, ammunition, and other
supplies are kept up to norms.
----2. Higher State of Combat-Readiness: Rocket and artillery units may be
brought to the state of full combat-readiness in the shortest period of time.
In this state of combat-readiness all units and sub-units are brought to full
garrison accommodation, combat duty service is reinforced, and combat service
is conducted in full combat-readiness. Officers and men are called to duty from
leave. Material means and ammunition are loaded in vehicles. Units and
sub-units are ready to move out from the garrisons. Operational groups with
signal equipment are sent to command posts.
---- 3. Full Combat-Readiness: This is assumed in accordance with the plan and
by the signal of combat alert. In this state of combat-readiness units and
sub-units move out of their permanent garrisons to assembly areas or to
position areas and occupy fire positions. Necessary combat preparations are
made by units and subunits so they are ready to conduct combat missions.
Simultaneously, units and subunits are brought up to full combat strength by
using mobilization reserves.
IV. Combat Employment of Artillery
During the Penetration of Enemy Prepared Defenses
One of the important and difficult phases of front offensive
operations is penetration (breakthrough) of enemy prepared defenses. The
enemy's prepared defense is penetrated either from the move (S
Khodu - line of march) or from the position of direct contact with
the enemy after artillery preparatory fire. Artillery has the following
missions during preparatory fire:
-- VG 41
---- destroy enemy nuclear delivery means;
---- inflict sufficient losses on enemy artillery, mortars, antitank weapons,
and his air defense batteries;
---- suppress enemy personnel in their defensive strong points;
---- destroy enemy troop control systems.
All of these tasks are conducted by artillery preparatory fire. Artillery fire
is conducted in the penetration area and for one kilometer on each flank of the
penetration area across the front. This enables it to destroy enemy antitank
weapons on the flanks of the penetration area as well.
The duration of preparatory fire depends on the desired degree of loss to be
inflicted. On average preparatory fire lasts for thirty to forty minutes. The
same amount of time is required for movement of troops from the line of
deploymentttt into battalion columns during the attack from the line of march.
During conduct of artillery preparatory fire the following may be assigned to
-- VG 42
---- army artillery group;
---- artillery groups of divisions and regiments conducting the penetration;
---- artillery of second-echelon divisions of the army;
---- reactive artillery (multiple rocket launchers) of the divisions adjacent
to the penetration area.
-- VG 43
The structure of artillery preparatory fire includes 2-3 heavy fire strikes
each lasting 10-15 minutes with a density of 90-120 guns and mortars per
kilometer of width of the penetration area.
Assault Support Fire
-- VG 44
Assault fire is the creation of a fire barrage behind which tanks and infantry
advance during the attack and inflict losses on the following:
---- enemy artillery;
---- other enemy weapons;
---- enemy air defense artillery;
---- enemy personnel.
Assault support fire continues until the attacking units reach the depth of
enemy first-echelon battalion positions (depth of three kilometers). Fire is
conducted by the following methods:
-- VG 45
---- successive concentration of fire (PSO);
---- double successive concentration of fire;
---- rolling fire barrage (OV);
---- double rolling fire barrage;
---- a combination of these methods.
In the double method artillery is divided into two groups. One group fires
successively on the first line, while the other engages targets on the second
line with successive concentration of fire. The first group shifts the fire in
accordance with the call of battalion commanders or as the battalions reach the
limit of safe distance of the first line of PSO fire. The first group shifts
fire to the second line while the second group shifts its fire from the second
to third line. The distance between these lines is 400-600-800 m.
Accompanying fire on targets resisting against the attacking troops is
conducted in the following forms:
-- VG 46
---- concentration of fire (SO);
---- massive fire (MO).
For artillery to prepare for fire during penetrating enemy defenses six to
eight hours are required. Maneuver of the artillery requires that two of these
hours be daylight for coordination and confirmation of missions on the terrain.
During penetration of enemy defenses the following artillery groups need to be
-- VG 47
---- army artillery group (AAG);
---- army's reactive artillery group (AGRA);
---- divisional artillery group (DAG);
---- regimental artillery groups (RAG).
Note: Now with increased artillery in Soviet units and large units
assault support fire (when targets are not very mobile) may be conducted to the
depth of defending brigade's positions (up to eight kilometers).
V. Combat Employment of Artillery
During the Commitment of the Front's Second-Echelon into
One decisive form of expansion of efforts during offensive operations is the
commitment of the front second-echelon (combined arms or tank army)
into combat. This should greatly change the operational situation in favor of
the front's attacking troops. The second-echelon army is committed
during the completion of the immediate mission or at the beginning of the
subsequent mission. The second-echelon army may be committed in the following
-- VG 48
---- in areas of one or two armies operating in the first-echelon to further
develop the attack;
---- at adjoining flanks of two armies;
---- in gaps created during the operation;
---- in areas weakly occupied by the enemy.
The army is committed in the following ways:
-- VG 49
---- entirely at once;
---- in a successive method;
---- only part of it is committed into combat.
In any form successful commitment of the second-echelon army into combat
requires the conduct of powerful artillery preparatory fire and establishment
of artillery groups in the army and its divisions and regiments. Artillery has
the following missions in this artillery preparatory fire:
-- VG 50
---- destroy enemy nuclear delivery means;
---- reliably suppress enemy antitank defenses in the area of commitment of
front secondechelon forces into combat;
---- reliably suppress enemy artillery and mortars;
---- destroy enemy troop control systems;
---- suppress enemy personnel, weapons, and tanks located in strong points.
-- VG 51
Artillery preparatory fire lasts up to 30 minutes and includes 2-3 heavy
artillery strikes each lasting 10-15 minutes. The density of artillery in this
case should be forty to sixty guns and mortars and more per kilometer of front.
The expenditure of ammunition will be 0.6 - 0.8 units of fire.
Assault Support Fire
Assault support fire is conducted on two to three lines mostly by massive fire
(MO) and concentration of fire (SO) on enemy defensive strong points.
Accompanying fire is conducted by massive fire (MO) and concentration of fire.
In order to support the commitment of the front second-echelons into
combat, maneuver of artillery is conducted toward the area of commitment. This
maneuver is conducted to establish the required density of artillery for
suppression of the enemy and also to establish the artillery groups of the
army, divisions, and regiments. Maneuver of artillery and preparation of fire
require four to six hours.
To provide systematic fire support (preparatory fire, assault support fire, and
accompanying fire) the artillery of the army's second-echelon is committed into
combat, as well as, the artillery of those troops which operate in the areas of
the second-echelon's commitment.
Control of the artillery in the second echelon's area of commitment is
conducted by the chief of rocket and artillery troops of the front.
Rocket troops remain in their positions, ready to launch nuclear strikes
Front antitank reserves, as a rule, jointly operate with
front mobile obstacle detachments (POZ). The front's antitank
reserve is ready for deployment at the line of front second-echelon
commitment or it deploys in front of the line or on threatened flanks of the
line of commitment.
Operational Norms for the Density of the Artillery
-- VG 52
The operational norms for the density of artillery to inflict simultaneous
losses on the enemy during preparatory fire (25-30% losses criteria),
considering enemy nationality and width of the penetration area are shown on
the following table.
Figure 1 NORM FOR DENSITY OF ARTILLERY
||Width of penetration area
|U. S. Mechanized (Armored) Div
||130 per km
||120 per km
||115 per km
||110 per km
|FRG Motorized Infantry (Tank) Div
||120 per km
||115 per km
||110 per km
||105 per km
|Uk Motorized Infantry (Tank) Division
||115 per km
||110 per km
||105 per km
||100 per km
|Belgium and Holland Motorized Infantry (Tank)
||110 per km
||105 per km
||100 per km
||95 per km
Fig 2 Average Norms of the
Employment of Artillery to Destroy Typical Targets
The norms are shown on the following table. (in artillery pieces firing fifteen
VI. Characteristics of Artillery's
Combat Employment in Front Defensive Operations
Defense by the front in contemporary times is a temporary and forced
form of combat action. It is assumed only when attack is not possible due to a
lack of forces and means or when the attack is not logical on the basis of
operational and strategic concepts. In any case the front assumes the
defense when its forces and means are not plentiful enough for attack.
Therefore, it opts to inflict heavy losses on the enemy by defensive actions
and changes the correlation of forces and means in favor of friendly forces.
Then it initiates offensive operations for achieving assigned aims.
Here we briefly discuss some specific issues related to employment of artillery
in front defensive operations.
Missions and Principles of Combat Employment of Artillery in Defensive
Artillery's Missions in Defense
Artillery has the following missions in defense:
-- VG 55
---- destroy and suppress enemy nuclear delivery means;
---- inflict losses on main groupings of enemy forces:
--------- by massive fires from temporary positions during enemy movement
toward the defense;
--------- by massive fires from temporary positions during enemy deployment in
--------- by counterpreparatory fires, massive fires, and concentration of fire
from temporary positions on the enemy forces in their attack (FUP) positions
inflicting heavy losses on enemy main groupings.
---- repulse enemy attacks with all systems of fire such as:
---- -----rolling barrage (PZO);
--------- fixed barrage (NZO);
--------- massive fires (MO);
--------- concentration fires (SO).
----inflict losses on the enemy during combat in the depth of the defense,
preventing penetration of the enemy to the flanks by:
--------- fixed barrage fire (NZO);
--------- rolling barrage fire (PZO);
--------- massive fire and concentration fire (SO).
-- VG 56
---- inflict losses on the enemy during counterpreparatory fire which is
--------- one heavy fire strike;
--------- short preparatory fire.
---- conduct assault support fire by:
--------- successive concentration fire (PSO) on two to three lines;
--------- mostly by massive fire and concentration fire in support of
---- conduct accompanying fire by:
--------- massive fire (MO);
--------- concentration fire during the conduct of counterblows.
---- fight enemy artillery during combat actions to achieve fire superiority
over the enemy on specific directions.
Distribution and Grouping of Artillery
During defensive actions the front will receive smaller artillery
reinforcements. Therefore, the front distributes available artillery
among armies and retains part of it for establishing its own antitank reserve.
As in the offensive operation, the front does not establish the
front artillery group. The following artillery groups will be created
in defensive operations.
-- VG 57
---- regiment artillery groups (RAG): Established in regiments operating on
directions of enemy main attacks or defending on main defensive directions.
---- division artillery groups (DAG): Established in all divisions to assist
regiments defending on directions of enemy main attacks and to inflict losses
on enemy artillery and mortars.
---- army artillery groups (AAG): Established when sufficient artillery is
available in the front and when enemy attacks are likely to be
launched on specific directions and enemy attacks are expected to be conducted
in narrower frontage.
Principles of Artillery Employment
The following are the main principles of artillery employment:
-- VG 58
---- massive use of artillery to foil enemy attacks and to inflict maximum
enemy losses and concentration of fire power on directions of enemy main
attacks and on movement routes, deployment lines, and attack positions (FUP
areas) of the attacking enemy;
---- establish a barrage of dense fire of all types of fire means and fires of
antitank weapons in front of the forward line (FLOT) on likely directions of
enemy attacks and struggle against enemy tanks and nuclear weapons;
---- continue support of the combat action of defending troops during
operations and during conduct of counterblows and counterattacks;
---- continue interaction with rocket troops, air force, motorized rifle, and
tank forces in foiling enemy attacks.
Organization of Combat Employment of Artillery in Defensive
Organization of combat employment of artillery in defensive operations is the
sum of measures conducted by the chief of front artillery and rocket
troops and his staff on organization of the use of artillery units and large
units in defensive operations which include the following:
-- VG 59
---- make decisions on employment of rocket and artillery troops;
---- plan combat employment of artillery and rocket troops;
---- assign (convey) missions to rocket troops and artillery;
---- organize coordination (interaction);
---- prepare main, alternate, and temporary positions of artillery and prepare
lines of deployment (lines of fire) and positions of antitank reserves;
---- collect (supply) and dump material means;
---- organize political affairs;
---- organize all types of supporting measures;
---- organize troop control, prepare command posts, and establish signal
---- prepare troops for action and maintain high combatreadiness of troops for
accomplishing the assigned missions.
Counterpreparatory Fire in Front Defensive Operations
In defensive operations, in order to foil enemy attacks or weaken or delay
enemy attacks, counterpreparatory fire may be conducted by front
artillery and rocket troops.
Aims of Counterpreparatory Fire
-- VG 60
The following are aims of counterpreparatory fire:
---- foil enemy attacks;
---- weaken striking enemy groupings;
---- gain time to complete defenses and to delay enemy attacks.
Missions of Artillery During Counterpreparatory Fire
-- VG 61
Missions of artillery during counterpreparatory fire are as follows:
---- destroy enemy nuclear delivery means;
---- suppress enemy artillery, mortars, and air defense artillery;
---- destroy enemy command and control systems, i.e., destroy enemy command
posts, command and control, and signal communication means;
---- inflict losses on enemy groupings of forces particularly tanks.
Planning of Counterpreparatory Fire
Counterpreparatory fire is planned in the following forms:
-- VG 62
---- while in direct contact with the enemy; In this case main fire strikes are
launched against enemy artillery and tank troops.
---- while the enemy is located in depth and moving to attack defenses from the
line of march, i.e., when the enemy is initially out of range of the artillery
of the defending forces; In this case the artillery launches strikes against
enemy command posts and his artillery while friendly aircraft and rocket troops
deliver strikes on main groupings of enemy forces in depth.
Troops Participating in Counterpreparatory Fire
-- VG 63
During counterpreparatory fire as many artillery, air force, and rocket troops
as possible are employed, i.e., all available artillery of first-echelon
divisions, armies' artillery, and artillery of armies' second-echelon divisions
Counterpreparatory fire is conducted from temporary positions. Considering
(including) the maneuver time of artillery, four to six hours are required for
preparation of artillery to conduct counterpreparatory fire.
Counterpreparatory fire is a front level measure. It is conducted in
accordance with decisions of the front commander. Under some
conditions counterpreparatory fire may be conducted in army areas as well.
Direct preparation of counterpreparatory fire is conducted in army areas.
Duration of counterpreparatory fire includes two to three strikes lasting ten
to fifteen minutes.
The depth of counterpreparatory fire is extended as far as the range of the
artillery will permit. It is conducted against enemy first-echelon divisions.
Aircraft launch strikes against targets in the enemy's depth.
The density of artillery during counterpreparatory fire is thirty to forty guns
and mortars per kilometer of front.
Combat Employment of Artillery During Struggles Against Enemy Tanks
During the Defense
One of the important issues in the defense is the struggle against enemy tanks
and armored vehicles. The struggle includes the following:
-- VG 64
---- coordinate artillery fire with strikes of rocket troops and the air force;
---- continue cooperation with tank and engineer troops;
---- prepare all artillery for struggle against tanks, prepare all types of
fires, and deploy artillery to cover tank threatened directions so that it may
engage the intruding tanks with direct (flat trajectory) fire.
In this case destruction of tanks is conducted from artillery's actual
positions or through relocation of artillery to positions prepared in advance
for this purpose.
Destruction of enemy tanks is conducted by the following methods:
-- VG 65
----massive fires (MO), concentration fires (SO), and barrage fires from
covered positions against tanks in their assembly areas, during their movement
to the defense, and during their deployment;
---- in front of the forward defense line and in the depth, by fires of
antitank guided missiles, antitank artillery, other artillery and tanks
conducting direct fire and by antitank grenade launchers and other means
coordinated with antitank obstacles.
Antitank artillery of an army possess great capabilities in destroying enemy
tanks. The numbers of antitank artillery in the army (composed of four
motorized rifle divisions, one tank division, and one antitank brigade of the
Supreme High Command reserve totals 594 pieces of antitank weapons.
In defense one antitank gun is considered capable of destroying two enemy tanks
as a norm. Therefore, theoretically army antitank artillery is capable of
destroying up to 1,200 enemy tanks. This constitutes the total tanks of four to
five enemy divisions.
Employment of Antitank Reserves
Antitank reserves are established at all levels from the regiment to the
front. Coverage capability in terms of fighting against tanks across
the front is as follows:
-- VG 66
---- platoon covers a 400 m front;
---- battery covers a 1,000 - 1,200 m front;
---- division's separate antitank battalion may cover a three to four kilometer
---- army's antitank regiment may cover a eight to nineteen kilometer front;
---- an antitank brigade of the Supreme High Command's reserve may cover a
fifteen to twenty kilometer front.
The typical composition of antitank reserves at different levels is as follows:
-- VG 67
---- division's separate antitank battalion constitutes the divisional antitank
---- army's antitank regiment constitutes the army's antitank reserve;
---- antitank brigade of the Supreme High Command reserve may constitute
front antitank reserves.
When the army is reinforced by an antitank brigade of the Supreme High Command
reserve, the army's antitank regiment will be employed to establish the
antitank reserves of divisions operating on the main direction. In this case
antitank brigades of the Supreme High Command reserve will be employed as the
army's antitank reserve.
Missions of Front Antitank Reserves
The front antitank reserves may have the following missions:
-- VG 68
---- destroy enemy tanks which have penetrated into the defense;
---- reinforce army antitank defense;
---- repulse enemy strikes of large units of tanks;
---- cover flanks of second-echelon troops against tank attacks during the
conduct of counterblows;
---- destroy enemy airborne troops;
---- cover opened and threatened flanks.
The number of front antitank reserves may reach one to two, which will jointly
operate with mobile obstacle detachments (POZ)
Front antitank reserves deploy sixty to seventy kilometers from the
forward line of defense on tank threatened directions. They establish two to
three fire lines on each direction ten kilometers apart from one another.
Front antitank reserves along with antitank reserves of one army may
cover thirty to thirty-one kilometers of front and may repel the attacks of up
to two enemy divisions.
Combat Employment of Artillery in Front Counterblows During
The front's counterblows during the defensive operation are a phase of
change (a turning point) in the course of military actions. The
front's counterblows may also be coordinated in a converging form
against main enemy groupings which have penetrated the defense.
The maximum available forces and means are assigned for launching counterblows.
This means that the required superiority of forces and means over the enemy on
are established on actual directions.
During counterblows, efforts are made by artillery fires and strikes of air
force and rockets to prevent the movement and arrival of enemy reserves and
second-echelon forces to penetration areas. Here friendly forces launch their
counterblows against enemy groupings which are kept in a blockade situation so
that favorable conditions are created for their destruction in an isolated
-- VG 70
Planning of counterblows is conducted during the preparation of the operation.
It is confirmed during the conduct of the operation. Based on decisions of the
front commander, the front's artillery staff plans the
---- establish artillery groupings and time of their arrival in positions;
---- duration and structure of preparatory fire;
---- methods of support of counterblows by artillery;
---- troops control and signal communications.
Artillery Forces and Means Assigned to Support Counterblows
They include all artillery which is organic to the groupings of forces assigned
to conduct counterblows such as, army's artillery groups, division's artillery
groups, and regiment's artillery groups. These are established before or newly
created as part of the regroupment to support the counterblows. Thus during the
establishment of the groupings of forces for counterblows, regroupment of
artillery may be made as well.
The following are also called to inflict losses on the confronting enemy and to
support the forces which conduct the counterblows:
-- VG 71
---- artillery groups of adjacent large units and army defending in the
direction of the conduct of front counterblows;
---- front aviation and rocket troops.
In addition to the time of the movement of the artillery 1-1.5 hours of
daylight for the artillery units and 2 hours of daylight for the army artillery
is required for necessary preparation.
Prior to initiation of counterblows, an artillery preparatory fire is
conducted. The duration depends on the desired level of enemy suppression or
the distance to be covered by forces moving to launch counterblows, when it is
to be conducted from the line of march. Generally speaking artillery
preparatory fire in this case may last thirty to forty minutes. It may be
conducted in two to three strikes each of ten to fifteen minutes. It may also
be conducted in one heavy fire strike.
Artillery Missions During Preparatory Fire
Artillery missions during preparatory fire accomplish the following:
-- VG 72
---- destroy enemy nuclear delivery means;
---- inflict effective losses on enemy artillery, mortars, antitank weapons,
and air defense artillery;
---- suppress enemy personnel in close contact with forces which launch
---- destroy enemy command and control systems.
Supporting fires for counterblows are conducted to the depth of enemy
first-echelon battalions, i.e., up to three kilometers in the following ways:
---- successive concentration fire (PSO);
---- double successive concentration fire;
---- rolling barrage (OV);
---- massive fire (MO);
---- concentration fire (SO) on call, just as in the case of the assault
supporting fire during the attack.
Accompanying fire for counterblows is conducted by concentration fire (SO) and
massive fire (MO) against targets which resist the counterattacking forces.
VII. Combat Employment of Rocket
Troops in Front Offensive Operations
Role, Composition, Missions, and Principles of Combat Employment of Rocket
Troops in Front Offensive Operations
The front offensive operation is part of the strategic operation in
the TVD. It is conducted in coordination (interaction) with adjacent
fronts and operational formations of other services of the armed
To achieve the aims of the offensive operation of the front, the
decisive role is played by the actions of the strategic nuclear forces which
destroy main enemy groupings and his vital targets and areas in the TVD.
The most important role in this context is played by strategic rocket forces.
Strategic rocket force's highly destructive power, accuracy of nuclear strikes,
and their practically unlimited range of rocket strikes support the following
---- inflict decisive losses on enemy nuclear forces;
---- destroy enemy military and economic potentials;
---- disrupt enemy government and military control systems at the strategic and
---- inflict losses on main enemy armed forces groupings in the TVD.
During the initial nuclear strike the strategic rocket forces destroy the
following targets in interaction with long-range aviation and naval nuclear
forces in the TVD:
---- rocket and air force bases;
---- airfields of strategic and tactical aircraft (where nuclear armed aircraft
---- positions of operational-tactical rockets;
---- important depots of nuclear ammunition;
---- air defense (PVO), antispace (PKO), and antiballistic missiles (PRO)
forces and means;
---- large units of infantry in assembly areas (constituting the reserve of the
important enemy groupings;
---- areas of mobilization of forces, naval bases, ports, administrative,
political, and industrial centers, state and military command centers.
Despite this, there will be a large number of targets in the operational depth
(up to 300 km) which are to be destroyed by front rocket troops such
as the following:
---- nuclear weapons;
---- air forces and nuclear depots;
---- main groupings of enemy forces, particularly tank and motorized forces;
---- command posts;
---- air defense means;
---- vital targets of enemy logistic echelons, the destruction of which will
destroy the firmness and viability of the enemy in operational depths.
Since operational-tactical nuclear weapons have a longer range, higher
accuracy, and different yields of nuclear rounds, they play a significant role
in the quick destruction of important enemy tactical and operational targets.
Missions of Rocket Troops
Rocket troops have the following missions:
---- destroy enemy nuclear means such as, nuclear delivery means, nuclear
aviation, and nuclear munitions depots;
---- destroy enemy main groupings of forces including, their tactical nuclear
means, particularly enemy groupings of tanks and mechanized forces;
---- destroy enemy troop control and his command and control points such as,
command posts, signal means, and enemy guidance (direction) centers;
---- destroy air defense means and systems such as, air defense rockets, air
defense artillery, radar posts, and enemy fighter aviation;
---- inflict losses on enemy logistic targets and installations.
Main Principles of Employment of Rocket Troops
The following are the main principles in employment of rocket troops:
---- nuclear weapons are used against well detected targets about which
accurate reconnaissance information is acquired;
---- nuclear weapons are used in massive form by surprise to achieve the
desired results from their use;
---- nuclear weapons are used to accomplish the most important tasks such as,
destruction of nuclear weapons and main groupings of enemy forces;
---- nuclear weapons are used in close interaction with other services of the
armed forces, service branches, and weapons.
Forms of the Conduct of Missions
The following are forms of the conduct of missions and strikes of rocket
troops: VG 79 Massive Strikes: Such as, the front's initial nuclear
Group Strikes: Employment of several nuclear rounds on one target such as, the
use of two rounds on a battalion and the use of twelve to sixteen rounds on one
Individual Strikes: Strikes on individual important targets.
Composition of Front Rocket Troops
The composition of front rocket troops is not standard but depends on
front missions and its role in strategic operations and types of
operations (offensive or defensive). The composition of front rocket
forces may include the following:
--- Front's Rocket Brigades: The number of such brigades in the
front may be one to two. The brigade consists of the staff, three
rocket battalions, control battery, transportation company, meteorological
battery, combat engineer company, and several other separate subunits. Each
rocket battalion has four launching systems and therefore, there are twelve
launching pads (systems) in the brigade. If front rocket troops are
composed of two rocket brigades, then there will be twenty-four launching pads
(launchers) of R-300 operational-tactical rockets in the front. For
each launcher there are two nuclear rounds (rockets) and therefore, in
front rocket troops there may be twenty-four to forty-eight nuclear
--- Army's Rocket Brigade: As a rule there is one separate rocket brigade in
each tank and combined arms army. Therefore, depending on the number of armies
in front, there may be four to five army rocket brigades. The army's
rocket brigade is composed of the following elements:
----- three rocket battalions;
----- control battery;
----- transportation company;
----- meteorological battery;
----- combat engineer company;
----- several other separate platoons.
Each rocket battalion had three launchers. Therefore, there are nine launchers
(pads) of R-300 rockets in the army's rocket brigade. Each launcher has two
nuclear rounds with a total of eighteen nuclear rounds (rockets) in the
Division's Separate Rocket Battalion: There is one separate rocket battalion in
each motorized rifle and tank division. The division's separate rocket
battalion is composed of two start batteries, control subunits, technical
service platoon, and signal platoon. Each start battery includes two rocket
launching pads. Therefore, there are a total of four launching pads (launchers)
of R-65 rockets in the battalion. Each launching pad has three nuclear rounds
with a total of twelve rounds in the battalion. When a front includes
twenty-two to twenty-five motorized rifle and tank divisions there will be a
total of eighty-eight to one-hundred launchers of tactical R-65 rockets with a
total of 264-300 nuclear rounds of R-65 tactical rockets.
Tactical and Technical Characteristics of Rockets
The front and army rocket brigades, as a rule, are composed of R-300
operational-tactical rockets. Divisional rocket battalions are equipped with
R-65 tactical rockets.
Figure 3 Characteristics of rockets
|yield of nuclear rounds (kt)
||3, 10, 20
||20, 40, 100
Combat Capabilities of Rocket
The combat capabilities of rocket troops in terms of inflicting losses on
various targets, time to prepare for strikes, and their maneuverability are as
Capabilities to Inflict Losses on Various Targets:
Front Rocket Troops: have the following capabilities for destroying or
suppressing enemy targets:
---- During the initial nuclear strike the front rocket troops may
destroy six to nine enemy divisions, as well as, the nuclear ammunition depots,
command posts of corps, armies and army groups, significant warning, guidance,
air and air defense control centers. They may also partially damage tactical
aircraft on the airfields and may suppress the bulk of air defense rockets.
Army Rocket: Army rocket troops using nuclear warheads have the following
---- They may destroy a Sergeant guided missile battalion and up to two to
three enemy divisions, including their tactical nuclear delivery means. Or they
may inflict 40% losses on 4-5 enemy divisions. There are twenty-four to
thirty-four operational-tactical (R-300) and tactical (R-65) rocket launching
systems. The army may participate in front initial nuclear strikes
with twenty-five launching systems. To destroy one division ten to twelve
rockets are required. Six to eight rockets are needed to suppress one division.
Combat Capabilities of Division Rocket Troops: Combat capabilities of
division's rocket troops are as follows:
--- Three to four divisional rockets with a yield of 3, 10, and 20 kilotons may
destroy 3-4 targets such as, enemy command posts, two enemy tanks or infantry
battalions at a depth of 50 km. The subsequent (repeated) strike may be
launched after 1.5 hours. Depth of destruction in terms of maximum range of
rockets and distance of rockets positions from the forward line of friendly
forces is as follows:
--- In the Attack:
------ Rocket brigade may destroy targets located up to a distance of 240-270
km from the frontline while the brigade deploys in positions 30-60 km behind
------Divisional rocket battalions may destroy targets located up to a distance
of fifty-five kilometers from the frontline. The battalions deploy in positions
ten kilometers behind the frontline.
--- In Defense:
----- Rocket brigades may destroy targets located up to 220-240 km from the
frontline. The brigade deploys in positions sixty to eighty kilometers behind
----- Divisional rocket battalions may destroy targets located up to forty-five
to fifty kilometers from the frontline. Battalions deploy in positions fifteen
to twenty kilometers behind the frontline.
Capabilities to Prepare (to Get Ready) for Launching Strikes: The capability of
rocket troops to prepare for strikes depends on the state of readiness of the
rocket troops, their location, the occupation of positions and start positions
by the rocket troops, charging (zapravka) of
rockets, mounting of rockets on launchers (peregruzka), arming of the warhead
(stikovka), direct fire preparation, and time to
observe (reconfirm) targets to be destroyed. There are four degrees of
technical readiness of rockets. Time required to launch from each degree of
readiness is considered as follows:
Figure 4 Degrees of Readiness of rockets
|DEGREE OF READINESS
||TIME TO LAUNCH
|TIME TO LAUNCH
|degree of readiness # 3
|degree of readiness #2
|degree of readiness #2a
|degree of readiness #1
Capability of Maneuver of Rocket Troops: The
capability to manuever includes, assembling mountings of rockets, conduct of
march (movement), and deployment of the rocket troops in positions. The
accepted norms in this regard are shown in the following table.
Organization of Combat Employment of
Rocket Troops in Front Offensive Operations
The organization of combat employment of rocket troops in front
offensive operations includes a number of measures taken by the chief of
artillery and rocket troops of the front and his staff. The important
measures on organization of combat employment of rocket troops are as follows:
---- make decisions on employment of rocket troops;
---- plan combat employment of rocket troops;
---- assign missions to rocket troops;
---- prepare position areas of rockets and establish positions for the
first-echelon divisions to support the covering of the deployment of main
groupings of forces;
---- organize supply of nuclear and chemical rounds;
---- organize all types of supporting measures;
---- organize troop control, prepare the command posts, and establish signal
---- maintain high combat-readiness of rocket troops for accomplishing assigned
Planning Front Initial Nuclear Strike
The plan for the initial nuclear strike is an important part of the
front's plan of operation. The missions of the initial nuclear strike
are as follows:
---- destroy enemy nuclear weapons such as, enemy nuclear aviation, nuclear
depots, and nuclear rockets;
---- destroy enemy groupings of forces, particularly enemy groupings of tanks
and mechanized forces, including tactical nuclear means;
---- destroy enemy control systems such as, his command posts, signal centers,
and guidance points;
---- destroy enemy air defense means;
---- inflict losses on enemy logistic targets and installations.
Planning of the initial nuclear strike is conducted by the front chief
of staff, the chief of front operations directorate, in conjunction
with the chief of front artillery and rocket troops, and the
commander of the front air army. Plans are made on the basis of
instructions from the front commander. The initial nuclear strike is
included in the plan for combat employment of artillery and rocket troops and
the graphic of the initial nuclear strike. The graphic of the initial nuclear
strike reflects the time of arrival of rocket troops, time of deployment,
technical preparation of fire (charging and mounting of rockets), and direct
preparation for fire (simultaneously or successively bringing the troops to a
state of readiness). As a rule rocket troops are brought to the degree of fire
readiness number 1 fifteen minutes before fire to avoid enemy detection of our
preparation for the initial nuclear strike.
The targets of the initial nuclear strike are generally specified by the
front commander and the degree of losses to be inflicted on each
target is also determined by the front commander. The graphic and
structure of the initial nuclear strike are determined by the chief of
front artillery and rocket troops and the commander of front
air army through distribution of targets among rocket and aviation troops. The
chief of front artillery and rocket troops then distributes the
targets among rocket units and large units. In order to insure effective losses
on targets, in some conditions the targets of divisional rockets are specified
by the army's chief of artillery and rocket troops.
Parallel with the assignment of missions to subordinates by the front
commander, the chief of front artillery and rocket troops determines
---- fire positions and deployment of rocket troops there;
---- which large units (units) are to launch their strikes on which targets;
---- specific targets of fire and their ranges;
---- yield of nuclear rounds and number of rounds for each target;
---- center of each nuclear burst (explosion);
---- altitude of air bursts and security distance of friendly troops from the
center of nuclear bursts.
During planning crisscrossing of the path of flight of rockets is avoided.
After the distribution of targets and nuclear rounds, the rocket troops move to
their positions, occupy positions, and the rocket troops are brought to a state
of full combat-readiness.
A large number of rocket launching systems (pads) are assigned to participate
in the initial nuclear strike including, rockets of the second-echelon
divisions of the first-echelon armies. To reinforce striking power, rockets
with a high destructive power are assigned while tactical rockets fire two
rockets. The first fire is conducted at the signal of the initiation of
front initial nuclear strike, and the second fire is launched after
the air force strikes.
The control of troops during the initial nuclear strike is conducted in
accordance with the front signal. The chief of artillery and rocket
troops of the front repeats the signal.
The initial nuclear strike is planned against targets located short of the
boundary line of strategic nuclear strikes drawn at a distance of 250 km from
the frontline and sometimes further on. The possibility of planning of enemy
losses in the entire front operational depth is not excluded.
Organization of Front Initial Nuclear Strikes During the
Conduct of the Offensive Operation
As a rule the initial nuclear strike of the front is planned in
advance prior to the initiation of the operation. The missions are readjusted
and confirmed in accordance with the actual combat situation during the conduct
of the operation and assigned to subordinates. During direct preparation for
fire the graphic of the initial nuclear strike is updated and necessary changes
are incorporated in the graphics. The specifics on the preparation of
front initial nuclear strikes during the conduct of the operation are
Reconnaissance becomes very important, and information about targets to be
destroyed is continuously acquired and reconfirmed. Accordingly, planning of
nuclear strikes is adjusted. More responsibility is delegated to the army and
division commanders with targets selected by them. All rocket troops and means
of control are maintained at the highest level of combat-readiness. Missions
are conveyed quickly to the troops. Continuous control of the fulfillment of
missions is conducted.
The rocket troops are timely and regularly moved during the conduct of the
operation. The level of combat-readiness of rocket troops to use nuclear
weapons is upgraded during the course of the operation.
The timely and thorough organization of technical support of rockets is
conducted and timely relocation of rocket troop positions are effected. The
all-around combat supporting measures of rocket troops are taken such as, the
preparation of position areas, engineer support, concealment
(maskirovka) of the combat formation of the rocket troops, protection
against mass-destruction weapons, providing close security, and defense
As the time of the initiation of the initial nuclear strike nears, the start
batteries are brought to a high state of combat-readiness and technical
preparation of rockets for fire is conducted. The signal to bring the rocket
troops to required levels of readiness is given by the front
The control of the rocket troops in this phase is fully exercised in a
centralized form by the army commanders.
Employment of Front Rocket Troops to Repel Enemy
In order for the enemy to stop the attack of the friendly troops he will launch
counterblows (counterstrikes) using his reserves. This will prevent further
advance into the depth of his territory and subsequently destroy the attacking
forces. If enemy counterblows succeed in stopping the attack of friendly troops
and destroying them, then the enemy may open a new phase in the course of the
conduct of the front offensive operation.
To foil enemy counterblows (counterstrikes) rocket troops are employed in the
---- continuous and reconfirming reconnaissance of enemy nuclear weapons,
detection of their preparation for fire, and location of enemy reserve assembly
areas, and directions of their movement;
---- maintaining rocket troops in the highest state of combat-readiness so that
they may quickly launch their decisive strikes on the enemy;
---- launching massive and group nuclear strikes on enemy reserves in assembly
areas, during their movement, and during their deployment to launch their
counterblows (counterstrikes) on friendly forces;
---- if the enemy succeeds in deploying, then massive nuclear strikes are
launched on his main tank and mechanized forces, his command posts and
---- then strikes of friendly tank and motorized rifle troops are launched
against the flanks and rear of main enemy groupings which are conducting the
counterblow, the grouping is encircled and destroyed while the main forces
continue advancing into the depth of enemy defenses.
Organization of Combat Supporting Measures of the Front Rocket
The combat supporting measures of rocket troops constitute one of the main
factors in achieving success in combat. The combat supporting measures are
taken for the following reasons:
---- to create favorable conditions for friendly fires;
---- to reduce the effectiveness of enemy nuclear and conventional fire and
actions of enemy troops;
---- to destroy the enemy's troop control system.
Combat supporting measures include the following:
---- acquisition of reconnaissance and reconfirming reconnaissance information
on enemy targets;
---- preparation of position areas;
---- concealment of (maskirovka of) position, engineer installations
of the terrain, weapons and combat equipment;
---- protection of troops against enemy mass-destruction weapons;
---- close security;
---- defense against enemy air strikes;
---- radio-electronic combat;
---- rocket supporting measures;
---- topogeodetic, topographic, and hydrometeorological support;
---- rear service, material, and medical support.
Combat-Readiness of Rocket Troops
There are three levels of combat-readiness specified for rocket troops:
---- 1. Constant Combat-Readiness of Rocket Troops: Personnel conduct
their routine training in accordance with designated plans and are capable of
conducting assigned missions. Equipment is ready for combat employment.
Armament, ammunition, and material means are supplied up to the norms.
----2. Higher Combat-Readiness: This is a state of combat-readiness from
which the units and subunits may be brought to full combat-readiness in the
shortest time. In this state of combat-readiness all units and subunits are
brought back to the garrison from exercise areas and other off-post duties.
They are put on a full on-post accommodation. Combat duty detail is reinforced
and combat service is conducted in full combat-readiness. Officers and men are
called back from leave status. Ammunition, material means, and other supplies
and equipment are loaded on vehicles. Units and subunits are ready to move out
from the garrison. Operational groups with signal communication means are
detached to command posts. Two to three hours are required to bring the rocket
troops to the state of higher readiness.
---- 3. Full Combat-Readiness: This is assumed in accordance with the
plan or on combat alert signals. Under this state of combat-readiness the units
and subunits move out of their garrisons to assembly areas and position areas.
They then occupy fire positions. Units and subunits conduct technical
readiness, launching pads (systems) are loaded, and units get prepared for the
conduct of missions. Units and subunits in assembly areas are augmented up to
full combat strength on the account. of the mobilization reserves.
The time needed to achieve full combat-readiness in 6.5-7 hours for the rocket
brigades excluding the time required to cover the necessary distance.
Full combat-readiness is a state in which rocket troops and artillery may
rapidly initiate the conduct of combat missions, i.e., armies and
front rocket brigades and rocket battalions of motorized rifle and
tank divisions deploy in their position areas and they are ready to initiate
actions planned in the front's initial nuclear strike. In full
combat-readiness start batteries are in main or start positions in the state of
readiness number 3, 2, 2A, or 1.
Technical Preparation of Rockets
When the signal is received rocket troops take the following measures.
Rocket troops occupy main position areas or they deploy in assembly areas
designated to be occupied after receiving the combat alert signal. There,
rocket troops conduct technical preparations for fire. Four sites of assembling
and charging (fueling) of rockets are established in a rocket brigade (one at
the technical base of rockets and one each in technical platoons of rocket
battalions, which totals four). At this point charging (fueling), loading, and
mounting of warheads begins.
The time of charging (fueling), loading, and mounting of the warhead is as
Figure 5 Preparation times
|TYPE OF ACTION
||R-65 TACTICAL ROCKET
||R-300 TACTICAL OPERATIONAL ROCKET
|mounting of the (stilkovka)
Then launchers (launching pad) is moved to
the start (main position. There, depending on the situation, they are placed in
state of readiness number 3, 2, 2A, or 1.
Technical readiness is as follows:
--- Readiness Number 3: The start battery is deployed in the start
position. Launchers are loaded and the battery may fire after twenty-five
--- Readiness Number 2: The start battery is directed (aimed) at the
main (osnovnoi) direction, the rocket is in a
horizontal position. Fire may be launched after nineteen minutes.
--- Readiness Number 2A: The rocket is aimed at the target. The securing
mechanism is released from the rocket. Fire may be launched after thirteen
--- Readiness Number 1: The rocket is aimed at the target and is brought
into a vertical position. Three to four minutes are required to launch the
Time for Bringing Rocket Troops to Full Combat-Readiness
--- 1. To bring R-300 rocket brigades to state of readiness number 3, when four
sites of assembling and charging (fueling) of rockets are established, 6.5-7
hours are required (excluding the march and movement time). This time may be
broken down as follows:
------ time to assemble on combat alert signal (thirty-forty minutes);
------ time to deploy rocket technical subunits (twenty minutes);
------ total time of technical preparation (five hours).
To bring divisional R-65 rocket battalions to readiness number 3, when two
sites of assembling and loading of rockets are established, a two hour time is
required (excluding the march and movement time). This time may be broken down
---- time to assemble on combat alert signal (thirty to forty minutes);
---- time to deploy rocket technical subunits (five minutes);
---- total time of technical preparation in divisional separate rocket
battalion (eighty minutes).
Other calculations related to movement and deployment of rocket troops are as
---- speed of advance of rocket troops during the march (twenty-five to thirty
kilometers per hour);
---- time for deployment of a separate rocket battalion (divisional) (forty
---- time for deployment of a rocket brigade (2.5 hours);
---- time to reassemble:
---- for battalion (forty minutes;
---- for brigade (2.5 hours).
Artillery in Support of Army Operations
VIII. Some Characteristics of Combat
Employment of Artillery in Army Offensive Operations
Methods for Determining Requirements
for Artillery in Army Offensive Operations
The army's requirement for artillery in the offensive operation is assessed by
the following methods:
---- 1. In Terms of the Volume of the Artillery Missions During Preparatory
-------- during breakthrough (penetration) of enemy defenses a great number of
missions are required to be accomplished by the artillery. Various and numerous
targets in a relatively small depth will have to be destroyed or suppressed in
a specific short time. To accomplish these missions a large number of artillery
will be required. In this case army requirements for artillery will be
determined by the following two methods:
----a. In terms of the volume of missions in a specific condition of the
situation based on accurate reconnaissance information. Three groups of targets
are taken into consideration in this method:
------- enemy artillery and mortar batteries;
------- defensive strong points of platoons of enemy first-echelon battalions,
antitank weapons, command posts, and radars;
--- b. in terms of enemy organization and armament in one kilometer of front
which, depending on the operational density and enemy's nationality, may
require 90-120 guns per km of front.
---- 2. In Terms of Organization of Artillery Groupings as Follows:
------- regimental artillery group (RAG) each three to four artillery
------- divisional artillery groups (DAG) each four to six artillery
------- army artillery group (AAG) eight to ten artillery battalions including
four to five longer range artillery.
Organization of Combat Employment of Artillery and Rocket Troops in
Army Offensive Operations
The organization of the combat employment of the artillery and rocket troops in
army offensive operations includes the following measures:
----- make decisions on employment of the artillery and rocket troops and
assignment (conveying) of combat missions;
----- plan combat employment of artillery and rocket troops;
----- establish groupings of artillery and rocket troops;
----- organize coordination (interaction);
----- prepare (FUP) areas for the attack and positions for the artillery and
rocket troops to support the deployment of main groupings of forces to repulse
enemy blows (attacks);
----- collect and stockpile (dump) material means;
----- organize political affairs of artillery and rocket troops;
----- organize all types of combat support measures;
----- prepare troops for combat actions;
----- maintain high combat-readiness of troops for accomplishing assigned
Planning Combat Employment of Rocket Troops and Artillery in Army
The plan of employment of rocket troops and artillery is the principle document
prescribing combat actions of rocket troops and artillery in terms of missions
of the operation. The plan of combat employment of rocket troops and artillery
is a main component of army plans for the operation. It is the principle
document of the army's staff, of rocket troops, and of artillery.
While planning the combat employment of rocket troops and artillery in army
offensive operations, the chief of rocket troops and artillery accomplishes the
----- clarify the mission;
----- study the decision of the front commander on the employment of
rocket troops and artillery;
----- study instructions from higher echelons on the employment of rocket
troops and artillery;
----- conduct a full assessment (estimate) of the situation;
----- make decisions on employment of rocket troops and artillery on the basis
of which the plan for combat employment is prepared.
The plan is prepared in graphic form on a 1/200,000 or 1/100,000 scale map with
an annex of written instructions. The plan is signed by the chief of the rocket
troops and artillery and his chief of staff. It is approved by the army
commander. The plan is considered a part of the army's plan of operation. The
following points are shown in the graphic part of the plan:
----- situations and actions of enemy forces, his important groupings, and
targets of rocket troops and artillery;
----- situations and missions of army forces and divisions and boundaries
----- missions of rocket troops in the initial and subsequent nuclear strikes,
number of targets, yields of nuclear rounds, types of bursts, subunits and
units launching the strikes, and time of delivery of strikes;
----- employ rocket troops against enemy nuclear means;
----- directions of movements and positions areas of rocket troops and army
technical rocket subunits in attack (FUP) positions, position areas of rocket
battalions of divisions in the attack (FUP) areas, and in the security and
----- relocate positions of rocket troops and rocket technical subunits during
the course of conduct of operations;
----- artillery groupings of the army, divisions and regiments in attack (FUP)
areas and in security and border areas;
----- penetration (breakthrough) areas and density of artillery in these areas;
----- areas of deployment of antitank reserves of the army, divisions, and
regiments and the directions of their actions;
----- areas of deployment of front antitank reserves and directions of
----- maneuver of rocket troops and artillery during the course of conduct of
----- positions of air defense artillery and areas of radar;
----- other elements of army combat formations.
In the plan an annex of the initial nuclear strike of the army's rocket troops,
with written instructions is also prepared.
The following points are covered in the written instructions:
----- combat composition of rocket troops and artillery, distribution of
attached and organic artillery among the divisions and elements of combat
formations, and their regroupment during the course of conduct of operations;
----- specific numbers of nuclear and chemical rockets allocated for operations
and their distribution in terms of their allocation to the initial nuclear
strike and army's missions and in terms of their distribution to different
----- availability and distribution of conventional rockets in terms of their
allocation to army missions and their distribution to different divisions;
----- distribution of artillery rounds in terms of their allocation to army
missions and in terms of their distribution to different divisions;
----- composition of antitank reserves of the army, divisions, and regiments.
The following issues are treated in the work document:
----- method, time of preparation, and delivery of rockets to troops;
----- calculation of time for bringing rocket troops and artillery to full
----- calculation of time for movement of army and divisions rocket troops;
----- expenditure of conventional rounds in operations and for each mission
during the operation;
----- measures for protecting troops against enemy mass-destruction weapons.
Employment of Artillery During the Commitment of Army Second-Echelon
Forces into Combat
Commitment of army second-echelon forces into combat is conducted at the
----- after accomplishment of the army's immediate mission;
----- at the beginning of the conduct of long-range missions of the army.
The second-echelon is committed with these missions:
----- to expand (to intensify) the strength of the striking power in areas of
----- to support momentum of the attack (at a higher speed) or in the gaps
created between the first-echelon divisions during the attack;
----- to shift main efforts to another direction;
----- to reinforce first-echelon troops which have suffered heavy losses.
Commitment of the army's second-echelon division into combat is usually
conducted in the form of its movement from depth and its deployment into combat
formations from the line of march.
Commitment of army's second-echelon forces is initiated after the conduct of a
powerful artillery fire or a powerful fire strike lasting fifteen to twenty
minutes. Artillery has the following missions during artillery preparatory
----- destroy enemy nuclear delivery means;
----- suppress enemy antitank defenses in areas of commitment of the
second-echelon into combat;
----- suppress or destroy enemy artillery and mortar batteries;
----- suppress enemy personnel, firing means, and tanks in strong points.
Artillery preparatory fire is conducted for twenty to thirty minutes with two
to three fire strikes each lasting ten to fifteen minutes.
The density of artillery during preparatory fire is forty to sixty guns per
kilometer of front. The expenditure of ammunition is 0.6-0.8 units of fire.
Assault Support Fire
Assault support fire is conducted by successive concentration fires (PSO) on
two to three lines or by massive fire (MO) and concentration fire (SO) on enemy
Accompanying fire is conducted by massive fires (MO) and concentration fires.
To support the commitment of the army's second-echelon into combat, artillery
maneuvers are conducted in commitment areas to establish required densities of
artillery for suppressing the enemy. Artillery groups are established in the
division to be committed and in its regiments. Artillery attachment to the
second-echelon division which is committed into combat is conducted by
reassignment of the artillery attached to the first-echelon divisions or the
The artillery of the large units and units operating in the area of the
commitment of the second-echelon into combat is also assigned to support the
commitment of the army's second-echelon into combat.
Army antitank reserves, jointly operating with army mobile obstacle
detachments, move to be prepared for deployment on the line of commitment of
the second-echelon to protect threatened flanks of the line against blows and
attacks from enemy tanks.
IX. Characteristics of Combat
Employment of Artillery in Army Defensive Operations
Systems of Artillery Fire in Army Defenses
The system of artillery fire in defense is the principle part of the general
(overall) system of fires in the defense. The system of artillery fire in the
defense is the sum of different types of artillery fires from covered positions
such as the following:
---- distant fires in defense;
---- massive fires;
---- concentration fires;
---- barrage fires (fire barrages);
---- fires from antitank means (antitank guns, antitank guided missiles, and
Artillery fire systems are fully established in divisions. In the army they are
established on important directions, generally for the conduct of
reconnaissance missions, as well as, for covering flanks and gaps between large
units and adjacents.
The fire system is continuously reconfirmed and improved as new information is
Types of Fire
----While Inflicting Losses on Approaching Enemy Forces, the Distant Defensive
Fires: Massive fires and concentration fires are conducted with the help of
fire adjustment aircraft and radio technical means. Massive fire of all of the
artillery or the bulk of artillery on important enemy groupings. Concentration
fire is the fire of a group of artillery batteries (battalions) on individual
enemy targets. To effectively suppress mechanized infantry companies in
assembly areas or during movements, one artillery battalion and for the tank
company three artillery battalions are required.
----Inflicting Losses on the Enemy During Deployment: Preparation of massive
fire (MO) on likely assembly areas or areas of enemy deployment.
--- conduct of concentration for destroying and suppressing enemy artillery
batteries and command posts.
The losses on the enemy are better inflicted by fires conducted from temporary
Fires During the Initiation of Enemy Attacks: Fires are conducted in forms of
massive fires, concentration fires, and barrage fire to inflict enemy losses.
massive fires and concentration fires are used to inflict losses on the enemy
during his movement to deployment lines;
Barrage fire is used at the beginning of an enemy assault. Each artillery
battalion prepares barrage fires on two to three lines on different directions
with a width of 900 meters. The final (closest) line is located 400-600 m from
the forward line of defense.
During Enemy Penetration in the Defense: In this phase barrage fires, massive
fires, and concentration fires are used.
Repulsing Attacks By Enemy Groupings of Tanks: Antitank reserves of the army,
divisions, and regiments are used.
Prior to Initiating the Counterattack of the Division's Second-Echelons and
Prior to the Counterblows of the Army's Second-Echelon: Artillery supports the
holding (retention) of specific defensive lines and conducts artillery
preparatory fire or it conducts a fire strike for ten to fifteen minutes.
Combat Employment of Artillery While Launching Army
---- The counterblow is conducted for the following reasons:
-------- to destroy the enemy who has penetrated or broken through into
-------- to initiate a decisive attack by the troops.
---- To support the counterblow, rocket troops and artillery are called
(assigned). Artillery primarily conducts the struggle with enemy artillery and
inflicts losses on enemy first-echelon troops which are in direct contact with
friendly forces. The counterblow is conducted in the form of meeting
engagements or in the form of passing through unorganized and hasty enemy
defenses. While passing through the enemy's hasty defense, the density of
artillery will be fifty to sixty guns and mortars per kilometer of front.
----To support the counterblow, the maximum amount of available artillery is
assigned. This may consist of the following:
---- artillery of units and large units defending on the first-echelon;
---- artillery of units participating in counterblows (divisional and
regimental artillery group);
---- army's artillery group.
Moreover, during artillery preparatory fire and assault supporting fire, the
artillery of the adjacent divisions may also be called (assigned).
---- Artillery units participating in the counterblows, after moving to their
positions, require 1-1.5 hours. The army artillery needs two hours for
preparation, including one hour of daylight. If the distance is sixty
kilometers then, considering movement along such a distance, four hours are
required for preparing the preparatory fire.
---- Planning actions for artillery while initiating the counterblow is
conducted during the planning of the operation and continues during the
operation. The decision on employment of artillery is reconfirmed during the
course of the operation in accordance with decisions on the conduct of the
---- On the basis of the army commander's decision, the army's staff of rocket
troops and artillery plan for the following:
------- establish groupings of artillery and their time of arrival to fire
------- duration and structure of artillery preparatory fire or fire strikes;
------- methods of support for counterblows by the artillery;
------- measures on troop control, etc.
--- During the conduct of artillery and air preparatory fire, losses are
inflicted on the following:
------ newly detected enemy nuclear delivery means;
------ artillery and mortar batteries;
------ personnel and firing means of enemy first-echelon battalions;
------ enemy second-echelon troops and command posts.
Duration of Preparatory Fire
The duration of preparatory fire is determined on the basis of the time
required for inflicting effective losses on the enemy or on the basis of the
time required for the movement and deployment of friendly groupings of forces
which conducts counterblows from the line of march. Accordingly, the fire
strikes may be conducted for fifteen to twenty minutes (during which
approaching attack troops cover three to four kilometers of distance).
Preparatory fire may last thirty to forty minutes. The ammunition expenditure
may amount to 0.5-0.7 units of fire.
Preparatory fire is conducted on all enemy artillery batteries and command
posts in the attack area. Preparatory fire is executed in the form of several
fire strikes. The last fire strike is launched against all targets directly
facing the friendly counterattacking forces and resisting the counterblow.
These targets may be tanks, infantry, antitank guided missiles, or enemy
artillery and mortars.
The chief of army artillery and rocket troops assigns missions to the
--- commanders of army artillery brigades;
--- commanders of antitank reserves;
--- chiefs of artillery of divisions.
Employment of Antitank Reserves
The antitank reserve deploys on its designated firing line and fights enemy
tanks. It may also deploy in assembly areas in order to be prepared to move to
and deploy on firing lines. The decisions on the use of antitank reserves is
made by the army commander. On the basis of the army commander's decision the
army's chief of artillery and rocket troops assigns missions to antitank
reserves which include the following points:
--- likely composition of enemy groupings of tanks;
--- firing lines;
--- methods and times of deployment on firing lines;
--- missions on each fire line;
--- methods of coordination (interaction) with other units.
During the preparation of army counterblows, the artillery conducts fire on the
enemy to prevent further enemy advance to the depth and flanks of the defending
forces. At this phase fire is conducted in the form of concentration fire and
barrage fire. Simultaneously, antitank artillery conducts direct fire on
When two or more divisions participate in the army's counterblow, the control
of artillery is conducted by the army. When the counterblow is conducted from
two directions, the control of artillery on each direction is conducted by the
Artillery preparatory fire ends as tank and infantry subunits reach the
security lines of friendly artillery explosions. At this point artillery begins
its assault supporting fire.
Assault Supporting Fire
Assault supporting fire is conducted in the form of successive concentration
fire or concentration fires. Or it is conducted in the form of massive fire
(MO) on call.
Accompanying fire is conducted in the form of successive concentration fires
(SO) and massive fires (MO) on targets blocking the advance of forces
conducting counterblows. The massive fires (MO) are launched on call.