Troop control of air defense troops and capabilities in a
front offensive operation is organized to provide continuous troop
control of air defense unit's actions and to direct their efforts toward the
execution of their assigned air defense missions in offensive operation.
To control the combat actions of front air defense troops and
resources, a mobile air defense command post is established, which is jointly
deployed with the front main command post and is a part of
front command post. The air defense command post includes the
following elements: combat control center; reconnaissance and information
center which collects and organizes the information about enemy air force and
warning of the troops about enemy's air force actions; signal communication
center which establishes signal communication with air defense and fighter air
force units, as well as with cooperating (interacting) large units (division).
The components of signal communication center include radio transmission center
and radio reception center. Once the air defense command post is deployed,
24-hour tours of duty are established either by relieving duty officers in
turns or by continuous duty (manning) of full organizational strength as the
To provide further for action of air defense troop control, a number of staff
officers and signal communication resources are detached from the main air
defense command post to establish forward air defense command post. To provide
and ensure the command control of fighter aircraft, organic to front
air army, and to ensure coordination in air defense command post the following
controlling elements are deployed:
Combat Control Center of Air Army's Fighter Air Force Units
Operational formations and large units air defense operational groups (teams)
which deploy in front operation zone. (In maritime directions: naval
air defense operational group (team)).
In the air defense command post of the combined arms (tank) army: combat
control center of air army as part of combat control center of air army.
In the motorized infantry (tank) division command post: Air combat control
group or team.
In SAM regiment's command post: Navigation and target indication post.
Troop control of front air defense troops and resources is exercised
by front commander. He personally works out the concept of operation
of air defense units, specifies the allocation of air defense troops and
resources to defend specified targets (objectives) and groupings of forces,
assigns missions to them and specifies the method of coordination
(interaction). Direct troop control of combat actions of air defense troops and
resources, while repelling the enemy's air attacks, is conducted by chief of
front's air defense forces.
Organization of Cover by Fighter Aircraft
The combat employment of fighter aircraft is planned jointly by the air army
commander and the chief of front air defense on the basis of the
decision of the front commander.
In this process the method of repelling massive strikes of the air enemy and
particularly its initial strike are determined. Depending on the
characteristics of the enemy strike and those of the grouping of friendly
fighter aircraft, the interception line during aircraft commitment to combat,
the composition of different echelons of aircraft, the interception line of the
air enemy from air patrol positions, and the interception line from airfields;
on each likely direction of enemy flight are determined and the number and
areas of air patrols, the degree of combat readiness, and the method of
maneuver are specified.
The first line of commitment of fighter aircraft into combat from air patrol
positions can be forward of the front line. The subsequent lines of commitment
to combat are specified behind the first line at a distance to provide a
sufficient area to fight against the enemy air until it reaches the fire area
of air defense means. If such conditions cannot be provided the action of
fighter aircraft in the area of the air defense rockets with their interaction
or between the areas of action of the air defense rockets or in the rear of
these areas is provided for.
The combat action of fighter aircraft in the course of the operation is
organized by specifying the combat action areas for fighter aviation divisions.
The number of such areas depends on the number of fighter aviation divisions in
the front air army.
Organization of Troop Control and Interaction
The control of air defense troops and means in front offensive
operations is conducted to exercise constant control over the action of the
troops and to direct their efforts in support of the accomplishment of assigned
air defense missions in the offensive operation.
For troop control of air defense forces, the air defense command post is
established, which is mobile and always with the front main command
post and considered as an integral part of it. The air defense command post
includes the following elements:
----- combat control center;
----- center of collection and analysis of reconnaissance information and
warning of the troops;
----- signal center, composed of receiving and transmitting radios.
In the air defense command post a 24 hour duty service is conducted by
alternate duty teams or by full combat staff. In order to provide for constant
air defense troop control, the required number of personnel with communications
means from the air defense command post is detached to establish a forward air
defense command post.
To control the action of the fighter aircraft a combat control center for the
air army fighter aircraft and also operational groups of air defense
operational formations and formations operating in the area are established in
the air defense command post. The following elements are established:
----- a combat control center of the air army is established in the air defense
command post of the combined arms and tank armies;
----- a group for combat control of the air is established in the command posts
of the infantry and tank divisions;
----- guidance and target identification points are established with the
command posts of the air defense rocket units.
Control of front air defense troops is conducted by the front
commander. He personally establishes the concept of the air defense, determines
the troops and means for each objective, issues tasks, and establishes
The direct control of air defense troops while repelling enemy attacks is
conducted by the chief of front air defense.
Interaction of front Air Defense Troops with Other Air Defense Troops
Interaction of air defense is established at the front level and it is
aimed at the most effective use of the combat capability of the air defense to
totally destroy enemy air targets on the axis of approach to friendly troops
and to cover installations.
Interaction is a concerted and continuous effort of air defense means
coordinated in terms of objectives, time, place, and the forms of
accomplishment of combat missions.
Interaction Between Air Defense Rocket Units and Fighter Aircraft
Interaction is established separately in their own areas and jointly in their
areas of common action. While interacting in their separate areas, the fighter
aircraft operate in front of, in the intervals between, at the flanks, or at
the rear of the areas of combat action of the air defense rocket units. In this
form of action the question of security of fighter aircraft is not present.
This form of interaction is easy and the tasks to repel the enemy attack are
While interacting in a common area (the area of the action of air defense
rockets) the efforts of fighter aircraft and air defense rockets are divided in
terms of different altitudes, directions sectors), lines, and targets.
The decision about where the interaction should be conducted and what forms it
should take in the common area is made in the air defense command post of the
front (army), normally by the beginning of actions to repel enemy
sorties and after the assessment of the characteristics of their flight.
The chief of front air defense, along with the air army commander,
during organization of interaction between air defense troops and fighter
aircraft, determines the following points:
----- the form of combat action of fighter aircraft in different phases of the
----- the method of exchange of reconnaissance information on the air enemy;
----- adjustment of the combat action area of rocket troops and fighter
aviation, the area of patrolling in the air, the interception lines of enemy
targets from air patrol positions and from the airfield positions;
----- the method of ?nmd form of fighter aircraft during repelling enemy first
massive strike and also the action of fighter aircraft and rocket troops in one
----- the action of air defense means and fighter aircraft to cover airborne
assault units in their assembly areas, embarkation areas, during their flight,
and landing and in the course of their combat action, and the measures to
coordinate the actions of air defense means and fighter aircraft;
----- the flight corridors of fighter aircraft;
----- the method of relocation of air defense troops and fighter aircraft and
their maneuver in the course of the operation which should be readjusted during
the conduct of the operation.
Interaction of front Air Defense Troops with the Air Defense
Operational Formations and Formations of Border fronts (Border Forces)
In establishing interaction between them the following issues are organized:
----- coordinating the action of air defense troops and means which are
assigned to cover the front troops and departure areas and in the
attack zone and the method of their action;
----- determining possible maneuver of these troops in support of the
front and the organization of the action of front air defense
troops on the most important lines in the attack zone and their relocation and
also specifying the interception line for fighter aviation;
----- resolving the question related to organization of the air defense of
front supply routes after the advance of the troops, method of
expanding the air defense system in the wake of the front attacking
troops, composition of operational groups and method of air attachment to
----- specifying the method of employment of air defense radar system in the
interest of the front;
----- planning the combat action during combined operations (seaborne and
airborne assault operations) (note: the control of air defense troops allocated
for combined operations is conducted by the front commander and direct
control of air defense troops is exercised by air defense troop commanders and
air defense chiefs of the front and army);
----- specifiying the method of interaction between air defense troops and
front fighter aircraft with the air defense troops and fighter
aircraft of operational formations and formations;
----- determining the unified system of identification of friendly aircraft.
Method of Interaction and Coordination Between front Air Defense
Troops and the Air Defense Troops of Adjacent fronts
In coordinating the action of air defense troops of the front with air
defense troops of adjacents the following points are specified:
----- method of mutual warning about the enemy;
----- composition of those fighter aircraft troops which are assigned to
operate in the area of adjacent fronts and the method for calling
----- the airfields designated for landing of those fighter aircraft which
operate in the area of the adjacent front and their rear service
----- the method of flight of the fighter aircraft in the area of air defense
rocket troops and measures related to the questions of their security;
----- coordinating the position areas of air defense rocket troops of the
front (army) to establish a reliable air defense on the common flanks.