ROLE OF ECONOMICS IN WAR:
INTERRELATIONSHIP OF STRATEGY AND ECONOMICS
I. CLASSICAL MARXISM-LENINISM ON THE ROLE OF ECONOMICS IN
War is a complex and multi-sided special historical phenomenon. In war, all
aspects of the life of the State are subject to a severe test. Some of these
aspects are the following:
---- - the stability of its socio-political and economic system;
---- - the morale-political unity and durability of the people;
---- - the combat capabilities of the Armed Forces.
The military might of the State and the course and method of a war depend,
above all, on the economic conditions and the socio-political system of the
State. Basically, the politics of Marxism, having discovered the laws of the
development of human society, for the first time scientifically based the
reasons for the emergence of war and its dependence of economics. "The
victory of force," wrote F. Engels," is based on the production of
weapons, and the production of weapons is, in its turn, based on production in
general; consequently... on "economic power," on "economic
policies," and on the "material means" found in the distribution
of the effort of the force."
V.I. Lenin showed that in the new epoch, when wars become worldwide, their
course and outcome, to a great extent, depend on the following:
----- economic factors;
---- - scientific-technical factors;
---- - morale-political factors.
"The connection between the military organization of the country and its
economic and cultural aspects," Lenin wrote, " is sometimes very
close, as at the present time." He emphasized that any war is ultimately
decided by economics.
Lenin focused his attention on the necessity of timely preparation of the
country for war. He indicated that it is necessary to prepare for war seriously
and for a long period time, beginning with the economic status of the country.
Without serious economic preparation of the country, it is impossible to
conduct modern war against imperialism. Intensive military preparation for a
serious war requires prolonged, stubborn, and disciplined work on a massive
Lenin showed the significance of the rear in a broad sense in modern war. To
conduct a war, in reality, a strong and organized rear is needed. Durability
and stability of the rear operation are important conditions for victory in any
Lenin attached enormous significance to the following elements as the basis for
improving the welfare of the nation and creating a raw materials base:
---- - industrialization, especially to the creation of heavy industry;
---- - electrification of the country;
---- - development of agriculture;
---- - transportation for all branches of the national economy.
Lenin also posited the tenet on the role of reserves in the war: "He who
has greater reserves, greater sources of power, and greater endurance will be
victorious in the war."
The role of science in war is increasing. He said that without science it is
impossible to organize a modern army. He who has better equipment, better
vehicles, and who is better organized and disciplined will have superiority.
Especially under modern conditions, an army obtains newer and newer weapons,
and these weapons require thorough knowledge, discipline, and organizational
He considered the planned conduct of the economy in those branches which are
decisive for the defense of the country, the concentration of basic efforts and
means in these branches, and the organization of firm economic control as a
The basis for economic control is the socialist state and the Armed Forces. In
control conscious choices of the following are necessary:
----- forces and means;
---- - devices;
---- - methods of struggle.
It is necessary to know fully and precisely all conditions of production, and
to know production equipment and have models.
An important place in Leninist heritage is occupied by the concept of the
necessity, in case war is unleashed, of transforming the country into a unified
military camp for the purpose of mobilizing all forces of the nation for the
rout of the aggressor.
Lenin points to the leading role of the Communist Party in the field of
economic development. In the Party the following are features of leadership:
---- - unity of politics and economics;
---- - currency of our plans, which are directed toward consolidating the
---- - defensive might of the country.
The Marxist-Leninist theory on war and the army and on the role of economics in
war has an enormous theoretical, methodological, and practical significance for
resolving problems concerning the preparation of the economy and the Armed
Forces for repelling a military attack of imperialism. Lenin's position on the
necessity of creating modern industry and increasing the role of science and
technology is an incontrovertible foundation of the general line of the
Communist Party of the Soviet Union in the area of creating the
material-technical base for Communism and consolidating the economic might and
defensive might of the country. The implementation of plans for
industrialization and collectivization of agriculture served as the material
basis for outfitting the Soviet Armed Forces with modern weapons and achieving
a historic victory in the Great Patriotic War.
The basis for the development of socialist industry is, above all, heavy
The experience of past world wars fully confirms the Marxist-Leninist position
on the following:
---- - role of economics in war;
---- - the growing mutual connection and mutual influence of war and economy.
The demand for arms, military equipment, and materiel resources for the purpose
of outfitting the Armed Forces and supporting operations has increased. In
World War II the production of aircraft increased 3.5 times more than in World
War I. This figure for tanks is 32, guns 6, and material 5.
Expenditures for conducting war have increased. Suffice to say that direct
military expenditures of governments in World War I totalled 208 billion
dollars, which was ten times more than expenditures for all wars which had been
conducted during the preceding 100 years. Direct military expenditures of
warring states during World War II amounted to 1,380 billion dollars, almost
seven times greater than for World War I; this comprised 50-60% of the national
Arms and military equipment have become complex and their cost has sharply
risen. For the production of such arms, the necessity for conducting the
following has increased:
---- - a large amount of scientific-research;
---- - experimental-design work;
---- - creation of the most advanced technology:
For example, the cost of a US Motorized Infantry Division has increased from 19
million dollars in 1945 to 111 million dollars in 1960.
The time (cycle) for rearmament (modernization) of the Armed Forces tends to
decrease since arms and equipment become outdated and obsolete sooner than in
the past. If in the past specific arms and equipment could last fifty years or
more as standard pieces of equipment in the Armed Forces, today they may last
only ten to twelve years and then they must be modernized. The interval between
subsequent rearmaments (modernization) of the air force, rocket and artillery
troops, and radio-technical forces is further decreased to five to seven years.
The intense development of scientific-technical progress led to the creation
and rapid development of qualitatively new rocket-nuclear weapons and other
means of destruction. Conventional weapons, the quality of which continues to
increase, are necessary for outfitting multi-million armies and conducting
operations which have grown in their scope and direction.
All this required the creation and rapid development of new branches of defense
industry, and led to large shifts in the structure of planned and need-oriented
production. The military-economic potential is now comprised of such new
branches of military production as the folowing:
---- - atomic production;
---- - aircraft-rocket engineering electronics;
---- - instrument-making;
---- - radio technology;
---- - chemical technology.
The technical level of existing branches of military production is improving.
As a result of the creation of weapons of great destructive force, the economy
is required to sustain their effects. The issue of the economic readiness of
the country and the transition of the economy to wartime programs, and its
support and survivability has once again arisen. Therefore, the primary
branches of the national economy, above all industry, must be prepared in
advance to accomplish the following:
---- - to outfit the Armed Forces with everything necessary;
---- - to replenish losses in arms and materiel in the course of the armed
Under modern conditions the relationship between economics and military might
has become deeper. Thus, economics is the basis of the foundation of
strengthening the defensive might of a state. This points to the growing role
of economics compared to the past, and to the intensification of the ties
between war and economics. Proper consideration of the following will provide
for the defense capabilities of the country and the combat might of the Soviet
---- - ties between war and economics;
---- - expedient use of all increasing capabilities of the national economy;
---- - achievements of scientific-technical progress.
II. RECIPROCITY OF STRATEGY AND ECONOMICS
Inasmuch as war is a product of socio-historical relations and is dependent on
economics, strategy is closely connected with and, to a great degree is
dependent on the following:
---- - economics;
---- - levels and rates of development of production;
---- - achievements of technical progress;
---- - quantity and quality of the population;
---- - morale-political status.
The following depend, above all, on the degree of production achieved in a
given segment and communication means:
---- - army and fleet;
---- - arms;
---- - personnel;
---- - organization;
---- - tactics;
---- - operational art;
---- - strategy.
How then, is the dependence of strategy on economics manifested? Economics
affect the development and preparation of the Armed Forces and military art by
creating a material-technical base for the Armed Forces, providing them with
modern arms and materiel in peacetime or wartime.
The following are dependent on the status and direction of the development of
economics and the achievements of science and technology:
---- - the creation of a material-technical base of defense;
---- - the quantitative and qualitative status of the Armed Forces;
---- - the development and production of modern arms;
---- - the attainment and maintenance of superiority of technical production
over the enemy in the principle means of armed conflict;
---- - changes of organizational structure with respect to services of the
Armed Forces and combat arms;
---- - development of ways and means for conducting military activities;
---- - preparation and maintenance of high combat-readiness.
Economics influence the development of military doctrine and
military-theoretical opinions concerning the nature of a future war.
Through politics and ideology, economics affects the morale-political condition
of army and navy personnel. Its technical level influences the education and
culture of the population for further (future) improvement of and preparation
of specialists for all branches of the national economy. It is an important
factor for the improvement of the upgrading of combat power of our Armed
Influence of Strategy on Economics
Under modern conditions, as has been shown, the dependence of strategy on the
following has significantly increased:
---- - economics;
---- - science;
---- - achievements of scientific-technical progress.
In addition to this, a reverse dependence of economics on war has grown as the
influence of strategy on economics has grown.
Although the development of economics is subordinate to strategic laws, the
direction of this development, to a great extent, is conditioned by the
requirements of the defense of the State and its protection against the enemy.
This is particularly manifested during a war, when everything is subordinate to
the achievement of victory over the enemy.
The Higher Military Command, on the basis of directives from the political
leadership and the requirements of military doctrine, works out the following:
---- - construction and preparation of the Armed Forces;
---- - requirements for the preparation of the economy and the population of
the country as a whole for war.
The essence of these requirements necessitates assuring the maintenance of the
military might of the country and the combat- readiness of its Armed Forces.
This guarantees a decisive and complete rout of the enemy. These requirements
emerge from the policies of the State and from military doctrine. It is
important that the Armed Forces adhere to the following requirements:
---- - they must be supplied with the newest weapons and combat equipment,
transportation, and control means;
---- - the necessary reserves of arms and materiel for the conduct of war must
---- - providing for timely mobilization and operational-strategic deployment
of the Armed Forces;
---- - timely transition of the economy to a wartime production program.
The influence of strategy on economics is implemented, as is known, not on the
basis of direct ties and subordination of economics to strategy, but through
higher political leadership and organs of State power. In this process the
following is understood:
---- - military leadership cannot give taskings to the industrial ministers and
departments, enterprises, and corporations on the production of weapons and
---- - political leadership determines the tasks of the economy and allocates
required materiel and personnel resources and directs them to their preparation
The concepts of the military authorities are presented to the political
leadership, i.e., the State. The State approves them and all organs are obliged
to put them in practice and they are included in the development plans.
Therefore, through preparation and presenting proposals, strategic control
organ influences the establishment of material reserves and bases of material
and technical means and the preparation of the economy and population for war.
One of the important questions is in determining the required amounts of the
following for the conduct of a future war:
---- - weapons;
---- - material;
---- - technical means.
After determining the composition of forces and means required for the conduct
of the strategic operation, the strategic control authorities determine the
requirements for weapons, material, and technical means. In determining the
above mentioned requirements the following are taken into consideration:
---- - weapons and means of the Armed Forces in peacetime;
---- - the Armed Forces to be concentrated in wartime in accordance with the
---- - un-recoverable losses which can not be made up for by repair.
The Nature of Economic Support of a Modern War
Economic support of every actual war depends on a number of factors, among
which include specifying the following, above all:
---- - the nature of the war;
---- - its aims;
---- - its scale;
---- - its preparation;
---- - its conduct.
The character (nature) of war largely depends on the size and number of
contents of those requirements posed by the war in front of the national
At the same time the character of the material support of the war largely
depends on economic factors and on those economic capabilities which the
national economy has for materiel support of the Armed Forces. Thus, they are
formed by political and especially military factors, as well as economic
In forecasting the nature of modern war we must take into account its multiple
The following basic types of war are ones in which socialist countries may
---- - world nuclear war between the two opposing systems (capitalist and
socialist) conducted using all means of destruction, with the participation of
the majority of States from both systems;
---- - war between several capitalist and socialist states conducted by
conventional weapons with the possibility of passing over to limited use of
---- - local wars between socialist and capitalist states in which only
conventional weapons are used.
Each of these types of war are distinctive in the following ways:
---- - their scope;
---- - their use of means for armed struggle;
---- - they require special forms of economic support.
The most crucial of these is the economic preparation of the socialist
countries for general nuclear war.
If one speaks about general features of economic support of a war under current
conditions, then one can distinguish three important tenets.
The first tenet is connected with the social essence of the war, with those
contradictions in societal life which can lead to the use of forceful means of
destruction. In case militaristic forces succeed in unleashing a world nuclear
war, then it will be a decisive conflict between two social systems. In a
nuclear war not soley individual political issues of the world are resolved,
the struggle is not only conducted for individual interests nor for the
supremacy over this or that region of the world. Rather in such a war the
social issues that relate to development of humanity and the fate of all
humanity are resolved.
In such a war maximum efforts are used, as are all materiel resources, means,
and capabilities. If in the war from 1914-1918 all participants spent 208
billion dollars, and in the war from 1939-1945 they spent 1 trillion 117
billion dollars, then a new world war would be significantly more expensive. In
the war from 1914-1918, the Armed Forces needed 1/6 to 1/3 of the national
income; 1/2 to 2/3 of the national income was needed from 1939-1945; in a
future war even more will be needed.
The second tenet conditioning the novelty and specialization of modern
military-economic tasks reflects the new degree of development of production
forces. In connection with the further development of the economic base in a
number of the world's largest countries the most important achievements in the
field of science and technology reflect new potentials in the production of
means of armed conflict.
The scientific-technical revolution made it possible to outfit the Armed Forces
with types of weapons and combat equipment based on new principals. The
qualitative characteristics of materiel support means for the Armed Forces have
grown sharply without any exception. The economies of the largest countries of
the world have grown to a degree which makes it possible in a short period of
time massively to produce the most complex military equipment and to arm and
equip millions of Armed Forces personnel.
In the USSR the capability of the production of material for social
requirements has increased ten fold in 1973 in comparison with 1940.
Modern combat equipment is becoming increasingly more complex and costly. The
necessity for fundamental rearmament of troops in relatively brief periods of
time has arisen. The rapid use of the achievements of science and technology in
military production has become particularly crucial.
The role of the number of different missions which must be resolved in modern
war and the impossibility of resolving them with the help of universal means
has led to the fact that the Armed Forces has begun to evidence a demand for an
increasingly larger variety of types of weapons and combat equipment. This
complicates the process of economic support of the defense of socialist
countries even more.
The third tenet reflecting the new-in-principal ties between war and economics
is conditioned by military factors. Modern war fundamentally changed the
requirement placed on economics for the time to complete the most important
The strategic significance of basic economic measures has changed. The role of
the period of military-economic mobilization has sharply risen, and economic
support for high constant combat-readiness of the Armed Forces has become
The largest capitalist and socialist states presently have powerful means of
damage and destruction which can quickly destroy any target at any point of the
In the case of the effective use of this means, it is possible to deliver
decisive damage to the enemy, on the strength of which the possibility of a
short-term war may be posited.
At the same time, the possibility of conducting prolonged and protracted wars,
which would require a thorough restructuring of the national economy of
socialist countries for the purpose of an economic guarantee of victory, cannot
The new-in-principal ties between war and economics are best observed if they
are analyzed taking into consideration the overall structure of economic
support of wars (see sketch).
THE STRUCTURE OF THE ECONOMIC SUPPORT OF WAR
Some relationships between the economy and support of military capability
development of the base areas of the economy
development of the productive power of the military industry
establishment of the preparation of the military economic qualifications of
potential of the work force
scientific- technical progress
improvement of the geographic deploy ment of the industrial sector and
different branches of industrial manufacturing
economic preparation for war providing for the material support of the Armed
Forces and new formations
preparation of economic military industry
preparation of war for mobilization deployment
preparation for passing over to the wartime regime of entire national economy
changes in the allocation of the national economy in the interest of the
expansion of war material production
economic support for maintaining the Armed Forces during war
expanding productive power of the national economy
effective functioning of the military economy
As is obvious from above, there exist two basic components of economic support
----- - first: economic preparation for war;
------ second: economic support in the course of the war.
The correlation between these components is not, once and for all, a given. It
changes in connection with changes in the nature of wars and the conditions of
Over the continuation of all military history up until the beginning of the
20th century, the first component (i.e., economic preparation for war) had
predominant significance. The armies of the warring states basically were
materially outfitted before marching off. In the course of the campaign, they
predominantly used what was obtained at the outset. The economy of France, for
example, could give Napoleon's army what it could at the beginning of the war.
The material support up to the beginning of the 1812 war was not very much.
War in the first half of the 20th century introduced fundamental changes into
the economic support procedures.
In the first place, according to its designation, is the second component
(i.e., economic support of the Armed Forces in the course of the war). Reserves
stockpiled before 1914 were used up in the very first months of the war. Seven
million rifles were calculated for the Russian army, while 18 million rifles
were actually sent to the front.
In World War II, the Germans set forth with 4,405 combat aircraft and 3,200
tanks. In the course of the war German industry produced 104,000 aircraft and
65.1 thousand tanks. Consequently, the pre-war supply consisted of 4% and 4.7%
aircraft and tanks respectively.
A fundamental role in the "feeding" of the war was played not by
current (routine) production but by the law of material production means: as a
demonstrative foundation we present two arguments.
-----Under modern conditions, the economic "rear" of any warring
countries may be subjected to strong and rather effective strikes.
The degree of damage to the economy from combat effects increases from war to
war. Losses in World War I amounted to 13%, and in World War II to 28%; in
World War III, especially in a nuclear war, this indicator will sharply
increase. A military-economic situation is possible where expanded production
is extremely difficult or even impossible, both on a scale of the entire
national economy and in its military sector. Therefore, it is impossible to
count on the fact that the basic mass of materiel resources will be produced
after the beginning of the war, and that successful economic support of the war
depends on how much is done in the prewar period.
The second argument is connected with the following consideration: The maximum
advance (progress) of the military economic efforts is always ahead of the
maximum military effort, since the military effort reaches its climax during
the decisive phase of the war when it achieves its principle aims.
Consequently, the level of military consumption increases to its highest degree
at the decisive phase of war, when there is a maximum military effort. But
after all, consumption (requirement) always precedes the production. The
requirement is higher than what has been produced to that moment. Therefore,
the production, at the decisive phase of the military effort, must reach the
point of meeting the maximum requirements of the Armed Forces.
For example, the primary mission of the Great Patriotic War (the routing of
Fascist Germany) was resolved in 1944 and 1945. By the beginning of 1945, both
the number of personnel and combat equipment had reached the highest level for
the period of the war. In order to attain the materiel support of the decisive
phase of the war, the highest level of development of the military economy must
be achieved for this phase. The sum of production of arms and combat equipment
in 1943, in comparison with 1940, was 224%, while in 1944 it was 251%.
The proportion of the State budget in 1944 was somewhat lower than in 1943.
Under modern conditions, we should consider them differently. Since the Armed
Forces of socialist countries have at their disposal more powerful weapons and
can achieve the strategic aims of war at the beginning of the war, the main
role is played by the nuclear weapons and strategic rocket forces.
In a nuclear war enemy bases are destroyed and suppressed at the beginning of
the war, by massive nuclear strikes.
The primary means for conducting a global nuclear war are simultaneous
annihilation and destruction, by means of massive nuclear strikes, on
military-economic bases and enemy Armed Forces in the entire depth of his
territory, with subsequent use of the results of these strikes to complete the
destruction of enemy reserves.
And so, in a modern war its main missions are resolved at the very beginning of
the war. In such operations maximum military efforts will be employed. But
since the primary efforts are shifted to the beginning of the war, it means
that the preceding or primary military-economic efforts should be shifted to
the prewar period.
Thus, the most important components of the established economic support of the
war, in proportion to their importance, change places. Under modern conditions,
early economic preparation for war has moved into the foreground. This
conclusion is dictated both by the following:
- capabilities of the enemy with respect to combat pressure on the socialist
- by the general nature of the dynamics of modern war;
- by the basic consideration of our doctrine and strategy.
The Most Important Directions of Economic Preparation of the Warsaw
Pact States for War
The increasing role of economics in modern war requires sound, all-around
economic preparation of socialist countries for defense. The following acquire
- timely conduct of important military-economic measures;
- their compliance with the requirements of modern war and the missions
assigned to the Armed Forces.
The coordination of military-economic tasks between each other and with other
tasks of economic development is of no small importance. Optimizing the
distribution of economic resources among the needs of defense and other
material requirements of socialist society is acquiring even more important
The successful resolution of all these complex tasks depends, to a large
extent, on how correctly the basic directions for preparing the economy of the
socialist countries for war are determined. To understand them and their
concrete designation, it is necessary to clarify the essence of several key
military-economic concepts (categories). One of these categories is military
- economic potential:
Military-economic potential is the actual capability to provide the materiel
requirements of the Armed Forces, defined by the status of production forces
and production ratios, and by the political system of the State.
The magnitude of military-economic potential depends on the magnitude of the
economic potential, under which is understood the maximally attainable volume
of economic activity of a country under actual historical conditions. It is
natural that, whatever the degree of military-economic effort, all economic
resources, as a whole, cannot be spent on military requirements. During the
Great Patriotic War, for example, in the Soviet Union the proportion of
military requirements in the entire national income was 57-58%.
The creation and development of military-economic potential includes the
- development of the base areas of the economy;
- development of the productive power of military industry;
- scientific-technical progress;
- improvement of the geographic deployment of the industrial sector and various
branches of industrial manufacturing.
To calculate beforehand what is the military-economic potential of one or
another country, and how it will be used is a complex task. However, the means
for its resolution are known. They may be reduced to three successively
1. determination of the production capacity of enterprises suitable for the
output of materials;
2. evaluation of the probability of widening this capacity and the probability
of the destruction of manufacturing establishments as a result of combat
pressure on the part of the enemy;
3. calculation of the capabilities for using economic resources for military
production in a given country under concrete economic and socio-political
The latter is very important. Without consideration of social aspects, it is
impossible to obtain a genuine impression of the military-economic potential.
It is sufficient to cite the fact that Hitler's Germany exceeded the Soviet
Union before the war in overall volume of production of a number of the most
important types of industrial products. But thanks to the superiority of the
socialist system of economy, the USSR was able to produce during war years
significantly more military products, i.e., it used its potential capabilities
for material support of the Armed Forces much better and much more fully.
The superiority of the socialist system in the military-economic field exists
as well under modern conditions. This must be taken into consideration when
comparing the military-economic capabilities of states with various social
The military-economic potential created during preparation for war fulfills its
primary role under conditions of the maximum mobilizational deployment of the
It is important, however, not simply to have capabilities to deploy a military
In addition to the creation of such capabilities, an enormous role is played by
their realization. Factors affecting their realization in a specific timeframe
- requirements and imperatives of State politics;
- military doctrine;
- dynamics of international relations.
Consequently, for successful conduct of war, it is not sufficient to have a
developed military-economic potential. The following are also necessary:
- timely deployment of military production;
- coordination of its development and condition with the requirements of the
Armed Forces at every concrete moment and with actual changes of the internal
Such a requirement reflects another category economic readiness for war.
This category expresses the degree of direct preparation of the national
economy for the commencement of military activities, a shift of the economy
ahead of time to a status under which the fundamental materiel requirements of
the front in the first phase of the war can be satisfied without a radical
Military-economic readiness includes the following major components:
- providing for the equipment of Armed Forces cadres and new formations;
- mobilizational deployment;
- readiness to shift the entire national economy to a wartime regime.
Without verging on the extreme, it cannot be considered that all materiel
requirements of the war will be possible to satisfy using prewar reserves. But
it is completely clear that there have occurred qualitative changes in assuring
economic readiness. Now it is not so much a question of readiness for the
deployment of a military economy as deployment ahead of time and providing arms
even before the beginning of the war by the principle masses of means for the
achievement of victory. The pivot of military-economic readiness is to support
the first strategic operations which are called upon to resolve main missions
of modern war.
Providing economic readiness for war under modern conditions is an extremely
complex task, a task with much that is uncertain. It is necessary to be
concerned in advance about the economic support of an enormous military
machine, a complex system of the various services of the Armed Forces and
combat arms. From the military-economic viewpoint it is difficult to separate
the primary and secondary components in this system. All the components of our
Armed Forces must be in a state of high combat-readiness, and, consequently,
under conditions of all-around materiel support.
The optimal solution of the task of assuring economic readiness is extremely
complex because of the uncertainty of the moment when war will arise, and,
consequently, the indeterminateness of the periods of time for such readiness.
The following contradiction arises:
----- - on one hand, it is necessary to maintain the economy in a state of
maximum readiness for war, i.e., increase the degree of military-economic
----- - on the other hand, a higher degree of military-economic effort cannot
be maintained forever.
Sooner or later an economy excessively subordinate to military aims will not
withstand a very high load and, thus, will lose the speed of its development.
The rate of broadening the economic potential will slow down, which will
negatively effect the military-economic potential as well.
The entire country and the entire economy must be militarized in order, on the
one hand, to achieve greater results for conducting the war and on the other
hand, so that mobilization does not disrupt the basic economic backbone.
The basic directions of economic preparation of socialist states for repelling
aggression are the following:
----- - in the first place, the deployment of economic potential;
----- - in the second place, the high military-economic readiness for war.
It is particularly important that these directions be maximally coordinated and
in agreement with one another. It is intolerable that, while increasing the
military-economic potential, only the capabilities for attaining a high level
of development of military production in the future be assured. It is necessary
that a specific part of the military-economic potential be used in peacetime
for the materiel support of high combat-readiness of the Armed Forces. At the
same time, the present tasks for materiel support of the Armed Forces and the
struggle for constant military-economic readiness should not push into the
background long-term tasks for the further steady increase in the
military-economic might of the socialist states.
In the interest of providing high economic readiness for war, important
measures for the preparation of the national economy for a transition to a
wartime regime be implemented.
Modern war presents exceptionally crucial requirements for such measures which
will develop all branches of the national economy.
We will examine in more detail the most important measures for preparing the
primary branches of the national economy for war.
Preparation of Industry
Industry is the most important branch of materiel production in which, together
with comsumer products, the following are created in order to outfit the Armed
Forces and satisfy requirements of war:
----- - armaments;
----- - military equipment;
----- - materiel resources.
The basis of all industry is heavy industry. In it are included the following:
----- - metallurgical;
----- - mining;
----- - fuel-energy;
----- - chemical industries;
----- - machine building.
The development of industry in general, and heavy industry in particular, has
important significance. Heavy industry remains the foundation of the economic
might of a country, providing for technical progress and strengthening of the
defensive capabilities of a State.
In preparing industry for war an important role is played by the creation of a
structure which corresponds to the tasks of economic support of defense. It is
important that those branches on which, in the first order, the development of
military production depends attain the high level of the latest achievements of
science and technology. These industries include the following:
----- - machinery manufacturing;
----- - instrument manufacturing;
----- - chemicals;
----- - special materials;
----- - electronics;
----- - computers.
The organization of industry, particularly its organization in a system of
interrelated and interconnected enterprises, has great military-economic
significance. The system of interconnected enterprises is manifested in the
----- - "specialization" (concentration of enterprises in this or
that country for the production of one type of military material or large parts
----- - "cooperation" (gathering and assembling of large parts of
machinery to create a full system of material means for outfitting the Armed
A large number of factories participate in the production of modern military
equipment. For example, as many as 500 participate in the production of modern
aircraft, while more than 300 enterprises participate in the production of a
tank. Specialization and the cooperative system have a great economic effect.
They make possible the growth in productivity of labor and unite the efforts of
many production collectives for the implementation of complex
military-technical programs. At the same time, under conditions of war,
specialization and the cooperative system may complicate the output of military
products as in the following cases:
----- - breakdown of individual parts of the system;
----- - disruption of transport links.
These negative properties of specialization and the cooperative system can be
neutralized or reduced by the following means:
----- - creating "duplicate" enterprises;
----- - widely using intra-region cooperatives;
----- - creating territorial complexes of enterprises.
It is particularly important to provide flexibility in the system of ties among
the enterprises, and a timely transfer to new ties in case of the breakdown of
part of the enterprises.
The specialization, unification, and typification of goods used for producing
military equipment has great significance. A reduction in the variety of goods
accomplishes the following:
----- - reduces labor waste;
----- - accelerates the process of preparation for production.
Unification is important not only in the system of military-economic means, but
also with respect to the consumer (civilian) sector of the industry. It
facilitates the shift of a wide circle of enterprises to a military regime.
Rapid mobilizational deployment of industry may be implemented only in the
presence of reserve productive strength. Such strength may be used under usual
conditions for the production of consumer goods, and if necessary it may be
quickly switched to fulfilling military orders.
A necessary condition of the preparation of industry for war is providing for
its survivability and ability to function under the most complex conditions.
Survivability is increased by means of creating shelters and premises outfitted
industrially. The dispersion of enterprises, both on the scale of the entire
country and on the scale of economic regions, plays a large role.
Finally, the significance of determining in advance the order of transferring
to a wartime regime the cadres of military enterprises and other types of
enterprises should be emphasized.
Preparation of Agriculture
One of the main sectors of the Warsaw Pact countries economy engaged in by
almost one third of the population is agriculture. The presence of a highly
varied agriculture is a necessary condition for victory in modern war. Lenin
stated that the defense interests of the country required the organization of
provisions and the creation of state food reserves. With the development of
arms and combat equipment the role of agriculture is increased as the provider
of the raw materials for the food industry for civilians and Armed Forces
The modern war, if initiated by the aggressor forces, will be conducted by
Armed Forces of millions of personnel. Arising from the consideration that for
each twenty-four hour period each soldier requires two kilograms of food, the
Armed Forces' requirement for food may be determined by the number of personnel
of the Armed Forces.
The volume of agricultural products necessary to conduct a war depends on the
----- - food norms;
----- - Armed Forces totals;
----- - duration of the war.
In connection with this there are great demands for a level of agricultural
production which should provide the following:
----- - in peacetime, a stock of necessary reserves;
----- - during war, replenish on a necessary scale foods and raw material
In agriculture there are large quantities of the following:
----- - trucks;
----- - tractors;
----- - gasoline refuelers;
----- - repair means;
----- - other equipment.
Maintaining such equipment in operational status is of significant defensive
importance since part of it will be allocated and given to the Armed Forces
during the war.
Taking into consideration the complexities of the conditions of the functioning
of agriculture in a modern war, it is necessary to foresee creating reserves of
----- - crops;
----- - fertilizer;
----- - feed;
----- - agricultural equipment.
As with industry, agriculture may be subjected to nuclear strikes. Therefore,
the conduct of measures for preparing for the protection of the work force,
livestock, food, equipment, and potable water from the effects of means of
mass-destruction, and for the elimination of the consequences of nuclear
strikes must be foreseen in advance.
The fulfillment by agriculture of military-economic tasks depends, for the most
part, on the acceleration of the rates of its further development. For this, it
is especially important to accomplish the following:
----- - consolidate the material-technical base of agriculture;
----- - achieve its intensification;
----- - deepen its specialization;
----- - condition its concentration of production;
----- - improve fertility of the land, equipment, and labor of agricultural
Preparation of Transport
In the area of preparation for war, the development of plans for shifting
transport to a wartime regime has primary significance. It is necessary to
continue to develop the transport system (roads, waterways, airfields, mobile
personnel, pipelines). The system of mutual reinforcement and
interchangeability of the various types of transport will play a large role
under conditions of war. The maintenance of the ability of transport to
function under conditions of war will be made possible by the following:
----- - construction of parallel main routes and detours under conditions of
----- - creation of reserves of transport means.
Creation of State Reserves of Materiel Resources
For the purpose of providing uninterrupted operation of the national economy
and maintaining the defense capabilities of the country, State reserves and
supplies of materiel resources are created in advance, during peacetime.
Scarce raw materials, fuel, semi-finished products, machines, equipment, hard
currency valuables, food, and various materials widely used in the national
economy and Armed Forces are stockpiled in these reserves.
State materiel reserves are designated to satisfy the needs of the country as a
whole. With an increase in the threat of war or with its commencement, part of
the State reserves are used for deploying military production, reestablishing
destroyed targets, supplying the populace, establishment of reserves of the
Armed Forces, and for other purposes. Materials are kept dispersed at the
----- - State bases;
----- - depots of ministries and departments;
----- - enterprises;
----- - transport organizations.
The level of stockpiling and nomenclature of reserves is established by the
Preparation of Human Resources
One of the fundamental problems of preparing the economy in military respects
is the problem of labor resources necessary to satisfy the requirements in the
cadres of the national economy and Armed Forces personnel.
Lenin stated that wars are now conducted by nations. Therefore, the level of
combat capability of the Armed Forces and the operation of the national economy
depend on the following:
----- - population numbers;
----- - morale;
----- - cultural levels;
----- - general and special training.
One of the most important issues in preparing human resources is determining
their optimal proportions between the Armed Forces and the national economy. In
determining such proportions the influence of many of the following factors
must be taken into consideration:
----- - the number of the Armed Forces at the beginning of the war;
----- - the requirements of personnel for new organizations;
----- - probable human loss at the fronts and in the rear;
----- - possible requirement for human resources for the national economy under
conditions of war.
An exceptionally important role in the expediting the distribution of labor
resources is played by socialist planning, in particular the balance method of
planned use of the work force. The balance of labor reflects the following:
----- - volume and composition of labor resources;
----- - their distribution among branches and regions;
----- - use of work time;
----- - increase in qualifications of the people;
----- - growth of productive labor;
----- - resources for replenishing the work force.
Developing a balance of labor makes it possible to make clear the reserve or
scarcity of labor resources, which makes it possible to take timely measures
directed toward better support of production of cadres in case of war.
The preparation of the population for war assumes the systematic increase in
the production qualifications of the workers and the further development of
general and special education in the socialist countries.
The preparation of national economy specialists whose experience and knowledge
can be used in the Armed Forces has special significance. Thanks to the high
level of preparation of the workers in the national economy, we have increased
the ability to prepare people in the army and navy in a short period of time as
military specialists capable of skillfully operating combat equipment. The
special preconscription training of young men makes this possible.
In the entire system of measures directed toward preparing the population for
war, inculcating the worth of the citizens of socialist countries and
strengthening their morale-political condition has enormous significance.
In this plan it is particularly important to accomplish the following:
----- - acquaint the populace beforehand with the destructive properties of
----- - teach novices their operation and use;
----- - help to overcome the psychological barrier of shifting from a peaceful
life to conditions of war.
Military-Economic Integration Of The Warsaw Pact Countries
Military-economic cooperation is one of the most important trends in the unity
of socialist countries for the joint repulsion of the forces of aggression.
The necessity of this cooperation, from the political side, is conditioned by
the attempts of imperialism to unify anti-socialist forces on an international
scale. Only the unified strength of the people who have thrown off the yoke of
capital from their shoulders can oppose these forces.
From the economic side, cooperation among Warsaw Pact countries is conditioned
by the expediency of the following:
----- - combining efforts in the materiel supply of their Armed Forces;
----- - the greater efficiency of joint use of resources allotted for
strengthening the country.
From the military-strategic side, economic cooperation among Warsaw Pact
countries is dictated by the coalitional form which a new world war would most
often take, and by the necessity of materiel support for the jointly
coordinated activities of the Armed Forces of the socialist military coalition.
In military history experience of economic support of a coalition has been
accumulated. However, this experience is predominantly that of capitalist
countries, inasmuch as the coalition of socialist countries arose after World
In addition to this the unity of socialist countries is a factor of primary
importance in the struggle for strengthening the military-economic might of the
The fact of the matter is that the material base of the defense capabilities of
the Warsaw Pact countries is not the simple sum of the national economies.
Actual capabilities of economic support of Armed Forces of Warsaw Pact depends,
for the most part, on the following:
----- - mutual supplementing of the national economies;
----- - their rapprochement;
----- - their cooperation.
The unification of economic efforts significantly increases the totality of the
military-economic potential of these countries.
The economic base of the coalition of socialist states has its own features
which, in principle, distinguishes it from the economy of bourgeois coalitions.
These features are conditioned by the following:
----- - relations confirmed in the given countries of the socialist community;
----- - the politics of the states;
----- - the totality of socio-economic conditions of their development.
The first feature consists of the fact that economies of friendly countries
have a single social base - public ownership of the means of production. Thanks
to this fundamental feature, which defines the entire socialist structure of
the coalition, conditions are created for the solid and authentic unity of the
countries entering into it. Objective conditions are created for working out a
coordinated foreign policy which is based on the unity of class interests. In
the socialist coalition there is an absence of centrifugal forces engendered by
----- - special interests;
----- - competition among imperialist allies;
----- - attempts of the ruling classes of one country to make a profit at the
expense of other countries.
The socialist coalition engenders, in principle, a new system of economic
relations between the allies. It allows for more efficient and effective
decisions of the most important economic issues of the coalition. Public
ownership of means of production creates broad capabilities for the following:
----- - centralization of economic leadership;
----- - efficient maneuvering of materiel resources;
----- - all-around use of human resources and production capabilities;
----- - mobilization of economic forces in the interests of defense.
On the means of production are created conditions for the planned coordination
of the most important economic measures implemented within the framework of the
coalition; the possibility for wide development of military-economic
integration is provided.
The second feature of the economic support of the coalition of the socialist
countries is the harmonized combination of the national interests in the
development of the military economy with the international interests of the
Revealing the principal differences between proletarian internationalism and
bourgeois nationalism, Lenin showed that proletarian internationalism arises
from the principle of preference of common national interests to national
interests. At the same time, the interests of individual nations and individual
states should definitely be taken into consideration.
Peculiarities of the interests of individual socialist countries in the field
of military economics are explained by the following differences:
----- - in population numbers;
----- - in expanse of territory;
----- - in the structure and degree of economic development;
----- - etc.
It is obvious that it is easier for countries with higher economic development
to allocate specific materiel resources for the needs of collective defense,
while, on the other hand, it is more difficult for the less developed
countries. The countries having immediate borders with imperialist countries
have specific military-economic tasks which are not facing countries surrounded
by friendly states. This feature is not ignored.
The military-economic activities of the coalition originate from a principle,
in accordance with which each country organizes preparation for war on the
basis of international missions and the interests of collective security
arising from their own capabilities and taking into consideration national
features and the position of the country in the system of the coalition.
Coordinated preparation for war includes the coordination of plans of
preparatory measures between the States of the coalition and the implementation
of a number of measures by joint efforts of the individual countries. The
contribution of each country to the preparation of the socialist coalition for
repelling aggression is regulated by the allies by means of treaties and
agreements, on the basis of which lies the idea of friendship and mutual
assistance in the struggle against the common enemy.
The third feature of the economic basis of the organization of the Warsaw Pact
is the rapid and steadfast growth rates of materiel production in the countries
making up (rest of paragraph illegible).
The military-economic capabilities of the socialist countries broadens
considerably because of their indivisible integrity and their continuous
economic cooperation. The significance of such cooperation increases, above
all, because the coalition nature of a possible new world war made the issue of
military-economic integration an especially keen and important one. Relying
only on the unified forces of the socialist countries, it is possible to
successfully struggle against the aggressive forces of international
The economic integration of socialist countries is an important system of
measures directed toward all-around of cooperation and rapprochement of the
national economies of the countries.
The resolutions made at the XXV session of the CEMA (July 1971) played a main
role in the economic solidarity of socialist countries.
The system of measures anticipated by the complex program is successfully
developing. In particular, the program of work for coordinating plans of
development of the national economies of the member countries of the CEMA for
1976-1980, as well as for the most important branches of the national economy
and types of production for an extended period, has been confirmed.
The cooperation of socialist countries in the field of machine building has
significantly deepened. Presently within the framework of the CEMA are included
17 multi-lateral agreements which anticipate specialization and cooperation for
the production of around 1,700 various types of machines and instruments.
Of the number of most important trends in military-economic integration of the
Warsaw Pact countries, we note the following:
1. Coordination of national economy plans. This makes possible the coordination
of the most important trends in the development of the economy and support of
consolidating military-economic potential. Based on this coordination, each
country can plan the development of its own base and military branches of the
national economy, taking into consideration what it must provide for other
countries and what it will receive from them.
2. International division of labor of specialization and cooperation in the
field of military production. As in other areas of production, international
division of labor in the area of creating arms and combat equipment has great
economic significance. The sense of it lies in the distribution of the most
important military-economic functions among the socialist countries.
Specialization and cooperation are the primary forms of socialist division of
----- - specialization: concentration of enterprises in this or that country
for the production of one type of military/ material, large parts of machinery;
----- - cooperation: gathering and assembling large parts of machinery to
create a full system of material means for outfitting the Armed Forces.
3. Creation of large economic structures by joint efforts. This allows for the
consolidation of the defense capabilities of the Warsaw Pact countries such as
integration of industrial complexes, large energy systems, and other targets.
Integration of energy systems which support the shift of energy from one
direction to another, in case of the destruction of one energy source, gas
pipelines, and petroleum pipelines.
4. Coordination of development of arms and equipment in the Warsaw Pact
countries. This has important military-economic significance. It facilitates
the organization of production of the most important types of combat equipment
and arms, fuel, and other materiel resources.
5. Implementation of joint measures for preparing transport for war. This plays
an important role in the totality of the integration of economic processes. It
is necessary to create a uniform system of all types of transport, lines of
communication, control organs of the transport, and common truck parks.
6. Preparation of TSMAs and the territories of the Warsaw Pact countries. This
plays a substantial role in the system of military-economic measures.
7. Determination of the possible nature of rear support of the combined Armed
Forces. This is an important military-integration measure. Rear support may be
implemented according to three principles:
----- - each country supports it's national forces;
----- - The unified (coalition) rear service is established which includes
national organs of rear service. Each organ supports it's national forces.
(This principle is applied when forces of one nation operate in another country
or are attached to the forces of another nation).
----- - the forces of one nation are supported by the rear service of the
front or army in which they operate and later the bill for consumption
is sent to the related country for payment.