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SOVIET VOROSHILOV ACADEMY LECTURES
HANDBOOK FRONT OPERATIONS

 

CHAPTER SIX

 

TROOP CONTROL DOCUMENTS - PART ONE


 
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS - CHAPTER SIX


I. PLANNING AND COMBAT DOCUMENTS 6-1

Preparation and Formulation of Combat Documents 6-1
Classification 6-1
Preparation 6-2
Contemporary Requirements of Combat Documents 6-3
Procedure for Preparation and Transmission of Combat Documents 6-4
Operations Reports 6-6
Combat Report 6-7
Operations Summary 6-7
Compiled Summary of Combat Experiences 6-8
Combat Instructions 6-9
Combat Report and Situation Report 6-10
Operations Summary Operativnaya Svodka 6-11
Reconnaissance Report 6-12
Reconnaissance Summary svodka 6-13
Types of reconnaissance svodka 6-13
Operational Directive of Army 6-14
Journal of Combat Operations 6-16
Situation Report Map 6-17
Recording documents 6-17
Record journal 6-18
Daily record sheet 6-18
Dispatch Book 6-18
Receipts 6-18
Form for recording signal communications 6-18
Document routing 6-18
Methods of Transmission 6-18
Incoming Documents 6-19
Outgoing Documents 6-19
Filing Documents 6-19
Final Disposition of Documents 6-19
Decision Process and Document Preparation 6-19
Journal of Orders, Instructions, and Reports Sent and Received 6-21

 
 

II. DIVISION 6-25
Operations 6-25
Army Initial Instructions to Division 6-25
Sample Army Initial Instructions 6-26
Division Initial Instructions 6-27
Sample Division's Initial Instructions 6-27
Division Combat Order 6-28
Combat Instruction from Division to Regiment 6-28
Sample Division Combat Order 6-29
Sample Combat Instruction from Division to Regiment 6-37
Explanatory Notes for the Plan 6-39
Distribution of Support Forces and Means 6-40
Measures to Protect Against Nuclear Weapons 6-40
Availability and Time of Use of Chemical and Nuclear Weapons 6-40
Destruction of Targets in First Nuclear Strike 6-41
Distribution of Aviation Resources 6-41
Correlation of Forces Tables 6-41
Availability and Technical Condition of Tanks 6-41
Availability, Location, and Distribution of Material Supply 6-41
Table of Warning Signals 6-41
Reconnaissance 6-53
Instructions on Reconnaissance Received from Army 6-53
Division Commander's Instructions on Reconnaissance 6-53
The Chief of Staff's Actions on Reconnaissance 6-54
Estimate of the Situation by Chief of Reconnaissance 6-55
Instructions of Division on Reconnaissance to the Chief of Reconnaissance of the Regiment 6-56
Guiding Data of Reconnaissance Plan 6-57
Graphic (Map) Plan of Reconnaissance 6-59
Written Instructions to Reconnaissance Plan 6-60
Reconnaissance Reports 6-61
Artillery 6-63
Instructions from Chief of RT&A at Army 6-63
Suggestions of Chief of RT&A to Commander 6-63
Instructions of the Division Commander on Determining Missions, Targets, and Means for using Rocket Forces 6-63
Instructions of the Division Commander in Determining the Missions for Artillery 6-63
Instructions of Division Chief of RT&A on Artillery to the Chief of Artillery of a Regiment 6-64
Distribution of Artillery and Artillery Units from Army 6-66
Graphic of Arty Prep Fire 6-66
Graphic of Initial Nuclear Strike 6-66
Annex to Div Arty Fire Plan 6-66
Echelonment of Ammunition Supply in the Division 6-66
Division Artillery Plan 6-72
Engineer 6-74
Plan for Employment of Engineers 6-74
Signal 6-76
Plan for Employment of Signal Troops 6-76
Rear Service 6-80
Contents of the Instructions of the Division Commander on Rear Service Support 6-80
Contents of the Division Order for Rear Service Support 6-80
Elements Participating in Planning of Rear Service Support 6-80
Planning Measures Taken Prior to Receipt of Division Order and Army Directive 6-80
Contents of the Graphic Part of the Rear Service Support Plan 6-81
Deployment of Division Rear Service Elements 6-82
Supply and Evacuation Routes 6-82
Types of Material Means 6-83
Organizing Medical Support in Large Units, Units, and Sub-units 6-83
Elements of Medical Support System in Units and Large Units 6-83
Types of Medical Assistance 6-84
Types of Technical Support 6-84
Principle Measures of Technical Support 6-84
Technical Service and Maintenance Tasks 6-85
Technical Service for Automobiles 6-85
Repair Levels 6-85
Priorities for Evacuation 6-86

 
 

III. ARMY HEADQUARTERS 6-87

Operations 6-87
Sample Operational Instruction Front to Army 6-87
Operations Directive of the Central Front 6-87
Planning Documents 6-89
Contents of the Army Commander's Decision on the Offensive Operation 6-90
Components of the Concept of the Operation 6-90
Calendar Plan 6-90
Planning Army Operation 6-94
Content of Operations Plan 6-94
Operations Plan 6-95
Graphic Parts of the Plan as Drawn on the Map 6-95
Factors Included in the Written Part of the Plan Along with the Remaining Instructions, Information, and Calculations 6-95
Explanatory Notes for the Plan 6-96
Combat Grouping of Army 6-99
Distribution of Support Units 6-100
Availability and Time of Use of Chemical and Nuclear Weapons 6-101
Destruction of Targets in First Nuclear Strike 6-102
Distribution of Air Support 6-103
Correlation of Forces Tables 6-104
Measures to Protect Against Nuclear Weapons 6-107
Availability and Technical Condition of Tanks, 6-108
Availability, Location, and Distribution of Material Supply 6-109
Warning Signal Plan 6-110
Appendices of the Operation Plan 6-111
Plan for the Initial Nuclear Strike 6-111
Content of Operations Plan for Nuclear Strike 6-111
Plan for Interaction 6-112
Content of the Plan for Interaction 6-112
Army Cooperation (Interaction) Plan 6-113
Interaction of Army Units with Air Defense 6-114
Preparation of Attack Assembly Areas 6-114
Contents of the Plan for Preparing and Occupying the Attack Assembly Areas 6-114
Contents of the Written Instructions of the Plan for Occupying FUP Area 6-114
Plans for Combat Support Measures 6-115
Army Operations Directive 6-115
Sample Army Operations Directive 6-116
Sample Blank Army Operations Directive 6-125
Combat Instructions from Army to Division 6-134
Sample Combat Instructions from Army to Division 6-135
Blank Sample Combat Instructions from Army to Division 6-138
Reconnaissance 6-141
Instructions on Reconnaissance from Front 6-141
Army Commander's Instructions on Reconnaissance 6-142
The Chief of Staff's Actions on Reconnaissance 6-143
Chief of Staff Instructions on Reconnaissance 6-143
Duties of the Chief of Reconnaissance 6-145
Report and Suggestions of Chief of Reconnaissance 6-146
Guiding Data of Reconnaissance Plan 6-148
Calculations of Reconnaissance Forces 6-149
Sequence for Preparing Reconnaissance Plan 6-150
Plan for Employment of Reconnaissance Troops 6-151
Written Instructions to Army Reconnaissance Plan 6-152
Army plan map 6-158
Instructions of Army Staff on Reconnaissance to the Chief of Reconnaissance of the Division 6-159
Artillery 6-160
Combat Instructions from Front Chief of RT&A to Army on Rocket Troops and Artillery 6-160
Instructions of the Army Commander on Determing Missions, Targets, and Means for using Rocket Forces 6-161
Instructions of the Army Commander in Determining the Missions for Artillery 6-162
Instructions of Army Chief of RT&A on Rocket Troops and Artillery to the Chief of Rocket Troops and Artillery of the Division 6-162
Distribution of Army Artillery and Front Artillery 6-167
Graphic of Artillery Preparatory Fire 6-169
Availability and Location of Material Supplies 6-170
Air 6-171
Combat Instructions of the Air Army Staff of the Front to the Ground Army on Aviation Matters (Army's Helicopters etc 6-171
Combat Instructions of the Army Commander on Aviation Means and Helicopters Subordinate to Him 6-171
Missions of the Group of Combat Control 6-173
Points for Guidance and Target Designation 6-173
Report of Air Army Control Group Leader to Ground Army Commander 6-174
Orders of Army Commander on Air Assault Operations 6-174
Instructions of the Army Staff on Air Forces (Helicopters) to the Division Staff 6-174
Air Defense 6-175
Combat Instructions of Front Staff to the Army on PVO 6-175
Army Commander's Decision on Air Defense 6-175
Army Commander's Instructions on Air Defense 6-176
Combat Instructions of the Army Commander on PVO 6-176
Planning Air Defense 6-177
Air Defense Plan 6-177
Instructions of the Army Staff on Air Defense (PVO) to the Divisions 6-178
Engineer 6-179
Combat Employment of Engineer Troops in Army Offensive Operations 6-179
Aims of Engineer Support in Army Offensive Operations 6-179
Engineer Support Tasks During Preparation of Operations 6-179
Principle Missions for Engineer Support During the Conduct of Army Offensive Operations 6-179
Groupings of Engineer Troops in Army Offensive Operations 6-180
Missions and Assignment of Army Engineer Troops During Army Offensive Operations 6-180
Organization of Combat Employment of Army Engineer Troops in Offensive Operations 6-180
Engineer Support During Assault River Crossings During Army Offensive Operations 6-181
Tasks of Engineer Support 6-181
Engineer Support for Commitment of Second-Echelon (Reserves) into Combat 6-182
Engineer Tasks During Commitment 6-183
Principle Measures of Organization of Engineer Support at Army Level 6-183
Sequence of Decision Making 6-184
Items in the Plan of Engineer Support 6-186
Missions to units 6-188
Plan for Employment of Engineers 6-189
Distribution of Front and Army Engineers 6-191
Signal 6-193
Plan for Employment of Signal Troops 6-193
Maskirov 6-194
Maskirovka Plans 6-194
Defense Against Mass Destruction Weapons at Army Level 6-195
Organization of Protection of Forces and Means and Rear Services from Enemy Use of Nuclear Weapons 6-195
Plan for Protection of Forces and Means 6-196
Basic Mission of Radiological - Chemical Reconnaissance 6-196
Liquidation of Results of Enemy Use of Mass Destruction Weapons 6-197
Missions of Forces that Participate in the Liquidation of the Consequences of Enemy Mass Destruction Weapons 6-197
Army Rear Service in Offensive Operations 6-199
Composition, Missions, and Capabilities of Army Rear Service Units and Installations 6-199
Missions of Army Rear Service 6-199
Organizing the Army's Rear Service in Offensive Operations 6-200
Planning Rear Service 6-200
Establishment of the Army's Rear Service in Offensive Operations and its Relocation During the Operation 6-201
Requirements of the Army for the Principal Types of Material Means in Offensive Operations, Volume of Reserves, and Their Echelonment 6-202
Organization of Control of the Rear Service, Composition of the Army's Rear Service Control Points 6-202
Plan for Employment of Army Rear Service Troops 6-207

 
 

IV. FRONT HEADQUARTERS 6-208 - IN PART TWO

Operations 6-208 Main Measures for Preparation of Front Offensive 6-208
Operations Directive Received by Front 6-209
Clarification of Mission 6-211
Estimate of Situation 6-211
Instructions to Chief of Staff 6-211
Initial Instructions (warning order) 6-212
Calendar Plan 6-214
Duties of Front Commander and Staff 6-218
Suggestions of Front Staff Officers 6-218
Making the Decision 6-218
Contents of the Clarification of the Mission 6-218
Content of the Assessment of the Situation 6-218
Organization of the Decision 6-218
Front Commander's Decision 6-219
Operation Plan on Map 6-219
Written Instructions on the Plan 6-219
Written Plan 6-219
Plan Annexes 6-220
Plan for FUP Areas 6-220
Written Plan for FUP Area 6-220
Preparing the Troops and FUP Areas Prior to the Initiation of Military Action 6-221
Explanatory Notes for the Plan 6-222
Combat Grouping of front 6-223
Distribution of Support Units 6-224
Availability and Time of Use of Chemical and Nuclear Weapons 6-225
Distribution of Air Support 6-226
Correlation of Forces Tables 6-227
Measures to Protect Against Nuclear Weapons 6-228
Availability and Technical Condition of Tanks and Armored Vehicles 6-229
Availability, Location, and Distribution of Material Supply 6-230
Assessment of Combat Support Capabilities 6-231
Combat Operations Schedule 6-232
Signal Warning Plan 6-233
Format of Operations Directive 6-237
Description of Content of Front Operations Directive 6-238
Front Directive - blank sample 6-241
Front Directive for Central Front 6-250
Reconnaissance 6-260
Duties of the Chief of Reconnaissance 6-262
Instructions on Reconnaissance from GRU or Reconnaissance Directorate at TVD 6-262
Format - Suggestions of Chief of Reconnaissance 6-264
Front Commander Instructions on Reconnaissance 6-266
Chief of Staff Instructions on Reconnaissance 6-266
Sequence for Preparing Reconnaissance Plan 6-267
Content of Reconnaissance Plan 6-268
Guiding Data of Reconnaissance Plan 6-269
Graphic Plan of Simultaneous Flight of Reconnaissance Air 6-270
Calculations of Reconnaissance Forces 6-271
Written Instructions to Reconnaissance Plan 6-273
Front Reconnaissance Plan Map 6-287
Artillery 6-288
Combat Instructions of TVD Commander on Rocket Troops and Artillery 6-288
Combat Instructions of Front Staff on Employment of Rocket Troops and Artillery to Army Staff 6-293
Combat Instructions of the Front Commander on Artillery 6-294
Order of Front Chief of Rocket Troops and Artillery to the Front Anti-tank Reserve 6-296
Plan for Employment of Rocket Troops 6-297
Distribution of Front Artillery and Artillery Units of VGK 6-298
Graphic of Initial Nuclear Strike 6-299
Echelonment of Material Means in the Front 6-300
Air 6-301
Air Components in the Preparation of front Offensive Operations 6-301
Instructions of the Commander in Chief of the Air Forces 6-301
Suggestions of the Air Army Commander to the Front Commander 6-301
The Front Commander's Assignment to the Air Army 6-302
Distribution of Air Sorties in Terms of Missions 6-304
Graphic of Initial Nuclear Strike by Air Army 6-308
Air Defense 6-311
General Staff Instructions on Air Defense 6-311
Instruction of TVD Headquarters on Air Defense 6-311
Contents of the Decision of the Front Commander on Air Defense During the Offensive 6-311
Front Instruction on Organization of Air Defense 6-312
Report and Suggestions of the Chief of Front's Air Defense During Front Commander's Decision-making 6-312
Control of Fighter Aviation 6-313
Engineer 6-314
Employment of Engineer Troops in Front Offensive Operations 6-314
Aim of Engineer Support in Front Offensive Operations 6-314
Engineer Support Tasks During the Preparation of Front Offensive Operations 6-314
Engineer Support Tasks During Conduct of Front Offensive Operations 6-314
Organization of Combat Employment of Engineer Troops in Front Offensive Operations 6-315
Plans for Engineer Support 6-315
Graphic Part of the Plan 6-316
Grouping of Engineer Troops 6-316
Engineer Support During Assault River Crossings of front Forces 6-317
Engineer Support of Commitment of Front Second-Echelon Troops into Engagement 6-318
Engineer Support for Consolidation of Vital Seized Lines and Repulsion of Enemy Counterstrikes During Conduct of Offensive Operations 6-319
Aim of Engineer Support 6-319
Engineer Obstacles 6-320
Preparation of Roads 6-320
Distribution of front engineers and engineer units of VGK 6-321
Signal 6-322
Organizing and Planning Signal Communications in Front Offensive Operations 6-322
Plan for Employment of Signal Troops 6-322
Contents of the Signal Plan 6-322
Tables in the Signal Plan 6-323
Cryptographic security instructions 6-324
Frequency allocation table 6-325
Conversation table 6-326
Radio-electronic Warfare 6-327
Principle Measures for the Organization of Radio-electronic Warfare 6-327
The content and method for conducting the principal measures for the organization of radioelectronic warfare 6-327
Planning Radio-electronic Warfare 6-329
The Electronic Jamming Plan 6-331
Maskirovka 6-333
Basic Methods for Maskirovka 6-333
Organization of Maskirovka 6-333
Sequence of Organization 6-334
Contents of Commander's Instructions on Maskirovka 6-334
Defense Against Mass Destruction Weapons 6-340
Organization and Capabilities of Front Chemical Troops 6-340
Principle Tasks of Front and Army Chemical Troops 6-341
Determine Coordinates of Nuclear Bursts 6-342
Chemical - radiation reconnaissance 6-342
Organization of Reconnaissance at Front Level 6-342
Tasks for Reconnaissance 6-342
Determine Radiation and Contaminated Areas 6-343
Avoiding (bypassing) Contaminated Areas 6-343
Decontamination of Clothing and Equipment - Decontamination of Terrain 6-343
Control (Inspection) of Radiation Levels of Personnel 6-344
Control of Changes in the Contamination of Terrain 6-344
Protection Against Mass Destruction Weapons in Front Offensive 6-344
Organization of Protection of Troops Against Mass Destruction Weapons 6-344
Shielding (Protection) of Forces Against Enemy Mass Destruction Weapons 6-346
Plan for Eliminating the Consequences of Enemy Mass Destruction Weapons 6-348
Plan for Restoring the Combat Effectiveness of the Forces and Means 6-349
Rear Services 6-350
The Tasks and Likely Composition of the Front Rear Services 6-350
Support of the Rear Services 6-351
General Principles 6-351
Deployment 6-351
Forward Echelon of Rear Services 6-352
Front Rear Service Second-Echelon 6-353
Redeployment of Rear Service Bases 6-354
Requirements in the Organization and Content of the Rear Services Support Plan 6-354
Front Level Rear Service Principles 6-356
General Principles of Supply 6-356
Rules Governing Movement of Supplies and Types of Transport Vehicles 6-356
Rear Services Management 6-357
Establishment of the Rear Services in an Offensive Operation and Methods of Movement 6-357
Front Level Requirements Concerning Content and Management of Rear Service Support Plans 6-357
Estimate of Rear Service Situation and Rear Service Decision Made by Chief of Rear Services 6-358
Instructions From TVD High Command (General Staff) On Rear Services 6-359
Air Army's Rear Service 6-371

 
 

LIST OF FIGURES CHAPTER SIX


Figure 197 Message journal 6-21
Figure 198 Table of daily staff activity 6-22
Figure 199 Combat alert duty chart (front) 6-23
Figure 200 Diagram of commander - staff interaction 6-24
Figure 201 Form for distribution of support forces 6-40
Figure 202 Availability and Time of Use of Chemical and Nuclear Weapons 6-42
Figure 203 Destruction of Targets in First Nuclear Strike 6-43
Figure 204 Distribution of Aviation Resources 6-44
Figure 205 Correlation of Forces Table A 6-45
Figure 206 Correlation of Forces table B 6-46
Figure 207 Correlation of Forces Table C 6-47
Figure 208 Correlation of Forces Table D 6-48
Figure 209 Correlation of Forces Table E 6-49
Figure 210 Availability of Tanks, SP Guns and Armored Vehicles 6-50
Figure 211 Availability and Distribution of Material Supplies 6-51
Figure 212 Table of Warning Signals 6-52
Figure 213 Composition of Reconnaissance forces 6-57
Figure 214 Calculation of Reconnaissance forces and means 6-58
Figure 215 Graphic Plan of Reconnaissance 6-59
Figure 216 Written Instructions to Reconnaissance Plan 6-60
Figure 217 Distribution of Artillery and Arty units from Army 6-67
Figure 218 Graphic of Artillery Preparation Fire 6-68
Figure 219 Graphic of Initial Nuclear Strike 6-69
Figure 220 Annex to Division Artillery fire Plan 6-70
Figure 221 Echelonment of Ammunition Supply in the Division 6-71
Figure 222 Division artillery plan map 6-73
Figure 223 Echelonment of material in division 6-82
Figure 224 Calendar Plan 6-93
Figure 225 Combat Grouping of Army 6-99
Figure 226 Distribution of Support Units 6-100
Figure 227 Availability and Time of Use of Chemical and nuclear Weapons 6-101
Figure 228 Destruction of Targets in First Nuclear Strike 6-102
Figure 229 Distribution of air support 6-103
Figure 230 Correlation of Forces Tables 6-104
Figure 231 Correlation of forces table (cont) 6-105
Figure 232 Correlation of forces (cont) 6-106
Figure 233 Availability of Tanks SP Guns, and Armored Vehicles 6-108
Figure 234 Availability, Location and Distribution of material Supplies 6-109
Figure 235 Warning Signal Plan 6-110
Figure 236 Interaction plan 6-113
Figure 237 Composition of army recon forces 6-148
Figure 238 Distribution of recon forces 6-149
Figure 239 Written instruction to army recon plan 6-157
Figure 240 Army recon plan map 6-158
Figure 241 Distribution of army and front artillery 6-167
Figure 242 Map of army artillery plan 6-168
Figure 243 Graphic of artillery prep fire 6-169
Figure 244 Availability of material supplies 6-170
Figure 245 Engineer grouping (blank form) 6-191
Figure 246 Army engineer grouping table 6-192
Figure 247 Echelonment of material in army 6-204
Figure 248 Material requirements for army operation 6-205
Figure 249 Echelonment of material means in front 6-206
Figure 250 Plan for rear service support 6-207
Figure 251 Calendar Plan 6-217
Figure 252 Combat grouping of front 6-223
Figure 253 Distribution of support units 6-224
Figure 254 Distribution of nuclear and chemical weapons 6-225
Figure 255 Distribution of Air sorties 6-226
Figure 256 Correlation of forces and means (eight tables) 6-227
Figure 257 Availability and technical condition of armored vehicles 6-229
Figure 258 Availability and location of material supplies 6-230
Figure 259 Assessment of combat support capabilities 6-231
Figure 260 Combat operations schedule 6-232
Figure 261 Signal warning plan 6-233
Figure 262 Table of interaction 6-235
Figure 263 Sample of Table of Interaction for front 6-236
Figure 264 Guiding data for reconnaissance plan 6-269
Figure 265 Graphic plan of flight of reconnaissance air 6-270
Figure 266 Calculation of reconnaissance forces 6-271
Figure 267 Distribution of reconnaissance forces and means 6-272
Figure 268 Written instructions for front reconnaissance 6-276
Figure 269 Written instructions for front reconnaissance 6-286
Figure 270 Front reconnaissance plan map 6-287
Figure 271 Assessment of opposing nuclear rocket units 6-289
Figure 272 Ammunition requirements and supply 6-291
Figure 273 Plan for employment of rocket troops 6-297
Figure 274 Distribution of artillery 6-298
Figure 275 Graphic of initial nuclear strike 6-299
Figure 276 Echelonment of material means in the front 6-300
Figure 277 Distribution of air sorties in missions 6-307
Figure 278 Graphic of initial nuclear strike by air army 6-308
Figure 279 Graphic of air operation 6-310
Figure 280 Distribution of engineer units 6-321
Figure 281 Frequency allocation table 6-325
Figure 282 Conversation table 6-326
Figure 283 Composition of front rear service organizations 6-363

 
 

I. PLANNING AND COMBAT DOCUMENTS

Preparation and Formulation of Combat Documents


The effectiveness of troop control and maintaining mission-oriented coordination in the activities of the staff in troop control are directly related to the formulation, transmission, use, and storage of combat documents.

Combat documents include all documents related to organization, preparation, and conduct of combat actions (operations). Combat documents also include documents connected with movement and deployment (concentration) of the troops on the terrain. They are used in the process of preparing data, formulating the commander's decision, planning combat actions (operations), and in disseminating missions to the troops. In addition, they are used to transmit necessary information to higher, lower, and interacting headquarters and to summarize and disseminate experiences of combat actions. Therefore, combat documents are considered general-purpose information means which affect all control organs, since some formulate them, some insure their transmission, some organize accountability and storage, and others are guided by these documents in their practical activities. The documents contain information needed for troop control displayed by letters, figures, set drawings, and symbols.

Preparation and duplication of combat documents is normally conducted with the help of technical documentation equipment. These documents are easy to store, transport, and transmit over all modern technical communication equipment. In addition, written combat documents have a great legal significance and their storage in archives makes it possible to study and analyze the experiences of preparing and conducting combat actions. Moreover, combat documents are one of the most convenient forms of feeding information into a computer and its subsequent processing and output.


Classification

Depending on their various characteristics, combat documents can be classified in various ways. In terms of their purpose and content, they are broken into three categories:

Troop control documents (Dokumenti po upravlenie): These documents are intended for drawing up the commander's decisions, planning an operation (battle), and assigning missions to the troops. They include the following:
decisions;
plans;
operational directives;
operational orders;
combat instructions;
instructions on all types of support;
working maps.

Information and accountability documents (Otchotno - enformtsioni dokumenti): These documents are intended for reports to higher commands on the progress of conducting assigned missions, developing situations, new decisions, as well as for informing higher and interacting staffs. They include the following:
situation combat reports (Boevie Donisenie);
operational and reconnaissance summaries;
reports on various types of support;
rear service summaries;
accounts, combat action logs, wrap-ups, maps, diagrams, etc.

Reference documents (Spravochni Dokumenti): These are reference documents designated for support of the commander's decision making, planning an operation (battle), and also for reports to the commanders and other officials in the process of directing troop combat actions. They include the following:
data on the operational assessment and mathematical modeling of an operation (battle);
listings of the effective troop combat strength;
data on the amount and delivery time of ammunition, various tables, diagrams, and other reference materials necessary in the work of the control organs.

In terms of the form of preparation, combat documents are classified as follows:
written (textual);
graphic (on map and diagrams);
tape recordings;
phonograms;
photographs;
computer software.

Written documents can be prepared in the following forms:
Standard and arbitrary statement forms: Today the most commonly used documents in the practical work of the staff are those in which the information is stated in an arbitrary form but has a specific structure. Such documents are characterized by brevity and even a certain vividness of stating the information contained in them;
Formalized form: Includes documents drawn up with the help of special forms which are pre-prepared for specific types of combat documents. The formalized documents form consists of two parts - fixed and variable information. The fixed part of the form includes the description of information (group of information) which is always contained in a given combat document and also the corresponding codes. The variable part of the form is filled out while preparing the document. To fill out the form, means to state clearly and specifically only that information, the descriptions of which are indicated in the corresponding lines of the fixed portion of the form.


Preparation

Experience gained from exercises indicates that commanders and staffs spend a lot of time preparing combat documents. Therefore, in order to speed up the preparation of combat documents, cut the preparation time, and also to insure the working out of the combat documents in accordance with prescribed specification and requirements of combat manuals (regulations), necessary pre-prepared formalized blank forms should be established.
At the same time the recommended forms for various combat documents should not be very rigid (structured) in order to prevent them from negatively affecting the initiative and creativity of commanders and staff in preparing them. Depending on the availability of time, the characteristics of the assigned missions, and the method of conveying missions to the executing elements, the form of such documents can be adjusted.

The form of formalized documents (blank forms) should be suitable to use in case of employment of nuclear weapons or without the use of such weapons. In the later case irrelevant points are crossed out.


Contemporary Requirements of Combat Documents

In contemporary times experiences of various exercises indicate that one of the important characteristics of troop control is the ever-increasing volume and complexity of information which must be received and processed in the interest of accomplishing troop control tasks. This entails an increase in the number of documents prepared by staffs, while at the same time reducing the time for developing them. Resolution of this contradiction is one of the important problems of modern troop control. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the increased demands for documents and the broad possibilities of using technical equipment for their development, formulation, transmission, processing, and depiction.

Secrecy, accuracy, and speed have always been the principle requirements in preparing combat documents. Today combat documents must also be as brief as possible and permit machine processing. They should be clear and concise in statement, have a high standard and clarity in design, and be easy to document, duplicate, transmit, process, and display by technical equipment. Another important requirement of a modern combat document is its timely development and transmission.

In order to achieve the brevity, clarity, and conciseness of statement in combat documents, concise and clear wording, standard abbreviation, and conventional signs must be used. In all combat documents, particularly directives, only extremely necessary information, orders, and combat instructions should be included without repeating already known information or irrelevant information and data known to the recipients from other sources. It must also be noted that brevity of documents does not degrade the clarity and must not subject the statement to different understanding or interpretation or raise questions or necessitate additional explanation.
When including situation data in combat documents such as the time, status, and character of action of friendly and enemy troops, only verified information should be included. Information requiring verification or clarification should be so stated, if there is a need to show it in the document.

Clarity of graphic documents is achieved by using appropriate symbols, conventional signs, and setting off the content of the document against the background of the topographic features of the map. Clarity is also achieved by using the appropriate colors established for conventional signs. The graphic document should not be cluttered up with textual data and tables. Reference and explanatory texts should not block the topographic background of the map. Given the various capabilities of technical equipment for documentation and reproduction of combat documents and for transmission of textual and graphic information and their processing, the capabilities of available technical equipment must be taken into account in preparing the documents in terms of size, structure, color combination, and others.

One of the most important requirements of combat documents in contemporary times is the timeliness of developing and transmitting of documents to executing elements. An untimely prepared or transmitted document is useless. This requirement follows directly from the nature of modern operations (battles), characterized by high dynamism and abrupt and rapid changes in the situation. The timeliness of working out combat documents depends on the following factors:
preparing and training of control organs;
overall organization of the work in the staff, directorates, and sections;
perfecting levels of methods used in preparing documents;
types of combat documents;
technical equipment used.

In addition to the need for timeliness in the development of combat documents, timeliness in transmitting the documents is equally important. The time for transmitting a document is determined by the following:
size of the document;
type of document (written form, graphic, or a combination of both);
speed and reliability of the transmission equipment.

Since the form and structure of combat documents greatly affects their preparation and transmission time and their overall effectiveness as combat documents, one way of further improving combat documents is to find new forms and structures. The introduction of formalized documents (blank forms) is part of the effort. Formalization of combat documents insures a substantial reduction in the size of the part of the document being developed and reduces the time to prepare and transmit it over technical communication equipment, while the load on the equipment is significantly decreased. In addition, formalization helps to standardize documents and eliminates duplicate and superfluous information in them. Moreover, the possibility of using formalized combat documents for transmitting and processing information in automated control systems is another important advantage of formalized documents. The formalized documents can be easily used as input into a computer without any kind of preliminary preparation. Furthermore, the use of formalized documents simplifies the transmission of information when conducting troop control of multi-national troops of a coalition force. This reduces the problems caused by language barriers.

Despite all advantages of formalized documents they can not replace all of the usual forms of combat documents, particularly in peacetime and when adequate time is available to prepare combat documents during the preparation and conduct of an operation (battle). Therefore, it is recommended to formalize only those combat documents which are characterized by a relatively consistent set of information needed for troop control and are frequently and regularly circulated and which should be sent quickly to headquarters and the troops. These will primarily include combat instructions issued in the course of combat action and the information and accountability documents (Otchotno-enformatsioni dokumenti) such as combat situation reports (Boyevie Donisenie), operational and reconnaissance summaries, reports on different types of support, combat action logs, etc.

One of the most convenient forms for preparing and transmitting formalized documents is considered to be the questionnaire form structure. In addition to the questionnaire form structure of the formalized document, a tabular form may be used. Formalized document forms can be published as tablets of forms as applied to each type of combat document. After development of the document, the form is torn off and the drafter and time of development and transmission of the document to the communication center are indicated on the remaining stubs. These form tablets, have their own permanent numbers, and are provided to all staffs between which the corresponding types of combat documents may be circulated.


Procedure for Preparation and Transmission of Combat Documents

The procedure of preparation and transmission of combat documents is specified by the orders, instructions, and directions of the commander and the chief of staff. The specific listing of combat documents to be prepared in actual situations is specified by the chief of staff on the basis of the commander's instructions, higher command's directions, and the prescribed priority report log. The chief of staff determines who must develop which documents, the procedure and times for submitting the documents for signature, and the method and forms of transmitting them.

On the basis of the instructions of the chief of staff, the heads of staff directorates (sections), chiefs of arms and services, and heads of working groups within the control organs, organize direct development of related combat documents and assign specific officers to prepare each document. The drafters of such documents are instructed on the content of the documents, form of their design, and the number of copies and deadlines to prepare them. The chiefs of staff directorates (sections) and chiefs of arms and services and other control organs follow and track the preparation of assigned combat documents and at the prescribed time submit them to the commander and chief of staff for signature and approval.

The design of combat documents requires preparation of a set of specific procedural information. They are as follows:
title and statement of content;
classification and copy number;
addressee;
identification of the originating unit (formation);
location of the originating command post;
date and time of the document being signed;
scale and year of edition of the map;
signature of officials indicating their name, rank, and position;
remarks on time of dispatch and reception of the document by the addressee.

During the preparation of combat documents the following must be taken into consideration:

Time is shown on the basis of Moscow time, when necessary local time is shown but clearly stated as local;

Names of populated areas (cities, towns) and terrain features are written in capital letters and not parenthesized. When necessary their map coordinates are given;

In identifying areas of deployment of our own forces by population centers and terrain features, they are mentioned from right flank -- and for enemy location from his left;

To identify defensive areas, strong points, and areas of deployment or concentration of troops, a minimum of three reference points (orientation points) must be shown. To identify lines a minimum of two points must be shown;
boundary lines are identified by using population centers and terrain features as orientation points in the following manner:
first from the right, covering the depth of combat formation of our own forces and the entire depth of offensive mission in the enemy's depth;
then, by the same method on the left;
in defense, the boundary lines begin from the rear of defensive area to the point in front of the forward line which corresponds with the range of available weapons;

The direction of the attack is identified by several points starting from the line of initiation of the attack (line of commitment into battle) and ending with the line of the assigned mission;

Only those abbreviations are to be used which are officially established and are standard. Quantities of units and sub-units in combat documents are shown in written form such as:
two tank companies;
one motorized rifle platoon;

In tables of correlation of forces and means and other calculation tables quantities of units and weapons are shown in number form such as:
tank companies - 2;
T-62 tanks - 27;
Zil-157 vehicles - 8;

Numbers of echelons in combat formations are shown in written form such as:
first-echelon;
second-echelon.

Graphic documents are usually prepared on maps of various scales. When they are prepared on non-transparent paper, the paper must have a grid system with numbering of coordinates corresponding to the map. A graphic document made on overlay paper must have grid square references in the corners or at least three local features plotted to facilitate matching the overlay to the map. It must also include a north direction indicator, a linear scale, and a reference to the map from which it was made. In preparing graphic documents the following must be taken into account:
situation of friendly forces, their missions and actions are marked in red except for rocket troops, artillery, engineer, chemical, radio technical, and signal troops which are marked in black;
the situation and action of the enemy are marked in blue;
numbers, names of units, and explanatory details for our own forces are written in black and for the enemy forces in blue;
symbols to show friendly and enemy forces and weapons are marked in accordance with the ground features and their deployment on the basis of directions of actions and fire; when needed the type and number of equipment are written next to the symbol;
situation data is marked by fine lines without covering and smearing map details;
sources of information acquired are marked by appropriate symbols in black at the side of the markings such as:

(N) for observation, (P) for POW interrogation, (DP) for enemy documents, (MZh) for debriefing local populations, (PRTZ) for information provided by partisans; (?) for unverified information; time and date of information received from the source are shown beside the symbols;
actual situations and actions of troops are shown in solid lines, while likely or expected situations and actions are marked by dotted lines;
when several situations (at several times) are shown on the map, the markings related to different times are distinguished by different color shadows or other marks (dots, crosses, dashes, etc. along solid lines).

The time for development of combat document,, particularly graphic documents, can be greatly reduced by advance preparation of blank forms, calculations, tables, commander's decision map (plan of the operation), and charts with information on them which is not subject to change during the time of documents' preparation, such as:
initial situation of our own and enemy forces;
assigned missions;
boundaries;
target coverage;
zones of enemy's fixed sites;
etc.

In order to expedite the preparation of combat documents, their development can be conducted concurrently with making the commander's decision. Specially prepared blanks of standard combat documents can be of great help in making the required documents in a short time. They include a set of texts on various types of combat actions (operations) applicable to various command levels, the nature of missions to be accomplished, and the types of operations (battles).

Transmission of combat documents is conducted both over technical communication equipment and by postal-courier service or staff officers. The selection of specific methods of transmitting a written document is determined by taking into account its importance, the time allocated for its dissemination, and also the transmission reliability requirements.

The staff is obliged to inform the commander or the chief of staff of subordinate troops about the dispatch of operational directives, operation orders, and instructions, indicating when and how the document was sent. The receipt of operational directives, operation orders, and instructions, including those transmitted over technical communications equipment, is acknowledged immediately.


Operations Summary:

The operations summary (operativnaya svodka) is a document which summarizes the situation during the last 24 hours, briefly describing friendly and enemy operations, condition of units and equipment, and general progress in accomplishing missions by each subordinate unit. It is prepared by the operations department (directorate) on the basis of written reports and summaries received from subordinate units and reports from staff observers, from observation posts, and from liaison officers. This document differs from the combat report in that it is purely a staff document, not going to the next higher commander but direct to the next staff level. It is signed by the chief of staff and the chief of operations. The operations summary normally includes the following:
general description of the operation of the unit as a whole, evaluation of enemy and friendly operations, locations of the main forces at the time of the summary was prepared, a listing of the losses, and a brief description of friendly and enemy air activity.
description of the operations of each subordinate unit (separate paragraph for each unit). Situation and condition of each unit, losses and capabilities, and major episodes involving contact with the enemy.
situation of specialized units and reserves
activities and situation of adjacent units
information on terrain and weather;
information on the status and types of communications with subordinate and adjacent units


Compiled Summary of Combat Experiences:

The compiled summary of combat experiences (itogovaya svodka oboshchennogo boyevogo opyta) is prepared twice a month at division level and once a month at army level. Its primary purpose is to inform the higher commands of the lesson learned from combat experiences. The form of this summary is not prescribed, but Soviet manuals do recommend that the general sequence be followed. The summarized report should include the following:
a short description of the situation, progress of the operation, and results attained during operations by the unit for the period covered in the report;
general description of enemy activity, with particular emphasis on typical characteristics observed in enemy organizations, methods of combat, and use of arms and technical equipment. The enemy's tactical and technical concepts, fortified areas, defensive organization and centers of resistance, antitank and antipersonnel obstacles, and similar matters are described.
typical characteristics observed in the operations of friendly troops and the use of new methods of coordinating, maneuvering, regrouping, or supervising units and installation also are included;
use of various arms and services in combat should be described;
significant observations on the exercise of troop control and organization of communications, especially the use of radio equipment, are reported;
conclusions are offered as to the lessons learned as a result of the combat experience of subordinate units during the report period.


The first part describes the character of the assigned operation and progress or results attained during the report period. (Locations and activities of units need not be discussed in order; eg right units to left units as in the operations order, but begins with the unit concerned with the most significant or critical action.)
The second part contains new enemy order of battle information and enemy activities.
The third part outlines the decision of the commander of the reporting unit and briefly describes how the decision is to be implemented
The fourth part contains requests for assistance (additional units or equipment) if the situation requires it.

The combat report, if directed to the next higher commander, is signed by the lower commander and his chief of staff. However, combat reports may also be submitted to the chief of staff of the higher headquarters, in which case they are signed by the lower chief of staff and chief of operations directorate. Shorter combat reports are frequently sent over radio or wire.


 
 

Operations Reports

The operations section in addition to keeping itself informed, is responsible for disseminating information. this is done by means of verbal and written reports and answering inquiries. In addition to keeping the commander and the chief of staff informed, the operations section must keep the next higher headquarters, other staff sections, staffs of chiefs of arms and services, and subordinate staffs informed, and must provide for mutual exchange of information with adjacent staffs. This responsibility is assigned to one of the assistant chiefs of the operations section. Inquiries from the next higher headquarters, usually from the operations section or the operations duty officer, normally are answered orally, using prearranged message codes and map codes. In addition to oral reports, the operations section prepares written reports, the most important of which are the combat report and operations summary. The operations section also maintains the journal of combat operations and at army level maintains the summarized report of combat experiences.


Combat Report:

The combat report (boyevoye doneseniye) is one of the basis documents that provide information to higher commanders and staffs relative to the situation and the progress of the operation. The document is used by the higher commander to estimate the situation and also serves as a basis for his supervision over the fulfillment of missions by subordinate units. The combat report is a periodic report; that is, it is submitted at regular specified intervals, often 3 or 4 times a day, to higher headquarters. This does not preclude the lower unit commander from rendering a combat report at any time upon his own initiative, when the changing situation requires a new plan of action. The final scheduled combat report of the day (every 24 hours) is submitted as a summary and is signed by the commander. It purpose is to give the higher commander information on the activities of the enemy, of his own troops, and on the course of the operation during the day. It contains more detailed information than the other periodic combat reports and may describe in considerable detail significant happenings and heroic achievements by individuals or units. The typical combat report covers the following points in order:

 
 

Combat Instructions


Approved___ Serial Number

Secret

Copy Number

|

Combat Instructions for Commander 116th Div
Command post:__ Time__ Date__
Scale of map___ Date of map___



1. Brief assessment of enemy

2 Mission of the division in this instruction

3. Missions of means of higher commander in support of this division, missions of adjacents, and, if needed, major questions on interaction.

4. Time for being prepared to fulfill mission

5. Troop control, signal communications, and time for sending reports and deputies of commander

Signature of chief of operations directorate and

Signature of chief of staff

(Sometimes commander does not need to approve.)



 
 

Combat Report and Situation Report



Serial No

Secret

Copy Number

Title is to whom, such as

To army commander

command post and time and date and map

1. Results of combat actions Results of combat actions for period of action. It can vary depending on lapsed time since receipt of order

2. Situation, composition, and character of actions of own forces at the specific time of the situation report and character of adjacents

3. Composition, situation, and actions of enemy

4. Decision of commander at present time or in new situation coming up in future

5. Request for assistance to fulfill mission

Signature chief of operations department

Signature of chief of staff

Signature of division commander


 
 

Operations Summary Operativnaya Svodka

Serial number

Secret

Copy number

To commander of army

Command post - time and date - map scale etc



1. Character of actions, situation, and composition of division during the past 6 hours or 24 hours

2. Grouping, composition, and character of action of enemy

3. Brief combat action of regiments and others two levels below. The division discusses battalions and the army talks about regiments.

4. Losses and what has been captured from enemy (trophies)

5. Material support, how much used, and how much on hand, how much they need

6. Brief report on situation and actions of adjacents

7. Other data on the outcome of combat


Signature of chief of operational directorate

Signature of chief of staff

 
 

Reconnaissance Report



Serial Number
Secret
Number of copy


To commander army or to chief of reconnaissance of army

Reconnaissance Report Command post - time and date and map scale

1. General character of enemy actions at the appointed time

2. Situation, grouping, and intentions of enemy

3. Changes that happened since the last report and what data from what sources has been received

Signature chief of reconnaissance department

 
 

Reconnaissance Summary svodka

Differences from the reconnaissance doneseniye:

The doneseniye information is a staff document of units and formations that report to higher staffs on the enemy. They send it at appointed time or on their own initiative or on request of higher staff. However a reconnaissance svodka is an information document of the staff of units, formations, and higher units on the data on the enemy at a specified time sent to higher staff according to the reports table and to adjacent and lower on enemy situation.

Serial number
Secret
Copy Number

 
 

Heading to whom sent
Command post and map and time and date

1. General character of enemy actions in front of unit and on flank

2. Data on nuclear, chemical, and bacteriological weapons and use of these by enemy and location of enemy weapons at the time of preparation of report

3. Data on combat composition, grouping, character of actions, of ground forces on each axis, showing the boundaries between enemy units, order of battle, unit designations, formations, and their situation

4. Data on air forces, PVO, command posts, radio technical means, rear service installations, engineer fortifications and obstacles, and others

5 Results:
- general assessment, actions, and forces of enemy, capabilities for using nuclear weapons, possible character of actions
- during conduct of reconnaissance, identify and locate the following objects required;

Types of reconnaissance svodka

Daily reconnaissance summary

Itogovaya svodka - Compiled results summary, as a rule it is reported for a specified period of operation or at end of the operation and sent to higher staff. In the itogovaya reconnaissance svodka they analyze the following points:

- brief analysis of combat actions of enemy for the period;

- data on forces and means of enemy that are located in front of unit

- character possible of actions

- character of command, composition, and troop control organs including the commander and his capabilities and habits etc.

- new types of combat actions and operations
- new weapons;

In the annex to the reconnaissance svodka are the following:
- maps, information on the enemy organizational set up, tables of organization, number and order of battle, etc., losses of enemy, prisoners, and other explanatory data.



 
 

Operational Directive of Army

Serial number approval army commander
Secret
Number of copy

Command post time date, map scale and etc. date

1. Brief data on composition, grouping, actions, and possible concept of enemy;

2. Missions of forces and means of higher commander and adjacents;
- a. missions of forces and means of higher hqs in support of army;
- b. missions of adjacents of army and boundaries with adjacents;

3. Concept of operation:
- means for destruction of enemy and mission of army;
- axis of main attack and other attacks;
- combat grouping ;
- means for maneuver;

4. Missions for subordinate formations:

I order:
- division of first-echelon: forces and means for reenforcement, line for commitment into engagement, width of breakthrough sector, missions for fire preparation, means for destruction of enemy, axis of main strike, immediate mission, subsequent mission, missions of forward detachments if any, number of nuclear and chemical weapons for battle, positions for FUP areas, axis for routes for movement into commitment, command posts of division and rear control post, boundary lines with adjacents;
- division of second-echelon: line of commitment into engagement, means for destruction of enemy, axis of main attack, immediate mission, axis for further advance, location for deployment of division, means and routes for movement forward for commitment of division. means and forces for reenforcement on commitment into battle, number of nuclear and chemical rockets at time of battle;
- missions of rocket forces brigade: missions during offensive, targets for first nuclear strike, time for delivery of rockets, missions on reconnaissance and observation of targets, preparation of rocket forces for firing, position area for unit, how positions will be prepared by engineer fortifications, maskirovka of area, defense and security of area, movement of rocket forces during operation;
- missions of artillery forces: composition of artillery group army, division and regiments, general missions of artillery during offensive, missions during the fire preparation, duration of fire preparation, quantity of ammunition fired in preparation, means of fire support, and accompanying fire, and positions for artillery;
- missions for supporting aviation: general missions during offensive, missions during participation in air preparation, aviation support and aviation accompanying fire, missions for reconnaissance, missions for fight against enemy tanks, missions for covering main grouping of army against enemy aviation strikes, distribution of air resources by missions to divisions and conduct of air assaults;
- missions of air assaults: composition and means of air desants, areas for landings, time for landing, missions of desant actions, FUP for desant forces, and assembly waiting areas, aircraft or helicopters for the landing, cover of FUP area ,time for landing of aircraft, means for support of desant during flight and landing and time of combat. troop control of desant;
- missions of PVO forces: missions for covering main grouping and rear service installations during preparation for operation and during operation, missions for reconnaissance, observation, and warning on enemy; combat duty service, position areas for forces, movement forward of PVO during the operation;
- missions of anti-tank reserve: composition and mission of anti-tank, lines for deployment, with aim of destruction of enemy tanks, area for location in FUP area, means for movement and axis of movement;
- missions of POZ (mobile obstacle detachment): composition and missions, lines for mine fields, areas for deployment in FUP area, means for movement and axis;
- missions of general combined arms reserve: composition, deployment area, means for movement during operation and possible missions;
- engineer reserve: composition, location of deployment, means and axis for movement, possible missions during operation;
- chemical reserve: composition, location for deployment, means and axis of movement, possible missions during operation;
- time for preparation of forces for operation;
- norms for use of material means during operation;

5. Troop control: command post and forward CP and rear control post and axis for their deployment;
- signal communications;
- deputies.

Signature chief of operational directive
Signature of chief of staff

 
 

Journal of Combat Operations:

The journal of combat operations (zhurnal boyevykh deyestviy) is the basic document providing historical information and description of the combat operation and various phases of the operation. Its purpose is to provide material for studying combat experiences and to serve as a source of historical data on the unit for a given combat operation. The journal is maintained during lulls in the operation, but it must not lag behind events more than 24 hours at division level, 2 days at corps level, and 3 days at army level. The keeping of the journal is usually the responsibility of assigned line officers who are assisted by the chief of staff and the chief of operations. The journal is kept on the basis of documents and notes selected by these officers. With in 1 month after completion of an operation, the journal entry describing the operation, complete with appended documents, must be ready for the signature of the chief of staff and the chief of the operations directorate and the approval of the commander. (At front and army levels it must be approved by the military council. The typical entry in the journal of combat operations describing a complete combat operation includes:
- a detailed account of the combat operation, the work of the commander and staff, and the utilization of arms and services, including conclusions and lessons to be learned from the operation and various phases of it.
- significant innovations in the utilization of personnel or weapons, in tactics, and in the utilization of material or equipment;
- comments from various sources describing the operations by subordinate units and by the commander and staff, including outstanding episodes or heroic feats which would be of interest to military historians;
- copies of all important operational documents and maps used for a given operation are appended to the journal.

This is a reporting information document which relates to the time of preparation and during the course of combat actions. It is used for developing lessons and combat experience, and making reports and reference material on combat activities of forces, for preparing historical journals and also used for scientific experimental work in the future. The journal of combat actions of units and formations and larger units and ships from first to third rank is prepared and made by officers and prepared by a staff officer appointed to this duty for the duration of the time he is on the army staff.

The notes for the journal are entered every day and usually have the following list:
- date, day, month, and year
- general situation at beginning of the operation or battle;
- composition and grouping, character of actions, and situation of enemy in the area of combat actions;
- means of battle, weapons, new means, and tactics that enemy has used
- on own forces - combat and organizational composition including composition and number of each and their location;
- missions that were issued to units and formations and large units;
- decisions that were made by the commander during the operation or battle;
- material support of forces in main basic types;
- morale- political situation of personnel;
- situation of adjacents and fulfillment of missions by them;

The account shows the following information:
- account of action during combat actions, new missions that were issued to units, formations, and large units from higher commanders, decisions that were made by the commanders during operation, actions of troop control and signal means, episodes and actions that are most important and heroic actions of officers and soldiers, new types of tactical actions, means for conduct of combat;

In the journal of combat actions only new data are written but not routine activities when out of action. In the journal there are annexes for operational directives, combat instructions, report maps, and plans for enemy fortified regions, photographs of officers and soldiers mentioned. At an appointed time they make a copy of the journal and send it to the higher staff.



 
 

Situation Report Map:

Otchetnaya carta obstanovki;

The situation report map (otchetnaya karta obstanovki), kept by the operations section illustrates operations conducted during the given period. During the less active periods of combat the time covered by the map is of course greater, in more fluid situations a situation report map is prepared for each phase of the operation;
- the situation report map is used primarily to report the situation to higher headquarters. copies of this map or sketches form the map are frequently appended to reports and summaries. The original map is appended to the journal of combat operations and is considered a fundamental source of material for the preparation of military history.

This is a reporting information document in which the historical sequence of action of own forces and those of enemy for an appointed period of time is shown by means of graphics and maps. The map is issued by the staff of units, large units, and formations. The map is used for information and explanation of combat experience of forces and for making reports for use during preparation of historical material. The map shows the following information:
- general data on the situation of own and enemy forces at the start of the operation;
- combat missions of formations, large units, and units of own forces and attached and supporting forces and adjacents;
- actions of own forces and adjacents during fulfillment of given missions and results that they achieved;
- actions of enemy forces.

The map typically shows most important situations (breakthrough of enemy prepared defense, destruction of counter attack blow, commitment of second-echelon into combat, passing of water obstacles and others). During the conduct of combat actions with use of mass weapons, they show on the map nuclear strikes of both sides, areas of contamination, destruction, movement of forces around destruction areas. Data on own forces is shown for two levels lower. The situation of forces at various times is shown by different symbols or colors in accordance with use of proper tactical symbols.

For protection of the surface of the map itself they use plastic and write with special dissolvable solutions. The map for the staff of formations and large units is prepared by an appointed officer in the operational department or directorate. The map for reconnaissance, artillery, engineer, signal, and rear service units is prepared by officers of their staffs. In units they only prepare one map - that is prepared by the assistant to the chief of staff.



 
 

Recording documents

The various staffs, staff sections, and headquarters elements preparing, receiving, and dispatching operations documents are required to keep current records on the documents and their location. Procedures for recording documents vary with the headquarters; however, in the processing of documents, three basis records are generally required. These are - a "record journal", a "daily record sheet", and the "dispatch book."~ Receipts are also used to supplement these records. If the contents of documents are transmitted by signal communications, the messages are coded, but the transmitted or received messages are registered in the clear in a "form for recording signal communications."

"Record journal" (zhurnal ucheta)

The record journal is primarily a record of documents prepared by the preparing agency. The preparing section keeps a separate journal of each of the various types of documents prepared, such as one for operations orders, one for reconnaissance plans, one for air defense plan, etc. Documents prepared primarily for use within the section such as working documents, as well as documents prepared for dispatch, such as orders, are noted in the "record journal." However, in the latter case, dispatched documents are also noted in the "dispatch book'.


"Daily record sheet" (list po dennoy zapis)

The daily record sheet a daily record of all document received. Essentially, it is a record of the identity of the document received, when dispatched, from whom it came, and when and by whom it was received.


"Dispatch Book" (razhosnaya kniga)

The dispatch book is a record of documents dispatched. In addition to identifying the document and the sender, this record identifies the messenger and the final recipient and indicates the time required to deliver he document.


Receipts

Receipts are an additional method used to record the exchange of documents. Sometimes, standard receipt forms are utilized, but it is more common practice to have the envelope in which the document is delivered signed by the recipient and retained by the messenger as a receipt.


Form for recording signal communications (blank zapisi peregovorov)

The form is used to record receipt and dispatch of messages and conversations conducted by telephone, telegraph, or radio. The communications normally are coded, but this record identifies the station, participants, and summarizes the communication in the clear.


 
 

Document routing

Methods of Transmission

Documents or messages may be delivered by messenger or liaison officer, or transmitted by telephone, telegraph, radio, or liaison aircraft. In the latter group, the contents of documents sent by signal communications are normally coded, and the more important operations documents are sent band received only through the cryptographic section or the staff for coding and decoding. Decoded messages re sent directly to the chief of staff and the operations section. A record is kept of all messages sent or received by signal means in the "form for recording signal communications".



Incoming Documents

Depending on the means of delivery documents arrive in the message center, radio center, central telephone station, or at the air liaison landing strip. The documents are then recorded and delivered directly to the addressee. The addressee signs a receipt, normally on the envelope, making a notation as to the time of delivery, and notifies the sending agency immediately, normally by signal communications. Documents with a dispatch classification of "K", "G", or "B" coming to the command post are delivered immediately to the operations duty officer. He, in turn, immediately sends "K" documents to the addressee and "G" documents to the chief of staff or chief of operations section. "B" documents, with the exception of those addressed to the political section, are opened by the operations duty officer and delivered to the address within the specified time limit or in accord with significance of contents.



Outgoing Documents

The documents preparing agency or staff section keeps a record of documents prepared in the "record journal" In addition to recording dispatched documents in the dispatch book, notation is made on the copy retained by the preparing agency, as to the number of copies prepared and to whom, when, and by what means the document or excerpts from the document were dispatched. For delivery, the documents are given to a signal communication agency, to a liaison officer, or to the message center. The documents are then delivered according to the dispatch classification. The more important documents are delivered personally by the liaison officers. The most important documents received by the message center are dispatched immediately to the addressee. Documents of lower category and other correspondence are sent to the message center to be delivered according to priority and schedule.



Filing Documents

Most staff sections use a five folder system for filing the operations documents. Documents are numbered consecutively for filing in each folder; there is a folder for each of the following types of documents:
- documents received from higher staffs;
- documents prepared by the staff section;
- reports to higher staffs;
- documents from lower staffs;
- all other operations documents.



Final Disposition of Documents

In addition to the staff combat documents, the staff collects for record and historical purposes the individual situation maps and field note books of the unit officers and the forms for recording signal communications. The operations section of the staff has primary responsibility for preparing on the basis of these documents the unit history and other studies to be used for instruction and training. Twice a year, at a time prescribed by the general staff, usually 1 January and 1 july, documents are collected and sent to a central receiving point to be processed for storage in the central archives of the Soviet army in Moscow.



Decision Process and Document Preparation

The Soviet method for making decisions in which the commander and staff interact has been discussed in the chapters on division, army, and front troop control procedures. It conforms to the description of the dual subordination of Soviet combat arms, special troops, and services chiefs to their commanders and to their counterparts at the next higher headquarters that is shown in the diagram in Chapter One. The procedure is essentially the same for each specialty, ie. artillery, signal, engineer, etc.

At the same time that the commander receives the operations directive or order from his superior commander each of these chiefs is receiving instructions on the use of their forces and means from their counterpart. These instructions provide details on the forces and means they may receive as reinforcements from above, what actions the higher level forces will be doing that may affect their level, what activities they will be required to accomplish in the interest of the higher level, and other coordinating instructions relative to their specialty. As the commander clarifies his mission, they also clarify these instructions and prepare to brief the commander. When the commander receives the operations order he also issues his own preliminary instructions to his staff and other officers. After the clarification of the mission the commander and staff begin the estimate of the situation during which the special staff and other officers provide their suggestions as desired by the commander. After the commander makes his decision it is translated into action by the dual channel method. The more general aspects are promulgated in the form of the operations order or instructions to the next subordinate combined arms commander and the special aspects are covered in two sets of special instructions issued by the various specialty chiefs. One set of instructions is on the actions of that specialty forces and means directly subordinate to that headquarters (ie instructions on engineer support issued by army to the army engineers troops), and the other set of instructions is issued to the related specialty chief at the next lower combined arms headquarters (ie, instructions on engineer matters issued by army to the chief of engineers at division). This process is illustrated in the diagram in Figure 200.



 
 

Figure 197 Message Journal of Orders, Instructions, and Reports Sent and Received

JOURNAL OF ORDERS, REPORTS, AND INSTRUCTIONS SENT AND RECEIVED

Number Time and date To whom sent or from whom received Brief summary of content Means by which sent Who sent or received Who discussed the info Signature Remarks
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

 
 

Figure 198 Table of daily staff activity


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Figure 199 Combat Alert Duty Chart (front)
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Figure 200 Diagram of Commander - staff Ineraction

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II. DIVISION

 
 

In this section are the principal combat documents received by, produced at, and sent from the division headquarters.



Operations

The first group of documents are the orders, directives, instructions and other combat documents prepared by the operations section.

Army Initial Instructions to Division

The first word a division may receive of impending combat action may come in various ways. During peacetime the earliest warning most likely would come in the form of a direct, encrypted, electronic alert (warning) signal from the general staff. Upon receipt of this alarm signal the duty officer would order immediate evacuation of the garrison according to established alert procedures, while the division commander would take the emergency plan from the unit safe. This "alert" warning order generally is limited to the standard operating measures the division takes to clear its garrison and begin its mobilization process at its assembly area. Once this has been received and acted upon, or during the course of a war already begun, when the army commander wants to alert the division commander on forthcoming actions, he issues "Initial Instructions. The division would normally receive a warning order in the form of "Initial Instructions" sent from its parent army when the latter received its new mission from the front. The army commander's initial instructions focus on those measures which must be taken immediately to prepare for action pending receipt of further orders. A sample of army initial instructions follows.



Sample Army Initial Instructions

Only to the commander of the 16th MRD

The army has received an offensive mission: The time of readiness is set for ___.

The army commander has ordered:

1. All troops and staffs will be brought to a state of full combat readiness and prepared for the conduct of combat actions.

2. All personnel, equipment, weapons, ammunition, foodstuffs, POL, and other material means must be brought up to mobilization norms in all units and staffs.

3. The army's large units and units will occupy designated departure areas for attack. Departure areas will be prepared in terms of engineer work and obstacles to repel likely enemy attacks and to provide protection against mass destruction weapons and air strikes.
4. One motorized rifle regiment from each first-echelon division, reinforced by two artillery battalions, will be assigned as covering troops to organize the security and defense of border areas with interaction with the border troops.

5. Divisional rocket battalions will occupy positions from 5 to 10 km from the border. Positions will be prepared and camouflaged.

6. Surplus equipment, weapons, means, and other material and damaged equipment will be evacuated to appropriate places.

7. Wounded and sick personnel requiring long treatment will be evacuated to the front, (military district, or group of forces hospitals). The army's medical facilities will be readied to receive sick and wounded.

8. All air defense troops will prepare and occupy positions to repel the enemy's air attacks. The rocket troops will be brought to such a state of readiness to enable them to launch rockets at the shortest time, when it becomes necessary.

Army --------------------------Army
Chief of Operations ----------Chief of Staff



 
 

Division Initial Instructions

Immediately upon receipt of the operations directive from army the division commander will clarify the division mission and issue a preliminary warning type order to subordinates in the form of "Initial Instructions". In these initial instructions the division commander focuses on those measures which must be taken immediately in order to prepare for further action. This document prescribes to subordinates the general preparatory actions they must take and alerts them to expect to receive specific instructions on the content of their missions. It may be that in most situations the regiments will have already done most of their preparations immediately on receipt of the alarm signal. The commander's orders are issued by the operations section either by electronic means or in writing, depending on the situation and requirements for secrecy and urgency for timeliness. A sample of the content of a division initial instructions follows.


Sample Division's Initial Instructions

Only to the commander of the 110th MRR.

The division has received an offensive mission. The time preparation must be completed is 0600, Dec 15th.

The division commander has ordered:

1. The regiment is to shift to the state of full combat readiness for the accomplishment of the mission.

2. Units will deploy in assembly areas assigned for the state of full combat readiness. They will establish personnel and equipment mobilization points and accomplish all measures to bring reach wartime strength in terms of personnel, weapons, equipment, ammunition, foodstuffs, POL, clothing, and other material in units and staffs.

3. The regiment will occupy attack departure (FUP) areas. The departure areas will be prepared in terms of engineer work to repel likely enemy aggression and to protect the troops against nuclear, air, and chemical attacks.

4. All surplus equipment and material, and equipment requiring major repairs will be turned over to related organs.

5. Wounded and sick requiring long term treatment will be evacuated to front hospitals.

6. The air defense means will prepare cover and occupy positions to repel likely enemy air attacks.

Division Chief of operations ------------------------Division Chief of Staff
Rank _____Signature-------------------------------- Rank________ Signature

 
 

Division Combat Order

The division operations section prepares the division combat order on the basis of the commander's decision. The same decision is shown on the plan in the form of the commander's decision map with its supporting tables. The combat order is the official controlling document ordering their actions, however it is not disseminated as a complete document to them. Rather, each subordinate receives extracts of the operations order in the form of combat instructions. The order contains the following five sections.

I. Enemy Situation: This is a brief description of the enemy force facing the division and a forecast of his probable course of actions.

II. Missions of army in support of the division and, missions of the adjacents: A description of the support to be received by the actions of army elements in the division area and the activities of adjacent forces relevant to the division's own missions.

III. Concept of the operation: The commander's concept on how he plans to accomplish the division's mission.

IV. I order: The specific assignments to each subordinate element stating exactly what and where and when they are to act.

V. Troop Control: This section describes the locations and movement of the division command posts, signal communication issues, and the commander's deputies and successors.



The following is an example of a division combat order.


Combat Instruction from Division to Regiment

The division operations section prepares a "Combat Instruction" for the regiment, based on the division commander's decision and plan. This is one of the principal official tasking order from division to regiment. In case the division commander issues his order to the regiment commander orally, the staff follows up with this written "Instruction". The combat instruction contains the following four sections:

I. Enemy: Briefer description of the enemy as shown in the combat order.

II. The specific missions of the regiment: A statement of the order to the regiment.

III. The division's actions in support of the regiment and its adjacent units and inter action issues if needed:

IV. Troop control measures: A statement of the troop control measures described in the division operations order.

The sample of a division combat instruction to a regiment follows the combat order.

I Approve ---/---/--------------------------------------- Serial No ----
Commander 16th MRD------------------------------------- SECRET
Gen-Major Ivanov ------------------------------------------Copy Number --
(Sig)

 
 

SAMPLE DIVISION COMBAT ORDER


 
 

COMBAT ORDER

of the Commander of the 16th MRD for Offensive Battle

Command Post ------at (time)--- On (date )---
Map 1:50.000 Aug 1972 ed

I. Enemy Situation:

Elements of the enemy's ___ Corps prepares to initiate military action against our forces. The enemy has prepared a defensive line along the Fulda River to inflict maximum losses on friendly forces from a defensive posture. Units of the enemy 3rd Armored Division of the Vth U. S. Corps will be directly confronting the 16th Motorized Rifle Division, with up to 1.5 mechanized battalions in his first defensive positions consisting of the following company strong points.:
-- company strong point at ----
-- company strong point at ----
-- company strong point at ----
-- company strong point at ----

The enemy's brigade reserve composed of up to one tank battalion is likely to deploy in company strong points as follows:
----, ----, -----, -----, the counter attack of the brigade reserve is likely from the line Gittersdorf in the direction of Hahlgaus - Eichhof.

Positions of enemy's brigade artillery are disclosed in the following areas, ---, ---, --- and ---. Positions of general support artillery are at ---, ---, and ---.

Totally in the first-echelon of the enemy forces, directly in front of the 16th MRD will be -- mechanized companies, ---tanks, --- guns and mortars, --- anti-tank means and --- air defense means.

The enemy's division reserve composed of up to one tank brigade is deployed in the area: Liederbach, Wallenrod, Vadenrod, and East of Romrool. Its counter- attack is likely from the line of Hill 408 and Beinenrod in the direction of Grebenau - Bad Hersfeld. The enemy's second-echelon forces may include --- nuclear rocket systems, --- nuclear artillery pieces, --- mechanized companies, --- guns and mortars, --- tanks, --- anti-tank means and --- air defense means.

In the sector of the 16th MRD attack, up to one enemy armored cavalry battalion is likely to operate in the covering (security) zone.

The action of enemy forces will be supported by nuclear capable U. S. air forces and --- combat helicopters . the enemy can fire --- nuclear rounds during the initial nuclear strike on 16th MRD targets.


II. Missions of army in support of the division and, missions of the adjacents

a. The following targets in the division's attack area are destroyed by army's rocket troops, and the air force during the initial nuclear strike:
-- enemy's nuclear weapons in the area ---;
-- nuclear depot at ---;
-- airfields at ---;
-- divisional command post at ---.
-- enemy's reserves at ---.

The friendly air force during the offensive battle conducts the air preparatory fire, assault support and accompanying air support as well as air defense cover of divisions' troops and targets. To support the division attack three sorties of fighter - bomber aviation squadrons are allocated. Ten sorties of Mi-26 helicopters are allocated for airborne assault. Air cover, and support of the air assault troops is conducted in inter-action with front's fighter and fighter- bomber aircraft.


b. On the right flank, the 11th MRD attacks in the direction of Bebra - Stadtallendorf with an immediate mission to seize the line of Remsfeld - 3 kms south of Roboldshausen and a long range mission to seize the line of Momberg - Wahlen.

The boundary with the division passes through the following points: Eisenach, Ludwigsau, Hill 466, and Dannenrod.

On the left flank the 18th MRD attacks in the direction of Niederaula - Keldatal with an immediate mission to seize the line of one km south of Lingelbach, and northern edge of Maar and a long range mission to seize the line of Ober Breiderbach, and Meicles.

The boundary with the division passes through the following points: Mohra, Hill 388, Schenksolz, (exclude) Koulbausen,(excluded) Lingelbach and Nieder Breidenbach.



III. Concept of the operation

Using 10 nuclear rockets with a yield of 102 kilotons during the initial nuclear strike, the division is to destroy the enemy's nuclear rocket in the area --- and his nuclear artillery in the areas --- and --- and to destroy the enemy's divisions main forces in the areas ---,---,---,-- ,-and ---; the enemy's CP at ---, and the enemy's rear service installations at ---, and ---.

Exploiting the results of its own and army's nuclear strikes, the division attacks the enemy on the line of Ludwigsen - Asbach; develops the attack in the direction of Eichhof - Kirchheim; destroys the enemy forces in the area Bad Hersfeld, Recherode, Kirchheim, and Asbach; destroys the enemy division reserves in the area of Willingsahain, Weibendorn, and Reimbolds; and seizes the line of Scharbach, Offray, and Lingelbach as its immediate mission.

Then the division continues the attack in the direction of Ottrau - Alsfeld, Heimertshausen and at the end of the day seizes the line of Rubkirchen, Heimerlshausen, and Nider Breidenbach, as its long range mission.

The division's future direction of attack on the following day is Heimerlshausen - Homberg. The direction of the main attack is along highway 48. The 110th reinforced BMP Motorized Rifle Regiment acts as the forward detachment of the division to destroy, from the line of march, the enemy's covering troops in the border areas and to support the quick advance of the division's main forces to the forward line of the enemy's forward defense area.

For the conduct of the division's attack, 15 nuclear, 5 chemical, and 15 conventional rockets are allocated.


If the nuclear weapons are not used, the enemy's forward defensive area is penetrated (broken through) in the area south of Bad Hersfeld and Asbach.

The division's combat formation is in two echelons.

112 MRD, 16th Tank and 111 MRD are in the first-echelon.

110th BMP MRR after accomplishing its mission as the division's forward detachment, is assigned to the division's second-echelon.



IV. I order:

a. The 112th MRR with the division artillery regiment (minus the 4th Battalion), 2nd company of the division engineer battalion, the division anti-tank battalion (- 3rd battery) is to attack the enemy from the line of Eichhof, southern edge of Asbach and develop the attack in the direction of Asbach - Hohewured and destroy the enemy in the area Eichhof, Hills 238, 325 and Asbach and seize the line of south of Hill 376, Hill 359, as its immediate objective. The regiment is to continue the attack in the direction of Hohewurzd - Kirchheim and destroy the enemy and his artillery positions in the area of Hill 320, Kirchheim and Hill 319 and seize the line of north of Kirchheim, northern edge of Kelba and then continue the attack in the direction of Reinbolds.

On the right flank the 16th Tank Regiment attacks. The boundary line passes the following points: Malkomes, Hill 439, Scholf, Hill 376, road junction (T) north of Kirchheim.


b. The 16th Tank Regiment with three artillery battalions and the 1st company of the 16th Engr Bn is to attack --- (same as for the 112th MRR.)


c. The 111st MRR with two artillery battalions the engr platoon and one anti-tank battery is to attack the enemy from the line --- (same as for 112th MRR.)


d. the 110th BMP Motorized Rifle Regiment with two artillery battalions, one anti-tank battery and one combat engineer company is assigned as the division's forward detachment. The regiment is to destroy from the line of march the enemy's covering troops in the border area and to support rapid advance of the division's main forces to the forward line of the enemy's forward defense area. At the beginning of the attack of the division's main forces on the enemy's forward defensive area, the regiment is assigned to operate as the division's second-echelon, and it is to deploy in the area south of Bad Hersfeld, Asbach, and Kuhnbach. During the attack, the regiment is to follow the 112th MRR by bounds and be prepared to be committed at --- into combat and to develop the attack along route 48 in order to destroy the enemy reserves from the line of march and seize the line East of Zell and East of Romrod as its immediate mission.

During the commitment into combat the regiment will be given two artillery battalions, one anti-tank battery and one engineer company. As the division's forward detachment at the outset, the regiment is given two artillery battalions from the division artillery regiment, one battery from the division anti-tank battalion and one company from the division engineer battalion.

In interaction with the border forces, the regiment is to establish defensive positions and engineer obstacles in the security zone on likely directions of the enemy's attack and to prevent penetration by the enemy's reconnaissance elements into the depth of own territory.


E. Rocket Bn.

1. During the front's initial nuclear strike, the following targets are to be destroyed by the rocket bn.

-- first-echelon bn, target #314 center of burst at ---, 3 kt, air burst at H - 00.20 hrs or on signal.
-- first-echelon bn, target 315, center of burst (COB) ---, 3 kt, air burst, H-00.20 or on signal.
-- arty bn, target #316 center of burst at ---, 3 kt, air burst at H - 00.20 hrs or on signal.
-- second-echelon tank bn, target 317, center of burst (COB) ---, 20 kt, air burst, H-00.20 or on signal.
-- nuclear artillery, target #318 center of burst at ---, 10 kt, air burst at H - 00.20 hrs or on signal.
-- Bde CP, target 319, center of burst (COB) ---, 3 kt, ground burst, H-00.20 or on signal.
-- nuclear rocket, target #320 center of burst at ---, 3 kt, air burst at H - 00.20 hrs or on signal.
-- division rear, target 321, center of burst (COB) ---, 10 kt, air burst, H-00.20 or on signal.

2. Time of delivery of nuclear and chemical rockets to the battalion is P - 6 hours. Time of delivery of conventional rockets to the battalion is D - 3 days.

3. The status and situation of targets to be hit by nuclear strikes are to be continuously followed, observed and appropriate changes must be made in the initial nuclear strike plan as the status of targets changes.

4. Preparation of the rocket troops for rapid initiation of fire is to be kept at the highest level. The technical support of rockets is to be thoroughly organized.

5. The position areas of the rocket troops are to be fully prepared in terms of engineer work and concealment. Alternate positions are to be prepared as well. Protection of rocket troops against mass destruction weapons and security and defense of rocket positions and mobile technical bases are to be organized and executed.

6. To insure effective employment, longer range, and timely launch of strikes on designated targets; positions for the rocket battalion are to be prepared close to the border. Moreover relocation positions for the phase of the beginning of the attack are to be prepared at a distance of 10 km from the forward line of the enemy's forward defensive area.



F. To artillery troops

1. The following artillery groups are to be established:
-- divisional artillery group composed of 6 artillery battalions;
-- artillery groups of the 112th MRR and the 16th TR composed of 4 artillery battalions each;
-- artillery group of the 111st MRR composed of 3 artillery battalions.

2. Artillery missions
-- destruction of enemy's nuclear weapons;
-- inflict losses on the enemy during his aggression, and support of combat action of own forces in our security area.
-- inflict losses on the enemy when he crosses the border and during the combat action in the security zone;
-- the following tasks are to be conducted during the artillery preparation;
--- (a) destruction and suppression of strong points on the forward line and in the depth of the enemy defense;
--- (b) destruction and suppression of enemy's artillery and mortar batteries;
--- (c) destruction and suppression of the enemy's immediate reserves.
--- (d) destruction of the enemy's command posts
--- (e) width of the penetration (breakthrough) area is 4 km, duration of the artillery preparatory fire is 40 minutes and ammunition expenditure is 0.8 units of fire. The density of fire is the penetration area is 100% while on its immediate flanks it should be not less than 60%.
--destruction and suppression of the enemy during the combat action in the depth of the enemy's first-echelon brigade, throughout the assault support mission by the method of concentration of fire, successive concentration and assault barrage fires on single and double lines.
-- support the attacking forces by fire during the combat action in the depth of the enemy's defense by accompanying fire in the form of concentration of fire, massive fires and fires on individual targets.
-- inflict losses on the enemy's troops during their counterattack
-- support the division troops during assault river crossing
-- support and cover the open flanks and gaps between combat formations
-- support the commitment of the second-echelon troops and reserves;
-- fight the enemy's artillery and mortars during the conduct of combat action in the depth of the enemy's defense.

G. To division's air defense troops

1. The division's air defense troops are to concentrate their main effort to cover the following targets.
-- division's first-echelon troops particularly on the direction of the main attack, in the departure area, during the breakthrough, and in the depth of the defense;
-- rocket bn and division artillery group in the departure area, during the breakthrough and during the conduct of the offensive battle;
-- command posts and rear services in the departure area and during the attack;
-- the second-echelon troops during their movement and deployment for commitment into combat;
-- airborne assaults in desant departure areas, during their flight and landing, and during their combat action;
-- the division's main forces and crossing sites during the assault river crossing;
-- the division's troops during the repulsion of the enemy's counterattacks;

2. The division's air defense reconnaissance and warning system is to be coordinated with the air defense reconnaissance, fire, and warning system of the army.

3. During the preparation and conduct of the offensive battle, the air defense troops are to be in full combat readiness and be prepared to repel enemy's air attacks. In any situation not less then one third of the air defense troops are to be in combat duty status.

4. Positions for air defense troops are to be prepared in terms of engineer work. In addition to the main positions, alternate positions are also to be prepared.

5. Movement and relocation of the air defense troops during the preparation and conduct of the battle must be carried out in such a way, that during the crucial phases of the battle all or the bulk of the air defense troops are in position and ready to repel the enemy's air attacks.


H. Airborne assaults

During the conduct of the offensive battle, the following airborne assaults are inserted;

1. desant No. 1:
-- composition of the "desant" is one airborne assault battalion with one mountain mortar battery and one engineer platoon.
-- the mission of the "desant" is to destroy the ammunition depot and seize the bridge in the area, 2 km north of Munch-Leusel.

The departure area of the "desant" is in the northwest of Etfurt which is to be occupied at 0600 on D-1. During one day there, required preparation for "desant" must be conducted.
--The "desant" is carried and landed by 10 MI-26 helicopters and covered by 6 of front's fighter aircraft. The time of landing of the "desant" is 1600 on the day of the attack (D day)
-- the landing area is initially hit by front's fighter-bomber aviation troops. Positions of air defense means and airfields along the flight sector are destroyed by aviation forces, division rocket battalion and division's artillery.
-- Planning of the "desant" is conducted by MI-26 helicopter squadron commander along with the division's operations section and the commander of airborne assault battalion.
-- The troop control during the preparation is conducted from the command post of the helicopter squadron in the departure area. The troop control during the conduct of the combat action is exercised from division CP and the CP of the airborne assault Bn.

2. desant No. 2.
-- composition of the desant is one airborne assault company.
-- The mission of the "desant" is to destroy nuclear rocket in the area, north of Immichenhain.
-- the departure area for the desant is in the north west of Erfurt which is to be occupied at 0600 of D-1 and where necessary preparation for the desant is to be made.
-- the desant is transported by 8 Mi-8 helicopters of the division and it is covered by 6 fighter aircraft.
-- time of landing is 1400 on the day of the attack;
-- the landing area is hit by air strikes while positions of air defense means within the flight sector are hit by rocket and artillery troops.
-- the planning for the desant is conducted by helicopter squadron commander along with the division's operations section and the commander of the airborne assault company;
-- the troop control during the preparation is conducted from the command post of the helicopter squadron in departure area, while during the conduct of the combat action the troop control is exercised from the division command post and the command observation post of the airborne assault company.

I. To combat and transport helicopter squadron

-- support the insertion of one airborne assault in the designated areas as reflected in subparagraph H;
-- conduct struggle against the enemy's tanks and support the division troops during the conduct of the attack;
-- support communications in accordance with the instructions of the division staff.

J. Division's anti-tank reserve

The division's anti-tank reserve is composed of two batteries attached to the division from the army's anti-tank unit. It is to deploy in the area --- and conduct the struggle against tanks on the main direction. The likely lines of the repulsion of the enemy's tank counterattacks for the antitank reserve are as follows:
-- Line NO 1 at --- in the direction of ---
-- Line NO 2 at --- in the direction of ---
-- Line NO 3 at --- in the direction of ---
-- Line NO 4 at --- in the direction of ---

During the attack the antitank reserve is to move on the direction of the main attack following the 112nd MRR.


K. To Mobile obstacle detachment (POZ)

The mobile obstacle detachment is composed of the division's engineer obstacle company. The detachment is to deploy in --- and during the conduct of the offensive battle, it is to move with the anti-tank reserve and join in the struggle against enemy tanks on designated lines.


L. To engineer reserve

The engineer reserve is the division engineer battalion (minus sub-units attached to regiments). After accomplishment t of the missions related to the preparation for the attack and breaching lanes in the enemy's obstacles directly in front of his forward defensive line, the engineer reserve is to deploy in the area ---. and be prepared to conduct unexpected tasks during the conduct of the attack. The engineer reserve is to follow the 16th Tank Regiment during the conduct of the offensive battle.


M. To chemical reserve:

The chemical reserve is composed of the division's chemical battalion. The chemical reserve is to deploy at --- and move during the conduct of the attack in the direction of --- and be prepared to conduct unexpected missions.


N. Time to be prepared for the attack is 2400 of ---(date)



V. Troop control

-- The division's command post deploys at Unlerneurode.
-- The rear service control point deploys at Donges.
-- The division's forward command post deploys in the area south of the T road junction west of Malkames.

The direction of relocation of the command post during the conduct of the offensive combat is Asbach - Rimberg - Hallhof.

Signal communication from the division CP's with the army's Commander and staff, as well as with subordinate and inter-acting troops' commanders and staff is to be established by radio, radio-relay, telephone, and mobile communications means with strict observation of secure troop control regulations.

My deputies are: the chief of staff, chief of political affairs and the commander of the 112th MRR.

Div's chief of operations section
(signature)

Div's chief of staff
(signature)

 
 

SAMPLE COMBAT INSTRUCTION FROM DIVISION TO REGIMENT


I Approve --/--/-- -----------------------------------------------------------------------Serial No ----
Commander 16th MRD --------------------------------------------------------------------SECRET
General Major Ivanov ----------------------------------------------------------------------Copy NO.
(signature)

 

COMBAT INSTRUCTIONS

of the commander of the16th MRD for offensive battle to the commander of the 112 MRR


Command Post at --- at ---(time) on --- (date)
Map 1:50,000, Aug 1972 edition

I. Enemy

Elements of enemy's ___ Corps prepare to initiate military action against our forces. The enemy has prepared a defensive line along the Fulda River to inflict maximum losses on friendly forces from defensive posture. In this case, units of the enemy 3rd Armored Division of the Vth U. S. Corps will be directly confronting the 16th Motorized Rifle Division, with up[ to 1.5 mechanized battalions in his first defensive positions consisting of the following company strong points.:
-- company strong point at ----
-- company strong point at ----
-- company strong point at ----
-- company strong point at ----

The enemy's brigade reserve composed of up to one tank battalion is likely to deploy in company strong points as follows:
-- ----, ----, -----, -----, the counter attack of the brigade reserve is likely from the line Gittersdorf in the direction of Hahlgaus - Eichhof.

Positions of enemy's brigade artillery are disclosed in the following areas, ---, ---, --- and ---. Positions of general support artillery are at ---, ---, and ---.

Totally in the first-echelon of the enemy forces, directly in front of the 16th MRD will be -- mechanized companies, ---tanks, --- guns and mortars, --- anti-tank means and --- air defense means.

The enemy's division reserve composed of up to one tank brigade is deployed in the area: Liederbach, Wallenrod, Vadenrod, and East of Romrood. Its counter- attack is likely from the line of Hill 408 and Beinenrod in the direction of Grebenau - Bad Hersfeld. The enemy's second-echelon forces may include --- nuclear rocket systems, --- nuclear artillery pieces, --- mechanized companies, --- guns and mortars, --- tanks, --- anti-tank means and --- air defense means.

In the sector of the 16th MRD attack, up to one enemy armored cavalry battalion is likely to operate in the covering (security) zone.

The action of enemy forces will be supported by nuclear capable U. S. air forces and --- combat helicopters . The enemy can fire --- nuclear rounds during the initial nuclear strike on 16th MRD targets.

II. The 112th MRR with three artillery battalions of the division's artillery regiment, combat engineer company of the division engineer battalion and the division's anti-tank battalion (minus 1st battery) is to attack the enemy from the line of Eichhof - southern edge of Asbach; develop the attack in the direction of Asbach - Hohe Wurzel; destroy the enemy in the area: Eichhof, Hills 238 and 325 and Asbach; and seize the line of the south of Hills 376 and 359 as its immediate mission. Then the regiment is to develop the attack in the direction of Hohe Wurzel - Kirchheim; destroy the enemy in the area : Hill 320, Kirchheim, and Hill 319; and seize the line of the bridge north of Kirchheim and the northern edge of Kleba as its subsequent mission. Then the regiment is to continue the attack in the direction of Reimbolds.

The regiment is to breakthrough the enemy's forward defense area, in interaction with the 16th Tank Regiment and the 114th MRR of the 18th MRD, on a two kilometer front, and during the artillery preparatory fire destroy and suppress enemy's strong points on the forward line and its immediate vicinity, as well as the enemy's artillery and mortars.

Time to be ready for the attack is 2400 hrs of ___ (date).

III. The division's tasks in support of the regiment and the adjacents.

a. In the regiment's sector of the attack the following targets are destroyed by the division's means:
-- enemy Bde CP in the area _--.
-- enemy's strong points in areas ---, ---, ---, and ---;
-- enemy's artillery in areas ---, ---, ---, and ---.

b. On the right flank the 16th Tank Regiment attacks and conducts breakthrough of the enemy defense on a two kilometer front. Its immediate mission is to destroy the confronting enemy and to seize the line of Hill 308 and Hill 376 and its subsequent mission is to destroy the enemy in its sector and seize the line of south of Grossmannersrode and northern edge of Kirchheim. The boundary line with the regiment passes through the following points:
-- Molkomes, Hill 439, Schlof, Hill 376, and T road junction north of Kirchheim.

On the left the 114th MRR of the 18th MRD attacks with an immediate mission to seize the line of Hill 358 and Hill 346 and a subsequent mission to seize the line of Hill 336 and Hill 363. The boundary line with the regiment passes through the following points: Scheulkslz, Koulhausen, Kleba, and Lingelbach.

IV. Troop control
-- the division's CP deploys at Unlerneurode;
-- division's rear control point deploys at Donges;
-- division's forward CP deploys south of T road junction west of Melkames.

The direction of relocation of the division's command post during the conduct of the offensive battle is the direction of Asbach, Rimberg - Hallhof.

Signal communication from the division's command posts with the army commander and staff, as well as with subordinate and inter-acting troops commanders and staff is to be established by radio, radio-relay, telephone, and mobile communication means, with strict observation of secure troop control regulation.

My deputies are: the chief of staff, chief of political affairs (deputy commander for political affairs), and the commander of the 112th MRR.


Div chief of operations section
(signature)

Div chief of staff
(signature)



 
 

Explanatory Notes for the Plan

These notes are prepared as part of the commander's decision process and provide basic data relevant to the understanding of the division's capabilities and they are employed to accomplish the assigned mission. They may be displayed with the commander's decision map or kept for reference with it. They are thus available for everyone who comes to the headquarters to discuss the battle. The first three notes are written text. They are the following items.

1. Brief assessment of the opponent's possible actions: This section is a brief summary of the estimate prepared during the estimate of the situation on which the commander's decision is based. Any changes in the enemy's probable course of action is an immediate trigger for consideration on changing the plan or making other appropriate response.

2. Concept of the battle: This is the commander's expression of the fundamental purpose he seeks to achieve and the main measures he plans to take to achieve it.

3. The scope of the battle area: This is the statistics on the width, depth, and average rate of advance established for the division combat action.
-- width:
-- depth:
---- -of which:
-----depth of immediate mission
-----depth of long range mission
--required average rate of advance (km/hr)


 
 

Distribution of Support Forces and Means

This shows the distribution of tank, artillery, air defense, engineer and chemical troops to the regiments and which will be held in division reserve.

Figure 201 Form for distribution of support forces

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Measures to Protect Against Nuclear Weapons

This is a brief written description of the following three topics:
-- a. Safe line for nuclear fires:
-- b. Warning signals indicating nuclear explosions are immanent:
-- c. Marking of own troops locations: The methods that will be used to mark the location of the forward line of troops visually to insure that pilots can distinguish friend from foe. The troops carry colored marker panels, which are displayed on the ground upon proper signal.


Availability and Time of Use of Chemical and Nuclear Weapons

This (Figure 202) shows the number of nuclear, chemical, and special rocket warheads by yield and rocket type. It shows how many are on hand in the division and how many are expected to arrive during the combat action. The same warheads are shown divided according to the sequence of major division tasks and milestones for the battle.


Destruction of Targets in First Nuclear Strike

This table (Figure 203) summarizes the distribution of targets and firing sub-units. It shows such data as the warhead yield, height of burst, degree of defeat of the target and time for the strike. Several variants will be worked out and kept current for quick response when the order is given.


Distribution of Aviation Resources

This section of the explanatory notes to the division decision is a table (Figure 204) showing support aviation and combat helicopters assigned to support during each phase of the battle.


Correlation of Forces Tables

This is the most important table (Figures 205-209 in multiple pages) in that it depicts the calculation of force ratios and densities which play such an important part in Soviet planning. It is a set of correlations, made for different times and locations. One table shows the total number of friendly and enemy forces and means at the beginning of the operation and expected to be remaining after each major event. Other tables show the correlation on individual axes and for various other milestones.



Availability and Technical Condition of Tanks, Self-propelled Guns, and Armored Vehicles

This table (Figure 210) shows the number of tanks and other armored vehicles available in operational condition and how many are in each category of maintenance in each regiment and major separate unit. The categories are in accordance with standard Soviet norms for kilometers before next scheduled maintenance.



Availability, Location, and Distribution of Material Supply

This table (Figure 211) shows the distribution of most types of ammunition, POL, and food available for the operation either on hand or due in and how much must remain at the end of the operation. The ammunition is measured in units of fire, fuel in refills, and food in days of rations.



Table of Warning Signals

The signal warning plan in Figure 212 gives the main alarm signals, and means for identification.



 
 

Figure 202 Availability and Time of Use of Chemical and Nuclear Weapons

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Figure 203 Destruction of Targets in First Nuclear Strike

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Figure 204 Distribution of Aviation Resources

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Figure 205 Correlation of Forces Table A

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Figure 206 Correlation of Forces Table B

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Figure 207 Correlation of Forces Table C

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Figure 208 Correlation of Forces Table D

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Figure 209 Correlation of Forces Table E

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Figure 210 Availability of Tanks, SP Guns and Armored Vehicles

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Figure 211 Availability and Distribution of Material Supplies

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Figure 212 Table of Warning Signals

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Reconnaissance


The following section contains samples of the basis documents used as part of the process of planning division reconnaissance including documents received by or prepared by the reconnaissance section. The division commander and chief of staff play large, direct role in organizing, tasking, and planning reconnaissance. This is because the main purpose for reconnaissance is to provide information to serves the commander's needs. However, as with other functional areas in the staff and chiefs of combat arms, special troops, and services, reconnaissance is also subordinate to its counterpart staff section at the higher headquarters. Therefore the chief of reconnaissance receives a set of instructions from the higher headquarters, which he must discuss with his commander, and he in turn prepares instructions on reconnaissance for transmission to the regiments as well as reconnaissance instructions to the division reconnaissance battalion.


Instructions on Reconnaissance Received from Army

The division chief of reconnaissance receives instructions on the conduct of reconnaissance in accordance with the overall army reconnaissance plan. (See also the section on army reconnaissance.) The instructions cover the following points:
-- a short current summary of information on the enemy;
-- instructions on organizing officer observation posts along the border to operate prior the deployment of the covering forces;
-- measures the division reconnaissance will take upon occupation of their positions by the covering force;
-- instructions on organizing reconnaissance and observation with the forces and means of the radio and radar reconnaissance units of the reconnaissance battalion;
-- instructions on organizing visual observation posts from division and regimental forces up to the border;
-- instructions on organizing reconnaissance and observation by aerial photography from helicopters along the border; during preparation for the offensive, create the following:
-- specific essential items of information required by the army commander such as the following;
---- 1. the time enemy covering forces begin to move from their barracks and their composition, grouping, areas of deployment, and defensive positions.
----2. the extent of engineer fortifications and preparations, and locations of nuclear and conventional fougasse in the covering force area;
----3. the enemy's basic main line of defense and its engineer preparations, and obstacles in front of the main line of resistance;
--the number of reconnaissance groups SPETZNAZ, which the division will send into the enemy rear area at the beginning of the operation and where they will operate;
-- the times and locations for sending reconnaissance reports and summaries:
-- information on the operations of aerial and other non-divisional reconnaissance elements in the division's offensive area and instructions on interaction and signal communications;



Division Commander's Instructions on Reconnaissance

The division commander considers his requirements for information and determines the reconnaissance needed. He defines and specifies the missions and objectives for reconnaissance. He defines the data he wants and when he needs it and in what form the reconnaissance forces may be used, especially prior to the offensive. Based on the combat missions and the assessment of available information on the enemy, the division commander specifies the following:
-- the aim and the most important tasks of reconnaissance;
-- where and at what targets (areas, directions) the main effort of reconnaissance must be concentrated;
-- what information must be acquired at what time;
-- what reconnaissance forces and means are allocated to be used in acquisition of reconnaissance information prior to the initiation of the combat action.

He also specifies the additional troops and means which he desires to employ to accomplish reconnaissance tasks. He also listens to the suggestions of the chief of staff and chief of the reconnaissance section on reconnaissance issues, as well as on reconnaissance during the conduct of the most important tasks.

The following is a sample of typical division commander's instructions on reconnaissance. These are elaborated on by the chief of staff and implemented by the chief of reconnaissance.


 
 

SAMPLE

DIVISION COMMANDER'S INSTRUCTIONS ON RECONNAISSANCE


1. Reconnaissance must in a timely fashion disclose the measures taken by the US Eighth Mechanized Division to prepare to attack, determine the time of initiation of the enemy's attack, and the grouping of the enemy forces and their likely concept of action.

2. The principle tasks of reconnaissance are as follows:
-- detect the movement of rocket units and sub-units from their permanent garrisons, their direction of movement, position areas of firing batteries, command posts, areas of deployment of supplies of nuclear rounds, and locations of stockpiles;
-- detect the movement of the US Eighth Division from its permanent garrisons, the direction of movement, and the assembly and deployment areas of main grouping;
-- detect the number of units and combat composition of units and sub-units in the areas____, determine their time of readiness, their direction of movement, and the enemy's intention regarding their employment;
-- follow and observe the movement of enemy forces in their attack area;
-- detect and determine the characteristics of defensive engineer work in the covering (security) zone.
-- establish the locations and strength of platoon strong points, weapons firing positions, mine fields and obstacles along the forward edge of the main line of resistance and on alternate positions in the depth.

The main effort of reconnaissance is to be concentrated in the direction of ___.



The Chief of Staff's Actions on Reconnaissance

The division chief of staff supervises all aspects of reconnaissance including:
-- responsibility for organizing reconnaissance;
-- obligation to know the enemy in the division area, to forecast likely changes in the situation, and to be ready to answer the commander's questions about enemy forces;
-- give concrete details of reconnaissance missions assigned by the higher commander and staff, specify the order (priority) of the conduct of the reconnaissance missions, confirm targets on which the main reconnaissance effort will be concentrated, designate forces and means to conduct of the most important tasks and the reserve of reconnaissance troops and means;

In addition the chief of staff issues instructions on the principle measures regarding the preparation of reconnaissance forces and means to accomplish assigned missions, designates and instructs the time of signing the reconnaissance plan and combat instructions on reconnaissance.

The following is a sample of typical instructions from the chief of staff to the chief of reconnaissance.

 
 

SAMPLE

INSTRUCTIONS BY THE DIVISION CHIEF OF STAFF ON RECONNAISSANCE

At the end of 3.22 the observation system must be organized on the state border by the forces and means of the division reconnaissance battalion and the 112th MRR. Deployment of observation points will be coordinated with the border troops.

The Division Separate Special Purpose (SPETZNAZ) company is to concentrate in the area ______. Preparation of the SPETZNAZ reconnaissance groups to conduct missions must be completed by the end of 3.23.

On 3.28 the characteristics of defensive engineer work, the extent of their occupation, grouping of forces and the fire system of the defending enemy troops in the covering (security) zones at ___ and on the forward defensive line in areas ___ must be confirmed.

The reconnaissance plan and combat instructions on reconnaissance are to be presented at 0900 on 3.24.

Based on the instructions of the division commander and chief of staff, the chief of reconnaissance begins to organize the reconnaissance for the operation. The measures and actions taken by the division chief of reconnaissance include the following:
-- issuing the reconnaissance combat mission to various reconnaissance troops and the establishing the time for completing each mission as well as the time and method for reporting reconnaissance information;
-- establishing the measures for interaction among the various reconnaissance activities and units conducting them;
-- issuing instructions to the reconnaissance troops concerning the method of their movement to their deployment areas;
-- instructing the reconnaissance staff on preparing the reconnaissance plan.
-- monitoring the attainment of assigned missions.


Estimate of the Situation by Chief of Reconnaissance

During the commander's estimate of the situation the chief of reconnaissance provides an assessment of the enemy to include the following:
-- situation, status, character of action, and intention of enemy ground forces;
-- situation, status, location, and capabilities of enemy artillery, air, air defense, and other special (nuclear) targets;
-- grouping of enemy artillery;
-- location of enemy nuclear rocket troops and nuclear depots;
-- location of enemy reserves.



Instructions of Division on Reconnaissance to the Chief of Reconnaissance of the Regiment

The division chief of reconnaissance prepares instructions on the conduct of reconnaissance for each regiment in accordance with the overall division reconnaissance plan. The instructions cover the following points:
-- a short current summary of information on the enemy;
-- what measures the regiments will take to establish observation;
-- organize division visual observation posts and observation posts from the one regiment in the covering force up to the border;
-- during preparation for the offensive, establish the time enemy covering forces begin to appear in the forward areas and their composition, grouping, areas of deployment, and defensive positions;
-- establish the extent of engineer fortifications and preparations, and locations of nuclear and conventional fougasse in the covering force area;
-- establish the enemy's basic main line of defense and its engineer preparations, and obstacles in front of the main line of resistance;
-- when reconnaissance reports and summaries will be sent;
-- when the report on the operations, situation, and composition of the reconnaissance forces themselves and fulfillment of their missions will be sent to division;

 
 

Guiding Data of Reconnaissance Plan

Figure 213 Composition of reconnaissance forces

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Figure 214 Calculation of 12th MRD Reconnaissance Forces and Means and Their Distribution in Terms of Missions

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Figure 215 Graphic (Map) Plan of Reconnaissance

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Figure 216 Written Instructions to Reconnaissance Plan
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Reconnaissance Reports

There are three standard reconnaissance reports issued during each day. The periodic reconnaissance report is sent to higher headquarters every few hours as prescribed by instructions. It provides a picture (snapshot) of the situation at a specific time. The organization and content of the report is shown below. The reconnaissance summary is provided once a day in accordance with instructions. It provides a brief narrative of the highlights of the past 24 hour period. The organization and content is shown below. The reconnaissance operational report is a report that reconnaissance units and sub-units give to the staff which has assigned them to conduct reconnaissance. It gives the situation as of a specific time, but not of the enemy as in the periodic report, but rather of the operational status, missions, capabilities, requirements, and activities of own reconnaissance forces and means. The format and content of this report is also shown below.



 
 

PERIODIC RECONNAISSANCE REPORT

1. General enemy action:

Nature of actual enemy action along the entire area of the army with the enemy's composition and grouping of committed forces and reserves.

2. Special enemy situation

Same as above for each direction or area of subordinate formations (large units) from right to left.

3. Significant specific information about the enemy

4. Conclusion:

Possible development of enemy action including likely time and place of commitment of his reserves and use of nuclear weapons, etc.


 
 

RECONNAISSANCE SUMMARY

1. General enemy Situation:

1. Overall development:
A summary of overall development of the enemy's activity during the report period in the entire sector of the division with the total estimated enemy losses and his current density of forces and means.

2. Summary on each direction:
Summary of enemy activity during the report period on each direction from right to left.
-- a.
-- b.
-- c.

3. Enemy nuclear capability and preparation

4. Enemy air actions

5. Enemy naval action

6. Significant information about the enemy
-- a. nuclear weapons
-- b. new weapons and equipment
-- c. new methods of action
-- d. important POW interrogation
-- e. new reserves
-- f. other

7. Conclusion: Actual situation of the enemy and his likely intentions and characteristics of action:
-- a. strength, number of units, composition
-- b. grouping of forces
-- c. air and naval forces
-- d. reserves
-- e. general situation in the enemy territory
-- f. likely actions



 
 

RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONAL REPORT

1. Mission questions (tasks)
-- Answers to the questions given as reconnaissance tasks, where, when what was looked for etc.

2. What other things were discovered
-- Additional information acquired during the reconnaissance task by these units.

3. Actual Situation and Requests for assistance
-- Gives actual status of reconnaissance forces and means their losses, supplies, capabilities, and requests for assistance. What are the reconnaissance forces doing and where they are.



 
 

Artillery

The following section contains the basic documents used in planning artillery support at the division level.

Instructions from Chief of RT&A at Army

The chief of rocket troops and artillery at army issues instructions on artillery to the divisions. These instructions inform the division on what artillery reinforcements it will receive and what fire missions it must undertake for army, as well as what targets will be attacked by army artillery and other matters. See the section on the army artillery for detailed discussion.


Suggestions of Chief of RT&A to Commander

The chief of rocket troops and artillery informs the commander of the instructions received from higher headquarters, his own estimate of the enemy artillery and status of friendly artillery and makes suggestions in support of the commander's decision. See Chapter Two for details of the responsibilities of the chief of rocket troops and artillery and his suggestions to the commander.

 
 

SAMPLE

Suggestions of Division Chief of RT&A to the Division Commander during the Making of the Decision

Enemy Forces

Directly opposing the 16th MRD are elements of the ___8th Mechanized Division, Vth US Corps. They have the following missiles and nuclear artillery:
-- _____;
-- _____;
-- ______;

Deeper in the enemy defense area the following operational-tactical missiles can affect the division's attack sector:
-- ____;
-- ____;
-- ____;

The enemy's artillery supporting his brigade and divisional defense area consists of ___,___,___,___.

On the forward defense belt the majority of artillery is in prepared positions with its known battery positions as follows:
-- ____;
-- ____;
-- ____;
-- _____;

Artillery reconnaissance and air and radio-technical reconnaissance is to locate the positions of brigade and division artillery which are not yet known.


Own forces

The 16th MRD is reinforced for the offensive with six gun and one MRL artillery battalions and 1 anti-tank battalion from ____. The attached artillery units will arrive at the division at ____. The composition of these units along with the divisional artillery in personnel is 92% and 95% in equipment.

The total artillery available in the division totals 16 artillery battalions (288 guns and howitzers and 36 MRL's), plus 54 mortars and 36 AT guns and 78 ATGM's. IN terms of the required number of guns per kilometer of breakthrough frontage, the division shall be capable to support a break through sector of up to 4 km width. The capability of the division artillery makes it possible to establish DAG and RAG's with the following compositions:
-- DAG - 6 arty battalions;
-- RAG1 - 3 arty battalions;
-- RAG2 - 3 arty battalions;
-- RAG3 - 2 arty battalions.

The division can establish an AT reserve composed of one AT battalion and still be able to reinforce the anti-tank sub-units of first echelon regiments.

Organic and attached artillery units and sub-units are currently in the assembly area preparing for the operation, their training and combat experience is satisfactory. Supplies of ammunition and fuel are at designated norms at the units and at the division level.

The division expenditure requirements in ammunition for the conduct of the offensive battle and its resupply during the operation and creation of supply reserves at the end of the operation are as follows:

 
 
Totals required SA ARTY MRL TANK PVO
Quantity on hand 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.25 2.0
in units 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.5 1.5
in div depots 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.75 0.5
Resupplied during the battle 1.5 3.5 3.5 2.5 3.0
Used during the battle 1.5 3.5 3.5 2.5 3.0
Balance at end of battle 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.25 2.0
 
 

From the army's instructions on the employment of RT&A the following are known: the 16th MRD should deploy 4 arty bns forward, of which one arty bn will be from the regiment comprising the forward detachment. These artillery units should prepare firing positions 3-8 km from the border. Also the division rocket battalion should deploy 10 km from the border. The movement of the forward detachment through the enemy's covering force area should be supported by a minimum of 3 artillery battalions. The remaining artillery troops of the division should be ready to support the deployment and commitment into battle of the division main forces.

The division will conduct a break through on the enemy forward defense zone on ta width of 4 km. The division breakthrough area will be also covered by fire of 4 artillery battalions of AAG, 2 battalions of the AGRA, and 3 battalions of second echelon division artillery.

The duration of artillery preparatory fire will be 40 minutes, assault support fire should be conducted through the depth of the enemy's first echelon brigade defenses.

Artillery reconnaissance of division artillery should detect and locate the enemy's FLOT, strong points, artillery and mortar batteries, CP's and reserves.

 
 

Suggestions

1. To support the division mission the artillery groups should be established as follows:
-- DAG: army artillery brigade + MRL bn (attached) + division MRL bn - total 6 battalions.
-- RAG1: (main direction) division arty regiment (- MRL bn) + regt arty bn - total 4 bns.
-- RAG2: 22 Arty Bde (- 2 bns) + regt arty bn - total 3 bns.
-- Division anti-tank reserve: Army AT Bn (attached).
-- Regt AT reserve (main direction) 2 AT batteries.
-- Regt AT reserve 2 AT batteries;
-- Regt AT reserve 1 AT battery

2. During the commitment into battle of the division second-echelon the tank regiment will be reinforced by two artillery battalions.

3. Duration of artillery preparatory fire is 40 minutes and should be started when own troops deploy into battalion columna at the line of ___.

4. Artillery support during the course of the battle should be conducted by double fire curtain (ognivoi val) up to the depth of the enemy's first echelon battalions, then by the method of successive concentrations of fire (PSO) to the entire depth of the brigade defense. Further on artillery accompanying fire should be conducted by means of massive and concentration fire.



Instructions of the Division Commander on Determining Missions, Targets, and Means for using Rocket Forces

The division commander issues detailed instructions on the employment of rocket forces. This guidance is taken by the chief of rocket troops and artillery and it forms one of the bases for the detailed planning of rocket troops. The guidance includes the following points:
-- which enemy groups and targets will be destroyed in the first nuclear strike by the division rocket battalion:
---- a. destruction of nuclear means and nuclear depots in the following location;
-----b. destruction of main forces of the ____ division;
-----c. destruction of command posts of the ____ brigades at the following locations _____;
---- d. destruction of PVO points at ____,____, and --;
---- the enemy forces will be destroyed to the following level in percent using the following types of warheads and bursts -( for example, air burst of 20 kt);
-----reserve of nuclear and chemical ammunition;



Instructions of the Division Commander in Determining the Missions for Artillery;

The division commander also issues instructions giving his guidance for the employment of artillery in support of the coming operation. The instructions include the following points:
-- the composition of artillery groups and distribution of artillery among the regiments;
-- designate the specific composition of the division artillery group and composition of the anti-tank reserve;
-- designate the main missions for artillery during the preparation phase and the course of the operation;
-- designate the breakthrough area, time for artillery preparation, depth of artillery support and its type; and the quantity of ammunition which will be used;
-- which artillery will participate in the artillery preparation;
-- how artillery will support the commitment of the division second-echelon regiment;



Instructions of Division Chief of RT&A on Artillery to the Chief of Artillery of a Regiment

The chief of rocket troops and artillery at the division level prepares instructions on various technical details of artillery activities for each regiment. These instructions provide the regimental artillery chiefs with information on their regiment's requirements to fit the division plan, what resources they can expect, and other matters. The regiment chiefs report on this information to their commanders and use it as one of the bases for their artillery planning. The instructions contain the following points:
-- what artillery battalions and anti-tank artillery units will be provided as reenforcement for the regiment;
-- what will be the norms for expenditure of ammunition during the preparatory fire and support fire, and for the regiment's important missions, and the capabilities for its resupply during the course of the battle;
-- instructions for conduct of re-confirming reconnaissance and exact determination of the targets that will be destroyed in the artillery preparatory fire phase;
-- which division or army artillery sub-group will support the regiment during the course of the day's battle;
-- width of the breakthrough sector for the regiment, density of artillery per kilometer of front, and length of duration of the preparatory fire, composition of the fire preparation (usually it consists of 3-5 artillery strikes), means for delivery of ammunition to the gun firing positions;
-- details on movement of the artillery units to their forward firing positions in order to be ready for conduct of preparatory fire, the areas for the firing positions, time to arrive and be prepared, conduct of artillery reconnaissance, designation of the targets for the preparatory fire,
-- how support fire will be provided up to the depth of the defending first-echelon brigades and the types of artillery support fire;
-- methods for providing artillery accompanying fire during the battle;
-- composition and grouping of the artillery in the covering force area and its missions;



Combat Instructions of Division Chief of Artillery to Commander of Division Artillery Group (DAG)

The division chief of artillery issues instructions to the DAG commander, who generally will be the commander of an artillery brigade attached from army, on the conduct of artillery fire for the coming battle. The following is a sample of these instructions.

 
 

- Serial No.
-- Secret
-- Copy No.

Combat Instructions

of Division Chief of RT & Artillery to DAG

CP: At ___(location) at ___ (time and date)

RT & Arty to DAG

1. Enemy:

Elements of enemy's Vth Corps prepare to initiate military action against our forces. The enemy has prepared a defensive line along the Fulda River to inflict maximum losses on friendly forces from defensive posture. On this line units of the enemy's Third Armored Division of the Vth U.S. Corps will be directly confronting the 16th Motorized Rifle Division, with up to 1.5 mechanized battalions in his first echelon, a brigade reserve of up to one tank battalion. The location of enemy forces are shown on the attached map.

2. Own Forces:

Using the air strikes and fire of 18 artillery battalions the 16th MRD breaks through the enemy defense on a 4 km frontage in the area south of Bad Hersfeld and Asbach. The division's immediate and long range missions and other elements of the division commander's decision are shown on the map annex.

3. Tasks:

The division artillery group is composed of the following elements:

-- 96th Artillery Brigade (army) commander and headquarters as the commander and staff of the DAG;
-- 96th Artillery Brigade (army) - 4 artillery battalions;
-- 101st Reactive Artillery Battalion;
-- Reactive artillery battalion from 16th Artillery Regiment (division);

The division artillery group in cooperation and interaction with army artillery groups and regimental artillery conducts the following tasks:
-- a. During the approach of division forces and means for the attack:
-- Destroy enemy's detected nuclear artillery pieces in the area ___;
-- Suppress enemy artillery batteries in areas ___, ___, ___, ___;
-- Destroy enemy control and radar ;points at ___, ___, ___ and ___;
-- b. During the artillery preparatory fire: (from H - 00:45 to H - 00:05);
-- Suppress targets No. 43, 45, 63, 64, 66, and 67 from H - 00:45 to H - 00:37;
-- Suppress targets 54, 55, 56, 72, 74 and 75 from H - 00:37 to H - 00:20;
-- Suppress targets of first artillery strike from H - 00:20 to H - 00: 05;
-- Conduct the covering strike on enemy artillery at __-, ___, ___ and ___ from H - 00:07 to H + 00:03;
-- c. During the conduct of the attack:
-- conduct fire curtain on areas 21, 22, 23, and 24 on the first line of the fire curtain and as the infantry and tank advance shift on subsequent lines in the areas 63, 65, 66, 67, and then on 74, 75, 76, and 77;
-- conduct fire support by method of successive concentration of fire, beyond the depth of enemy's first echelon battalions on line Tiger (target 101, 102, 103), Lion (targets 211, 214, 215) and Wolf (targets 121, 123, and 124);
-- Be prepared to support the repulsion of enemy counterattack from the line ___ with 2 artillery battalions;
-- Be prepared to detach two artillery battalions to the second echelon regiment (16th Tank Regiment) at its line of commitment into battle;
-- Be prepared to participate with at least 3 artillery battalions in massive fire "Neptune" to inflict losses on advancing enemy reserves at ___-;

The deployment area of the DAG and its relocation during the battle are shown on the annexed map; The DAG must occupy its position in the FUP area on the night of 16/17 July between 22:00 and 04:00 hrs; The expenditure of ammunition is shown on the annexed table;

4. Tasks conducted by higher echelon and issues of interaction:

-- In the division's sector the following targets will be destroyed (suppressed) by army artillery group, AGRA, and artillery of the army's second echelon division:
---- 1. During the movement forward: targets 112, 113, 114, 116, and 117;
----2. During the artillery preparatory fire: targets 32, 33, 34, 45, 47, 48, 52, 53, 54, and 78;
----3. During the assault support fire: targets 152, 153, 154, 184, 185, and 186;
--- 4. The combat helicopters and air forces destroy targets at the enemy's brigade and divisional reserve area, division CP, and 155 mm artillery batteries and Lance missile batteries;
--- 5. Regimental artillery groups are assigned to support the attack in sectors of related regiments and destroy mortar batteries at __, ___, and __;

5. Troop control:

The division command post deploys at Unlerneurode.
The division's rear control point deploys at Douges.
The division forward command post deploys south of the T road junction west of Melkames.
The movement direction of division control points during the battle is the direction of Asbach, Rimberg- Hallhof.
Signal communication with division control points is to be established by radio, radio-relay, and mobile communications means with strict observance of secure troop control regulations.



Planning Combat Employment of Rocket Troops and Artillery in Division Offensive Operations

The plan of employment of rocket troops and artillery is the principle document prescribing combat actions of rocket troops and artillery in terms of missions of the battle. This plan is a main component of division plans for the battle. While planning the combat employment of rocket troops and artillery, the chief of rocket troops and artillery accomplishes the following:
-- clarify the mission;
-- study the decision of the division commander on the employment of rocket troops and artillery;
-- study instructions from higher echelon (army) on the employment of rocket troops and artillery;
-- conduct a full assessment (estimate) of the situation;
-- make decisions on employment of rocket troops and artillery on the basis of which the plan for combat employment is prepared.

The plan is prepared in graphic form on a 1/100,000 or 1/50,000 scale map with an annex of written instructions. The plan is signed by the chief of the rocket troops and artillery and his chief of staff. It is approved by the division commander. The plan is considered a part of the division's plan of battle. The following points are shown in the graphic part of the plan:
-- situations and actions of enemy forces, his important groupings, and targets of rocket troops and artillery;
-- situations and missions of division forces and regiments and boundaries between them;
-- missions of rocket troops in the initial and subsequent nuclear strikes, number of targets, yields of nuclear rounds, types of bursts, sub-units and units launching the strikes, and time of delivery of strikes;
-- employ rocket troops against enemy nuclear means;
-- directions of movements and positions areas of rocket troops in attack (FUP) positions, and in the security and border areas;
-- relocate positions of rocket troops during the course of conduct of battle;
-- artillery groupings of the division and regiments in attack (FUP) areas and in security and border areas;
-- penetration (breakthrough) areas and density of artillery in these areas;
-- areas of deployment of antitank reserves of the division and regiments and the directions of their actions;
-- maneuver of rocket troops and artillery during the course of conduct of operations;
-- positions of air defense artillery and areas of radar;
-- other elements of division combat formations.

In the plan an annex of the initial nuclear strike of the division rocket troops, with written instructions is also prepared.

The following points are covered in the written instructions:
-- combat composition of rocket troops and artillery, distribution of attached and organic artillery among the regiments, and their regroupment during the course of battle;
-- distribution of artillery rounds in terms of their allocation to division missions and in terms of their distribution to different regiments;
-- composition of antitank reserves of the division and regiments.

The following issues are reflected in the work document:
-- method, time of preparation, and delivery of rockets to troops;
-- calculation of time for bringing rocket troops and artillery to full combat readiness;
-- calculation of time for movement of rocket troops;
-- expenditure of conventional rounds in battle and for each mission during the battle;
-- measures for protecting troops against enemy mass-destruction weapons.



Distribution of Artillery and Artillery Units from Army

The chief of rocket troops and artillery must distribute the division artillery battalions and those received from army to form the regimental artillery groups and the division artillery group. The form for entering this information is given in Figure 217.



Graphic of Arty Prep Fire

This table is prepared by the staff of the rocket troops and artillery in planning the coordinated fire of all the division artillery during the preparatory fire phase. It shows the time and sequence for firing at each target. (Figure 218)



Graphic of Initial Nuclear Strike

This table (Figure 219) shows the times for the division rocket battalion to prepare and be ready to participate in the front initial nuclear strike. It is kept constantly up to date during the battle as the status of designated targets shifts.



Annex to Div Arty Fire Plan

This table (Figure 220) is prepared as part of the division artillery fire planning. It shows the participation of all division organic and attached artillery units including those from army included in the DAG and RAG's. The table shows the sequence of fire during preparatory, support and accompanying phases.



Echelonment of Ammunition Supply in the Division

This table (Figure 221) shows the amount and location of ammunition available for the battle.

 
 

Figure 217 Distribution of artillery and Artillery units from Army

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Figure 218 Graphic of Artillery Preparation Plan

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Figure 219 Graphic of Initial Nuclear Strike

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Figure 220 Annex to Division Artillery Fire Plan

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Figure 221 Echelonment of Ammunition Supply in the Division

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Division Artillery Plan

The division artillery plan depicts the spacial layout of the artillery forces and means supporting the division in relation to the operational framework for the offensive. The framework is the boundary lines of the division with its adjacents and between the regiments, as well as the boundaries of the breakthrough sector and the deployment lines of the combined arms regiments into battalion and company columns and the assault line. It provides a schematic diagram of the organizational structure of the artillery into its army, division, and regimental artillery groups, surface to surface rocket units, and anti-tank reserve units. It also shows the air defense units covering the artillery and unit headquarters. It also presents a visual schematic layout of the pre-planned artillery fire during the preparatory fire and assault support fire stages. The individual and grouped fire concentrations are numbered by target and related to the firing artillery group by color code. The target numbers are listed in the graphical tables accompanying the map. These concentrations are planned to the full depth of the enemy position against known targets. The sample map shows only some of the planned concentrations, for lack of space to preserve clarity for the viewer. Newly detected targets will be added as they appear. On the map are indicated some of the nuclear strikes by division rockets, which are always planned whether or not use of nuclear weapons is expected to occur immediately. The map also indicates the lines for the successive double barrage that forms the first phase of the assault support fire. This is delivered on the leading edge of the defense positions just as the assaulting forces reach their final line and then shifts into the depth as indicated. The lines for firing against possible enemy counter attacks are shown. In this sample map only one is indicated. An important feature of artillery planning is the designation of deployment lines for the regimental and division anti-tank reserves. During the combat these units will always be on the march from one designated line to the next, remaining in column, and only actually deploying at the next designated line if an enemy counter-attack seems likely. The diagram also indicates the general pre-planned location of the main artillery groups at certain critical stages on the battle, such as during the commitment of the second-echelon and during forcing a water barrier. Actually, the individual artillery battalions of these RAG's and DAG will be displacing forward frequently to intermediate firing positions not indicated on the map. Starting from the right, the map shows the division in its assembly area 25 to 40 km from the national border prior to D Day. Only a covering force from one regiment with artillery and the divisional rocket battalion are forward, within 10 km of the border. The map then shows the deployment scene after the forward detachment has pushed the defender back through his covering force area and revealed the location of the main defense line (FEBA). The artillery has come forward behind the forward detachment and gone into position at least 6 hours prior to the attack. It has been distributed into a RAG for each first-echelon regiment, the division DAG, and the army AAG and AGRA.. All are covered by the regimental and division SAM air defense units. After the artillery is in position the motor rifle and tank battalions of the first-echelon regiments move forward, deploying into battalion, company, and platoon columns at designated lines. The commencement of the artillery preparatory fire is timed to start with the arrival of the assault forces at the battalion deployment lines and to continue until they reach the assault line. At this time the assault support fire commences. However there is a short interim between these called "overlapping fire" during which the artillery conducts special firing sequences designed to confuse the enemy and conceal the time of the assault. The targets fired upon during this period are not specially designated on the map.

The center of the sample map shows a representative number of the fire concentrations intermingled with the representations of the defender's strong points and the deployment lines for the anti-tank reserve. The lines for the immediate and subsequent missions of the battalions are not shown. In the left center are the general locations of the RAG's, DAG, and division rocket battalion at the time of commitment of the second-echelon regiment. Further left the same units are shown at the time of their support for the forcing of the water barrier. At the far left they are shown again as the division consolidates the ground gained and prepares for the next day's operations.

 
 

Figure 222 Division artillery plan map

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Engineer

Plan for employment of engineers

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Signal

 
 

Plan for employment of Signal Troops


The Following Points are Shown on the Division Signal Plan Map (1:200,000 OR 1:100.00)
-- boundaries and missions of division and regiments;
-- command posts of division and regiments in the FUP areas and relocation of command posts during the conduct of the action;
-- command posts of the rocket troops and artillery and air defense troops.
-- command posts of radio electronic combat troops, reconnaissance troops, engineer troops, chemical troops, etc;
-- areas of deployment of division mobile material battalion, regimental rear services, and other important installations of division rear services;
-- signal centers of the division and regimental command posts;
-- axis and directions of division and regimental wire communication system;
-- directions, axes, and circular paths of mobile communication means of the division and regiments;
-- centers and stations of division and regimental field mail service;
-- areas of deployment of signal supply and repair units of the division.



 
 

SIGNALS COORDINATION, 10TH RIFLE DIVISION. D-DAY (Map 1:50,000)

TACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SIGNALS
RADIO SIGNALS
VISUAL SIGNALS
WHO GIVES SIGNAL TO WHOM SIGNAL IS GIVEN
1. ATTACK OF INFANTRY TO BEGIN. 222 THUNDER WHITE ROCKETS R DIV CO CO. OF R REGTS.
2. ATTACK OF TANKS TO BEGIN. 333 LIGHTNING BLACK ROCKETS R DIV CO (SAME)
3. DEPARTURE AT THE LINE OF ATTACK:

29th R REGT

28TH R REGT

30TH R REGT


444

555

666


WAVE

SEA

OCEAN


BLUE ROCKETS

(SAME)

(SAME)



29TH REGT CO

28TH REGT CO

30TH REGT CO



CO. OF R DIV

(SAME)

(SAME)

4. PREPARED FOR ATTACK:

29TH R REGT

28TH R REGT

30TH R REGT

TANKS



777

888

999

000



RIVER

BROOK

LAKE

WATERFALL



VIOLET ROCKET

(SAME)

(SAME)

(SAME)



29TH REGT CO

28TH REGT CO

30TH REGT CO

TANK REGT CO



R DIV CO

(SAME)

(SAME)

(SAME)

5. IMMEDIATE MISSION COMPLETED:

29TH R REGT

28TH R REGT

30TH R REGT



AAA

BBB

CCC



BULLET

BOMB

GRENADE



BL/WHITE

ROCKETS

(SAME)

(SAME)



29TH REGT CO

28TH REGT CO

30TH REGT CO



(SAME)

(SAME)

(SAME)

6. TANKS PASSED TO THE ATTACK TTT CALM (SAME) TANK REGT CO (SAME)
7. SHIFT ARTILLERY FIRE TO ZONE

(COORDINATES)

PPP WIND WHITE ROCKETS R REGT CO REGT ARTY GRP CO
8. CEASE FIRING ON ZONE

(COORDINATES)

GGG GALE RED ROCKETS R REGT CO

TANK REGT CO

(SAME)
9. AREA OCCUPIED

(COORDINATES)

KKK VICTORY Red/WhiteROCKETS R REGT CO

TANK REGT CO

R DIV CO
10. FROM AVIATION TO INF:

"WHERE IS FRONT"

33 MORNING GREEN ROCKETS PLANE RIFLE UNITS
11. FROM RIFLE UNITS TO AVIATION:

"I AM FRIENDLY"

44 EVENING AIR-GRD PANEL,

GREEN ROCKETS

RIFLE UNITS PLANE
12. COUNTERATTACK OF ENEMY FROM AREA (COORDINATES) 01 PANTHER TRACER BULLETS TOWARD ENEMY CO OR R BN ALL
13. TANKS OF ENEMY IN AREA (COORDINATES) 02 TIGER (SAME) CO OR R BN ALL
14. I AM ATTACKING (COORDINATES OF OBJECTIVE) 03 WHIRLWIND (SAME) CO TANK BR R DIV CO
TACTICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE SIGNALS RADIO SIGNALS VISUAL SIGNALS WHO GIVES SIGNAL TO WHOM SIGNAL IS GIVEN  
CHIEF OF OPERATIONS

RANK, SIGNATURE

DIV SIGNAL OFFICER

RANK, SIGNATURE


 
 

Rear Service

 
 

Contents of the Instructions of the Division Commander on Rear Service Support

-- area of deployment and direction of movement of the rear service;
-- supply and evacuation routes for material support;
-- volume and time of the establishment of the material reserves;
-- consumption norms of material means prior to the initiation of the attack and during the first day of the battle;
-- method and time of preparation of combat equipment and vehicles ;
-- method of repair and evacuation of combat vehicles and motor vehicles;
-- principal measures on medical supplies;
-- location of rear service control point;



Contents of the Division Order for Rear Service Support
-- boundaries of the rear service area;
-- areas of deployment of the rear service units sub-units and installations, direction of their relocation, areas and lines of their deployment for the attack;
-- supply and evacuation routes of units and large units prior to the initiation of the attack and during the attack, missions related to their preparation, movement support on these routes, troops and means attached for such service;
-- volume and time of establishment of material reserves;
-- missions on rear service support for every unit and sub-unit of the rear service prior to the initiation of and during the attack;
-- organization of continuous security and defense of the rear service;
-- location of the rear service control point;
-- time of readiness of the rear services;



Elements Participating in Planning of Rear Service Support
-- division rear service staff;
-- division staff;
-- chief of technical support;
-- chief of artillery;
-- chief of engineers;
-- chief of chemical ;
-- etc.



Planning Measures Taken Prior to Receipt of Division Order and Army Directive
-- preparation of the rear service area in terms of engineer work;
-- collection of mobile material reserve;
-- repair of weapons, combat and transport equipment;
-- evacuation of wounded and sick from medical points;



Contents of the Graphic Part of the Rear Service Support Plan
-- brief information about the enemy's disposition;
-- boundaries of the rear service area;
-- situation of friendly troops, missions of the division and regiments;
-- areas of deployment of the main elements of the division's combat formation;
-- deployment of the rear service elements of the division in the departure area and their relocation during the attack;
-- area of deployment of division separate material support bn. and its relocation during the attack;
-- areas of deployment of the rear services and rear service control points of the division and regiments in the departure area and their relocation during the attack;
-- axis and "rokad" (lateral) routes of the army, division, and regiments;
-- protection, security, and defense of the rear service area;
-- points of supply of division vehicles with POL;
-- etc.



Contents of Written Instructions on the Division Rear Service Support Plan
-- principal tasks of the rear service;
-- composition of the rear service;
-- material support of the troops;
-- medical support of the troops;
-- action of transport sub-units;
-- supply of vehicles with POL;
-- method of foodstuff supply;
-- repair of clothing and merchandise;
-- protection, security and defense of the rear service targets;
-- method of chemical decontamination of clothing;
-- method of troops control, diagram of the deployment of the rear service control point, table of call signs of individuals and command (control) points;
-- other calculations of material means etc.



 
 

Figure 223 -Echelonment of material in division


NORMS OF ECHELONMENT OF MATERIAL MEANS IN DIVISION
Type of supply Total in div Division depot Regiment depot Battalion Company Individual
Small arms 1.0 0.2
Arty & mtr 1.0 0.3
MRL rockets 1.0 0.2
Tank 2.25 0.5
Air Def 2.0 0.5
Gas 1.7 0.3
Diesel 2.4 0.5
Food 13.0 2.0
 
 

Deployment of Division Rear Service Elements

I. In the departure area:
--- 1. In first-echelon
---- Medical bn, collection point for damaged vehicles, part of repair bn
---2. In the second-echelon
---- The rest of the division rear services elements ie. separate material support bn,bakery, transport sub-units, combined depot, separate medical detachment, rest of repair bn, etc.

II. During the conduct of the attack:
--- 1. In the first-echelon:
---- Reserves of ammunition, POL, and other means, medical bn, part of repair and evacuation means
---2. In the second-echelon
---- Separate material support bn, mobile bakery, combined depot, transport sub-units, separate medical detachment, rest of the repair bn, other sub-units, the rear control point



Supply and Evacuation Routes

1. Axis routes
--- Div: from division depots to depots of first-echelon regiments and division artillery positions
--- Regt: From regimental depots to first-echelon bn's rear service sub-units and positions of regimental artillery

2. Lateral routes (rokad)
--- Div: Along the line of the regimental rear services, parallel with the front line
--- Army: Along the line of the division depots parallel with the front line



Types of Material Means

-- all types of weapons' ammunition and spare parts supplies;
-- armor supplies;
-- motor - tractor supplies;
-- engineer supplies;
-- technical supplies;
-- signal supplies;
-- chemical supplies;
-- POL supply;
-- foodstuff supplies;
-- clothing supply;
-- medical supply;
-- veterinary supplies;
-- fuel and lighting supplies;
-- topography supplies;
-- monetary supplies;
-- water supplies.



 
 

Organizing Medical Support in Large Units, Units, and Sub-units

 
 

The following are elements in organizing support in large units, units, and sub-units:
-- timely conduct of first medical aid to the wounded and sick on the battlefield;
-- collecting and evacuating wounded to medical points of units, large units, and army's separate medical detachments;
-- extending medical assistance to wounded and sick, their treatment and preparation for further evacuation;
-- extending qualified and special medical assistance to wounded and sick;
-- conducting measures on providing hygiene and protection from epidemics and infectious disease;
-- conducting measures for protecting personnel against enemy mass-destruction weapons, conduct of special and full decontamination.



Elements of Medical Support System in Units and Large Units

The following are elements of medical support systems in units and large units in battalions:
-- battalion's medical point established by medical platoon.

The following are elements of medical support systems in units and large units in regiments:
-- regiment's medical point is established by the regiment's medical company. It collects rescues and transports wounded and sick from the battlefield and battalion medical points, conducts "physician" medical assistance, and prepares them for further evacuation.

The following are elements of medical support systems in units and large units in divisions:
-- division's medical point is established by the division's medical battalion. It is equipped with qualified medical assistance and evacuates the wounded and sick to forward medical hospitals of the front.



Types of Medical Assistance

The following are elements of first aid:
-- self and mutual medical aid on the basis of instructions of sub-unit commanders and by medical personnel of the company on the spot.

The following are elements of pre-physician medical assistance:
-- it is provided by paramedics (assistant physicians) particularly to counter life threatening events (bleeding, concussion) and protecting wounds from contamination and preventing shock.

The following are elements of first "physician" medical assistance:
-- it is provided by physicians in the unit's (regiment's) medical point. It includes changing of bandages and dressings, stopping bleeding by medical means, fixing fractures, simple surgical operation, and preventing shock.
The following are elements of qualified medical assistance:
-- it is provided by physicians, specialists, and surgeons normally at the division's medical point and army's separate medical detachments. It includes surgical operations, stopping bleeding, dressings, and preparing wounded for evacuation to front hospitals.

The following are elements of specialized medical assistance:
-- it is provided by specialist physicians (internal, eye, orthopedic, etc.) at front hospitals with full medical facilities. It is normally the final phase of medical assistance.



 
 

Types of Technical Support

The following are types of technical support:
-- rocket technical support;
-- radio-electronic technical support;
-- aviation technical support;
-- artillery technical support;
-- armor technical support;
-- motor and tractor technical support;
-- engineer technical support;
-- chemical technical support;
-- signal technical support;
-- rear service technical support.



Principle Measures of Technical Support

The following are the principle measures of technical support:
-- technical service and maintenance;
-- supply of weapons, combat equipment, ammunition, and technical equipment;
-- organizing repair and evacuation of damaged equipment;
-- organizing the training of personnel who are learning the use of weapons and technical equipment;
-- control of technical support troops and means during the battle.



Technical Service and Maintenance Tasks

The following are elements of tasks for technical service and maintenance during control inspections:
-- Conducted by the crew prior to leaving the park, during the march (in halts), before firing and exercises to test the readiness of tank for use, normal function of major assemblies and mechanisms, instruments and systems. It takes fifteen to thirty minutes. During the march it takes ten to fifteen minutes.

The following are elements of tasks for technical service and maintenance during technical service no. 1:
-- It is conducted after each return of the tank to the park, in march, during intervals in the battle regardless of the distance covered by the tank. It is conducted by the crew which inspects the level of fuel, lubricants, ammunition, and conducts cleaning of parts and tests the technical status of major part for security and normal functioning.

The following are elements of tasks for technical service and maintenance during technical service no. 2:
-- It is different for different types of tanks. For T-54 it is conducted after 1,000-1,100 km. It takes 6.5-9.5 hours to conduct the service.

The following are elements of tasks for technical service and maintenance during technical service no. 3:
-- It is conducted after 2,000-2,200 km. It takes eight to twelve hours to conduct.

Technical service no. 2 and no. 3 include close inspection of the technical status of the tasks, conduct of adjustments, replenishment or change of POL, and lubricating of major assemblies. In addition to these there are two more technical services:
-- seasonal technical service: conducted to winterize or summerize the tank which includes change of special oil and preparing the tank for winter or summer;
-- seasonal technical service: to prepare the vehicle for use (or after use) in special conditions such as high mountainous areas, before or after river crossings, etc.



Technical Service for Automobiles

The following are technical services for automobiles:
-- Combat test (inspection): Before moving out of the park. It takes fifteen to twenty minutes to conduct. It is also conducted in march halts for ten to fifteen minutes.
-- Routine technical inspection: After each return to the park or after 100-150 km. It takes 1-1.5 hours and includes inspection of replenishment with POL, cleaning of parts, inspection of the technical status of major parts for security and normal functioning.
-- Technical inspection no. 1: It is normally conducted after 1,000-1,200 km during 3 hours.
-- Technical inspection no. 2: It is conducted after 5,000-6,000 km during 8 hours.

Most of the maintenance service of combat and transport vehicles are conducted by tank crews, vehicle drivers under direct supervision of sub-unit commanders and chiefs of technical service. To provide assistance to them in removing the malfunctions, repair means can also be assigned.



Repair Levels

The following are repair levels:
-- routine repairs: conducted in the unit repair plant and sometimes in the division repair plant with the participation of drivers and crews;
-- medium repair: conducted by division (and army if reinforced by repair units) and the front.
-- major repair: normally conducted in repair plants and front repair facilities



Priorities for Evacuation

The following are priorities for evacuation:
-- in the first priority vital equipment such as control means, rockets, and other lightly damaged equipment is evacuated from under enemy fire;
-- in second priority equipment is evacuated which may be repaired by division and regiment repair facilities;
-- in the third priority the rest of the damaged equipment is evacuated.



 
 

III. ARMY HEADQUARTERS

 
 

Operations

This section contains the combat documents received by, prepared in and issued by the army operations directorate. They include orders and instructions as well as elements of the operations plan. There is also a short discussion of the commander's decision and planning process. For further discussion refer to Chapter Three.



Sample Operational Instruction Front to Army

The army receives its orders in the form of an extract of the front operational directive. The form and content of this instruction follows:
-- I. Enemy situation: a brief description of the enemy facing the army and its expected courses of action.
-- II. The content of the orders to the army describing its missions.
-- III. The support provided by actions of front forces and means in the army area.
-- IV. Troop control: The location and movement of the front command post, signal communication measures and the succession for the front commander.
-- V. The time and location at which the army commander must report his decision to the front commander.

A sample of the operational instructions received by the army follows:



 
 

SAMPLE

OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVE OF THE CENTRAL FRONT

to Eighth Guards Army

 
 

Command Post ... map 1:1,000,000, 1983 ed. 1330 1, 2, 1985


I. Enemy Situation

In accordance with the international crisis and the deterioration of the international situation, the enemy has secretly brought his armed forces to a state of full combat readiness, and is preparing a surprise invasion into the territory of the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

The Eighth Guards Army is confronted by the US V Corps. Its first-echelon is composed of __ mechanized and armored divisions, __ Armored Cavalry Regiment ___ nuclear SSM's, ___ nuclear artillery pieces, ____tanks, ___ artillery, ____SAM's and ____aircraft and helicopters.

In the second-echelon, the US V Corps has deployed ___ while mobilizing German and French units are in reserve with a total of ___ divisions, ___ nuclear SSM's, ___nuclear artillery pieces, ___ tanks,___ artillery, ___SAM's, and ___ aircraft and helicopters.

The enemy operation is supported by ___combat aircraft including ___ aircraft with nuclear capabilities. The enemy will try to destroy the Warsaw Pact forces by a surprise and decisive attack and disrupt its preparation for the offensive operation.  If the Warsaw Pact forces are able to overtake the enemy in preparations and launch of the attack, the enemy is likely to conduct delaying action along several pre-prepared defensive lines mostly on main rivers to inflict the heaviest losses on WP forces and eventually destroy it in counter-blows.

The enemy's counter-blows are likely to be launched from the line: ___________ in the direction of ______________, and from the line: _________ in the direction of __________________.



II. The Eighth Guards Army reinforced with _____ artillery division, ______ anti-tank regt, _______:

Advances from the line _______________ by breaking the enemy's defense line between ___ and ___ to launch the main blow in the direction Borndorf - Bad Hersfeld - Wetzlar - Simmern to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area ____, _____, _______________, __________. At the end of D + 3 reach the line Wetzlar - Bad Nauheim. Subsequently advance in the direction _______________ to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves in the area ___, ___, ___, ___ and at the end of the operation's _______ day seize the line ______, _________. Alloted for the conduct of the operation are __ nuclear, __ chemical, __ conventional rocket warheads.

The army FUP area is 1352 - Gotha - Zelle - Seitz - Weissenfeld.

\ On the right is the First Guards Tank Army

The boundary with them follows the line Eilenburt - E 11o 34' - Eisenach - Mast 2474 - N 51o 13' - 1427 (E 80o 26', N 50o 8') - Rhine at Neuwied.

On the left is the Twenty-eighth Guards Army

The boundary with them follows the line Mittwelda - Kahla - 2425 (E 10o 26' N 50o 37') - Gersfeld - Bad Vilbel - Frankfurt - Rhine at Bingen - Trier.

Position the command post in the _____________ area, and the rear control post in the _____________ area.



III. The following enemy sites in the army's attack zone are destroyed by the front's rocket brigades: ________, _____.

The Eighth Guards Army will receive ___ regimental sorties per day during the accomplishment of the immediate mission and ___ regimental sorties per day during its accomplishment of its subsequent mission.

The army will coordinate air defense with the ___ Fighter Division operating in tis sector and the ___ SAM Brigade in sector.



IV. The front command post is in the area of _________.

The front forward command post is in the area of __________________.

The front rear control point is in the area of ___________________.

The command post, forward command post and the rear control post move forward in the direction of _________________.

Deputies: the front chief of staff, the first deputy commander of the front, and the chief of the political directorate.

Communications are organized with all control points through radio, radio-relay, telephone-telegraph, with subordinates, neighbors and units interacting with yours.

V. The army commander will report his decision to the front commander at ___ hrs. The army will be prepared to initiate the offensive by ___ hrs.

Signatures:
--1.  Chief of the Operational Directorate
--2.  Front Chief of Staff
--3.  Front Commander



 
 

Planning documents


Contents of the Army Commander's Decision on the Offensive Operation

The army commander's decision is the basis for all planning, orders, and instructions. It is based on his clarification of the higher commander's orders and his estimate of the situation. (See Chapter Three for full discussion). The decision covers the following issues.

--Concept of the operation - missions, targets, and methods of employment of the nuclear weapons;
-- Missions of motorized and tank divisions (army corps), rocket and artillery troops, supporting air forces, airborne assault elements, missions of air defense troops and different reserves;
-- Items related to coordination;
-- Measures to support the combat actions of the troops;
-- Troop control.



Components of the Concept of the Operation

The commander's concept of the operation is the central, key element in his decision. This concept must be promulgated to the staff and all subordinates. Clarifying this concept becomes the first task of subordinate commanders.

-- Method of destruction of enemy
-- Direction of main and other attacks
-- Use of means of destruction
-- Operational formation (grouping)


Calendar Plan

This is prepared to show all measures including each document of the operations plan, the specified time and responsible person for preparing each document, the time of ratification by the chief of staff and approval by the army commander. The time allocation for preparing the operation is shown in tabular form.

The calendar plan is prepared by the chief of operations and chief of staff. It is the plan for how the planning will be accomplished. The calendar plan lists all the component parts and annexes to the army plan and all the major steps to be taken in preparing the troops and assembly areas for the operation. It is a GANT diagram showing the time intervals during which each activity will be accomplished and the time by which each must be completed. For the elements of the plan it shows when they will be presented to the commander for his approval. There are some indications in Soviet literature that they may be experimenting with use of PERT charts instead of GANT diagram to prepare the Calendar plan.


 
 

Figure 224 Calendar Plan

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ACTIVITIES OF COMMANDER AND ORGANS OF CONTROL OF ARMY

ORGANIZATION, PLANNING, AND PREPARATION OF OPERATION

Measures

Who participates

1. Clarification of mission Commander, C/S,

Political Dpty.

2. Initial Instructions Chief, Ops Dir.
3. Briefing to Chiefs acquainting them with the mission Chief of Staff
4. Estimate of the situation Commander, C/S,

Chiefs of arms and services

5. Making the Decision Commander
6. Reconnaissance on ground Commander, C/S, 1st Dpty, others
7. Issuing Missions to Subordinate Commanders Chief of Ops. Dir., C/S, Commander
8. Planning the Operation C/S, Chiefs of arms and services
(This begins with receipt of the mission (map work) and ends with report to higher headquarters.)
Plan of Operation Chief of Operations
A. Nuclear Strike Annex Chief Ops. Dir., C/S, Arty, C/S Air
B. Airborne Oper. Annex Chief Ops. Dir, Chief of Air, Chief Trans., others
C. Prep of FUP areas and routes Chief Ops. Dir, Chief Engr.
D. maskirovka Annex Chief Ops. Dir., Chief Engr., Chief REC
E. Defense against mass destruction wpns. annex Chief Ops. Dir, Chief Chem. Chief Engr., Officer from Rear Services
F. Troop Control annex Chief Ops. Dir., Chief Signal
G. Radio-electronic Annex C/S, Chief Signal, Air Commander, Chief REC., Chief Arty.
H. Computer Center Annex Chief computer center
Signal Plan Chief of Signal
Reconnaissance Plan Chief Reconnaissance
Arty and rocket Plan Chief Arty., Chief Recon.
Air Defense Deployment Plan Commander Air Defense
Engineer Plan Chief Engineer
Chemical Plan Chief Chemical
Rear Service Plan Deputy CO for Rear Service
Political Action Plan Deputy CO for Political
9. Organization of Interaction Commander, C/S, First Deputy
10. Preparation and move to FUP Areas Chief Ops Dir., Chief Engineer, Unit Commanders
11. Preparation of CP's C/S,. Chief Ops. Dir., Chief of Signal
12. Preparation of signal Chief of Signal
13. Supply Depots and Material delivery to units Chief of Technical and Armmament, Chief Rear Services
14. Organization Political work Chief Political Dept.
15. Organization Combat Support Chiefs Services, C/S
16. Organization Command System Chief Signal, Chief Ops. Dir.
17. Preparation of Troop Units for combat action Unit commanders
18. Control and Assistance to troop units Commander, C/S., Chiefs of arms and services


____________________________________________

Chief of Operations Chief of Staff


 
 

TABLE OF INTERACTION

16th MRD 18th MRD 19th MRD 21st MRD 17th TD 20th TD Missile forces Army arty Combat Helio PVO Anti-tank Res POZ Airborne Engr Chemical
Participation in initial nuc strike
Repel enemy attack
Cross border & battle in covering area
Breakthrough defense
Airborne assault
Commit Second echelon
Force Water Barrier
Signal

 
 

TABLE OF INTERACTION

16th MRD 18th MRD 19th MRD 21st MRD 17th TD 20th TD Missile forces Army arty group Combat Helio PVO Anti-tank Res POZ Airborne Engr Chemical
Participation in initial nuc strike 1. missile brigade of army, rocket battalions of divisions of first and second echelon participate in front innitial nuclear strike;

2. targets and yield are distributed in accordance with axis and distance between the units by the chief of staff, chief of MT&A, and chief of operations;

3. plan air bursts and use of chemical warheads in the axis of the main attack;

4. artillery and combat helicopters on the main attack axis use ammunition and chemical bombs on targets close to the front during nuclear strike;

5. the first nuclear strike is conducted according to order of front commander by three red rockets and radio message three times (word Pusk);

6. with the launch of the nuclear missiles the front aviation takes off and after the first nuclear strike they fly to targets in the zone ___, ___ passing through zone in army sector;

7. reconnaissance of all echelons against the condition and status of targets observes and reports on changes in the situation and in accordance with these the plan will be changed;

8. during conduct of nuclear strike army must consider and take measures for protection of own forces and direction of wind and time of day and night and must warn the troops in a timely manner on the first nuclear use. If forces are not warned, then must consider using a security distance 4 times greater than norm;

9. to accomplish surprise participation in initial nuclear strike, one third of nuclear forces will be on duty status for firing.

10. after conduct of initial nuclear strike, the enemy will also conduct nuclear strikes, therefore army organizes combined detachments of engineer, chemical, and motorized forces and they go into action when enemy uses nuclear strikes;

11. army and troop PVO means must be prepared after initial nuclear strike to repel enemy mass strikes and his pilotless means;

12. with first strike motorized divisions of first-echelon begin the attack in enemy depth and in interaction with air desants destroy main grouping;

13. missile battalions of first-echelon divisions fire at targets that have been confirmed by new reconnaissance;

14. fire is conducted exactly at the determined time P. For this all launchers must be prepared.

1. PVO forces cover the army missile brigade, main forces of army, command posts, and mobile missile bases in concentration areas.

2. after conduct of initial nuclear strike, army and troop PVO forces must be prepared to repel mass enemy air strikes and his pilotless means.

1. one combined detachment is created from engineer, chemical, and motorized forces (battalions) and also creation of combined detachments with mission of liquidation of results of enemy mass destruction weapons is planned by staffs and formations. During use of nuclear strikes by enemy they go into action to liquidate results of mass weapons and restore forces' combat effectiveness.
Repel enemy attack 1. divisions of first-echelon deploy 1-5 km from the border and build positions for defense units (usually from each division one motor rifle regiment);

2. units of artillery and rocket battalion of first-echelon division occupy firing positions behind the covering force guard units.

3. organize visual and radio and radio-technical reconnaissance at the state border;

4. the main forces of first-echelon divisions prepare mine fields on the main axis in the assembly areas with mission of repelling superior forces enemy attacks;

5. in case enemy launches offensive with superior forces on the main axis, go onto the defensive and inflict losses on the enemy and on other axes go onto offensive into depth of enemy territory;

6. in case enemy goes onto offensive with superior forces across the entire army front, go onto the defense on the whole front and inflict losses, and when operational reserves arrive then go onto the offensive.

1. prepare and occupy positions in the FUP areas;

2. conduct counter- attacks in accordance with the situation on the flank or rear of enemy and in interaction with main forces surround and destroy enemy.

Rocket forces will be prepared to conduct a group strike with

nuclear, chemical, and conventional rockets on the enemy main grouping, nuclear weapons, and command points.

1. prepare and occupy firing positions in the FUP areas;

2. conduct destruction of enemy main grouping during the battle in depth;

3. support deployment of

second-echelon forces and cover their flanks during counter

attacks in accordance with situation;

4. when enemy receives heavy losses and our reserves arrive, support the army main forces in their going over onto the offensive.

1. combat helicopters stop enemy tank attacks;

2. combat aircraft deliver strikes on main enemy forces during their repulsion and the course of the operation.

1. conduct reconnais-sance and observation against enemy air forces and warn forces of enemy air strikes;

2. cover rocket forces, artillery, main forces, and command posts against air strikes during

repulsion of enemy;

3. cover forces of second-

echelon in FUP area, during movement to counterattack and during counter- attack;

4. cover army forces when they go onto the attack.

1. designate lines to deploy anti-tank reserves and locations for construction of mine fields on possible enemy axes of attack;

2. construct mine fields and deploy anti-tank reserve and repel enemy tank attack on the axis of enemy main tank attack.

Cross border & battle in covering area 1. at the designated time, H-hr, army forces go onto the offensive in the enemy covering force area with re-inforced forward detachments based on one motor rifle regiment from each first-echelon division;

2. forward detachments attack enemy covering forces and quickly approach the enemy main line of defense;

3. forward detachments when they reach the enemy forward defense line determine the capability of the defense, combat formation, artillery positions, positions of fire means, command posts, strong points and other elements and maintain contact with enemy;

4. main forces of first-echelon divisions in march column move behind forward detachments and prepare to breakthrough defenses

Rocket forces and artillery when necessary deliver fire strikes or fire preparation on enemy nuclear weapons,

artillery, mortar batteries, tanks, anti-tank means, personnel, fire weapons, command posts, and radio-technical means in the zone of attack;

Air forces and combat helicopters deliver strikes on nuclear means, artillery and mortar batteries, command posts, and reserves located out of artillery range;

2. support combat action of forward detachments.

Support army main forces, missile forces and artillery, and command posts from enemy air strikes.
Breakthrough

defense

1. 16th and 18th MRD's breakthrough enemy defense with adjacent flanks in the area ___, __ on width of 10 km and quickly develop the offensive in enemy depth.

2. formations and units organize reconnaissance of enemy and terrain and determine platoon strong points, firing positions of artillery and mortars, command posts, nuclear weapons positions, locations of reserves and second echelons;

3. artillery forces, PVO forces, and command posts move behind the forward detachments and occupy firing positions to conduct preparatory fire and cover forces against enemy strikes;

4. the main forces of first echelon formations move behind artillery and PVO in march columns. At a distance of 8-12 km from enemy defenses they deploy into battalion columns, at 4-6 km deploy into company columns and at 2-3 km into platoon columns, and

attack enemy defense from the march;

5. density of artillery in breakthrough area is 110-120 guns per km. Duration of preparatory fire is 40 min and preparatory fire consists of three strikes. Ammunition expenditure of 1 unit of fire and exactly at Che hour attack enemy defense.

6. during fire preparation tanks, ATGM, anti-tank guns participate with task of destroying separate targets and enemy fire means;

7. units of first-echelon as possible bypass enemy strong points and quickly develop the offensive in the depth;

8. be prepared to repel counter-attacks on lines ___, __ and from axes ___, __- and also on lines ___, ___and axis __-, _--.

Be prepared to conduct group strikes with

nuclear, chemical, and conventional missiles on enemy main grouping, nuclear weapons, and command posts.

1. width of breakthrough sector is 10 km and density of artillery per km is 110-120;

2. duration of fire preparation is 40 min and ammunition expenditure is 1 unit of fire;

3. army artillery group is 10 artillery battalions, division arty groups 6 battalions and regimental groups 4 battalions;

4. send artillery reconnaissance units with the forward detachments in order to conduct preparation for artillery fire;

5. artillery moves behind the forward detachments and occupies firing positions for preparatory fire;

6. anti-tank ATGM and guns participate during fire preparation;

7. support fire consists of barrage fire to the depth of first echelon battalions and then by successive concentration fire to depth of first echelon brigades.

1. Air forces and combat helicopters during movement strike enemy long range artillery , nuclear weapons, command posts,

2. Air forces participate in fire preparation and air preparation starts at Che

minus 20 min and lasts to Che plus 3 min the targets are artillery located outside range of long range artillery and reserves, nuclear weapons, command points.

3. combat helicopters block enemy counter-attacks by second-echelon

1.cover army main forces, missile brigade, artillery, command points, during fire preparation and movement of troops into enemy depth

2. PVO forces on the basis of orders of front chief of PVO in interaction with PVO forces of First Guards Tank Army and front fighter aviation repel mass aviation strikes.

3. PVO forces move behind forward detachments and occupy firing positions during breakthrough

1. Repel attacks and counterattacks of tank and motor rifle forces of second-echelon on lines ___, ___ and from axes ___, ___ and also on line___, ___ and axis ___. In interaction with mobile obstacle detachment create mine fields on axes of enemy

counterattacks and counterblows.

1. In enemy mine fields before first line of defense create 45 lanes with army

engineer sapper units.

2. At the lanes establish comman-dant's

service guides with engineer troops.

Airborne assault 1. when first-echelon divisions conduct a desant operation in their attack axis, they should speed up their ground attack to the assault area in order to link up quickly. If the situation requires, they should send a forward detachment to link up. The forward detachment moves quickly, organizes interaction, and renders assistance.

2. when first-echelon formations reach the area of air assault desants, the further actions of the desants are controlled by the formation commander in accordance with the general concept of operation.

Conduct nuclear, chemical, and conventional strikes by missile forces on enemy PVO in the transport aviation flight zone; Artillery also conducts fire strikes on enemy PVO means in the zone of transport aviation flight. 1. conduct reconnaissance in the desant area prior to the landing.

2. support desant flight, landing, and combat action;

3. deliver air strikes on enemy PVO in the air transport flight path;

Cover the air assault force in their

assembly areas and during the flight across the army area

The landing is conducted during the operation in the following areas:

1. airborne assault battalion at 0900 on first day of operation in the area ___; mission is to capture command post of corps, the assembly area for the landing group is in area _____;

2. motor rifle battalion at 0600 on the 2nd day of operation lands in area ___, mission is to seize nuclear depot and capture command post in area ___, assembly area for landing unit is at

Commit second echelon 1. support and protect second-echelon forces from air attack as they arrive in the zone of operations of the first-echelon divisions;

2. suppress enemy by using nuclear, chemical, and conventional warheads along the line of commitment of the second-echelon;

3. support by artillery fire the commitment of second-echelon;

4. cover the open flanks from enemy tank attacks with anti-tank reserves and mobile obstacle detachments

Second echelon forces enter the engagement on the line of ___ to ___ , on the axis __ to __ and destroy enemy forces in region ___ to ___ etc with aim of quick expansion of offensive in depth. At the end of the day seize a line from __ to ___. And on the following morning continue the attack in the direction of ___. (for each division) Suppress with nuclear, chemical, and conventional rockets important enemy targets in front of and on flanks of second-echelon forces on the line of commitment. 1. reinforce second-echelon forces during commitment with artillery battalions from composition of artillery groups of first-echelon division and army artillery group and also two artillery bns of anti-tank reserve;

2. in accordance with situation during commit-ment of second-echelon, suppress defenders with 50 min fire strike and expenditure of ammunition of 0.6 BK.

3. artillery assault support fire is conducted with OV or PSO fire on one line or on two lines to the depth of first-echelon defender battalions in accordance with situation.

4. accompanying fire conducted by massive and concentration fire

1. cover second-echelon forces in their assembly area and during movement forward to the line of commitment and during deployment ;

2. cover second-echelon forces during commitment into engagement and during battle in enemy depth;

3. PVO troops occupy their firing positions close to line of commitment of second-echelon forces;

4. conduct aerial reconnaissance and warning against enemy and cover second-echelon from enemy air strikes;

Cover open flanks of second-echelon from enemy tank strikes; 1. open and repair roads for each division 3-4 routes each

2. open lanes in enemy mine fields on the line of commitment;

3. conduct commandant's service at the lanes openings;

Force Water

Barrier

1. forcing Rhine River is conducted on a wide front from the march or after a brief reparation in accordance with situation;

2. forcing is conducted with use of means of front, army, and division and troops and army will be reinforced with means of front

3. before the crossing conduct detailed reconnaissance of the river and locations, enemy forces, on both banks. In accordance with this designate locations for crossings for each division.

4. for each division designate zone for crossing and missions on the far bank with aim of rapid crossing of river. For each division organize four to 6 assault crossings, 4-6 raft sites, 3-4 underwater crossings, and 1 bridge.

5. with aim of seizing bridges and crossings held by enemy, send forward detachments from each first-echelon division and also send an air assault from parachute desant regiment in the area ___, ___. 600 5th day of operation;

6. organization of commandant's service during river crossing;

7. organize maskirovka, and also create false crossing regions on river.

8. cover crossings and crossing forces against enemy diversionary actions;

Second-echelon forces cross the river after the first-echelon forces with use of bridges and rafts and assault crossings. Suppress with nuclear, chemical, and conventional missiles main enemy important targets and his arriving reserves toward the far bank of the river. 1. support movement of forward detachments and air assaults from enemy strikes

2. destroy and suppress enemy which defends the river crossing

3. support organization of crossing and conduct of crossing of forces on the Rhine river.

4. support combat actions of forces on the far bank

1. reconnaissance warning of forces against

nuclear strikes

2. cover troops during approach to river crossing

3. conduct of air defense of bridges and crossing sites over river

4. cover forcing troops across the Rhine river

5. cover combat actions of troops on far bank

1. distribute forcing means between formations and their movement between forward detach-

ments;

2. determine and designate locations for crossing for each first-echelon division;

3. organize crossing of Rhine, and maneuver of crossing means;

4. create effective and detailed maskirovka of the actual crossing sites and create false crossing sites;

5. organize commandant's service in the crossing areas

Signal For nuclear strikes, chemical strikes, air strikes,

 
 
PLAN OF COMMANDER'S RECONNAISSANCE
MAIN ISSUES PARTICIPANTS SECURITY MOVEMENT AXIS TRANSPORT MEANS TIME OF WORK SIGNAL MEANS
POINT 1:

estimate of enemy:

trace of the forward edge of defense zone, strong points, positions of anti-tank means artillery, and fire means, command posts, engineer mine fields, engineer obstacles.

terrain:

best zone for breakthrough, assembly areas, positions for artillery, targets for fire preparation, axis and areas for movement and attack,

making detailed results of estimate of the situation;

missions of 111 MRR, artillery, rocket battalions, PVO, engineer forces, air forces, combat helicopters;

making specific decision;

organization of interaction:

sequence of movement and deployment, order for conduct of preparatory fire, sequence for support and accompanying fire, sequence for conduct of clearing passages in obstacles, their support, missions for air forces and combat helicopters during preparatory, support, and accompanying fire. repelling enemy counterattack;

sequence for changing subordination of artillery to units of first echelon, sequence for repelling enemy counterattack, sequence for support of commitment of second echelon, sequence for covering gaps, and open flanks, missions for air assault and their support, deployment of forward and main command posts.

Commander; chief of staff;

chief of operations department;

chief of reconnaissance;

chief of rocket troops and artillery;

chief of air combat control;

chief of PVO;

chief of engineer forces;

commander and chief of staff 111 motor rifle regiment and 112 MRR

Conduct at work place number 1

commandant company 111 MRR

From division command post to ... road junctionsingle tree, hill, Combat machine of division commander, BTR of division chief of artillery, and combat machine of 111 MRR commander Start movement from CP: 1300 hrs

work at point no 1 : from 1330 to 1430:

Means of combat machines of division commander and signal means of division signal battalion
POINT 2
POINT 3
POINT 4

designate position for division rocket battalion;

designate deployment area for division rear services, rear of regiment 111, regt 112, regt 113, 10 tank regt, and axis oftheir movement, and region for redeployment during battle.

designate area for medical battalions redployment, separatemedical detachement, and medical companies of regiments, and medical points of division and regiments, and the axes of their redeploment and areas to deploy during battle.

designate deployment area for repair battalion and regimental repair companies, and collection points for damaged equipment of division and regiments and division artillery repair workshop, and armored vehicle repair workshops of division and regiments and the axes for their movement and redeployment during combat;

designate area for the field mobile bakeries of division and regiments, their axes for movement, and areas for redeployment;

designate rear command posts for division and regiments, and the axes for their movement and redeployment

chief of rear service of divison

chief of staff of rear service chief of rear service planning department

commander of separate mobile material support battalion

commander of medical battalion

commander of separate medical detachement

commander of repair battalion

chief of rear services of regiments

commanders of medical companies of regiments

commanders of repair companies of regiments

Conducted by division commandant's company From ___ to ___. APC of chief of rear service, Jeep of division transport battalion; Jeeps of regimental chiefs of rear service Start move at 1300; Work in area from 1330 to 1500 Radios of regiment and division rear service

 
 

PLAN FOR COMMANDER'S DISCUSSION OF INTERACTION

MAIN QUESTIONS PARTICIPANTS TRANSPORT MOVEMENT AXIS SECURITY SIGNAL UNIFORM SECRECY ARMY STAFF TIME
POINT 1

interaction during period of participation of army rocket forces in initial nuclear strike

interaction in repelling enemy preemptive attack possible incursion;

interaction during first day of the operation during combat for covering force zone and breakthrough of enemy defense:

a. make precise line of forward edge, various engineer fortifications and obstacles, mine fields, strong points, combat formation, order of battle, possible actions,

b composition of forward detachment, its missions in the covering force area,

missions of artillery in comvering force area and during breakthrough of enemy defense, preparatory and supporting fire

missions for air forces during battle for covering force area and breakthrough

e. means for movement of first echelon divisions in the covering force area, breakthrough of defense, and destruction of enemy in the first defensive region;

f. organization of commandeant's service with aim of movement of forces in covering force area and conduct of offesive;

g conduct of making passages in mine fields;

h cover of main forces, command posts, rocket troops and artillery, rocket technical base, and rear service targets;

interaction during fulfillment of immediate mission:

a destruction of enemy counterattacks;

b during the conduct of air assaults;

c during commitment into engagement of second echelon;

d during forcing of water crossing;

interaction during fulfillment of long range mission:

army commander

army chief of recon

army chief of operations directorate

army chief of rocket troops and artillery

army chief or PVO

army chief of engineer troops

army chief of combat control center of air army

commander and chief of staff of 25th motor rifle division

commander and chief of staff of 26th motor rifle division

Helicop-ter of air CP of army From ___ to ___, to ___. At first point organized by security battalion of army Radios in command post helicopter and signal means of army signal regiment Field Uniforms

 
 

Planning Army Operation

The following is a brief summary of the main points relevant to understanding the nature of the planning process and the content of army plans found in this chapter. For a full discussion of this topic, see Chapter Three.

Planning is executed by the army staff on the basis of the commander's decision and instructions.

Planning is conducted in order to determine and set the methods of execution and most feasible forms for accomplishing the army missions.

Planning considers the expected results of destructive means of higher headquarters, the distribution of effort of the forces and means to the tasks and directions, the details of close interaction among the troops during the execution, the organization of combat support measures, and organization of troops control.

Planning of the initial nuclear strike and the combat operations of units on the first day and to the immediate mission are planned in greater detail.

Planning also includes methods and groupings for repelling enemy surprise attacks.



Content of Operations Plan

The operations plan is the basic, official document of record. The process for its preparation includes the following activities and considerations. Detailed calculations of the correlation of forces across the entire army zone and separately on each attack direction including the analysis of quantity and quality of enemy forces as well as the effectiveness of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons.

Detailed planning of the breakthrough of prepared defenses is developed in conventional war.

Detailed planning for the concentration of necessary groupings of troops and means.

Detailed planning of preparatory and attack supporting fires based on extensive reconnaissance.

Complete calculations of the exact location of enemy strongpoints, armor protected targets, density of artillery, tanks, and motorized units.

Determination of the number of artillery pieces, tanks and aircraft to be employed in preparatory and supporting fires and other fire support.

Distribution of the targets to be destroyed to the firing units.

Coordination of fire support with maneuver of infantry and tank large units in terms of time, place, and objectives during the attack and breakthrough.

Organization of necessary measures to cover troops against air strikes.

Organization of all types of combat supporting measures and troop control.

Measures to support the development of the penetration toward the flanks and to the depth.

Methods for repelling counterattacks and for consolidating captured objectives.



 
 

Operations Plan

The form and content of the operations plan is described in chapter three. The plan is the map on which its content is depicted. There are 13 supplementary textual and tabular items attached to the plan and placed on it in the margins. These show various data about the operation and forces and means committed to it. They are provided for information purposes so that everyone studying the plan will be aware of these matters. The information is also made a record part of the plan for historical and archival purposes. While the original data is entered into the historical record with the original plan, the information in the tables is also kept current on a daily basis along with other changes in planning as the operation progresses. They are discussed on the following pages.



Graphic Parts of the Plan as Drawn on the Map

The map (plan) shows the following essential information. This is kept current by officers of the operations directorate.

Groupings of enemy forces and their possible courses of action;

Operational formation of the army's units for the operation at the attack assembly (FUP) area.  The immediate and subsequent missions of the army, their contents, depths, the time of their accomplishment and the rates of unit advances;

Directions of main and supporting attacks;

Targets to be destroyed during the initial nuclear strikes;

Missions and targets of chemical weapons;

Missions of first-echelon divisions (corps), the time of their accomplishment, and the boundaries;

Method of commitment of the second-echelon divisions into combat and its missions;

Composition, missions, landing areas, and the time of insertion of airborne and seaborne units;

Locations of army and divisional command posts at the beginning of the operation and the axes of their advance during the operation;

Scale of the operation (depth, front, rate of advance, and duration).



Factors Included in the Written Part of the Plan Along with the Remaining Instructions, Information, and Calculations

The following information is shown in tabular form on the map. (See following sections for examples).
-- Best estimate (brief estimate) of the enemy alignment of forces, his capabilities, intentions, and possible actions;
-- Aim and concept of the army offensive operation and targets to be destroyed during the initial nuclear strikes;
-- Combat composition and combat capabilities of army units and attachments of support arms (distribution of supporting means);
-- Existence of nuclear and chemical ammunition, the time of their delivery, and their distribution;
-- Allocation of supporting aircraft flights to the missions and to the divisions;
-- Correlation of troops and means of opposing forces and the method of the occupation of attack starting areas by army units;
-- Means of insuring the safety of friendly forces during the delivery of initial nuclear strikes;
-- Method of executing preparatory and attack supporting fires;
-- Existence and distribution of supplies;
-- Other matters.



Explanatory Notes for the Plan

These notes are an integral part of the operations plan (map) and are displayed on it. They are thus available for everone who comes to the headquarters to study of the plan. The first three notes are written text. They are the following items.

-- 1. Estimate of the opponent's possible actions: This section is a brief summary of the estimate prepared during the estimate of the situation on which the commander's decision is based. Any changes in the enemy's probable course of action is an immediate trigger for consideration on changing the plan or making other appropriate response.

-- 2. Concept and aim of the operation: This is the commander's expression of the fundamental purpose he seeks to achieve and the main measures he plans to take to achieve it.

-- 3. The scope of the operation: This is the statistics on the width, depth, duration, and average rate of advance established for the army operation.

The sample used in the army plan accompanying this handbook follows. This plan cooresponds to the sample front, army, and division directives included in this book.


 
 

PLAN OF OFFENSIVE OPERATION OF EIGHTH GUARDS ARMY


I. ESTIMATE OF PROBABLE ENEMY ACTION

Elements of the U.S V Corps are deployed directly against the forces of the Eighth Guards Army. The first-echelon of the corps is composed of the 3rd Armored Division and 8th Mechanized Infantry Division with a total of 18 nuclear rocket systems, 300 nuclear artillery pieces, 640 tanks, 350 artillery pieces and mortars, 440 SAM systems, 470 helicopters, and ___ fixed wing aircraft.

In the second-echelon of the V Corps is the 5th Infantry Division and probably elements of West German tank forces will operate in the area, composed of ___ nuclear rocket systems, 100 nuclear artillery pieces, 130 artillery pieces and mortars, 290 tanks,100 SAM systems, and 74 combat helicopters.

The 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment and border troops are deployed in front of the forward defense area in the security zone. During the operation the combat action of the enemy forces will be supported by ___ combat aircraft with nuclear capability from the U.S. and West German national air forces and the 4th ATAF of Central Army Group.

In general the enemy can launch ___ nuclear rocket strikes and aerial bombs in the area of operation of the Eighth Guards Army and against rear services installations of the army and the front during the conduct of his operation.

The West German III Corps in the north and U. S. VII Corps in the south are deployed on the flanks of the U. S. V Corps. Their operations can affect the forces of the Eighth Guards Army. Movement and arrival of strategic reserves composed of U. S. and French armed forces and mobilization reserves of West Germany are likely during the operation in the area of the Eighth Guards Army.

The enemy tries to inflict losses on and destroy the Warsaw Pact forces and seize vital territories by a surprise and decisive offensive operation. If the Warsaw Pact forces overtake the enemy in initiation of offensive operations, the forces of the U. S. V Corps are likely to hold a pre-prepared defensive line along the Bad Hersfeld, Niedervaule, Schlitz, Fulda, Gersfeld, and Bad Heustadt line, to inflict maximum losses on the Eighth Guards Army by defensive action, and then launch counter strikes by the second-echelon forces from the line of Birstein - Gedern in the direction of Grekenhain, Lauerbach, Bad Hersfeld, and from the line of Neustadt - Homberg in the direction of Kirtarf, Alsfeld -Niederaula.



II. AIM AND CONCEPT OF OPERATION

Aim:

-- Using the result of strategic and frontal nuclear strikes, destroy the enemy rocket forces and the main elements of the U. S. V Corps and then rapidly develop the offensive on the direction Bad Hersfeld - Alfeld - Giessen. Then destroy the enemy corps reserve and after that develop the offensive on the direction Hanhausen - Limburg - Wetzlar and in interaction with the Twenty Eighth CAA destroy the principal forces of the U. S. Vth and VIIth Corps and occupy the line Boss - Gillenbeuren - Bullay - Sohrem.

Concept:

-- In the initial nuclear strike, by using ( ) nuclear rockets with a total yield of ( ) kilotons. The enemy's nuclear rocket and artillery troops in areas ___, his air force in areas ____, his main infantry and tank forces in areas ___, and the enemy's command posts at ___ are destroyed and decisive losses are inflicted on the enemy's air defense troops in areas ___, and on his rear service installations in areas ___.

-- Exploiting the results of the initial strategic nuclear strike and nuclear strikes of the front and army means the army attacks the enemy along the line of Bad Hersfeld, Schlitz, Fulda, and Gersfeld and develops its attack by its main forces; i.e. the 16th, 18th, and 19th Motorized Rifle Divisions in the direction of Bad Hersfeld, Alsfeld, and Wetzlar; and during the operation by employing additional ( ) rockets with a total yield of ( ) kilotons destroys the main forces of the U. S. V Corps in the area; Bad Hersfeld, Alsfeld, Giessen, Echzell, Gedern, and Fulda and seizes on the third day the line of Wettenberg, Butzbach, Bad Nauheim, and Nidderau. Subsequently by committing the second-echelon forces into the engagement the army develops the attack in the direction of Wetzlar, Limburg, Boppord, and Simmern and during the conduct of the operation, by using ( ) nuclear rockets with a total yield of ( ) kilotons destroys newly detected enemy nuclear weapons, destroys the enemy's approaching reserves from the line of march, conducts assault crossing over the Rhine River and with the cooperation of and by exploiting the success of the Twenty-eighth CAA encircles and destroys the main forces of the U. S. Vth and VIIth Corps and approaching strategic reserves, and on the 7th day of the operation seizes the line of Boss, Gillenbeuren, Bullay and Sohren.

The army's operational formation is established in two echelons:
-- - in the first-echelon: the 16th, 18th, 19th, and 21st Motorized Rifle Divisions;
-- - in the second-echelon: the 17th and 20th Tank Divisions;
-- - the 31st Separate Tank Regiment is the army's reserve.



III. SCOPE

Width: 55 Km
Depth: 240 Km
Duration: 7 Days
Rate of advance: 35 Km/ day



 
 

Figure 225 Combat Grouping of Army

This table (number 4) shows the name and number of major subordinate formations that will be available on each day of the operation.

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Figure 226 Distribution of Support Units

This is table 5 for the army plan. It shows the distribution of artillery, air defense, engineer and chemical troops from army and (when given) from front to the major formations (divisions) and other units, and which will be held in army reserve.

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Figure 227 Availability and Time of Use of Chemical and Nuclear Weapons

This is table 6 in the explanatory notes for the army plan. It shows the number of nuclear, chemical, and special rocket warheads by yield and rocket type. It shows how many are on hand in army depots and with the troops and how many are expected to arrive during the operation. The same warheads are shown divided according to the formations and units that will use them or receive their support, and according to the sequence of major army tasks and milestones for the operation.

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Figure 228 Destruction of Targets in First Nuclear Strike

This table summarizes the distribution of targets and firing units. It shows such data as the warhead yield, height of burst, degree of defeat of the target and time for the strike. Several variants will be worked out and kept current for quick response when the order is given.

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Figure 229 Plan for employment of Rocket Troops

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Distribution of Air Support

This is section eight of the explanatory notes to the army plan. It is a written description of the aircraft support the air army will provide to the army. The first section shows the distribution of aircraft in sorties according to the sequence of army missions and major milestone activities. The second section shows the same aircraft sorties distributed by each day of the operation.

a. In missions of the operation: ____, _____, _____, etc.

b. In days of the operation: ______, ______, ______,. etc.

 
 

Correlation of Forces Tables

This is the most important table (number 9) in that it depicts the calculation of force ratios and densities which play such an important part in Soviet planning. It is a set of correlations, made for different times and locations. One table shows the total number of friendly and enemy forces and means at the beginning of the operation and expected to be remaining after each major event. Other tables show the correlation on individual axes and for various other milestones.

 
 

Figure 230 Correlation of Forces Table

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Figure 231 Correlation of Forces Table (cont.)

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Figure 232 Correlation of Forces Table (cont.)

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Measures to Protect Against Nuclear Weapons

This is the tenth section in the explanatory notes for the army plan. It is a brief written description of the following three topics:

-- a. Safe line for nuclear fires:

-- b. Warning signals indicating nuclear explosions are immanent:

-- c. Marking of own troops locations: The methods that will be used to mark the location of the forward line of troops visually to insure that pilots can distinguish friend from foe. The troops carry colored marker panels, which are displayed on the ground upon proper signal.

 
 

Figure 233 Availability and Technical Condition of Tanks, Self-propelled Guns, and Armored Vehicles

This table (number 11) shows the number of tanks and other armored vehicles available in operational condition and how many are in each category of maintenance in each division and major formation. The categories are in accordance with standard Soviet norms for kilometers before next scheduled maintenance.

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Figure 234 Availability, Location, and Distribution of Material Supply

This table (number 12) shows the distribution of most types of ammunition, POL, and food available for the operation either on hand or due in and how much must remain at the end of the operation. The ammunition is measured in units of fire, fuel in refills, and food in days of rations.

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Figure 235 Warning Signal Plan

The warning signal plan gives the main alarm signals, and means for identification.

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Appendices of the Operation Plan

Plan of the army's participation in initial nuclear strikes;

Plan of preparation and occupation of the attack starting areas;

Plan for restoring the combat capabilities of the troops and eliminating the impact of the enemy's strikes;

Other documents.



Plan for the Initial Nuclear Strike

The army always prepares a plan for its participation in the initial nuclear strike even when the expectation is that the war will begin with only conventional weapons.

The army plan is integrated in the front plan.

The front plans to destroy enemy nuclear delivery means, inflict decisive casualties on enemy troops, air forces, air defense forces, command posts and other targets.

The army plan specifies each target, which large unit should engage it, the center of explosion, the number and yields of nuclear weapons, the altitude of airburst, and the safety distance for friendly forces.

It is not possible to know in detail the results of the mutual nuclear strikes ahead of time. Consequently plans for subsequent phases of action must be reevaluated in detail using post strike reconnaissance and operational data.

Plan is drawn graphically on a 1:200,000 or 1:100,000 scale map with written instructions on the map or it could be a written plan with map annex.



Content of Operations Plan for Nuclear Strike

The method of combat against enemy air forces during repulse of the enemy's surprise attack, during the advance and occupation of FUP areas, launching the attack and during destruction of each enemy grouping.

Measures necessary to destroy enemy nuclear weapons, command posts and vital rear services.

Methods for seizing vital terrain features.

Allocation of air units and artillery to destroy rocket launching pans, nuclear artillery, nuclear weapons depots, and artillery

Employment of deep reconnaissance and sabotage (subversion) groups, airborne landing units and special detachments.



Plan for Interaction

The Soviet command stresses the importance of interaction (coordination) among all participating organizations and individuals. This is carefully planned by the commander and staff and the commander uses his explaination of interaction as an important opportunity for insuring that everyone knows his role in the operation. Following are some main points:

Interaction is one of the most important measures;

Planned in greater detail for the initial nuclear strikes, first day of operation, and for repelling possible enemy attacks;

Planned in lesser detail due to difficulties in assessing the situation for later days up to the immediate mission;

Only estimated for the period of accomplishing the long range mission;

Main points are specified in the commander's decision and their detailed illustration is shown in the plan of interaction, plan for offensive operation, plans for employment of combat arms and plans for combat support measures;

Interaction is achieved by assigning clear missions to subordinate large units and by mutual understanding regarding execution of missions;

In conventional war the most important issues are to determine the methods and sequences for neutralizing enemy forces in the security zone and main defense positions by use of artillery and tactical air strikes, for passing the state boundaries, for commitment of advanced detachments and main bodies into combat, and the form of destruction of the enemy's first-echelon main forces.



Content of the Plan for Interaction

The following are the main points found in the plan for interaction. The plan is generally prepared as a table. A sample blank table is provided.

Missions of army elements and other cooperating large units at the beginning and during the operation;

The method for accomplishing missions;

Signals for coordination, identification of targets, mutual identification, and mutual alert;

For interaction a special signal network is established and liaison officers are exchanged.



 
 

Figure 236 TABLE OF COOPERATION OF ARMY FORCES IN OFFENSIVE OPERATION

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Interaction of Army Units with Air Defense

Effective air defense is a critical prerequisite for operations. The following are the main points to insure close interaction between the ground and air defense and air forces.
-- specify when and what air defense troops and means are employed to cover the army rocket brigade, strike groupings, command posts, and rocket mobile base;
-- specify the time and method for relocation of SAM and radio-technical unit positions;
-- actions of air defense units are also coordinated with those of adjacent armies' air defense forces and fighter aircraft.



Preparation of Attack Assembly Areas

The Soviets place great stress on the proper preparation of all assembly areas, from the initial concentration area which may be occupied on the alarm by the troops moving out of garrisons to the final FUP area or pre-attack jump off position, if occupied. The following are the main points relevant to the preparation of FUP areas.
-- should facilitate simultaneous and organized passage of units into the offensive;
-- must provide for protection against mass destruction weapons;
-- must provide capability for conducting strong defense against enemy surprise attack;
-- require extensive engineer construction;
-- for first-echelon divisions should be 20-40 km from state border to protect against enemy artillery and rocket fire;
-- require direct and lateral roads, column routes and movement regulating lines etc.
-- positions for covering troops (security zone) are 1-5 km from state border;
-- positions for artillery and rocket battalions are prepared in the security zone;
-- attack starting areas may be occupied during 2 nights with considerable concealment.



Contents of the Plan for Preparing and Occupying the Attack Assembly Areas

-- combat formation of first-echelon divisions, regiments, and artillery battalions and the method of their movement into specified areas;
-- composition and groupings of covering troops;
-- locations of second-echelon and army reserves and their areas of responsibility;
-- fire position areas of rocket and artillery troops;
-- positions of air defense units and large units;
-- command posts of the army and the divisions;
-- areas and lines of construction engineer obstacles and demolitions;
-- other information (instructions).



Contents of the Written Instructions of the Plan for Occupying FUP Area

-- estimate of the enemy's possible actions in the directions of future attacks, with and without the employment of nuclear weapons;
-- missions of army units to repel possible enemy invasion (attack);
-- object of preparing the assembly (FUP) areas for the troops and basic measures to be taken in their construction;
-- character (nature) of engineer construction;
-- troops and means to conduct engineer works and the time of their execution;
-- method of movement into and occupation of the assembly (FUP) areas by the army units.



Plans for Combat Support Measures

Combat support measures are a very specific set of actions. These are discussed in the text. They are organized on the basis of the commander's decision and instructions and planned by the direct supervision of the chief of staff. Detailed plans for each type of measure are issued to the units in the form of combat instructions signed by the chief of staff. The army staff controls and coordinates all actions concerning all types of combat support measures.



Army Operations Directive

The army operations directive is prepared by the chief of the operations directorate under supervision of the chief of staff. It is based on the army commander's decision. It is a written statement in order form of the first day's combat actions shown for the addressee in the plan. The operational directive has the following structure and content:
-- Enemy situation: This section contains a succinct description of the nature of the opposing forces and character of their actions.
-- Mission conducted by forces and means of the front and adjacents: This section contains the commander's understanding of the front mission as developed in his "clarrification of the mission" and the relevant aspects of the actions by adjacents.
-- Concept of the operation: This is the description of the commander's understanding of how he intends to carry out the army mission as he developed it in his decision making process.
-- I order: This is the actual statement of exactly what is required from the subordinates.
-- Control of army troops: This provides information on the location and movement of the army command post and who will be the commander's deputies.
-- A sample of an army operational directive follows:



 
 

SAMPLE ARMY OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVE

 
 

I Approve --/--/89 ----------------------Serial Number:______
Commander Eighth Guards Army------ SECRET
Major General ____---------------------- Copy Number: _______
Sig

OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVE OF

The commander of the Eighth Guards Army for offensive operations.

Command Post at Wickerstedt,___________, (time) _______________
(date), Map 1:250,000 August 1983 ed.



I. ENEMY SITUATION:

As a result of the development of acute international tension NATO is secretly engaged in bringing its armed forces to the state of full combat readiness and intends to launch a surprise attack on the territories of Warsaw Pact countries.

Elements of the U.S V Corps are deployed directly against the forces of the Eighth Guards Army. The first-echelon of the corps is composed of the 3rd Armored Division and 8th Mechanized Infantry Division with a total of ___ nuclear rocket systems, ___ nuclear artillery pieces, ___tanks, ___ artillery pieces and mortars, ___SAM systems, ___helicopters, and ___ fixed wing aircraft.

In the second-echelon of the V Corps is the ___ Infantry Division and probably elements of West German tank forces will operate in the area, composed of ___ nuclear rocket systems, ___ nuclear artillery pieces, ___ artillery pieces and mortars, ___ tanks, ___ SAM systems, and ___ combat helicopters.

The 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment and border troops are deployed in front of the forward defense area in the security zone. During the operation the combat action of the enemy forces will be supported by ___ combat aircraft with nuclear capability from the U.S. and West German national air forces and the 4th ATAF of Central Army Group.

In general the enemy can launch ___ nuclear rocket strikes and aerial bombs in the area of operation of the Eighth Guards Army and against rear services installations of the army and the front during the conduct of his operation.

The West German III Corps in the north and U. S. VII Corps in the south are deployed on the flanks of the U. S. V Corps. Their operations can affect the forces of the Eighth Guards Army. Movement and arrival of strategic reserves composed of U. S. and French armed forces and mobilization reserves of West Germany are likely during the operation in the area of the Eighth Guards Army.

The enemy tries to inflict losses on and destroy the Warsaw Pact forces and seize vital territories by a surprise and decisive offensive operation. If the Warsaw Pact forces overtake the enemy in initiation of offensive operations, the forces of the U. S. V Corps are likely to hold a pre-prepared defensive line along the Bad Hersfeld, Hiederaule, Schlitz, Fulda, Gersfeld and Bad Heustadt line, to inflict maximum losses on the Eighth Guards Army by defensive action, and then launch counter strikes by the second-echelon forces from the line of Birstein - Gedern in the direction of Grekenhain, Lauerbach, Bad Hersfeld, and from the line of Neustadt - Homberg in the direction of Kirtarf, Alsfeld -Niederaula.


II. MISSION CONDUCTED BY FORCES AND MEANS OF THE FRONT AND ADJACENTS.

a. The following targets in the army's attack area are destroyed by the front's rocket troops and aviation forces during the initial nuclear strike:

--- enemy's nuclear weapons and nuclear depots in the area ___, ___, ____, and ___.
--- enemy's airfields in the areas ___, ___, ___, ___, and ___.
--- command posts of the Central Army Group in the area ___ and command posts of the 4th ATAF of the Central Army Group in the area ___.
--- enemy's reserves in area ___, ___, ___, and ___.
--- enemy's rear service installations in the area ___, ___, ___, and ___.

Twenty regimental sorties of the front's fighter- bomber aviation are allocated to the army to support the army's action during the offensive operation and five regimental sorties of the front's helicopter aviation and one transport aviation division from the main command of the air force are allocated to support the airborne assaults. These sorties will be covered by the front's fighter aviation during their flight.

b. Adjacents:

On the right flank of the army the First Guards Tank Army attacks in the direction of Bebra, Marburg, Herborn, Lindlar. Its immediate mission is to seize the line of Marsburg, Medebach, Ballenberg, and Marburg An Der Lahn; and its long range mission is to seize the line of Leverkusen, Bornheim, Rheinbach, and Hill 1251. The boundary with the right adjacent passes through Eilenburt, Eisenach, Hill 1427, Neuwied, and HIll 1610. All points are included in the Eighth Guards Army's area.

On the left flank of the army the Twenty-eighth Combined Arms Army attacks in the direction of Schweinfurt, Wurzburg, Mosbach, Wiesloca and west of Kreuznach. The immediate mission of the Twenty-eighth CAA is to seize the line of Gelnhausen, Ashaffenburg, Michelstadt, and Mosbach and its long range mission is to seize the line of Kira, Enkenbach, and Hill 456. The boundary line with the left adjacent passes through Mittwelda, Kahla, Hill 2435, Gersfeld, Bad Vilbel, Bingen and Trier. All points are included in the Twenty-eighth CAA area.


III. CONCEPT OF THE OPERATION

In the initial nuclear strike, by using ( ) nuclear rockets with a total yield of ( ) kilotons. The enemy's nuclear rocket and artillery troops in areas ___, his air force in areas ____, his main infantry and tank forces in areas ___, and the enemy's command posts at ___ are destroyed and decisive losses are inflicted on the enemy's air defense troops in areas ___, and on his rear service installations in areas ___.

Exploiting the results of the initial strategic nuclear strike and nuclear strikes of the front and army means the army attacks the enemy along the line of Bad Hersfeld, Schlitz, Fulda, and Gersfeld and develops its attack by its main forces; i.e. the 16th, 18th and 19th Motorized Rifle Divisions in the direction of Bad Hersfeld, Alsfeld, and Wetzlar; and during the operation by employing additional ( ) rockets with a total yield of ( ) kilotons destroys the main forces of the U. S. V Corps in the area; Bad Hersfeld, Alsfeld, Giessen, Echzell, Gedern, and Fulda and seizes on the third day the line of Wettenberg, Butzbach, Bad Nauheim, and Nidderau. Subsequently by committing the second-echelon forces into the engagement the army develops the attack in the direction of Wetzlar, Limburg, Boppord, and Simmern and during the conduct of the operation, by using ( ) nuclear rockets with a total yield of ( ) kilotons destroys newly detected enemy nuclear weapons, destroys the enemy's approaching reserves from the line of march, conducts assault crossing over the Rhine River and with the cooperation of and by exploiting the success of the Twenty-eighth CAA encircles and destroys the main forces of the U. S. Vth and VIIth Corps and approaching strategic reserves, and on the 7th day of the operation seizes the line of Boos, Gillenbeuren, Bullay and Sohren.

--- The army's operational formation is established in two echelons:
--- in the first-echelon: the 16th, 18th, 19th, and 21st Motorized Rifle Divisions;
--- in the second-echelon: the 17th and 20th Tank Divisions;
--- the 31st Separate Tank Regiment is the army's reserve.


IV. I ORDER

a. The 16th Motorized Rifle Division with one brigade of artillery of the VGK reserve, one anti-tank battalion and one engineer battalion is to attack the enemy on the line: Ludwigsau - Eichhof, to develop the attack in the direction of Bad Hersfeld - Rockerod, to destroy the enemy in the area of Ludwigsau, Gittersed, Rockerod, and Eichhof and continue the attack in the direction of Go Bmanerode - Ottrau, destroy the enemy's division reserves in the area of Willingshain, Schorbach, Ottrau, and Kemmerod and seize the line of Schorbach, Ottrau and north of Lingellach by H + 10.

Then the division is to develop the attack in the direction of Ottrau, Alsfeld and Hill 384 and at the end of the day seize the line of west of Anlrifttal, Heimertshausen, and the stretch of route 49 to the south.

The future attack direction of the division for the next day is Heimertshausen and Hill 322. The division is to assign one reinforced BMP motorized rifle regiment as the forward detachment to destroy from the line of march the enemy's covering forces and border troops in the enemy's security zone and facilitate quick advance of the division's main forces to the forward defense line of the enemy.

For the conduct of the division's attack 15 nuclear, 5 chemical and 15 conventional rockets are allocated to the division. The use of nuclear and chemical weapons will be conducted only at signal and command of the front for the initial nuclear strike.

The division conducts the breakthrough of the enemy's main defensive line, at a 4 km front and during the artillery preparatory fire destroys and suppresses the enemy's strong points on the forward line and in depth, command posts, artillery and mortar batteries and enemy's immediate reserves.

On the left the 18th Motorized Rifle Division attacks. The boundary line with that division passes through Mohara, Hill 366, road junction southeast of Bad Hersfeld, Kleba, Lingellach, and Nieder.

During the penetration (breakthrough) of the enemy's defense, the destruction of the enemy's brigade reserve, development of the attack in depth and destruction of the enemy's division reserves are conducted in interaction with the 18th Motorized Rifle Division.

The division's command post during the penetration of the enemy's defense is to deploy 3 km west of Fredewald road junction, and the rear service control point during this phase is to deploy in ___.



b. The 18th Motorized Rifle Division with one artillery brigade of VGK artillery division, one anti-tank battalion and engineer battalion attacks the enemy at the line ___ (As for the 16th Div).



c. The 19th Motorized Rifle Division with two artillery battalions of the army's artillery brigade, two anti-tank batteries and two engineer companies attacks the enemy at the line ___ (as for the 16th Div).



d. The 21st Motorized Rifle Division with two artillery battalions from the army's artillery brigade, two anti-tank batteries and two engineer companies is to attack the enemy from the line ___ ( as for the 16th Div).


e. The 17th Tank Division is in the army's second-echelon. The division is to deploy in departure (assembly) area in Vogelsberg, north of Weimar, Pfiffelbach, Niedar, Hardislehen. During the operation the division is to follow the 16th MRD by bounds at a distance of 40 - 60 km on at least 3 routes and be prepared to be committed into battle from the line No 1. (Bieber - Grund) with the mission to destroy the enemy's advancing reserves from the line of march and seize the line of Mengers, Ober and Seelbach. The direction of its future attack is Ober- Hadamar, Nassau.
The line NO. 2 of commitment is the line of ___ with the immediate mission line at ___ and the direction of future development of the attack at ___.
At the time of commitment, the division is reinforced by 3 artillery battalions, one anti-tank battalion and one engineer road construction battalion.
In case of the use of nuclear weapons, the division is allocated 15 nuclear, 5 chemical, and 15 conventional rockets.
The area of responsibility of the division to fight enemy's airborne assaults and his reconnaissance groups includes ___.



f. The 20th Tank Division is in the army's second-echelon. It is to deploy ___ (As for the 17th TAnk Div).



g. Army's rocket brigade is to accomplish the following tasks:

1. destroy the following targets during the initial nuclear strike of the front:
--- enemy's nuclear rocket, target No. 302 in the area of ___ by a 20 kt warhead, air burst at H - 00.20 or at the front's signal.
--- enemy's nuclear rocket, target No. 203 in ___, by a 20 kt warhead, air burst at H - 00:20 or at front's signal.
--- enemy's V Corps command post, target No. 304 in ___ by a 100 kt warhead, ground burst at H - 00:2- or at the front's signal.
--- enemy's rear command post, target NO. 305, in ___ by a 100 kt warhead, ground burst at H - 00:20 or at the front's signal.
--- airfield, target NO. 306, in ___ by a 40 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the front's signal.
--- airfield, target No 307, in ___ by 40 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the front's signal.
--- enemy's second-echelon division in the area ___, ___, ___, and ___; including the following targets:
----- targets NO. 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, and 313 - each by a 20 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the front's signal.

(Note: Targets for divisional rocket strikes are also designated in the same way)

2. Time of delivery of nuclear and chemical rockets to the troops is P - 6 hrs. Time of delivery of conventional rockets to the troops is D - 3 days.

3. The status and situation of planned targets for nuclear strike are to be continuously followed and necessary adjustment in the plan of the nuclear strikes is to be made according to the actual situation.

4. Preparation of rocket troops for launch is to be kept at the highest state and technical rocket support of the rocket troops is to be organized in detail.

5. Position areas of rockets are to be well prepared in terms of engineer work and well camouflaged. Alternate positions for rockets are to be established and their protection against mass destruction weapons as well as the security and defense of rocket positions and mobile rocket bases must be organized and established.

6. To maximize the range of fire and to launch timely strikes on designated targets, timely relocation of positions and movement of rocket troops during the conduct of the operation, are to be planned and executed.

h. Artillery

1. The following artillery groups are to be established in army's large units and units:

--- army artillery group (AAG): 10 artillery battalions;
--- army reactive artillery group (AGRA): 4 BM-22 Bns.
--- in the 16th and 18th Motorized Rifle Divisions:
----- divisional artillery groups (DAG) of 6 artillery battalions each
----- regimental artillery groups (RAG) on the main direction of 3 artillery battalions each;

---in the 19th and 21st Motorized Rifle Divisions: DAG of up to 4 artillery battalions each
----- RAG on the main direction of 3 artillery battalions each


2. Artillery missions:

During the preparation, initiation and conduct of the offensive operation, the artillery is to accomplish the following tasks:
--- destruction and suppression of the enemy's nuclear weapons;
--- inflicting losses on the enemy during his aggression in the army's area. At this phase in addition to the security zone's regimental artillery, part of the divisional artillery is also assigned;
--- inflicting losses on the enemy during crossing the international border and during the battle in the enemy's security zone by artillery units of forward detachments of the first-echelon divisions, and part of the artillery of the first-echelon divisions:
--- inflicting losses on the enemy during breakthrough of the enemy's prepared defense and particularly destruction of strong points, destruction of artillery and mortar batteries, and command posts, and suppression of the enemy's immediate reserves;
--- destruction and suppression of the enemy and providing support for own troops during the assault support fire during the combat in the forward defense area of the first-echelon brigades;
--- providing fire support for attacking troops during the combat action in the depth of the enemy in the form of accompanying fire;
--- inflicting losses on the enemy during his counter-attacks and counter- strikes;
--- support of the army troops during assault river crossing;
--- support and covering of open flanks and gaps between combat formations;
--- struggle against enemy's artillery and mortars during the conduct of the offensive operation in the depth of the enemy's defense;
--- support of the commitment of the second-echelon troops and combined arms reserves into combat.


3. The density of the artillery for the breakthrough of the enemy's prepared defense during the preparatory fire is 100 - 120 guns and mortars per kilometer of front, duration of the preparatory fire is 30 - 40 minutes and the ammunition expenditure is 0.8 - 1.0 units of fire. the density of artillery during the commitment of the second-echelon forces into combat is to be 40 - 60 guns and mortars per kilometer of front and the duration of artillery preparatory fire is 15 - 20 minutes with an expenditure of 0.6 - 0.8 units of fire.


4. The assault support fire is to be conducted in the form of successive concentration of fire on one or two lines, single or double attack moving barrage to the depth of the first-echelon brigades i.e. 8 - 10 kms.


5. The accompanying fire is conducted by the method of concentration of fire, massive fire, and fire on individual targets.



I. Organic and attached aviation troops are to conduct the following missions during the preparation and conduct of the operation.

participation in the preparatory fire and assault support and accompanying fire during the conduct of the operation to destroy nuclear weapons and nuclear depots, command posts, to destroy and suppress enemy's deep reserves, air defense and radar positions, rear service installations, signal centers, aircraft guidance points, as well as the command posts and positions of radio electronic warfare systems during the attack.
--- conduct of air reconnaissance and air photography in support of the army's operation and reconnaissance for damage assessment of targets hit by friendly nuclear strikes. Up to the initiation of the attack, the reconnaissances to be conducted only by observation and aerial photography using fixed wing aircraft and helicopters along the state borders without crossing the border.
--- support and covering of the troops and army's targets against enemy's air strikes during the preparation and conduct of the operation;
--- the flight (sortie) resources are to be distributed as follows:
----- a. to the 16th and 18th MRD's 3 fighter - bomber aviation squadron sorties each per day;
----- b. to the 19th and 21st MRD's 2 fighter- bomber aviation squadron sorties each per day

-- conduct struggle against the enemy tanks by combat helicopters;
-- insert airborne assault troops (desants) by transport helicopters in the rear of the enemy in accordance with separate plans;



J. to Air defense troops;

The air defense troops are to conduct the following missions during the preparation and conduct of the operation:
--- covering of the main combined arms and tank troops in the FUP areas, during the breakthrough of the enemy's prepared defense and in the depth of the enemy area;
--- covering of rocket and artillery troops in the departure (FUP) area, during their firing and during the conduct of the operation;
--- covering of command posts in the departure area and during the conduct of the operation;
--- covering of rear service installations in the departure area and during the operation;
--- covering of reserves and second-echelon troops in the departure area, during their movement and their commitment into combat;
--- covering of desants in their departure areas, during their flight, in their landing areas in the depth of the enemy's area, and during their combat actions;
--- covering of the troops during the assault river crossing;
--- covering the troops during the repulse of the enemy's counter strikes.


2. The fire, reconnaissance, and warning systems of the army's air defense troops are to be coordinated with the fire and reconnaissance systems of the front and divisions' air defense troops and fighter aviation of the front air army and national air defense forces as part of an integrated unified plan so that massive strikes of the enemy's air force can be effectively repelled.


3. During the preparation and conduct of the operation, all air defense troops of the army and lower echelons (troops) are to be brought to the state of full combat readiness so that they will be ready to repel the enemy's air strikes. In any situation one third of the air defense troops must be kept at combat duty status.


4. Appropriate positions for the air defense troops are to be prepared in terms of engineer work. In addition to the main positions, alternate positions are to be established as well.


5. The movement of the air defense troops during the preparation and conduct of the attack is conducted in a way so that at critical phases of the operation all or the bulk of the air defense troops of the army and the troops have occupied positions to repel the enemy's air strikes and they are ready for the execution of their mission.



k. Airborne Assault troops (desant)

During the operation two airborne assaults are conducted:

-- 1. A tactical airborne assault by a reinforced motorized rifle battalion from the 20th Tank Division with a mortar battery.
------- The departure area for the desant is ___ and it should be occupied at 0600 on the first day of the operation for a 24 hrs period of preparation for the desant force.
------- The desant is airlifted by the front's transport helicopter regiment and it is supported by two fighter aviation squadrons.
--------The desant is landed in the enemy's rear in the area ___ at 0600 on the second day of the operation.
------- The mission of the desant is to destroy the enemy's nuclear depot and to seize and destroy the enemy's command post in ___.
------- Prior to the landing, the enemy's reserves and other targets in the landing area are initially hit by front's fighter-bomber aviation and then by rocket troops using conventional warheads. Positions of the enemy's air defense means and airfields in the flight corridor of the helicopters are suppressed and destroyed by the air force.
------ Planning of the airborne assault for movement and landing is to be worked out by the helicopter regiment commander in cooperation with the army's operations directorate and the commander of the airborne assault force.
------The troop control during the preparation for desant is conducted from the command post of the helicopter regiment in the departure area for the desant, and then during the operation it is conducted from the army's command post and the desant battalion's command/observation post.

--2. Operational airborne assault (desant) by an airborne assault regiment reinforced by one towed artillery battalion.
----- The departure area for this desant is ___ and it is to be occupied at 0800 on the fourth day of the operation for the preparation of the desant.
------The desant is air-lifted by an aviation transport division from the air force main command and one transport helicopter regiment and it is covered during the flight and landing by two fighter aviation regiments.
----- The landing is in the rear of the enemy in area ___ at 0600 on the fifth day of the operation.
----- The mission of the desant is to seize a bridgehead on the Rhine River, destroy enemy logistic depots and to assist the army troops during the assault river crossing at the Rhine.
----- Prior to the landing, the enemy's targets in the landing area and his close-by airfields are initially hit by fighter-bomber and bomber aviation and then by rocket troops using conventional warheads. Enemy's air defense means and radars located in the flight corridor of the desant are destroyed by the air force, rocket troops and artillery.
---- Planning of the desant for movement and landing is to be worked out by the commander of the aviation transport division in cooperation with the army staff and airborne assault regiment.
----Troop control during the preparation for the desant is conducted from the command post of the aviation transport division and command post of the airborne assault regiment, while during the combat action it is conducted from the army's command post and the command post of the airborne assault regiment in the combat action area.


L. Combined Arms Reserve

The 91st Separate Tank Regiment is the combined arms reserve of the army and it is to deploy in area ___ and follow the 18th Motorized Rifle Division by bounds at a 30 - 40 km distance and be prepared for unexpected missions during the conduct of the operation.


M. Army's Anti-tank Reserve:

--1. The army's artillery anti-tank reserve is the 51st Anti-tank Regiment from the VGK artillery division. It is to deploy in area ___ and conduct struggle against tanks on the army's main attack direction. The likely fire lines of the anti-tank reserve to repel the enemy's tank counter-attack during the operation are as follows:
----- Line NO 1: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
----- Line NO 2: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
----- Line NO 3: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
----- Line NO 4: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.

The army's anti-tank reserve moves during the operation on the direction of the army's main attack following the 16th MRD.

--2. The combat helicopter regiment, in addition to support of the army troops during the operation, is to conduct struggle against enemy tanks. It is to deploy in the area ___ and be prepared to fight the enemy tanks on the following lines:
---- Line NO 1: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
---- Line NO 2: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
---- Line NO 3: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
---- Line NO 4: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.


N. Mobile Obstacle Detachment (POZ) is the first and second companies of the army's obstacle battalion. It is to deploy in area ___ and move and operate with the anti-tank reserve to repel enemy tanks.


O. Engineer Reserve is the 1st Battalion of the Combat Engineer Regiment, the 1st Road and Bridge Battalion and the 1st Battalion of the Pontoon Bridge Regiment. After accomplishment of assigned misions during the preparation of the army's operation, the engineer reserve is to deploy in area ___ and be prepared to conduct unexpected missions during the operation. In the course of the conduct of the operation it is to follow the 18th Motorized Rifle Division.


P. Chemical Reserve:

The chemical reserve is composed of the army's separate chemical protection battalion. It is to be prepared to conduct unexpected missions in the course of the operation. The chemical reserve is to deploy in area ___ and move during the operation in the direction ___.


Q. Time of readiness of the troops for the operation is at 2400 hrs on ___.

The norms of mobile reserves of material means during the operation are to be kept as follows:
-- 1. Infantry weapons - 1.15 units of fire
-- 2. Arty and mortars - 1.3 units of fire
-- 3. Reactive arty - 1.3 units of fire
-- 4. Tank ammunition - 2.6 units of fire
-- 5. Air defense ammo - 2.5 units of fire
-- 6. Auto gasoline - 2.6 refills
-- 7. Diesel fuel - 3.1 refills
-- 8. Foodstuffs - 15 daily rations


 
 

V. CONTROL OF ARMY TROOPS

The army CP is in Wickerstedt.
The army's rear control point is at Tumpling.
The army's FCP is at Walresleben.

The direction of relocation of the FCP, CP, and Rear CP during the operation, is the direction of Waldfisch, Schenklengsfeld, Grunberg, Weilmunster, Ober Dammerschausen.

The signal communication from army's CP to the front's commander and staff and with the subordinate, adjacent, and interacting troops will be established by radio, radio-relay, telephone, and mobile communications means with strict observation of the rules of secrfecy of the troop control.

My deputies are:
-- The chief of staff, first deputy army commander, chief of political affairs, and commander of the 16th MRD.

Chief of Operations Directorate:
(Signature)

Chief of Staff of the army
(Signature

 
 

SAMPLE BLANK ARMY OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVE

 
 

I Approve --/--/89
Commander _____________ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Army Serial Number:
Major General ____ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECRET
Sig -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Copy Number:

OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVE OF

The commander of the _____________ Army for offensive operations.

Command Post at ___________,___________, (time) _______________
(date), Map 1:250,000 August 1983 ed.

I. ENEMY SITUATION:

As a result of the development of acute international tension NATO is secretly engaged in bringing its armed forces to the state of full combat readiness and intends to launch a surprise attack on the territories of Warsaw Pact countries.

Elements of the ___________ are deployed directly against the forces of the _____________ Army. The first-echelon of the _____ is composed of the ___________ Division and _______________________ Division with a total of ___ nuclear rocket systems, ___ nuclear artillery pieces, ___tanks, ___ artillery pieces and mortars, ___SAM systems, ___helicopters, and ___ fixed wing aircraft.

In the second-echelon of the__ Corps is the ____________ Division and probably elements of ________________ forces will operate in the area, composed of ___ nuclear rocket systems, ___ nuclear artillery pieces, ___ artillery pieces and mortars, ___ tanks, ___ SAM systems, and ___ combat helicopters.

The _____________________________ and border troops are deployed in front of the forward defense area in the security zone. During the operation the combat action of the enemy forces will be supported by ___ combat aircraft with nuclear capability from the U.S. and West German national air forces and the ________ of Central Army Group.

In general the enemy can launch ___ nuclear rocket strikes and aerial bombs in the area of operation of the _____________ Army and against rear services installations of the army and the front during the conduct of his operation.

The _____________________ in the north and _________ Corps in the south are deployed on the flanks of the _______ Corps. Their operations can affect the forces of the _____________ Army. Movement and arrival of strategic reserves composed of _____ and ______ armed forces and mobilization reserves of ____________ are likely during the operation in the area of the _____________ Army.

The enemy tries to inflict losses on and destroy the Warsaw Pact forces and seize vital territories by a surprise and decisive offensive operation. If the Warsaw Pact forces overtake the enemy in initiation of offensive operations, the forces of the _______ Corps are likely to hold a pre-prepared defensive line along the ____________, ___________, _______, _______ and ___ ________ line, to inflict maximum losses on the _____________ Army by defensive action, and then launch counter strikes by the second-echelon forces from the line of ________ - ______ in the direction of __________, _________, ____________, and from the line of ________ - _______ in the direction of _______, _______, __________.

II. MISSION CONDUCTED BY FORCES AND MEANS OF THE FRONT AND ADJACENTS.

a. The following targets in the army's attack area are destroyed by the front's rocket troops and aviation forces during the initial nuclear strike:

-- enemy's nuclear weapons and nuclear depots in the area ___, ___, ____, and ___.
-- enemy's airfields in the areas ___, ___, ___, ___, and ___.
-- command posts of the _______ ___ ____ in the area ___ and command posts of the ____ of the ____________ Group in the area ___.
-- enemy's reserves in area ___, ___, ___, and ___.
-- enemy's rear service installations in the area ___, ___, ___, and ___.

T_____ regimental sorties of the front's fighter- bomber aviation are allocated to the army to support the army's action during the offensive operation and _____ regimental sorties of the front's helicopter aviation and one transport aviation division from the main command of the air force are allocated to support the airborne assaults. These sorties will be covered by the front's fighter aviation during their flight.

b. Adjacents:

On the right flank of the army the _____ ______ ____ Army attacks in the direction of _____, _______, _______, _______. Its immediate mission is to seize the line of ________, ________, __________, and _____________; and its long range mission is to seize the line of __________, ________, _________, and _________. The boundary with the right adjacent passes through _________, ________,________, and _________. All points are included in the ______ ______ Army's area.

On the left flank of the army the _____________ ___________ Army attacks in the direction of _______, ________, _______ and west of _________. The immediate mission of the ___________ is to seize the line of __________, _________, and _______ and its long range mission is to seize the line of ____, _________, and ______. The boundary line with the left adjacent passes through _________, _________, __________, and _____. All points are included in the _____________ area.



III. CONCEPT OF THE OPERATION

In the initial nuclear strike, by using ( ) nuclear rockets with a total yield of ( ) kilotons. The enemy's nuclear rocket and artillery troops in areas ___, his air force in areas ____, his main infantry and tank forces in areas ___, and the enemy's command posts at ___ are destroyed and decisive losses are inflicted on the enemy's air defense troops in areas ___, and on his rear service installations in areas ___.

Exploiting the results of the initial strategic nuclear strike and nuclear strikes of the front and army means the army attacks the enemy along the line of ____________, _____, and ________ and develops its attack by its main forces; i.e. the ____, ____ and ____ Motorized Rifle Divisions in the direction of _________,________, and _______; and during the operation by employing additional ( ) rockets with a total yield of ( ) kilotons destroys the main forces of the _______ Corps in the area; ________,________, _______, _______, and _____ and seizes on the third day the line of _________, ________, _________, and ________. Subsequently by committing the second-echelon forces into the engagement the army develops the attack in the direction of _______, _______, and _______ and during the conduct of the operation, by using ( ) nuclear rockets with a total yield of ( ) kilotons destroys newly detected enemy nuclear weapons, destroys the enemy's approaching reserves from the line of march, conducts assault crossing over the _____ River and with the cooperation of and by exploiting the success of the _____________ CAA encircles and destroys the main forces of the _________ and _____ Corps and approaching strategic reserves, and on the _th day of the operation seizes the line of ____, _______, ______ and ______.

The army's operational formation is established in two echelons:
--- in the first-echelon: the __th, __th,___th, and __st Motorized Rifle Divisions;
--- in the second-echelon: the __th and __th Tank Divisions;
--- the __st Separate Tank Regiment is the army's reserve.



IV. I ORDER

a. The __th Motorized Rifle Division with one brigade of artillery of the VGK reserve, one anti-tank battalion and one engineer battalion is to attack the enemy on the line: _________ - _______, to develop the attack in the direction of __________ - ________, to destroy the enemy in the area of _______, ________, ________, and to continue the attack in the direction of _______ - ______, destroy the enemy's division reserves in the area of __________, ________,_______, and ______ and seize the line of the immediate mission at _________, ______ and _____________ H + 10.
--Then the division is to develop the attack in the direction of ______, _______ and _______ and at the end of the day seize the line of west of _________, ______, and _________________.
--The future attack direction of the division for the next day is ________ and ________. The division is to assign one reinforced BMP motorized rifle regiment as the forward detachment to destroy from the line of march the enemy's covering forces and border troops in the enemy's security zone and facilitate quick advance of the division's main forces to the forward defense line of the enemy.
-- For the conduct of the division's attack ___nuclear, _ chemical and __ conventional rockets are allocated to the division. The use of nuclear and chemical weapons will be conducted only at signal and command of the front for the initial nuclear strike.
-- The division conducts the breakthrough of the enemy's main defensive line, at a 4 km front and during the artillery preparatory fire destroys and suppresses the enemy's strong points on the forward line and in depth, command posts, artillery and mortar batteries and enemy's immediate reserves.
-- On the left the ____ Motorized Rifle Division attacks. The boundary line with that division passes through ______, ________, _________, ________,___________, and ______.
-- During the penetration (breakthrough) of the enemy's defense, the destruction of the enemy's brigade reserve, development of the attack in depth and destruction of the enemy's division reserves are conducted in interaction with the ____ Motorized Rifle Division.
-- The division's command post during the penetration of the enemy's defense is to deploy _ km west of ________, and the rear service control point during this phase is to deploy in ___.

b. The ____ Motorized Rifle Division with one artillery brigade of VGK artillery division, one anti-tank battalion and engineer battalion attacks the enemy at the line ___ (As for the ____ Div).

c. The ____ Motorized Rifle Division with two artillery battalions of the army's artillery brigade, two anti-tank batteries and two engineer companies attacks the enemy at the line ___ (as for the ____ Div).

d. The ____ Motorized Rifle Division with two artillery battalions from the army's artillery brigade, two anti-tank batteries and two engineer companies is to attack the enemy from the line ___ ( as for the ____ Div).
e. The ____ Tank Division is in the army's second-echelon. The division is to deploy in departure (assembly) area in __________, __________, ___________, ___________. During the operation the division is to follow the ____ MRD by bounds at a distance of 40 - 60 km on at least 3 routes and be prepared to be committed into battle from the line No 1. (______________) with the mission to destroy the enemy's advancing reserves from the line of march and seize the line of _______, ____, and ________. The direction of its future attack is _______, ______.

The line No. 2 of commitment is the line of ___ with the immediate mission line at ___ and the direction of future development of the attack at ___.

At the time of commitment, the division is reinforced by 3 artillery battalions, one anti-tank battalion and one engineer road construction battalion.

In case of the use of nuclear weapons, the division is allocated __ nuclear, _ chemical, and __ conventional rockets.

The area of responsibility of the division to fight enemy's airborne assaults and his reconnaissance groups includes ___.

f. The __th Tank Division is in the army's second-echelon. It is to deploy ___ (As for the ____ Tank Div).

g. Army's rocket brigade is to accomplish the following tasks:

--1. destroy the following targets during the initial nuclear strike of the front:
---- enemy's nuclear rocket, target No. 302 in the area of ___ by a 20 kt warhead, air burst at H - 00.20 or at the front's signal.
-----enemy's nuclear rocket, target No. 203 in ___, by a 20 kt warhead, air burst at H - 00:20 or at front's signal.
-----enemy's ___ Corps command post, target No. 304 in ___ by a 100 kt warhead, ground burst at H - 00:2- or at the front's signal.
---- enemy's rear command post, target No. 305, in ___ by a 100 kt warhead, ground burst at H - 00:20 or at the front's signal.
---- airfield, target No. 306, in ___ by a 40 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the front's signal.
---- airfield, target No 307, in ___ by 40 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the front's signal.
---- enemy's second-echelon division in the area ___, ___, ___, and ___; including the following targets:
--------- targets No. 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, and 313 - each by a 20 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the front's signal.

(Note: Targets for divisional rocket strikes are also designated in the same way)

2. Time of delivery of nuclear and chemical rockets to the troops is P - 6 hrs. Time of delivery of conventional rockets to the troops is D - 3 days.

3. The status and situation of planned targets for nuclear strike are to be continuously followed and necessary adjustment in the plan of the nuclear strikes is to be made according to the actual situation.

4. Preparation of rocket troops for launch is to be kept at the highest state and technical rocket support of the rocket troops is to be organized in detail.

5. Position areas of rockets are to be well prepared in terms of engineer work and well camouflaged. Alternate positions for rockets are to be established and their protection against mass destruction weapons as well as the security and defense of rocket positions and mobile rocket bases must be organized and established.

6. To maximize the range of fire and to launch timely strikes on designated targets, timely relocation of positions and movement of rocket troops during the conduct of the operation, are to be planned and executed.

h. Artillery

1. The following artillery groups are to be established in army's large units and units:

---- army artillery group (AAG): 10 artillery battalions;
---- army reactive artillery group (AGRA): 4 BM-22 Bns.
-----in the ____ and ____ Motorized Rifle Divisions:
--------- divisional artillery groups (DAG) of 6 artillery battalions each
--------- regimental artillery groups (RAG) on the main direction of 3 artillery battalions each;

---- in the ____ and ____ Motorized Rifle Divisions:
-------- DAG of up to 4 artillery battalions each
-------- RAG on the main direction of 3 artillery battalions each


2. Artillery missions:

During the preparation, initiation and conduct of the offensive operation, the artillery is to accomplish the following tasks:
-- destruction and suppression of the enemy's nuclear weapons;
-- inflicting losses on the enemy during his aggression in the army's area. At this phase in addition to the security zone's regimental artillery, part of the divisional artillery is also assigned;
-- inflicting losses on the enemy during crossing the international border and during the battle in the enemy's security zone by artillery units of forward detachments of the first-echelon divisions, and part of the artillery of the first-echelon divisions:
-- inflicting losses on the enemy during breakthrough of the enemy's prepared defense and particularly destruction of strong points, destruction of artillery and mortar batteries, and command posts, and suppression of the enemy's immediate reserves;
-- destruction and suppression of the enemy and providing support for own troops during the assault support fire during the combat in the forward defense area of the first-echelon brigades;
-- providing fire support for attacking troops during the combat action in the depth of the enemy in the form of accompanying fire;
-- inflicting losses on the enemy during his counter-attacks and counter- strikes;
-- support of the army troops during assault river crossing;
-- support and covering of open flanks and gaps between combat formations;
-- struggle against enemy's artillery and mortars during the conduct of the offensive operation in the depth of the enemy's defense;
-- support of the commitment of the second-echelon troops and combined arms reserves into combat.


3. The density of the artillery for the breakthrough of the enemy's prepared defense during the preparatory fire is ___ - ___ guns and mortars per kilometer of front, duration of the preparatory fire is __ - __ minutes and the ammunition expenditure is ___ - ___ units of fire. the density of artillery during the commitment of the second-echelon forces into combat is to be __ - __ guns and mortars per kilometer of front and the duration of artillery preparatory fire is __ - __ minutes with an expenditure of ___ - ___ units of fire.


4. The assault support fire is to be conducted in the form of successive concentration of fire on one or two lines, single or double attack moving barrage to the depth of the first-echelon battalions i.e. _ - _ kms.


5. The accompanying fire is conducted by the method of concentration of fire and massive fire on individual targets.



I. Organic and attached aviation troops are to conduct the following missions during the preparation and conduct of the operation.

- - participation in the preparatory fire and assault support and accompanying fire during the conduct of the operation to destroy nuclear weapons and nuclear depots, command posts, to destroy and suppress enemy's deep reserves, air defense and radar positions, rear service installations, signal centers, aircraft guidance points, as well as the command posts and positions of radio electronic warfare systems during the attack.
-- conduct of air reconnaissance and air photography in support of the army's operation and reconnaissance for damage assessment of targets hit by friendly nuclear strikes. Up to the initiation of the attack, the reconnaissances to be conducted only by observation and aerial photography using fixed wing aircraft and helicopters along the state borders without crossing the border.

-- support and covering of the troops and army's targets against enemy's air strikes during the preparation and conduct of the operation;


-- the flight (sortie) resources are to be distributed as follows:
----- a. to the ____ and ____ MRD's 3 fighter - bomber aviation squadron sorties each per day;
----- b. to the ____ and ____ MRD's 2 fighter- bomber aviation squadron sorties each per day

--conduct struggle against the enemy tanks by combat helicopters;

-- insert airborne assault troops (desants) by transport helicopters in the rear of the enemy in accordance with separate plans;



J. to Air defense troops;

The air defense troops are to conduct the following missions during the preparation and conduct of the operation:

-- covering of the main combined arms and tank troops in the FUP areas, during the breakthrough of the enemy's prepared defense and in the depth of the enemy area;

-- covering of rocket and artillery troops in the departure (FUP) area, during their firing and during the conduct of the operation;

-- covering of command posts in the departure area and during the conduct of the operation;

-- covering of rear service installations in the departure area and during the operation;

-- covering of reserves and second-echelon troops in the departure area, during their movement and their commitment into combat;

-- covering of desants in their departure areas, during their flight, in their landing areas in the depth of the enemy's area, and during their combat actions;

-- covering of the troops during the assault river crossing;

-- covering the troops during the repulsion of the enemy's counter strikes.


2. The fire, reconnaissance, and warning systems of the army's air defense troops are to be coordinated with the fire and reconnaissance systems of the front and divisions' air defense troops and fighter aviation of the front air army and national air defense forces as part of an integrated unified plan so that massive strikes of the enemy's air force can be effectively repelled.


3. During the preparation and conduct of the operation, all air defense troops of the army and lower echelons (troops) are to be brought to the state of full combat readiness so that they will be ready to repel the enemy's air strikes. In any situation one third of the air defense troops must be kept at combat duty status.


4. Appropriate positions for the air defense troops are to be prepared in terms of engineer work. In addition to the main positions, alternate positions are to be established as well.


5. The movement of the air defense troops during the preparation and conduct of the attack is conducted in a way so that at critical phases of the operation all or the bulk of the air defense troops of the army and the troops have occupied positions to repel the enemy's air strikes and they are ready for the execution of their mission.

k. Airborne Assault troops (desant)

During the operation two airborne assaults are conducted:

1. A tactical airborne assault by a reinforced motorized rifle battalion from the ____ Division with a mortar battery.
-- The departure area for the desant is ___ and it should be occupied at 0600 on the first day of the operation for a 24 hrs period of preparation for the desant force.
-- The desant is airlifted by the front's transport helicopter regiment and it is supported by two fighter aviation squadrons.
-- The desant is landed in the enemy's rear in the area ___ at 0600 on the second day of the operation.
-- The mission of the desant is to destroy the enemy's nuclear depot and to seize and destroy the ________ in ___.
-- Prior to the landing, the enemy's reserves and other targets in the landing area are initially hit by front's fighter-bomber aviation and then by rocket troops using conventional warheads. Positions of the enemy's air defense means and airfields in the flight corridor of the helicopters are suppressed and destroyed by the air force.
-- Planning of the airborne assault for movement and landing isto be worked out by the helicopter regiment commander in cooperation with the army's operations directorate and the commander of the airborne assault force.
-- The troop control during the preparation for desant is conducted from the command post of the helicopter regiment in the departure area for the desant, and then during the operation it is conducted from the army's command post and the desant battalion's command/observation post.

2. Operational airborne assault (desant) by an airborne assault regiment reinforced by one towed artillery battalion.
-- The departure area for this desant is ___ and it is to be occupied at ____ on the ______ day of the operation for the preparation of the desant.
-- The desant is air-lifted by an aviation transport division from the air force main command and one transport helicopter regiment and it is covered during the flight and landing by two fighter aviation regiments.
-- The landing is in the rear of the enemy in area ___ at ____ on the _____ day of the operation.
-- The mission of the desant is to seize a bridgehead on the _____ River, destroy enemy logistic depots and to assist the army troops during the assault river crossing at the _____.
-- Prior to the landing, the enemy's targets in the landing area and his close-by airfields are initially hit by fighter-bomber and bomber aviation and then by rocket troops using conventional warheads. Enemy's air defense means and radars located in the flight corridor of the desant are destroyed by the air force, rocket troops and artillery.
-- Planning of the desant for movement and landing is to be worked out by the commander of the aviation transport division in cooperation with the army staff and airborne assault regiment.
-- The troop control during the preparation for the desant is conducted from the command post of the aviation transport division and command post of the airborne assault regiment, while during the combat action it is conducted from the army's command post and the command post of the airborne assault regiment in the combat action area.


L. Combined Arms Reserve

The ____ ______ Regiment is the combined arms reserve of the army and it is to deploy in area ___ and follow the ____ Motorized Rifle Division by bounds at a 30 - 40 km distance and be prepared for unexpected missions during the conduct of the operation.


M. Army's Anti-tank Reserve:

1. The army's artillery anti-tank reserve is the ____ Anti-tank Regiment from the VGK artillery division. It is to deploy in area ___ and conduct struggle against tanks on the army's main attack direction. The likely fire lines of the anti-tank reserve to repel the enemy's tank counter-attack during the operation are as follows:
--- Line NO 1: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
--- Line NO 2: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
--- Line NO 3: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
--- Line NO 4: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.

The army's anti-tank reserve moves during the operation on the direction of the army's main attack following the ____ MRD.

2. The combat helicopter regiment, in addition to support of the army troops during the operation, is to conduct struggle against enemy tanks. It is to deploy in the area ___ and be prepared to fight the enemy tanks on the following lines:
--- Line NO 1: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
--- Line NO 2: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
--- Line NO 3: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.
--- Line NO 4: The line of ___ in the direction of ___.


N. Mobile Obstacle Detachment (POZ) is the first and second companies of the army's obstacle battalion. |It is to deploy in area ___ and move and operate with the anti-tank reserve to repel enemy tanks.


O. Engineer Reserve is the 1st Battalion of the Combat Engineer Regiment, the 1st Road and Bridge Battalion and the 1st Battalion of the Pontoon Bridge Regiment. After accomplishment of assigned misions during the preparation of the army's operation, the engineer reserve is to deploy in area ___ and be prepared to conduct unexpected missions during the operation. In the course of the conduct of the operation it is to follow the ____ Motorized Rifle Division.


P. Chemical Reserve:

The chemical reserve is composed of the army's separate chemical protection battalion. It is to be prepared to conduct unexpected missions in the course of the operation. The chemical reserve is to deploy in area ___ and move during the operation in the direction ___.


Q. Time of readiness of the troops for the operation is at 2400 hrs on ___.

The norms of mobile reserves of material means during the operation are to be kept as follows:
-- 1. Infantry weapons - ____ units of fire
-- 2. Arty and mortars - ____ units of fire
-- 3. Reactive arty - ____ units of fire
-- 4. Tank ammunition - ____ units of fire
-- 5. Air defense ammo - ____ units of fire
-- 6. Auto gasoline - ____ refills
-- 7. Diesel fuel - ____ refills
-- 8. Foodstuffs - __ daily rations



V. CONTROL OF ARMY TROOPS

-- The army CP is in ___________.
-- The army's rear control point is at _______.
-- The army's FCP is at _________.

The direction of relocation of the FCP, CP, and Rear CP during the operation, is the direction of _________, __________, _______, __________, _____________. The signal communication from army's CP to the front's commander and staff and with the subordinate, adjacent, and interacting troops will be established by radio, radio-relay, telephone, and mobile communications means with strict observation of the rules of secrecy of the troop control.

My deputies are:
--- The chief of staff, first deputy army commander, chief of political affairs, and commander of the ____ MRD.


Chief of Operations Directorate:
(Signature)


Chief of Staff of the army
(Signature)



 
 

Combat Instructions from Army to Division

Once the army commander has made his decision and the army operations plan and operations directive have been written, the army will issue extracts of the operations directive to each division in the form of "Combat Instructions." The format of the instructions contains the following sections.

I. Enemy: This is based on the statement of the enemy found in the army operational directive.

II. Specific missions to the division: The part of the "I order" section of the operational directive directed to the individual division.

III. Army means and missions of adjacents: The actions of the army forces in the division's area in support of its actions and a summary of the actions of adjacents relevant to the division.

IV. Troop control measures: A restatement from the army operational order of the location and movement of command post, signal communications measures, and the designation of army succession in command.

A sample of the combat instructions follows.

 
 

SAMPLE COMBAT INSTRUCTIONS FROM ARMY TO DIVISION

I approve ___/___/Guards Army--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Serial No:
Major General -- --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECRET
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Copy No:


Combat Instructions of the commander of the Eighth Guards Army for offensive operation to the commander of the 16th MRD:

Command post Wickerstedt, at ____, on ____ Map 1:250,000 Aug 1983 ed:


I. Enemy

As a result of the deterioration of the international situation the NATO has secretly brought its armed forces to the state of full combat readiness and wants to launch a surprise attack on the territories of the Warsaw Pact.
Confronting the troops of the Eighth Guards Army, t he forces of the U. S. V Corps are deployed with the Third Armored Division and the Eighth Mechanized Division in the first-echelon composed of a total of up to ____ nuclear rocket systems, ____ nuclear artillery pieces, ____ tanks,____ guns and mortars, ____ SAM systems, and ____ fixed wing aircraft and helicopters.
In the second-echelon of the V Corps, the ___ division and most likely tank troops of the FRG will operate with a total of ____ nuclear rocket systems, ____ nuclear artillery piece tan guns and mortars, ____ SAM systems, ____ fixed wing aircraft and helicopters.
In front of the forward defense belt, the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment and the enemy's border troops are deployed in the security zone.
The combat action of the enemy during the operation will be supported by ____ combat aircraft from the U.S. and FRG national air forces and aviation troops of the 4th ATAF, organic to the Central Army Group, which has nuclear capability. During the conduct of the operation the enemy can launch a total of ( ) strikes of nuclear rockets, rounds, and bombs in the area of the Eighth Guards Army.
On the flanks of the Vth Corps, the III German Corps in the north and the VII U. S. Corps in the south will operate. Their actions can affect the Eighth Guards Army actions during the conduct of the operation.
During the operation, movement of the U. S. and French strategic reserves and newly mobilized German reserves to the area of the Eighth Guards Army is likely. The enemy tries to inflict maximum losses on the Warsaw Pact countries by launching a surprise decisive offensive operation and seize vital territories. If the Warsaw Pact countries overtake the NATO in offensive operations, it is likely that the troops of the Vth U. S. Corps will hold pre-prepared defensive lines at the line of Bad Hersfeld, Niederaule, Schlitz, Fulda, Gersfeld, Bad Neustadt, to inflict heavy losses on the army by defensive actions.
In this case the enemy's counter strikes by his second-echelon troops are likely to be launched from the line: Birstein - Gedern in the direction of Grehenhain, Lauterbach, Bad Hersfeld, and from the line: Neustadt, Homberg in the direction of Kirtarf, Alsfeld, Niederaula.


II. Order to 16th MRD:

The 16th MRD with the ____arty bde of the VGK artillery div, -- Anti-tank Bn, ____Combat Engineer Bn, -- Assault Crossing Co, and ___ Bn of the Road and Bridge Regiment is to attack the enemy at the line of Ludwigsau, Eichhof and to develop the attack in the direction Bad Hersfeld, - Rockerod and destroy the enemy in the area Ludwigsau, Gittersed, Rockerod, Eichhof and to continue the attack in the direction of Go Bmanerode - Ottrau and destroy the enemy's division reserves in the area: Wigshain, Schorbach, Ottrau, and Kemmerod and at ____ hrs seize the line of its immediate mission at Schorbach, Ottrau, and north of Lingitbach.
Then the division is to continue the attack in the direction of Ottrau, Alsfeld, Hill 384, destroy the enemy forces in the area ____, ____, ____, ____ and at the end of the day seize the line of west of Anlrifttal, Heimertshausen and the stretch of route 49 to the south. The direction of attack of the division for the next day is Heimertshausen and Hill 322.
The division is to detach one reinforced BMP motorized rifle battalion as a forward detachment to destroy, from the line of march, the enemy's border and covering troops in the security zone and to facilitate quick advance of the division to the line of the enemy's forward defense area.
For the division's attack 15 nuclear rockets, 5 chemical rockets and 15 conventional rocket warheads are allocated. The chemical and nuclear weapons will be used in accordance with the order and instructions via signal for the initial nuclear strike by the front.
(In case of the conduct of the attack with the use of nuclear weapons the targets of divisional rocket troops are specified as shown below.) During the initial nuclear strike of the front the following targets are to be destroyed by the division's rocket battalion:
--- target No 314, enemy's first-echelon bn, in area ____, --by a 3 kt warhead air burst at H- 00:20 or at the signal;
--- target No 315, enemy's first-echelon bn, in area ____ , ____by a 3 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the signal;
--- target No. 316, enemy artillery bn, in area ____, ____ by a 3 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the signal;
--- target No. 317, enemy brigade second-echelon bn, in the area ____, ____ by a 3 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the signal;
--- target No. 318, enemy brigade second-echelon tank bn, in the area ____, ____ by a 10 kt warhead, air burst, at H + 00:20 or at the signal:
--- target No. 319, enemy's division CP, in the area ____ by a 10 kt warhead, ground burst, at H + 00:20.
--- target No. 320 enemy's brigade CP in the area ____ by a 10 kt warhead, ground burst, at H + 00:20
--- target No. 321, enemy's rear service, in area ____ by a 10 kt warhead, air burst, at H + 00:20.

The division is to conduct breakthrough of the enemy forward defense area in the area ___ on a 4 km front and destroy or suppress during the preparatory fire the enemy's strong points on the forward line and in the depth, command posts, artillery and mortar batteries, and enemy's immediate reserves.
The division CP during the breakthrough of the enemy's defense is to be established at 3 km west of road junction of Fredewald and the division's rear Cp in the area ____.
The time of readiness of the division troops for the attack is 2400 on __.


III. The army means and adjacent missions:

a. The following targets are destroyed in the division's sector by army means:
--- enemy's Corps CP at ____
--- nuclear depot at ____
--- nuclear rocket system at ____

During the artillery preparatory fires, the following targets in the division's sector are destroyed : targets ____, ____, ____, ____.

The air force destroys and suppresses during the preparatory fire the enemy's nuclear weapons at ____, enemy CP at ____, enemy SAM systems in ____, enemy radar posts at ____.

b. On the right the 11th MRD of the First Guards Army attacks with an immediate mission to seize the line of the road junction west of Schellbach, Wattenstein, Rabolds, and a subsequent mission to seize the line of Frielendorf, 3 km west of Seigertshausen, and Neukirchen. The daily mission of the division is to seize the line of Momberg, Neustadt, Arnsha. The boundary with the division passes through: Eisenach, Hill 754, and Dannenrod.

On the left, the 18th MRD attacks with an immediate mission to seize the line of road junction 3 km northwest of Hattenbach, Breilenburg, 2 km east of Hatterode. The division's subsequent mission is to seize the line of Lingetach, and airfield at Lauterbach, and its daily mission is to seize the line of 2 km west of Neider, east of Windhausen, and Meiches. The boundary with the division passes through : Mohara, Hill 366, road junction south east of Bad Hersfeld, Kleba, Lingellach, Neider.


IV. Troop control- The Army's FCP is at Walreslenben
-- army's CP is at Wickastedt
-- army's rear CP is at Tumpling

The direction of relocation of the FCP, CP, and rear CP during the operation is the direction of Waldfisch, Schenklengsfeld, Gruynbverg, Weilmunster, Ober Dmershausen.

The signal communication from army's CP's to the front' commander and staff and with the subordinate, adjacent and interacting troops is to be established by radio, radio-relay, telephone and mobile communications means with strict observation of the rules of secrecy of the troop control.

My deputies are in order of succession: The chief of staff, first deputy army commander, chief of the political affairs dept, and commander of the 16th MRD.

Chief of operations directorate

Chief of Staff
x

 
 

BLANK SAMPLE COMBAT INSTRUCTIONS FROM ARMY TO DIVISION

I approve ___/___/Guards Army --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Serial No:
Major General -- -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SECRET
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Copy No:


Combat Instructions

of the commander of the _____________ Army for offensive operation to the commander of the ____ MRD:

Command post ________, at ____, on ____ Map 1:250,000 Aug 1983 ed:


I. Enemy

As a result of the deterioration of the international situation the NATO has secretly brought its armed forces to the state of full combat readiness and wants to launch a surprise attack on the territories of the Warsaw Pact.
Confronting the troops of the ___________ Army, t he forces of the _____ _ Corps are deployed with the _____ ________ and the _______ _______ Division in the first-echelon composed of a total of up to ____ nuclear rocket systems, ____ nuclear artillery pieces, ____ tanks,____ guns and mortars, ____ SAM systems, and ____ fixed wing aircraft and helicopters.
In the second-echelon of the _ Corps, the ___ division and most likely tank troops of the FRG will operate with a total of ____ nuclear rocket systems, ____ nuclear artillery piece tan guns and mortars, ____ SAM systems, ____ fixed wing aircraft and helicopters.
In front of the forward defense belt, the ________________ Regiment and the enemy's border troops are deployed in the security zone.
The combat action of the enemy during the operation will be supported by ____ combat aircraft from the U.S. and FRG national air forces and aviation troops of the ___ ATAF, organic to the Central Army Group, which has nuclear capability.
During the conduct of the operation the enemy can launch a total of ( ) strikes of nuclear rockets, rounds, and bombs in the area of the __________ Army.
On the flanks of the ___ Corps, the _________ Corps in the north and the _______Corps in the south will operate. Their actions can affect the ______ ______ Army actions during the conduct of the operation.
During the operation, movement of the U. S. and French strategic reserves and newly mobilized German reserves to the area of the Eighth Guards Army is likely. The enemy tries to inflict maximum losses on the Warsaw Pact countries by launching a surprise decisive offensive operation and seize vital territories. If the Warsaw Pact countries overtake the NATO in offensive operations, it is likely that the troops of the ____ U. S. Corps will hold pre-prepared defensive lines at the line of __________, __________, _______, ________, to inflict heavy losses on the army by defensive actions.
In this case the enemy's counter strikes by his second-echelon troops are likely to be launched from the line: __________ - ____ in the direction of ________, _________ ,___________, and from the line: _______,________ in the direction of _______, _______, __________.


II. The division

The ____ MRD with ____ Artillery Brigade of the VGK artillery div, -- Anti-tank Bn, ____Combat Engineer Bn, -- Assault Crossing Co, and ___ Bn of the Road and Bridge Regiment is to attack the enemy at the line of ________, _______ and to develop the attack in the direction ________, - _______ and destroy the enemy in the area _________, ________, _______, ______ and at ____to continue the attack in the direction of __________ - _____ and destroy the enemy's division reserves in the area: ________, ________, ______, and _______ and at ____ hrs seize the line of its immediate mission at ______, ______, and _____________.
Then the division is to continue the attack in the direction of ______, _______, ________, destroy the enemy forces in the area ____, ____, ____, ____ and at the end of the day seize the line of __________, ___________ and ______________. The direction of attack of the division for the next day is _________ and ________.
The division is to detach one reinforced BMP motorized rifle battalion as a forward detachment to destroy, from the line of march, the enemy's border and covering troops in the security zone and to facilitate quick advance of the division to the line of the enemy's forward defense area.
For the division's attack __ nuclear rockets, _ chemical rockets and __ conventional rocket warheads are allocated. The chemical and nuclear weapons will be used in accordance with the order and instructions via signal for the initial nuclear strike by the front.
(In case of the conduct of the attack with the use of nuclear weapons the targets of divisional rocket troops are specified as shown below.) During the initial nuclear strike of the front the following targets are to be destroyed by the division's rocket battalion:
--- target No 314, enemy's first-echelon bn, in area ____, --by a 3 kt warhead air burst at H- 00:20 or at the signal;
--- target No 315, enemy's first-echelon bn, in area ____ , ____ by a 3 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the signal;
--- target No. 316, enemy artillery bn, in area ____, ____ by a 3 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the signal;
--- target No. 317, enemy brigade second-echelon bn, in the area ____, ____ by a 3 kt warhead, air burst, at H - 00:20 or at the signal;
--- target No. 318, enemy brigade second-echelon tank bn, in the area ____, ____ by a 10 kt warhead, air burst, at H + 00:20 or at the signal:
--- target No. 319, enemy's division CP, in the area ____ by a 10 kt warhead, ground burst, at H + 00:20.
--- target No. 320 enemy's brigade CP in the area ____ by a 10 kt warhead, ground burst, at H + 00:20
--- target No. 321, enemy's rear service, in area ____ by a 10 kt warhead, air burst, at H + 00:20.

The division is to conduct breakthrough of the enemy forward defense area in the area ___ on a 4 km front and destroy or suppress during the preparatory fire the enemy's strong points on the forward line and in the depth, command posts, artillery and mortar batteries, and enemy's immediate reserves.
The division CP during the breakthrough of the enemy's defense is to be established at _______________ and the division's rear Cp in the area ____.
The time of readiness of the division troops for the attack is 2400 on __.


III. The army means and adjacent missions:

a. The following targets are destroyed in the division's sector by army means:
--- enemy's Corps CP at ____
--- nuclear depot at ____
--- nuclear rocket system at ____

During the artillery preparatory fires, the following targets in the division's sector are destroyed : targets ____, ____, ____, ____.

The air force destroys and suppresses during the preparatory fire the enemy's nuclear weapons at ____, enemy CP at ____, enemy SAM systems in ____, enemy radar posts at ____.

b. On the right the ____ MRD of the __________ Army attacks with an immediate mission to seize the line of the road junction west of __________, _______, _______, and a subsequent mission to seize the line of _______,_____, and ________. The daily mission of the division is to seize the line of _______, ______,_______. The boundary with the division passes through: ________, ________, and _________.

On the left, the ____ MRD attacks with an immediate mission to seize the line of road junction _______, ___________, ____________. The division's subsequent mission is to seize the line of _______, and __________ , and its daily mission is to seize the line of ___________, _________________, and _______. The boundary with the division passes through : _____, ________, ____________________, _________, and _________.


IV. Troop control- The Army's FCP is at ________

-- army's CP is at __________
-- army's rear CP is at ________

The direction of relocation of the FCP, CP, and rear CP during the operation is the direction of ________,________,________, _____________.

The signal communication from army's CP's to the front' commander and staff and with the subordinate, adjacent and interacting troops is to be established by radio, radio-relay, telephone, and mobile communications means with strict observation of the rules of secrecy of the troop control.

My deputies are in order of succession: The chief of staff, first deputy army commander, chief of the political affairs dept, and commander of the 16th MRD.

Chief of operations directorate

Chief of Staff
x

 
 

Commitment of Army Second- Echelon into Engagement

The operational situation at 0600 19 June 1990:

The forces of the 8th Guards Army at 0600 on the 5th of June, after the conduct of the strategic air operation and preparatory fire, went onto the offensive. In the course of a four-day operation they repelled enemy counterattacks of the second-echelon brigade and counter strike of the second-echelon of the corps, broke through the enemy defense on the axis of the main attack, and moved 130 km into the depth of the enemy area. They fulfilled the army immediate mission on the main attack axis. On the secondary axis the army's forces did not develop the offensivein accordance with the plan, because the enemy strongly resisted. The enemy engineer obstacles turned out to be very strong and the enemy strongly defended them. So far they have not fulfilled the immediate mission. On the left flank the offensive of army forces is moving slowly. In some places the offensive of some army units has been stopped by the enemy. The current situation is shown on the map.

From the report of the chief of reconnaissance it is clear that the enemy uses the darkness of night to bring forward his operational reserves, which consist of motorized, tank, and artillery troops. On the axis from the south part of Frankfurt-on- Main toward the direction of Fulda the enemy is moving 6 columns. The march columns and their movements are shown on the map.

Also the operational reserves from the depth of Germany move from the north on the axis towards Bad Hersfeld in the zone of attack of the neighboring army (First Guards Tank Army). The situation of the enemy advance guard is shown on the map and his main forces move at a distance of 10-15 km behind the advance guard. The depth of each of the main forces columns is 25-30 km.

The Seventh Guards Tank Army in the second-echelon of the front is deployed at a distance of 200 km from the leading elements on the main axis of the army. At 0500 this morning, after the completion of a 150 km march, the deployment is shown on the map.

The enemy's air forces with wide use of radio electronic combat means delivered effective strikes during the course of the operation on army forces and rear service targets. The enemy strives to seize air supremacy. The enemy in future battles will widely use high accuracy weapons against our forces. We have also used reconnaissance strike complex, groups of deep reconnaissance, diversionary groups, and artillery fire and rocket and aviation strikes against his high accuracy weapons. But so far these weapons remain the most effective combat means available to the enemy. The losses of both sides are shown on the table.

Task:

1. Take the role of the army commander and chief of staff of the Eight Guards Army during the estimate of the situation and making deductions .

2. In accordance with the situation make the decision and show the decision on the map.

3. Write the combat instructions to the subordinates.

4. Organize interaction



Estimate of the situation:

1. estimate of enemy

The following are enemy results of offensive operations of our forces, which started at 0600 5 June with the forward detachments, which were sent out from each first-echelon division. From the first the enemy used heavy massive air strikes against our main forces and rear service targets. The battle began in the covering force area when our forward detachements fought against the armored cavalry regiment of the 5th US Corps and forces of the second-echelon of the first-echelon division. As a result of the effective actions of our forces in the afternoon the enemy covering force troops retired into the depth and our forces came in contact with the enemy main forces along the forward edge of their battle position. The enemy had already previously organized a main line of resistance and at 0530 on 6th June the offensive of our main forces began in order to break through the forward line of enemy resistance. The enemy used engineer fortification and obstacles in defense and strongly defended them in front of our attacking forces. During the combat actions, while our forces were breaking through the defense, the enemy mounted counterattacks with the second-echelon brigades of the first-echelon with the aim of restoring his positions on the forward edge, but these counterattacks did not succeed in stopping our attacks and our offensive continued into the enemy depth. During the development of the offensive into the depth the enemy mounted counterattacks from the second-echelon division with the objective of destroying our forces in the enemy defense. These counterattacks also did not have their intended result.

With the continuing movement of our forces in the depth of the enemy defense he mounted a counterstrike by the second-echelon of the army corps on two axes. As a result of the violent battle of the enemy counterattack, it was only stopped after great difficulty and with heavy losses. The offensive of our forces continues.

In the course of four days of operations the enemy forces on the main attack axis were forced to retreat and continue combat actions on the lines shown on the map. The enemy strives to reinforce the defense on the main axis of our forces in order to stop further advance of our forces into his depth. With this objective the enemy decided to withdraw his main forces a short distance and build a strong defense line; and also to bring forward new forces to reinforce this line.

The enemy on the left flank defends with strong resistance and prevents the advance of our forces into the depth. In some locations he has stopped our offensive. On the right flank some units of the First Guards Tank Army, during the course of the four days, only with difficulty managed to advance 30 km.


The situation and condition of enemy forces:

On the main axis of the army the enemy forces operate in the following manner:
-- 8th Motorized Division;
---- 2nd Brigade 8th Motorized Division; defends on the line ___ to ___ against units of the 16th Motor Rifle Division;
----3rd Brigade of 8th Motorized Division defends on the line __ to ___ against units of the 11th Regiment of 16th Motor Rifle Div and the 115 Regt of the 18th Motor Rifle Div.
-- --The 1st Brigade of 8th Motorized Division conducts combat action in the area ___. ___. In front of the unit is the 11th Motorized Rifle Div of the adjacent army (1GTA);
-- --The staff of the 8th Division is located in the area ___. ___.
-- The armored cavalry regiment is located in the second-echelon and organizes defenses on the line ___ to ___.

--The enemy forces of almost of a brigade move from the depth to the combat area and part of its forces organize defense along the line ___. ___.

-- Third Armored Division: 1st Brigade - 3AD defends on the line ___ to ___. Against the units of the 18th division.
---- 2nd Brigade 3AD defends on line ___ to ___against units of the 19th MRD.
---- 3rd Brigade of 3AD assembles in the area ___, to ___. This division has had heavy losses.
-----The division staff located in areas ___.

--Second-echelon armor division of Vth Corps:
---- This division conducts counterattack with aim of destruction of army main forces on main attack axis. As a result of strenuous fighting the division was thrown back. Now units of the division act in the following areas ___. ___

-- 3rd Armor Brigade defends on the line ___ to __ against 121 MRR and 19th Tank Regiment of 19th MRD. and 21 Tank Regt of 21 MRD.
-- 3rd Brigade defends in the area ___ against 125 MRR of 21 MRD and units of 40th MRD.
-- 1st Brigade of this division defends __- to __- against units of 11th MRD. This division is located far from the main forces.
-- The division staff is located in area ___, ___.

-- Corps Pershing Battalion located in area ___.
-- Corps Lance bn located in area ____.
-- Positions of atomic artillery 203.4mm are likely located in area ___, ___.
-- Firing positions of 155mm regiment are located in area ___.

In the composition of enemy forces located in contact with our army it is possible that they have ___ nuclear rockets, ___ atomic artillery ___, high accuracy weapons, ____ artillery and mortars, ___ tanks, ____ motor rifle divisions,____ PVO rockets, ___ combat helicopters.

Enemy losses are shown on the tables.

Operational reserves consist of tank, motorized, and artillery forces. They are moving in 6 columns on the axis toward Fulda. At their head are advance guards that have reached a line of Kirchgell to Erbach and Lautertal. It is possible that they have up to 2 divisions. So far their nationality and composition are not known. In this force it is possible that there are ___ nuclear rockets, ___ atomic artillery, ___ high accuracy weapons, ___ artillery and mortars, ___ PVO rrockets, ___ combat helicopters.

Also reconnaissance confirmed the movement of the enemy reserves from the depth of German territory from the north on the axis toward Bad Hersfeld. In the area of attack of our neighbor army on the right (1st Guards Tank Army) the enemy advance guards reached line of ___, ___. 3 km south west of Zierenberg, Wolfhagen, Korbach.

From the composition of the march columns and their length we believe that the composition of the grouping may be up to 2 motorized and tank divisions and their content and nationality is not clear.


Possible aim of enemy actions

From the enemy operational disposition and their strong resistance on the left flank and on the right flank in the regions ___, ___, ___, and movement of operational reserves from the depth, it is clear we estimate that enemy strives to deliver two flanking convergent blows; from the line ___, ___ on axis ___ and from line ___, __ on axis ___. He strives to encircle and destroy the main forces of the 8th Guards Army and First Guards Tank Army in the area of West of Kassel, Bad Hersfeld, Fulda and Wetzlar, Laspge, Frankenberg. He wants to restore the line to the state border. With the arrival of strategic reserves from depth he will go over onto the decisive offensive into WP area.

The start of the enemy counterattack is possible from 0500 in areas ____._____,______. (It is 100 km away, at rate of advance of 25 km hr the movement will take 4 hrs and if our forces deliver air and artillery strikes they may delay it one hour).


Assessment of our forces:

Our forces at 0600 morning of 5 June, after conduct of strategic air strike of the TVD scale, with forward detachments of each first-echelon division composed of one reinforced motor rifle regiment went onto the attack. After conduct of battle in the covering force area, during the afternoon they came in close contact with the enemy main line of resistance. After detailed analysis of enemy defense, by using night time to move artillery, PVO and command posts close to enemy forward edge of defense, with the artillery calculating firing requirements and occupying positions, the army main forces launched the attack on the enemy defenses from the march, after artillery preparation, at 0530 6 June.

With our forces moving into enemy defense they were attacked by the second-echelon of enemy brigades and then by second-echelons of the enemy divisions with the aim of destroying our forces and restoring the main line of defense. After a strong fight these counterattacks were repulsed. The army main forces moved into the depth of defense. At that time the enemy launched a counterattack of the second-echelon of the Vth Corps on two axes. After desperate fighting and with great difficulties and losses the counterattack was also repulsed and the main forces of 16th and 18th MRD's moved into enemy defense.

The army main forces during four days operations moved 130 km into the depth of the enemy defense in accordance with plan and fulfilled the immediate mission, but the offensive of the army on our left flank did not have success and could not fulfill its immediate mission because of strong enemy defense. In some locations the offensive of our forces was stooped by enemy and some units of the 21st MRD during four days time moved only 30 km forward.

Forces of the second-echelon divisions so far have not been committed into combat. The situation of our forces at 0600 9th June is shown on the map.


The situation and status of our forces:

The 16th MRD:
--- 112th MRR attacks on the line ___, ___. against subunits of the 2nd Brigade of enemy 8th Div;
--- 16th Tank Regt attacks on the line __, __- against subunits of 2nd enemy Brigade;
--- 111th MRR attacks on line ___, ___ against subunits of 3rd Brigade;
--- 110th MRR is located in division 2nd echelon and moves forward; the head of column reached line ___, ___.

The division losses are shown in the table.

The 18th MRD:
--- 115 MRR attacks on the line __-, ___ against subunits of the 3rd Brigade 8th Motorized Division.
--- 116th MRR attacks on the line ___, ___ against subunits of the 1st Brigade 3rd Armor Div.
--- 117th MRR regt attacks on the line ___,___against subunits of 1st Brigade of 3rd Armored Division.
--- 18th Tank Regt concentrates in region ___ and it comprises the division 2nd echelon.

The division losses are shown in the table.

The 19th MRD:
--- 120 MRR slowly attacks against subunits of the 3rd Brigade of enemy on line ___. ___;
--- 121st MRR attacks and reaches line __-, __- against subunits of 1st Brigade of enemy and moves with difficulty.
--- 19th Tank Regt has been stopped by subunits of 2nd Brigade of enemy armored division.
--- 122 MRR assembles in area ___, ___ and composes division second-echelon.

The division losses are shown on the table.

The 21st Motor Rifle Division:
--- 21st Tank Regiment attacks but is stopped by units of 2nd Brigade of enemy armored division on line___, ___.
--- Attack of 125th MRR also stopped by units of 3rd Brigade of armored division on line ___, ___.
--- 126th and 128th MRR surround enemy in region ___, ___, ___ and conduct battle with aim of destroying this encircled enemy force.

The division losses are shown on the table.

The 17th Tank Division:
--- At 0500 the division completed its march of 150 km and assembled in area __-, ___, __. Division losses and shortages from full strength are shown in the table.
--- The 20th Tank Division:
--- At 0430 after completing 40 km march concentrated in area __-, ___, ___. Division's losses and shortages are shown in the table.

The army artillery subgroup 1 :
--- Occupies it positions in area __-, __-; and interacts with the 16th MRD. Losses in personnel 3% and in guns and mortars 18%, and tractors 13%.

The army artillery subgroup 2:
--- Occupies their positions in area ,_--, __- and interact with 18th MRD. Losses in personnel 3% and in guns and mortars rocket launchers 16%,

The antitank reserve:
--- Repelled enemy counterattack and moved forward and the head of the column has reached line of __-, __-. Losses of personnel 3% and of ATGM and AT guns 18%.

The mobile obstacle detachment of army:
--- Also repelled enemy counterattack and moves forward and head of column has reached line __-, ___. Losses in personnel 2.5% and loses of equipment 12%.

The army rocket brigade:
--- Occupies firing positions in area __-, ___. and losses in personnel 3% and in launchers 25%.

The PVO rocket brigade:
- - covers army main forces on the main axis its situation is shown on the map. Its losses in personnel are 3.5% and in combat equipment 18%.

Material supplies for army forces:
--- The separate material support battalion of the 16th MRD lost 40% of supplies. Separate material support battalion of 18th and 21st MRD's have 20% losses in supplies. The separate material support battalion of the 19th MRD completely lost transport company for POL. and of other supplies it has 15%.

The separate material support brigade of army:
--- Has reported the following losses: 35% supplies of POL, and 25% in ammunition, 20% of food, and 18% of clothing and supplies. For replacing losses of transport and other material the front rear service is acting to accomplish it.


Conclusion from estimate of own forces:

The offensive of the 16th and 18th MRD's is continuing slowly and their second-echelons have some losses in personnel and combat equipment. But the offensive of the 19th and 21st MRD's are partly stopped and cannot fulfill their combat missions in accordance with the operations plan. The second echelon of the 19th MRD is changing its location and occupying a new location and the second echelon of the 21st division already has be committed into battle and the division does not have a second echelon.

The army second-echelon divisions so far have not been committed into combat and their strength after completion of 40 and 50 km march are concentrated in new areas.

The operational situation of the Eight Guards Army and the First Guards Tank Army:
During the course of four days of offensive on the axis of the main attack the offensive has reached into the depth of the enemy defense but on the flanks of both armies the enemy uses engineer fortifications and strong resistance and was not broken through. In some locations the offensive on the flanks is stooped by enemy. The attack has created a dangerous salient conducive for conduct of enemy counterattacks by operational and strategic reserves. This creates good conditions for the encirclement and destruction of the main forces of both armies. The enemy knows the situation and decides to use the darkness of night to move reserves of 4-5 divisions on both flanks and strives to conduct encircling strikes against the main force of the forces and surround and destroy them. In this way the enemy strives to stop the front offensive operation.

With the aim of support of the concept of operation of the front and fulfill the given army mission we must on the one side repel enemy counterattacks and on the other hand develop the offensive into the enemy depth of defense. Therefore this objective requires that the 20th Tank Division take up the defense in the region __-, ___; and in interaction with the 28th CAA on left flank repel enemy counterattack in place, inflict losses on enemy, stop the counterattack, and after that return to the offensive against the main strength of the counterattacking group and 3rd Armor Division. The 20th Tank Division will coordinate with the forces of 28th CAA and by using flank attacks together they will destroy enemy forces on our left flank.

The 17th Tank Division, after completion of its 80 km march, will commit into the engagement on the line ___, ___ on the axis ___, ___ and develop the offensive into the depth of enemy defenses.


Making a new decision:
The correlation of forces and means are the following:

A correlation of forces in general;

forces and means own forces enemy correlation

--MRD 4: 3
--TD 2 : 2
--Oper.rocket 9
--tactical rocket 18
--guns and mortars 1176
--ATGM and gun 542
--tanks 1200
--PVo rocket 43
--PVO med range 96
--helicopter 150

Correlation of forces and means on main axis

forces and means own enemy correlation

--MRD 2 : 1.3
--TD 1
--operational rocket 9
--tactical rocket 9
--guns and mtrs 1012
--ATGM and AT guns 480
--Tanks 886
--PVO rock 43
--PVo medium 53
--helicopter 103



Correlation of forces and means on secondary axis

forces and means own enemy correlation

--MRD 0.3
--TD 1
--operation rocket 0
--tactical rocket 5
--guns and mortar 146
--ATGM and AT 70 tanks 314
--rocket PVO -
--PVO med 17
--helicopter 18



 
 
LOSSES FOR SOVIET FORCES
Formations and units Losses
Per Tks APC ATGM Gun & mtr Rkts PVO Rkt Helo PVO arty
16 MRD 5 25 13 22 20 25 12 10 -
18 MRD 5.2 27 15 23 22 50 13 12 -
19 MRD 4.8 22 12 20 18 0 11 10 -
21 MRD 4.5 20 11 19 17 50 10 9 -
17 TD 1.0 10 6 8 8 0 5 - -
20 TD 1.2 12 7 9 9 25 6 - -
91 SepTR 1.0 10 5 - 8 - 5 - -
87 SS-23Bde 3 - - - - 25 - - -
81 A Arty Bde 3 - - - 20 - - - -
87 MRL Regt 2.5 - - - 18 - - - -
72-73 SA12 Bde - - - - - - - - 20
43 AT Regt 3.1 - - 20 - - - - -
Trans Helo R 3 - - - - - - 5 -
Cbt Helo R 4 - - - - - - 1.0 -
Arty Div 3 13 - 20 18 - - - -
Hvy Arty Bde 3 12 - - 20 - - - -
 
 
LOSSES FOR BLUE FORCES
Formations and units Losses
Per TKS APC ATGM Arty & mtr Rkts PVO rkts Helo
8th MD 3 15 8 16 18 18 10 7
3 AD 2.5 14 7 15 16 15 10 7
2nd ech AD 1 6 5 5 5 15 5 4
Pershing Bn 2 - - - - 15 - -
203mm Regt 2.5 - - - 15 - - -
155 Regt 3 - - - 18 - - -
Arm Cav Regt 4 18 15 - 20 - - -
Helo 2.5 - - - - - - 10
Ops Reserve

 
 

Estimate of adjacents

Neighbor on the right, the First Guards Tank Army:

The offensive of this army during the course of the four days' operation developed along the axis of the main attack in accordance with the plan. But the army's offensive on its secondary axis did not have such success. During the four days they only moved forward 40-60 km into the enemy defenses. The line of the front line of the forward positions has come to create a dangerous situation in that the enemy has the opportunity to launch as counterattack that would encircle the main forces of the army. The enemy understands this situation and makes use of darkness at night to move his forces forward from the depth of his territory with a total of 3 divisions. He strives to mount a counterstrike from the line of ___, ___ on an axis of ___, ___. In interaction with the forces moving forward on our left flank the enemy seeks to encircle both our army and the First Guards Army and destroy both armies.

The operational situation demands that the First Guards Tank Army reliably repel the enemy's counterstrike in place and also develop the offensive on the main axis. Fulfillment of the army's mission depends on their successful repelling of the counterstrike. The success of the First Guards Tank Army, in turn, will have a decisive effect on the entire operation of the Central Front and our army as well. This requires of us that we attentively watch the actions of the First Guards Tank Army. And this demands that we organize the closest possible interaction with that army.



Neighboring army on the left - 28th CAA:

Because this army had to attack on its main axis across several water barriers and conduct its attack on a wide front, it was not able to make full success in its offensive. In the course of the four days of the operation its offensive developed only 60-70 km into the depth of the enemy's defenses. Also, on several sections of its front the army was actually stopped by the enemy. During the conduct of the enemy's counterattacks on our left flank, if this army is able to launch its own second- echelon forces into the flank of the enemy attack, the enemy's forces will come into great difficulty. During the enemy's counterattack on this flank, we must organize tight interaction with the 28th CAA. Therefore during the time the 20th Tank Division is establishing its defense and while we are repelling the enemy's counterattack we must organize close interaction with the 28th Army.



Forces of the front second-echelon:

The 7th Guards Tank Army that is located in the front second-echelon this morning at 0500, after completing its 150 km march, assembled in the region ___, ___, ___. The assembly area is 200 km from the forward edge of our battle line of the forces on the main attack axis. If the enemy conducts his counterattack on the two converging axes with the objective of encircling our main forces, despite this dangerous situation, the 7th Army can after a 100 km march enter into this engagement. In this way the flanks and rear of our forces can be supported by this army.



Concept of Decision of the Army Commander of the 8th Army for the Commitment of Second-echelon and Repulse of Counterattack

Conduct of nuclear strikes and artillery fire strikes of rocket troops and artillery and aviation strikes on the enemy moving columns on the axis from southwest of Frankfurt-on-Main toward Fulda; and also inflict losses on enemy forces during their deployment, break up organized deployment, and disrupt the planned counterattack against our forces.

Take up the defense with forces of 20th Tank Division in the area __ Birstein, Salmunster, west of Bad Bruckeneu, Flieden, in interaction with formations of the 28th CAA.

Prevent penetration and forward movement of enemy forces on the axis Salmunster, Fulda and make the enemy counterattack unsuccessful. Then deliver decisive destruction to the enemy in place in interaction with 28th CAA. With the improved conditions surround and destroy enemy counterattacking forces.

At the same time deliver destruction with nuclear, aviation, and artillery and rocket strikes against the defending enemy on the axis of the main attack in the sector Weilrod, Weilburg, Limburg and commit into the engagement the 17th Tank Division on the line Kuhbett, Wirbelau, and in direction Villmar, Mittel.

Destroy enemy forces in area Cambeerg, northwest of Runkel, Mittel.

The immediate mission is to seize the line Daisbach, Mittel, Cramberg. The main forces of the army will develop the offensive on both axes to Villmar, Miehlen, Simmern and force the Rhine River from the march and in interaction with the 28 CAA encircle and destroy main forces of Vth and VIIth US Corps.

By June 9th 1990 seize the line of the line of the long range mission. After repelling the enemy counterattack and destruction of the counterattacking grouping, the 21st MRD will go into the army second-echelon.



Missions for army formations and forces:

1. 20th Tank Division:
-- With three artillery battalions, one antitank battalion, and 2 engineer companies of mobile obstacle detachments take of defense on line Birstein, Salmunster, Wernatz, Filenden with aim of repulse of enemy counterattack. The forward edge of the defense will pass along the rivers between the following points: Burgbtracht, Herfersdorf, Schlierbach, Samunster, Mernes, Mergob. Jassa, Jewitlafs, Wernarz.
-- The main forces of the division on defense will be concentrated on retention of the sector Bad Saden, Jossa, Flieden. Prevent enemy breakthrough on the axis Salmunsterr to Fulda.
-- The division with its second-echelon and means of PVO will prevent enemy airborne landings in the area of the encircled enemy force in their rear area (see map). They will prevent interaction between air assault or landing forces, the counterattacking forces, and the encircled forces of the enemy.
-- The division with its second-echelon and in interaction with the units of the 21st MRD will conduct the following counterattack:
---- 1. from line Halzmul, Wetiges on the axis Rudmuhl, Bad Saden;
---- 2. from line Herolz Sannerg on the axis Ahlersbach to Salmunster;

--For conduct of battle the division will receive 12 nuclear rockets, 8 chemical rockets, and 15 conventional rockets. The use of chemical and nuclear weapons is allowed only on the signal of the army commander. The division command post will be one km west of Ulmbach and rear control point will be in the area of Frienhausen.
--The defense will be prepared by 1030 hrs on June 9th.



Instructions on Interaction:

With receipt of combat orders quickly organize and take up the defense for repelling enemy counterattack. Seize the designated forward line of defense area and create personnel positions; positions for tanks, APC's, and BMP's; and engineer obstacles on likely axes of enemy advance. During the battle, develop the engineer fortifications and obstacles.

With the forces of the rifle and tank division of the neighbor:
-- establish defense on the axis of enemy's main attack and repulse the enemy in place;
-- deliver fire strikes on the enemy columns during their deployment for the attack;
-- deliver losses on the enemy as he is going into the attack in interaction with the division artillery;
-- repulse the attack of tank and motor rifle forces of enemy with combat helicopters and anti-tank means.
-- If enemy penetrates into the defense, conduct counterattack in interaction with neighbor division forces.
-- During repulse of enemy counterattack, conduct coordinated counterattack into the enemy flank and rear, encircle the enemy counterattacking forces, and completely destroy them in interaction with the forces of the neighbor division. After that go over onto the offensive.

With army rocket forces:
-- Deliver nuclear, chemical, and conventional strikes on the enemy approaching columns, nuclear weapons, and command posts;
-- Using strikes of rocket forces hit the enemy main forces during their final deployment into the attack;

With air forces and combat helicopters:
-- Deliver air strikes on the approaching columns;
-- Conduct air strikes on the enemy main forces as they deploy into attack and disrupt organized attack;
-- Combat helicopters disrupt enemy tank and rifle forces in front of the defense line.
-- Air forces and helicopters prevent the enemy penetration into our depth.

With army anti-tank reserves:
-- The army anti-tank reserve comes to the defense area of the division and deploys in areas ___. It prepares and plans lines for repelling enemy tanks in the depth of the defense area. It prevents the movement of tanks into the depth of the area.


Mobile obstacle detachment:
-- The mobile obstacle arrives in the defense area of the 20th Tank Div and deploys sets of obstacles in the area ___, ____. The detachment creates mine field obstacles in front of the forward edge of the defense on the axis of probable enemy main attack and in the depth of defense. The detachment interacts with the army anti-tank reserve.



Combat Instructions to the 17th Tank Division for Commitment into Battle

The 17th Division with 5 artillery battalions, one antitank battalion, one engineer battalion, at 1130 9th June on the line Kuhbett to Wirblau is committed into battle to develop the offensive on the axis Villmar to Mittel and destroy enemy forces in the area Camberg, northwest of Runkol, Mittel, and seize the line of the immediate mission of Daisbach, Mittel, Cramberg. It will develop the offensive on the axis Mittel - Patersburg.
The division is assigned 12 nuclear rockets, 8 chemical rockets and 15 conventional rockets for the operation. Use of the nuclear and chemical rockets is allowed only in accordance with the order and signal of the army commander..


The aim of movement and commitment of the second-echelon division:

It will use three march routes. (one per regiment)
--- route 1: __ to___.
--- route 2:____ to ___.
--- route 3: ___ to ____.

The division command post during the commitment is located at ___, then ___. The rear control point is located in area ___,

Organizing interaction:

With the 16th and 18th MRD:

-- During arrival of forces of 17th Tank Div in the area of operations of these divisions cover, it against air attacks; nuclear, chemical and conventional rocket strikes strike enemy in area ___, ___;
-- with artillery fire support the commitment of the 17th Tank Division ;
-- antitank reserves and mobile obstacle detachments cover the open flanks of the 17th Tank division against attacks and strikes from enemy


With army rocket forces:

Nuclear, chemical, and conventional rockets in single and group strikes destroy these enemy targets ___, ___ ,___ in area ___, ___.


With army artillery group:

During commitment into combat of the 17th Tank Division the army artillery group provides 25 min long preparatory fire on targets __-, ___, ___. The expenditure of ammunition 0.7 BK.
Conduct artillery support up to the depth of enemy first echelon battalions with successive concentration fire on 2 or 3 lines.
Support the division combat action during the battle with 2 artillery battalions from the army artillery group;
During commitment of 17th Division, reenforce it with artillery battalions from the sub-group of army number 2.


With army PVO forces:

Conduct aerial reconnaissance and warning of 17th Division against enemy air strikes;
Cover second-echelon forces in the concentration area, during movement forward, and during deployment into attack order.
Cover second-echelon forces during commitment into combat and in battle in depth of enemy area.


With air forces and combat helicopters:

Conduct air reconnaissance in the area of the commitment of the 17th Tank Division; Conduct air strikes during commitment of division into engagement with air forces and combat helicopters against most important enemy targets that are located beyond the range of artillery fire;
Conduct air support and air accompanying strikes during the course of the offensive;
Combat helicopters repel counterattacks and counterblows of enemy tank and motor rifle forces.


With army engineer forces:

With objective of improving the movement of the division on three march routes, the army engineer forces repair the designated routes or create routes as needed. The column routes for deployment of forces into battalion column are developed by division engineer troops.
Create passages lanes in enemy mine fields on the line of the commitment of second-echelon;
Conduct commandant's service at the lanes in mine fields.

 
 

Reconnaissance

The following documents are received by or prepared by the reconnaissance directorate. The commander and chief of staff play a much larger direct role in the organization, tasking, and planning of reconnaissance than they do in other areas having separate chiefs such as artillery or engineers. This is because reconnaissance specifically serves the commander's needs. However, as with other functional areas in the staff and chiefs of arms and services, reconnaissance is also subordinate to its counterpart staff section at the higher headquarters. Therefore the chief of reconnaissance receives a set of instructions from the higher headquarters, which he must discuss with his commander, and he in turn prepares instructions on reconnaissance for transmission to the major combined arms headquarters subordinate to his. In addition there are separate sets of reconnaissance instructions, which the chief of reconnaissance prepares and issues to the reconnaissance units directly subordinate to him.



Instructions on Reconnaissance from Front

The army chief of reconnaissance receives instructions on reconnaissance directly from the chief of reconnaissance at front. He studies these instructions and reports about them as part of his report and suggestions to the army chief of staff and commander. The content of typical instructions is given in the following sample.


 
 

COMBAT INSTRUCTIONS ON RECONNAISSANCE FROM FRONT

1. Area of radio reconnaissance:

-- right boundary
-- left boundary

2. Plan the dispatch of SPETZNAZ reconnaissance groups to the rear of the enemy on the first day of the operation up to the line _____. and on subsequent days in accordance with the decision of the army commander.
3. On the first day of the operation four aircraft sorties from the 79th Transport Aviation Regiment (at airfield ___) are allocated to the army for dropping the army's SPETZNAZ groups. On subsequent days the number of such sorties is determined in accordance with the army's suggestions.

4. In the army's area, air reconnaissance is to be conducted by the 30th Tactical Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment. The call signs of the aircraft crews, frequencies of on-board radios, and secret troop control documents regarding the acquisition of air reconnaissance information directly from the reconnaissance aircraft have been sent previously to the army staff.

5. As of 3.23 the 5th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron of T5P-1 (tactical pilotless reconnaissance drones) is attached to the army.

6. The reconnaissance summary and reconnaissance reports are to be sent in accordance with the table of periodic summaries.



Army Commander's Instructions on Reconnaissance

The army commander analyzes the requirements for information and determines the reconnaissance needed. He defines and specifies the missions to be accomplished and the objectives to be achieved. He defines the data he wants and when he needs it and in what form the reconnaissance forces may be used especially prior to the offensive. Based on the combat missions and the assessment of available information on the enemy, the army commander specifies the following:
-- the aim and the most important tasks of reconnaissance;
-- where and at what targets (areas, directions) the main effort of reconnaissance must be concentrated;
-- what information must be acquired at what time;
-- what reconnaissance forces and means are allocated to be used in acquisition of reconnaissance information prior to the initiation of the combat action.

He also specifies the additional troops and means which he desires to employ to accomplish reconnaissance tasks.

The army commander also listens to the suggestions of the chief of staff and chief of the reconnaissance directorate on issues of the organization of reconnaissance, as well as on reconnaissance during the conduct of the most important tasks.

The following is a sample of typical army commander's instructions on reconnaissance. These are elaborated on by the chief of staff and implemented by the chief of reconnaissance.

 
 

SAMPLE

ARMY COMMANDER'S INSTRUCTIONS ON RECONNAISSANCE

1. The reconnaissance must in a timely fashion disclose the measures taken by the I British and the I Belgian Corps on the preparation for the attack, determine in timely fashion the initiation of the enemy's attack and determine the grouping of the enemy forces and their likely concept of action.

2. The principle tasks of reconnaissance are as follows:
-- timely detection of the movement of rocket units and sub-units from their permanent garrisons, their direction of movement, position areas of firing batteries, command posts, areas of deployment of supplies of nuclear rounds, and locations of stockpiles;
-- detection of the movement of the I British and I Belgian Corps and the 7th German division from their permanent garrisons, the direction of their movement, and the assembly and deployment areas of their main grouping;
-- detection of the number of units and combat composition of German large units and units in the areas____, determining their time of readiness, their direction of movement, and the enemy's intention regarding their employment;
-- follow and observation of the movement of US and British forces in their army's attack area;
-- detection and determining the characteristics of defensive engineer work in the covering (security) zone.

The main effort of reconnaissance is to be concentrated in the direction of ___.



 
 

The Chief of Staff's Actions on Reconnaissance

The army chief of staff conducts the following actions and has the following duties related to the organization of reconnaissance:
-- continuous direct supervision of the reconnaissance activities, and responsibility for the organization of reconnaissance;
-- obligation to know the enemy in the area of the army's attack, to forecast likely changes in the situation and to be ready constantly to answer the commander's questions about the situation of the enemy forces. He should always be ready to report his deductions and suggestions to the commander;
-- specifies the concrete details of reconnaissance missions assigned by the higher commander and staff, specifies the order (priority) of the conduct of the reconnaissance missions, confirms targets on which the main reconnaissance effort is to be concentrated, specifies forces and means for the conduct of the most important tasks and specifies the reserve of reconnaissance troops and means;

In addition the chief of staff issues instructions on the principle measures regarding the preparation of reconnaissance forces and means to accomplish assigned missions, designates and instructs the time of signing the reconnaissance plan and combat instructions on reconnaissance.



Chief of Staff Instructions on Reconnaissance

The army chief of staff is directly responsible for the organization of reconnaissance. He interprets the commander's instructions and converts them into specific tasks.
In his instructions the chief of staff gives the following:
-- specifies in detail the reconnaissance tasks assigned by the commander and higher headquarters and the sequence of their execution as well as the allocation of troops and means for the performance of each task.
-- specifies the measures for coordination among the different types and methods of reconnaissance.
-- specifies the time and method of collection of reconnaissance information.
-- confirms and adjusts objectives and areas and axes where the main effort of reconnaissance will be concentrated.
-- specifies the troops and means to be employed for accomplishment of most important missions.
-- specifies the main measures on readiness of reconnaissance forces
-- specifies the deadline for preparation of the reconnaissance plan and the combat instructions on reconnaissance and when it must be forwarded to him for his approval and endorsement.
-- specifies the reconnaissance reserve of troops and means.

The following is a sample of typical instructions from the chief of staff to the chief of reconnaissance.

 
 

SAMPLE

INSTRUCTIONS BY THE ARMY'S CHIEF OF STAFF ON RECONNAISSANCE

At the end of 3.22 the observation system must be organized on the state border by the forces and means of the reconnaissance battalions of the 10th, 12th, 14th, and 16th Motorized Rifle Divisions. Areas of deployment of division observation points are to be coordinated with the border troops.

On the morning of 3.23 the following command posts are to deploy;

-- command post of 15th Separate Radio Battalion OSNAZ in the woods 2 km east of ____.
-- command post of the 15th Separate Radio-technical Battalion OSNAZ in the woods ___.

The radio interception, radio direction, and radio technical companies are to deploy in accordance with the decision of the chief of reconnaissance. Areas of their deployment must be coordinated in advance with the army's operational directorate.
The time, altitude and flight direction of reconnaissance helicopters of the separate OSNAZ radio and radio-technical battalions are to be coordinated with the army's air defense control point.

The 15th Separate Special Purpose (SPETZNAZ) company is to concentrate in the area ______. The preparation of the SPETZNAZ reconnaissance groups for the conduct of missions must be completed by the end of 3.23.

On 3.24 the launch position areas of tactical pilotless tactical reconnaissance (TBR-1) squadron is to be specified, the squadron must deploy there and reconnaissance missions are to be assigned to them.

On 3.28 the characteristics of defensive engineer work, the extent of their occupation, grouping of forces and the fire system of the defending enemy troops in the covering (security) zones at ___ and on the forward defensive line in areas ___ must be confirmed.

Four special purpose (SPETZNAZ) reconnaissance groups from the 15th Separate Special Purpose Reconnaissance Company are to be dropped in the enemy's rear on the first day of the operation.

The reconnaissance plan and combat instructions on reconnaissance are to be presented at 0900 on 3.24.

 
 

Duties of the Chief of Reconnaissance

l. The chief of reconnaissance is responsible for the training, and insures the high combat readiness of the reconnaissance troops. He exercises troop control over them and supervises the conduct of the operation of reconnaissance units and sub-units. He is responsible for the following items.
-- collection, study and analysis of the derivation of deductions about reconnaissance information about the enemy and terrain and timely presentation of the important information to the chief of staff and higher commander and staff.
-- derivation of the aims and tasks of reconnaissance and the allocation of required troops and reconnaissance means to accomplish these.
-- preparation of the reconnaissance plan and issuance of missions to the reconnaissance department staff. The reconnaissance plan is signed by the chief of staff and approved by the commander.
-- coordination of all efforts of different reconnaissance means in terms of their missions and objectives
-- preparation of units and sub-units (groups) (GRG from SPETZNAZ) at army level which has two sections each with 4 groups. The army level battalion has 35 to 40 groups operating up to 800 km deep.
-- preparation of unit and sub-units assigned to conduct reconnaissance and insuring their all round support
-- control of the execution of assigned instructions and orders and practical assistance to staffs and commanders of units and sub units in accomplishment of reconnaissance missions.
-- organization of continuous communications with units and sub-units (groups) assigned to combat reconnaissance and also with the headquarters of subordinate operational formations and large units.
-- reception of reconnaissance reports from aircraft.
-- organization and conduct of actions about the protection of reconnaissance units, sub-units and groups against mass destruction weapons.
-- communication of reconnaissance information inside the staff and to subordinate, adjacent and coordinating headquarters.

Based on the instructions of the army commander and chief of staff, the chief of reconnaissance begins to organize the reconnaissance for the operation. The measures and actions taken by the army's chief of reconnaissance include the following:
-- a. Issuing the reconnaissance combat mission to various reconnaissance troops and the establishing the time for completing each mission as well as the time and method for reporting reconnaissance information.
-- b. Establishing the measures for coordination (interaction) among the various reconnaissance activities and units conducting them.
-- c. Issuing instructions to the reconnaissance troops concerning the method of their movement to their deployment areas.
-- d. Instructing the army's reconnaissance staff on preparing the reconnaissance plan.
-- e. Controlling the attainment of assigned missions.

 
 

Report and Suggestions of Chief of Reconnaissance

FORMAT

THE REPORT (DOKLAD) OF THE CHIEF OF ARMY RECON DURING THE ARMY COMMANDER'S PROCESS OF MAKING THE DECISION

1. Situation, status and characteristics of reconnaissance troops.

2. Requirement of the army during the operation.

3. Availability and supply of assets during the operation.

4. Strength (completeness) level of personnel and combat equipment in recon.



 
 

SAMPLE

REPORT AND SUGGESTIONS OF CHIEF OF RECON TO ARMY COMMANDER

l. The composition, grouping, and operational situation of the enemy forces generally along the army area and in front of adjacents

2. assessment of enemy ground forces

-- how many divisions to include infantry, armored and airborne division and how many of each.
-- how many tanks, artillery, mortars, antitank-guns antitank guided rockets and SAMs are there in these divisions.
-- how many divisions deployed on the first operational echelon, to include the total number of tanks, guns and mortars, antitank guns, antitank guided rockets, and SAMS.
-- how many divisions in 2nd echelons and reserves to include number of same weapons etc.
-- where is the likely axis of enemy main attack, how many divisions employed there and what is total number of tanks etc .
-- the secondary attacks are expected in what directions and how many divisions will be employed in each direction. What will be the total number of weapons such as tanks and antitank guns, ATGM SAMs etc.

3. Assessment of enemy nuclear weapons

-- what will be the total number of nuclear rounds rockets and bombs the enemy is expected to use in his initial nuclear strike.
-- location of most important systems of nuclear delivery means such as rockets, aircraft and nuclear depots.

4. Assessment of enemy helicopter capabilities

-- the number and of types of enemy helicopters army operational area bases and refueling points
-- forms of operations of enemy helicopters

5. Assessment of enemy rear services

-- location of enemy rear services, depots, supplies, routes, supply bases and ports.
-- availability and volume of supplies

6. General deductions from estimate of enemy situation and suggestions.

-- density of enemy forces along the entire front and entire depth and on each axis of operations (including air and air defense)
-- concept and character of enemy likely actions
-- direction of main attack and other attacks and how many divisions will be operating on each
-- operational formations
-- time of initiation of attack by enemy
-- enemy air support situation
-- enemy's strength, combat experience, training and morale
-- the nature and character of engineer fortifications, obstacles and terrain conditions in army area
-- enemy strong and weak points
-- most dangerous action by enemy
-- in case enemy initiates nuclear war -how many nuclear rounds can it use - by what units and what means the nuclear weapons can be delivered - in what depth nuclear weapons can be used by enemy
-- how many strikes can be launched to include the percentage of total nuclear rounds in each strike and the time gap between strikes
-- most favorable targets for army initial nuclear strike

EEI
-- detection of enemy nuclear and chemical means
-- enemy ground force groupings and command posts
-- enemy airfields, areas of deployment of air defense means, guidance centers and radars.
-- mobilization centers and the formation of operational reserves
-- defensive lines and other important enemy targets.

 
 

Guiding Data of Reconnaissance Plan

The calculations necessary to distribute reconnaissance resources to targets are made on the basis of the table showing the total reconnaissance forces and means available to the army.

Figure 237 COMPOSITION OF RECON FORCES AND MEANS OF 15 CAA
Reconnaissance units and sub units Pilotless aircraft # of launcher Recon Groups Radio and Radio technical Recon posts Composition (organization) and armament
Radio intercept Radio technical Radio direction
15 Separate Radio Bn (OSNAZ) 3 companies of radio intercept and radio direct. Hq. Recon hel, HF and VHF radios and intercept and direction sets
15 Separate Radio Technical Bn. (OSNAZ) 3 radio technical companies, HQ. 9 maneuver groups, recon Hel. special apparat
15 Separate Special Purpose SPETZNAZ recon Company Includes 4 Recon groups each of 2 sections
15 Pilotless - Recon. "drone" (TBR-1) sqd Hq. technical det, 3 launch dets each has 4 launchers
TOTAL

 
 
Figure 237 COMPOSITION OF RECON FORCES AND MEANS OF 15 CAA
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Calculations of Reconnaissance Forces

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Sequence for Preparing Reconnaissance Plan


1. Mark available and current information about the enemy on the map and draw the boundary lines of divisions and the army.

2. Mark the areas and directions (axes) of particular attention

3. Specify and single out that reconnaissance information which requires confirmation, updating and recontrol.

4. Calculate the capabilities of reconnaissance troops and means and their distribution in terms of targets and directions (axes)

5. Specify the areas and the lines of deployment and operation of reconnaissance organs (elements) and specify their missions.

6. Establish the method for repeated checking of the targets of the initial nuclear strike, both before and after the first strike.

7. Assess the enemy's likely actions, the grouping of his troops and means prior to the initiation of combat actions and during the course of the combat operation.

8. Determine the specific reconnaissance mission prior to the operation and in the course of the conduct of the operation.

9. Specify the time of acquisition of reconnaissance information for the initial nuclear strike, initiation of the attack by friendly forces, commitment of the second-echelon forces into combat, assault river crossing, fighting the enemy's advancing reserves, etc.

10. Specify measures on reinforcement and activation of the reconnaissance for the upcoming war and for the phase of the initiation of military operations.



Plan for Employment of Reconnaissance Troops

The essence of reconnaissance planning is the rational and best allocation of the various specific troops and means, on the basis of their capabilities, to the individual missions and objectives. Depending on the situation the reconnaissance plan is prepared in a written form with a map annex or it is worked out on a map with written instructions. The reconnaissance plan should reflect the following points:

-- the aim and specific tasks of reconnaissance with the reconnaissance sectors (areas, axes).
-- the troops and means allocated for reconnaissance and their distribution in terms of missions and objectives (targets).
-- the timing of the accomplishment of the assigned missions and the time to acquire the required information from higher headquarters and other headquarters.
-- the designation of a reconnaissance troops and means reserve.
-- organization of troop control of reconnaissance troops and means and the method of sending reconnaissance reports.
-- the plan also may include other guidelines, instructions and information on preparation and conduct of the reconnaissance.

The army plan of reconnaissance includes the following points on aerial reconnaissance:
-- the missions and limits (areas) of aerial reconnaissance;
-- the number of allocated sorties for the accomplishment of each mission;
-- the most important reconnaissance targets;
-- the method and time of sending aerial reconnaissance reports.

The map annex, attached to the reconnaissance plan, normally reflects the following:
-- boundaries of the army and of divisions;
-- the targets and axes of reconnaissance and the areas where special attention of the reconnaissance is to be concentrated;
-- the units, sub-units, and groups (detachments) of special reconnaissance troops and the sources of espionage reconnaissance;
-- the main directions of aerial reconnaissance to cover the areas of deployment of the airfields where the reconnaissance aviation forces are based. The scale and dimension of vertical and oblique aerial photography of these airfields.
-- the main and alternate areas of the deployment of army reconnaissance troops and means and the method of their movement and relocation in the course of the operation;
-- the line up to which all types of arms and services may conduct reconnaissance prior to the initiation of the operation;

The written instructions attached to the map type reconnaissance plan briefly reflect the following points:
-- the aim and main tasks of the reconnaissance and the time of their accomplishment
-- calculation of the troops and means in terms of missions, the days of operation and the axes of action, along with other information which can not be shown on the map.
-- instructions on material (logistic) support.
-- instructions on coordination (interaction)
-- instructions on communications.

 
 

Figure 239 Written Instructions to Army Reconnaissance Plan

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I Approve ____/ _____/ _____

Commander 15 CAA

RECONNAISSANCE PLAN OF

15 CAA for Offensive operation from 3.22 to the 8th day of operations

The Aim of Reconnaissance: Timely detection of preparation of the I "F" (Violet) and I "C" (Blue) Corps for attacks determining likely time of their initiation of attack, disclosing their grouping of forces and likely concept of their action. tHe main effort of reconnaissance is to concentrate in area _________.

RECONNAISSANCE TASKS AND TARGETS

Reconnaissance forces and means and time of Execution of their tasks

Special Recon. SPETZ-NAZ Air Recon. Radio and Radio technical Recon. Recon. by division branches of arms and special troops Info. from Front Hq. and adjacents
PRIOR TO THE INITIATION OF THE ATTACK:
a. Mass Destruction Weapons

1. Timely detection of moving out of permanent garrison of British (C) 1st Sergeant guided rocket regiment and 24th and 50th non-guided rocket regiments of Honest John, and 2nd Sergeant guided rocket Bn; Their direction of movement and positions in ....

15th separate Radio (OSNAZ) and 15th separate Radio technical (OSNAZ) battalions (15 SR Bn and 15 SRT Bn). 15th Army Artillery recon. Regt.

15th Special purpose (Spetsnaz) Radio Bn. on 3.23

Request from Front HQ on 3.23.

Exchange of info. with staff of 8 CAA and 14 CAA.

2. Continuous surveillance of the sub-units of 2 (U.S.A.-green) 5th and 570th Arty-Technical groups; timely detection of the deployment of the field supply and stockpiling points of nuclear rounds and time of delivery of nuclear rounds. 15th separate Radio (OSNAZ) Bn. on 3.23 15th special purpose (spetsnaz) Radio Bn. 3.23 Request info from Front Hq on 3.24. Exchange of info with staff of 8 CAA and 14 CAA.
3. Determining (disclosing) the areas of established nuclear mines (fogases) in covering zone, in the area of.... 15th Separate Radio (OSNAZ) Bn

(15 SR Bn) on 3.23

"Same As Above"
b. Grouping of Air and Air Defense Forces

4. Confirmation of bases, number and types of combat aircraft of aviation forces and "F" (Belgium-violet) tactical air command (TAK); Timely detection of possible dispersion of the aviation forces on airfields.

15th separate Radio (OSNAZ) Bn. on 3.27 15th Radio technical air defense Bn. (Radio Bn.) on 3.27 Request info on the subject from Front HQ. on 3.27
5. Disclosing of airfields and forward lading strips (pads) of I"C"(British-blue) and I "F" (Belgium-violet) Corps and 7 MED DIV aviation. Determine number and type of combat helicopters. 15th separate Radio (OSNAZ) Bn and 15th separate radio technical (OSNAZ) Bn. on 3.23 15th air defense Radio technical Bn. on 3.23 Request info. on the subject from the Front HQ. on 3.25
6. Disclosing the launch positions of fire batteries and launch pads of 35th non-guided SAM Regiment in......; Timely detection of the relocation of fire batteries to new positions 15th separate Radio (OSNAZ) Bn and 15th Separate Radio technical (OSNAZ) Bn. on 3.26-3.27 15th Army Arty Recon Regt (15 AARR)

15th Special purpose (spetsnaz) Radio Bn. on 3.26-3.27

Request info. on the subject from the Front HQ. on 3.27
7. Detection of launch positions of fire batteries and launch pads of 35 non-guided SAM Regiment in......Timely detection of the relocation of fire batteries to new positions 15 SR Bn (OSNAZ)

15 SRT Bn (OSNAZ) on 3.26-27

15 AARR

15 R Bn. (spetsnaz) on 3.26-27

Request to Front HQ. on 3.27
8. Disclosing the deployment areas of guidance radars for tactical aircraft and ground targets and aviation control organs in I"C" (British-blue) an I"?" (violet) Corps 15 SRT Bn. (OSNAZ) on 3.23 Request the Front HQ. on 3.25
C. Grouping of Ground Forces

9. Detection of the time of moving out of the HQ. and forces of I"C" (British) and I"?" (Belgium) Corps and 7th "K" (German) Div. from permanent garrisons, their direction of movement, assembly areas and deployment of their main groupings, special attention to areas 1, 2, 3

15 SR Bn. OSNAZ

15 SRT Bn. OSNAZ on 3.23

15 R Bn. spetsnaz Request the Front HQ; 3.27

Exchange of info. with 8 and 14 CAA and border forces

10. Timely detection of moving out of covering troops to the state borders, disclosing the composition, grouping, time of deployment and fire system particularly in...... 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ

15 SRT Bn. OSNAZ

on 3.25-27

10, 12, 14 MRD

15 AARR

15 Arty Recon Bn.

15 R Bn. spetsnaz

on 3.26-3.27

Request the Front HQ. on 3.26 Exchange of info. with 8, 14 CAA and border forces
11. Disclosing numbers and combat composition of "K" (German) units and large units formed in the area.....inclosing the time of their preparation and the enemy intention on their combat use 15 SR Bn OSNAZ on 3.2627 Request the Front HQ. on 3.26

Exchange of info. with 8, 14 CAA and border forces

12. Determining approach and movement of "C" (British) and "Z" units and large units to Army's area 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ on 3.2728 Request the Front HQ.
13. Detection of the deployment of field command post of "C" (British) I Corps and 1 and 4 Armored Div. and 2nd Mech. Div.; I ? (Belgium) Corps an 1 and 6 Div.; and 7th "K" (German) MRD. 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ

15 SRT Bn. OSNAZ

on 3.26-27

10, 12, 14, 16 MRD

15 Radio Bn.

spetsnaz on 3.26-27

Request the Front HQ. on 3.26
14. Disclosing the nature of enemy's engineer work of the defense in covering zone in areas....... Request air oblique photo-

graphy scale 1/8000 on 3.26

10, 12, 14, 16 MRD

15 AARR

15 ARTY RECON. Bn.

Engr.; on 3.26-27

Request the Front HQ. on 3.26 Exchange info. with 8 and 14 CAA and the border forces
Total Prior to the Beginning of Operation: Radio Intercept 30 posts

Radio direction 10 posts

Radio tech. 24 posts

In Reserve 8 Spets-naz groups Radio intercept 4 posts
DURING THE CONDUCT OF THE OPERATION
a. During the Initial Nuclear Strike and Accomplishment of Army's Immediate Mission

1. Reconfirmation of the targets of the initial nuclear strike:

1 Rocket Regt., 2nd guided Rocket Bn. in......

Armored Brigades #4, 6, 7, 11, 20

Command Post of I"C" (British) Corps

15 SRBN OSNAZ

15 SRTB OSNAZ

10, 12, 14, 16 MRD

16 AARR, 15 AR Bn.

15 Radio Bn. spetsnaz

15 Radio Tech. Bn. of PVO

Request info. from Front HQ.
2. Assessment of losses of targets hit by nuclear or conventional strikes; Detection of surviving nuclear means of units and large units of the ground forces, command posts, signal centers, supply and stockpile points of nuclear rounds. Positions of fire batteries and launch pads of Hawk and Nike Hercules SAM units. Special purpose Recon. group (SPRG)

No 1-4 at H+8 to H+10

8 launches of TBR-1 drones at H+2 to H+9 hrs.

Air photo-graphy requested

15 SR Bn. OSNAZ

15 SRT Bn. OSNAZ at H+4 to H+6 hrs

10, 12, 14, 16 MRD

15 AARR;

15 ARPN

15 Radio Bn. Spetsnaz from H+4 to H+6

Request sent to Front HQ.
3. Reconfirmation of the combat composition and combat readiness if I"C" (British) and I"?" (Belgium) Corps units and large units and units and 7 "K" (German) Mech Div.

Disclosing location areas of second-echelon forces (reserves) of divisions and corps; determining their combat composition, time and direction of their movement and their lines of deployment

SPRG No. 14 at the end of 1st, 2nd and 3rd days of the operation 12 launch of TBR-1 and the end of 1st and 2nd day of the operation.

Air photography request, scale 1/5000 on 1, 2, 3 days of operation

15 SR BN. OSNAZ at the end of 1ST, 2ND, 3RD days 10, 12, 14, 16 MRD

15 Radio Bn. Spetsnaz

15 AR Bn. at the end of 1st and 2nd days of the operation

Request the Front HQ. on 1st and 2nd day
4. Timely detection of the beginning of the movement of "K" (German) units and large units from....area, disclosing the direction of their movement, assembly areas and their deployment. Following and surveillance of likely movement of "Z" (US) and "C" (British) forces into the army's attack area. SPRG No 8 at the end of 3rd and 4th days of operation Air photo-graphy Request on D+3 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ on D+3, D+4 Request the Front HQ. on D+2 and D+3.

Exchange of info. with 8 and 14 CAA on D+2 and D+3

5. Detection of the location of tactical aircraft, air defense forces, and means of "C" and "?" forces; detection of army aircraft airfields and landing strips (pads) and launch positions of Recon. drones SPRG No. 14 at the end of D day and D+1 4 launch of TBR1 drones at the end of D and D+1 15 SRT Bn. OSNAZ at the end of D day and D+1 15 AARR

15 AR Bn.

15 RT Bn. PVO the end of D day and D+1

Request to Front HQ
6. Detect the location of command posts od I "C" Corps and 1, 4 armored Div's., 7th Mech. Div. of I "K" Corps, I "?" Corps and 1 and 16 Mech. Div's. Follow and surveillance of their movement SPRG by the end of D+1 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ on D, D+1, D+2 15 Radio Bn. Spetsnaz on D, D+1, D+2 Request the Front HQ. on D+1
7. Disclosing the nature of engineer work at .....lines; Timely detection of the location of nuclear mines on these lines. SPRG No. 1, 2, 4 by D, D+1, D+2 6 launches of TBR-1, by D, D+1; Air photo-graphy request, 1:5000 on D, D+1, D+2. 10, 12, 14 16 MRD

8 TD, chief of engr., by D, D+1 and D+2

Request to Front HQ on D and D+1
8. During the conduct of combat action with the use of only conventional weapons, timely detection of enemy's preparation for the use of nuclear weapons SPRG No. 14 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ

15 SRT Bn. OSNAZ

10, 12, 14, 16 MRD 8 TD,

15 AARR,

15 AR Bn.,

15 Radio Bn. Spetsnaz

Request to Front HQ
Total during the conduct of immediate mission 6 SPRG 30 launch of TBR1 33 RIP,

10 RDP,

24 RTP

In reserve 2 SPRG 18 launch of T51 1 RIP
During the Conduct of Long-Range Missions

1. Continue to disclose assembly areas, launch positions of rocket batteries, control points of guided and non-guided rocket units and sub-units, nuclear artillery of I "C" Corps and I "?" Corps, areas of deployment of nuclear rounds stockpiles

SPRG No. 7, 8 from D+3 6 launch of TBR1 drones 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ

15 SRT Bn. OSNAZ from D+3

10, 12, 14, 16 MRD

8 TD,

15 AARR

15 Radio Bn. Spetsnaz

15 RT Bn. PVO

Request to Front HQ
2. Following and surveillance of charges in combat composition and grouping of units and large units of I "C" and I "?" Corps, timely disclosing of the combat composition and grouping of forces in area..... 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ

15 SRT Bn. OSNAZ

as above as above
3. Timely detection of likely movement of large units of "Z" and "C" forces to the army area. Determining the combat composition, grouping and intention of the enemy. 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ Request the Front HQ
4. Detection of areas of formation of units and large units of ground forces and local troops of "K" forces; disclosing the intention of the enemy on their employment. Special attention is to be paid to areas No. 6 and 8. SPRG No. 4, 5 3 launch of TBR-1.

Air photo-graphy request scale 1/5000

10, 12, 14, 16 MRD

8 TD

as above
5. Following and surveillance of the movement and relocation of the CPs of I "C" and I "?" Corps 15 SR Bn. OSNAZ 10, 12, 14 16 MRD

8 TD

15 Radio Bn. Spetsnaz

Request to the Front HQ.
6. Following and surveillance of the combat composition and bases of tactical aircraft and army aviation, air defense forces and means; Timely detection of the reinforcement of tactical aircraft by moving new aviation units from other regions and overseas areas. 3 launch of TBR1 drones 15 SRT Bn. OSNAZ 15 AARR

15 AR Bn. 15 RT Bn. PVO

as above
7. Disclosing the presence and nature of engineer work of the enemy's defense west of Rhine River; Timely detection of enemy's preparation to create destruction and flooded areas along the Rhine River. 6 launch of TBR-1 Air photo-graphy request at scale 1/8000 on D+3, D+4, D+5, D+6 10, 12, 14, 16 MRD

8 TD

Request to the Front HQ.
Total during the conduct of longrange missions 4 SRPG 18 launch of TBR1 34 RIP

10 RDP

24 RTP

Chief of Staff of 15 CAA

______________________

Chief of Reconnaissance, 15 CAA

__________________________


 
 

Figure 240 -Army reconnaissace plan map

{short description of image}
 
 

Instructions of Army Staff on Reconnaissance to the Chief of Reconnaissance of the Division



The army chief of reconnaissance prepares instructions on the conduct of reconnaissance for each division in accordance with the overall army reconnaissance plan. The instructions cover the following points:
The following is a short current summary of information on the enemy;
The division will organize officer observation posts along the border to operate prior the the deployment of the covering forces. They must not disturb the existing daily regime of the normal border guard forces.
Upon occupation of their positions by the covering force, the division reconnaissance will take the following measures;
-- organize reconnaissance and observation with the forces and means of the radio and radar reconnaissance units of the reconnaissance battalion up to the border;
-- organize division visual observation posts and observation posts from the one regiment in the covering force up to the border;
-- organize reconnaissance and observation by aerial photography from helicopters along the border. The helicopters must remain back from and not cross the border.
-- during preparation for the offensive, create the following:
---- 1. establish the time enemy covering forces begin to move from their barracks and their composition, grouping, areas of deployment, and defensive positions.
---- 2. establish the extent of engineer fortifications and preparations, and locations of nuclear and conventional fougasse in the covering force area;
---- 3. establish the enemy's basic main line of defense and its engineer preparations, and obstacles in front of the main line of resistance;
-- at the start of the offensive a minimum of 5 reconnaissance groups SPETZNAZ of the division will be sent into the enemy rear area up to the line _____________;
-- reconnaissance reports and summarys will be sent at the following times:
---- reconnaissance report sent four times and day - 0500, 1100, 1700, and 2300 on the situation as of 0400, 1000, 1600, and 2200;
---- daily reconnaissance summary will be sent at 2100 on the situation as of 2000 with all major developments in last 24 hrs;

-- report on the operations, situation, and composition of the reconnaissance forces themselves and fulfillment of their missions will be sent at 2100 on the situation as of 2000;

-- important information on the enemy will be reported immediately;

In the division's offensive area the following ____ tactical aerial reconnaissance squadron will operate. The call sign of the crews and the radio frequency are as follows:



 
 

Artillery

 
 

The following section contains the documents prepared by and used in the artillery directorate in the course of organizing and planning artillery support for army operations.



Combat Instructions from Front Chief of RT&A to Army on Rocket Troops and Artillery

The front staff in the name of the commander issues instructions to each army on the details of rocket troops and artillery. The instructions elaborate on the information about artillery found in the front operations directive. The instructions are issued by the front chief of rocket troops and artillery directly to the army chief of rocket troops and artillery. The latter uses these instructions as one basis for his clarification of mission, estimate of situation and decision. He briefs the army commander on the content of these instructions as part of his report and suggestions during the army commander's decision making process. The following points are included in the front instructions:
-- which artillery and anti-tank formations and units (by specific designation) will be reenforcing the army;
-- how many nuclear and chemical warheads for rockets will be available for expenditure by the army for the operation, their distribution for the front first nuclear strike and by army mission;
-- expenditure of conventional rockets given by mission, the possibilities for their resupply during the operation, and how many to keep on hand at the end of the operation;
-- army's allowable expenditure of ammunition during the operation, its possible resupply during the operation, and the quantity of ammunition to have on hand at the conclusion of the operation;
-- on the receipt of the alarm signal a minimum of 30 % of the rocket forces of the army must be at the highest stage of full combat readiness in order to be ready for participation in the first nuclear strike of the front and destruction of important targets;
-- planning for the army's participation by rocket forces in the front nuclear strike will be on the basis of detailed reconnaissance data obtained by the army for the destruction of the following targets:

---- a. destruction of nuclear forces, supply depots, and nuclear capable air forces;
---- b. destruction of basic main forces of enemy divisions of the first and second-echelon of the opposing corps in the army area;
---- c. destruction of command posts of the enemy corps and division and control posts for aviation;
---- d. destruction of PVO rockets and radar installations;
---- e. destruction of main rear service targets;

--the army will use air bursts from nuclear rockets and chemical weapons on the main attack axis, with the aim of preventing destruction that would block the movement of our forces;
-- the plan and graphic showing the participation of the army rocket force in the front nuclear strike must be sent to the front by ____ hrs;
-- targets that will be destroyed by front nuclear forces in the army area of operations are the following: ______, _____,
-- the army must create the following army, division, and regiment artillery groups on the main attack axis in the following manner;
---- army artillery group of ten battalions;
---- division artillery groups of six battalions each;
---- regimental artillery groups on the main attack axes of four battalions each;

-- the creation of the army, division, and regimental anti-tank reserves will be in accordance with the decision of the chiefs of rocket troops and artillery;
-- the army will organize and place in position rocket troops and artillery groups to support the deployment of the main forces into the FUP areas and occupation of the covering area near the border to defend against possible enemy initial surprise attack (invasion);
-- the army will break through the enemy main line of defense in a breakthrough area of ten kilometers width and the density of artillery per km. will be not less than 110 guns and mortars;
-- fire support will be conducted to the depth of the defending brigades of defender's first-echelon by means of successive concentration fire and barrage fire on one or two lines;
-- ammunition for use during the preparatory fire on the first defense line will be distributed to the weavpons firing positions of the army, division, and regimental artillery groups;
-- support for the commitment of the second-echelon army will be provided by a minimum of ten artillery battalions;
-- during the artillery preparation there will also be air preparation by the air army on targets and reserves that are located in the depth of the breakthrough area;
-- the army will receive intelligence from cosmic reconnaissance means in the following manner.



 
 

Instructions of the Army Commander on Determing Missions, Targets, and Means for using Rocket Forces

The army commander issues instructions on his general policies and principles for the employment of rocket forces. This guidance is taken by the chief of rocket troops and artillery and it forms one of the bases for the detailed planning of rocket troops. The guidance includes the following points:

-- the following enemy groups and targets will be destroyed in the first nuclear strike by the army and division rocket forces:

---- a. destruction of nuclear means and nuclear depots in the following locations ____. ____ and nuclear capable air units in the following locations ____,____;
---- b. destruction of main forces of this ____ and ____ and ____ divisions;
---- c. destruction of command posts of the ____ corps at the following locations ____, of the ____ divisions at ____-, and ____, and ____; and the air control points at ____-and ___-;
---- d. destruction of PVO points at locations ____,____, and --; and radar installations at ____ and ____;
---- e. destruction of rear service targets at ____, ____, and ____;

-- the enemy forces will be destroyed to the following level in percent using the following types of warheads and bursts -( for example, air burst of 20 kt);
-- the forces and means that will participate in the first nuclear strike (divisions including 2nd echelon);
-- distribution of nuclear and chemical weapons ammunition by mission and between formations;
-- reserve of nuclear and chemical ammunition;

I will listen to the suggestions of the chief of rocket troops and artillery during the estimate of the situation .



Instructions of the Army Commander in Determining the Missions for Artillery;

The army commander also issues instructions giving his guidance for the employment of artillery in support of the coming operation. The instructions include the following points:
-- the composition of artillery groups and distribution of artillery among the formations;
-- designate the specific composition of the army artillery group and composition of the anti-tank reserve;
-- designate the main missions for artillery during the preparation phase and the course of the operation;
-- designate the breakthrough area, time for artillery preparation, depth of artillery support and its type; and the quantity of ammunition which will be used;
-- which artillery will participate in the artillery preparation;
-- how artillery will support the commitment of the army second-echelon division;



Instructions of Army Chief of RT&A on Rocket Troops and Artillery to the Chief of Rocket Troops and Artillery of the Division

The chief of rocket troops and artillery at the army level prepares instructions on various technical details of artillery activities for each division. These instructions provide the division artillery chiefs with information on their division requirements to fit the army plan, what resources they can expect, and other matters. The division chiefs report on this information to their commanders and use it as one of the bases for their artillery planning. The instructions contain the following points:
-- what artillery formations and units and anti-tank artillery units will be provided as reenforcement for the division;
-- what are the norms for expenditure of nuclear and chemical rockets will be for the operation and their distribution to the first nuclear strike and by missions;
-- what the norms for expenditure of conventional rockets during the battle will be and its resupply;
-- what will be the norms for expenditutre of ammunition during the preparatory fire and support fire, and for the division's important missions, and the capabilities for its resupply during the course of the battle;
-- what measures should be taken to bring the division rocket forces to full combat readiness;
-- what targets are designated for the division's rockets for planning the division's participation in the first nuclear strike, the yield of the rockets on each target, type of burst and height, time for being ready, and time for delivery of rocket and nuclear, chemical, and conventional warheads from depots to the firing units.
-- instructions for conduct of re-confirming reconnaissance and exact determination of the targets that will be destroyed in the initial nuclear strike of the front;
-- what support must be taken for protection of own troops during the nuclear strike;
-- which army artillery sub-group will support the division during the course of the day's battle; (The army artillery group is usually divided into subgroups for closer coordination of support with first-echelon divisions.)
-- composition of the division artillery group and regimental groups for regiments on the main attack axis (in number of battalions);
-- width of the breakthrough sector for the division, density of artillery per kilometer of front, and length of duration of the preparatory fire, composition of the fire preparation (usually it consists of 3-5 artillery strikes), means for delivery of ammunition to the gun firing positions;
-- details on movement of the artillery units to their forward firing positions in order to be ready for conduct of prepratory fire, the areas for the firing positions, time to arrive and be prepared, conduct of artillery reconnaissance, designation of the targets for the preparatory fire,
-- how support fire will be provided up to the depth of the defending first-echelon brigades and the types of artillery support fire;
-- methods for providing artillery accompanying fire during the battle;
-- composition and grouping of the artillery in the covering force area and its missions;



 
 

Combat Order of Army Staff on the Employment of Artillery to the Division Staff


 
 

Serial number
Secret
Copy Number

To: Chief of Artillery of 16th MRD

Combat order on employment of division artillery

1. The 16th MRD will be reenforced for the offensive battle by the army artillery brigade and the first anti-tank battalion of the army anti tank regiment. The brigade will arrive in region ___ at ___ hours on ___ date; and the anti-tank battalion will assemble at ___ time in ___ area.

2. With the aim of securing the FUP area, repelling possible enemy strikes, and successfully going over to the offensive by division forces, the 16th MRD will deploy 4 artillery battalions forward, of which one artillery battalion will be from the regiment comprising the forward detachment. For this artillery, prepare firing positions at a distance of 3 to 8 km from the state border. Also deploy the division rocket battalion at a distance of 10 km from the state border and prepare for it a camouflaged position. In the division FUP area prepare main and alternate positions for the remaining artillery of division and regimental groups with the aim of repelling possible enemy attack.

3. The movement of the forward detachment through the enemy covering force area will be supported by a minimum of 3 artillery battalions. The remaining artillery forces of the division will be ready to support the deployment and entry into battle of the division main forces.

4. The division will conduct a breakthrough of the enemy forward defense zone on a width of 4 km. With the aim of supporting the required density of artillery in the breakthrough zone, bring forward the artillery of the division's second echelon regiment to participate in the preparatory fire. The duration of fire preparation will be 40 minutes and quantity of ammunition expended will be 1 unit of fire.

5. Create the following artillery groups:
-- division group of 6 battalions;
-- regimental groups on main axis of 4 battalions'
-- regimental groups on secondary axis of 2 - 3 battalions;
Firing positions for division artillery group and regimental artillery groups are designated in the following areas; ___, ___, ___, etc.

6. Artillery reconnaissance group units of the division artilelry, under direction of the chief of artillery reconnaissance, with their reconnaissance means, will move behind the forward detachment at ___ time, on ___ date; to fulfill the following missions:
-- a. with employment of artillery reconnaissance means, exactly determine the locations of enemy strong points on the forward edge and in the depth of his position, the positions of artillery and mortar batteries and firing means, command posts, second echelons and reserves. They should contact the chief of artillery of the forward detachment to obtain further exact information. They will determine the coordinates of targets and report this information to the army artillery command post.
-- b. determine suitable locations for firing positions for every artillery group and sub-unit and prepare basic firing data. When nighfall comes, send enough personnel to prepare the artillery firing positions and camouflage them.
-- c. Units and sub-units in division and regimental artillery groups at ___ time, and ___ date will employ darkness to move into and occupy firing positions.

7. The anti-tank reserve for the division and regiments will be composed of the following:
-- division reserve - 1 AT battalion from the Army AT Regiment
-- regimental reserves main axis - 2-3 At batteries;
-- regimental reserves support axis - 2 AT batteries;
(The order could tell the division commander to decide on the composition of the regimental AT reserves. The size depends on the quantity of reenforcement received by the division.)

8. Artillery support fire will continue to a depth of the enemy first echelon brigade positions. It will be conducted by single or double barrage fire and successive concentration fire (single or double). Accompanying fire will be conducted by massive fire or concentration fire.

9. During the commitment into battle of the army second echelon division, in addition to its own artillery and the army artillery group, it will be supported by a minimum of 6 artillery battalions from the first echelon division artillery group and regimental groups active in that axis.

10. An air preparation, support, and accompaniment of 3 squadrons of fighter bomber aviation will be conducted during the conduct of the preparatory fire, fire support, and accompanying fire. The designation of targets for air strikes must be coordinated between the division chief of artillery, chief of group of combat support of air army, and division chief of PVO.

11. The quantity of ammunition available for expenditure per day of battle is as follows:
-- small arms - 1.5 units of fire;
-- arty and mtrs - 3.5 units of fire;
-- MRL rockets - 3.5 units of fire;
-- Tanks - 2.5 units of fire;
-- PVO - 3 units of fire;

12. For the conduct of artillery preparatory fire on the main defense area 2.5 units of fire of artillery ammunition will be delivered to the firing positions. To obtain this send guides to meet the transport.

13. Time for opening preparatory fire is 0430 hrs on ___ date.

Command post is located ___.

Signature - Chief of army artillery
Signature - Chief of staff of army artillery
Signature - Chief of operations department of army artillery

 
 

Planning Combat Employment of Rocket Troops and Artillery in Army Offensive Operations

The plan of employment of rocket troops and artillery is the principle document prescribing combat actions of rocket troops and artillery in terms of missions of the operation. The plan of combat employment of rocket troops and artillery is a main component of army plans for the operation. It is the principle document of the army's staff, of rocket troops, and of artillery.

While planning the combat employment of rocket troops and artillery in army offensive operations, the chief of rocket troops and artillery accomplishes the following:
-- clarify the mission;
-- study the decision of the front commander on the employment of rocket troops and artillery;
-- study instructions from higher echelons on the employment of rocket troops and artillery;
-- conduct a full assessment (estimate) of the situation;
-- make decisions on employment of rocket troops and artillery on the basis of which the plan for combat employment is prepared.

The plan is prepared in graphic form on a 1/200,000 or 1/100,000 scale map with an annex of written instructions. The plan is signed by the chief of the rocket troops and artillery and his chief of staff. It is approved by the army commander. The plan is considered a part of the army's plan of operation. The following points are shown in the graphic part of the plan:
-- situations and actions of enemy forces, his important groupings, and targets of rocket troops and artillery;
-- situations and missions of army forces and divisions and boundaries between them;
-- missions of rocket troops in the initial and subsequent nuclear strikes, number of targets, yields of nuclear rounds, types of bursts, sub-units and units launching the strikes, and time of delivery of strikes;
-- employ rocket troops against enemy nuclear means;
-- directions of movements and positions areas of rocket troops and army technical rocket sub-units in attack (FUP) positions, position areas of rocket battalions of divisions in the attack (FUP) areas, and in the security and border areas;
-- relocate positions of rocket troops and rocket technical sub-units during the course of conduct of operations;
-- artillery groupings of the army, divisions and regiments in attack (FUP) areas and in security and border areas;
-- penetration (breakthrough) areas and density of artillery in these areas;
-- areas of deployment of antitank reserves of the army, divisions, and regiments and the directions of their actions;
-- areas of deployment of front antitank reserves and directions of their actions;
-- maneuver of rocket troops and artillery during the course of conduct of operations;
-- positions of air defense artillery and areas of radar;
-- other elements of army combat formations.

In the plan an annex of the initial nuclear strike of the army's rocket troops, with written instructions is also prepared.
In the written instructions, the following points are covered:
-- combat composition of rocket troops and artillery, distribution of attached and organic artillery among the divisions and elements of combat formations, and their regroupment during the course of conduct of operations;
-- specific numbers of nuclear and chemical rockets allocated for operations and their distribution in terms of their allocation to the initial nuclear strike and army's missions and in terms of their distribution to different divisions;
-- availability and distribution of conventional rockets in terms of their allocation to army missions and their distribution to different divisions;
-- distribution of artillery rounds in terms of their allocation to army missions and in terms of their distribution to different divisions;
-- composition of antitank reserves of the army, divisions, and regiments.

The following issues are reflected in the work document:
-- method, time of preparation, and delivery of rockets to troops;
-- calculation of time for bringing rocket troops and artillery to full combat readiness;
-- calculation of time for movement of army and divisions rocket troops;
-- expenditure of conventional rounds in operations and for each mission during the operation;
-- measures for protecting troops against enemy mass-destruction weapons.

 
 

Figure 241 Distribution of Army Artillery and Front Artillery {short description of image}

 
 

Figure 242 Map of army artillery plan - Plan for Employment of Artillery
{short description of image}

 
 

Figure243 Graphic of Artillery Preparatory Fire
{short description of image}

 
 

Figure 244 Availability and Location of Material Supplies
{short description of image}

 
 

Report and Suggestions of the Chief of Rocket Troops and Artillery of the Army During the Commitment of the Second-echelon and Repulse of Counterattack

1. Estimate of enemy nuclear weapons, atomic weapons and high precision weapons and artillery:

-- The Pershing Bn is located at ___, ___. The Lance Battalion may have its positions in the area ___, ___. The 203 mm Arty Regiment is located in areas ___, ___. The positions of 155 mm artillery are located at areas ___, ___. The artillery positions of direct support battalions are located at ___, ___, ___.

2. The situation, grouping and character of actions of artillery forces of the army:

--The army rocket brigade prepares start positions in areas ___, ___, ___, ___. The brigade has had losses in personnel of 3% and in launchers of 25%. The brigade has reserves of nuclear, chemical, and conventional rockets to norms.

-- The rocket battalion of the 16th MRD is located at ___,___. The battalion has 25% losses of launchers.
-- The rocket battalion of the 18th MRD is located at __, ___.
-- The rocket battalion of the 21st MRD is located at ___. These two battalions have 25% losses.
-- The rocket battalion of the 20th Tank Division is located ___, ___. It has 25% losses in launchers.
-- The rocket battalion of the 19th MRD located in ___, ___. It has not suffered losses.
-- The rocket battalion of 17 Tank Division is located ___, ___. It has not suffered losses.

The situation, grouping and character of action of artillery units:
-- The army reactive artillery group is located in area ___, ___. It has 18% losses in weapons.
-- The subgroup 1 of the artillery group is located at ___. It has 20% losses in weapons.
-- Subgroup 2 of army artillery group located in area ___. It has 18% losses.
-- Anti-tank reserve of army is located on the march and head of column has reached location ___. It has 20% losses in ATGM and antitank guns.
-- Artillery group of 16th MRD located in area ___ and has 20% losses in weapons.
-- Artillery group of 18th MRD located in area ___ and has 22% losses.
-- Artillery group of 19th MRD located in area ___, and has 18% losses.
-- Artillery group of 21st MRD is deployed in general areas ___. It has 17% losses;
-- The artillery groups of 17th & 20th Tank Divisions are located in assembly areas of these divisions. They have 8-10% losses.


Support of the commitment of the 17th Tank Division:

-- The commitment into the engagement of the 17th Tank Division requires creation of density of artillery up to 50 guns and mortar per km of breakthrough and conduct of 25 fire preparation in three fire strikes, because the enemy has a very deep defense in front of the line of commitment of this division. The expenditure of ammunition will be 0.7 BK. The fire support will be conducted by successive concentration fire on two or three lines to the depth of defense of enemy first echelon battalions. The accompanying fire will be conducted during the battle with use of massive fire and concentration fire. The 17th Tank Division will be reinforced with three artillery battalions from the subgroup of army artillery #2. and one artillery battalion from the 16th MRD and another one from the 18th MRD. The aim is to create a division artillery group and regimental artillery groups. The division artillery group is organized with 4 battalions and the regimental artillery groups on the main axis with 3 artillery battalions. The regimental artillery operating on the other axis will have 2 artillery battalions.
-- The commitment of the division will be supported by subgroup 1 and army reactive artillery group and subgroup artillery #2 and artillery of the 16th and 18th MRD.


Combat employment of artillery during repulse of enemy counterattack will be conducted in the following manner.
-- conduct of aviation and rocket strikes on the moving enemy counterattacking groupings;
-- conduct of massive fire and concentration fire during deployment of enemy forces into attack;
-- repulse of enemy attack by using both standing and rolling barrages and massive and concentration fire that will be conducted by all the artillery and by the tanks and anti-tank weapons;
-- when enemy penetrates into the depth of the defense, by conduct of counterattack of second-echelon;

This counterattack will be supported by strong artillery preparation for a short period and support of counterattack by successive concentration fire on two or three lines; and also by massive and concentration fire. With this objective I suggest the creation of the following artillery groups in divisions and regiments: division artillery group of 3 battalions and regimental artillery group for the regiment holding the main defense sector of 3 battalions and the other regiments 1 group of 2 battalions.

With the aim of creating these groupings, reinforce the 20th Division with 3 artillery battalions from the 21st MRD.
--Antitank reserve of army and mobile obstacle battalions also will operate on this axis. They will move from their column locations, so they can create a strong anti-tank defense in interaction with the anti-tank reserves of the division and regiments;
-- for this purpose reinforce the division with one anti-tank battalion from the composition of the anti-tank reserve of the 21st MRD. This way the anti-tank reserve of the division will have one anti-tank battalion and the anti-tank reserve of the regiments of first-echelon will have 2 anti-tank batteries.
-- the number and shortages of nuclear, chemical and conventional rockets warheads are shown in the table.

 
 

SHORTAGES OF ROCKETS AND LAUNCHERS

Type and status Launchers Nuc rockets Chem rockets Conventional rockets
For operation 9 18 9 18
SCUD on hand
Shortage - - - -
FROG required 18 54 36 90
Quantity on hand 18 45 40 80
Shortage - 9 - 10

 
 

SHORTAGE OF AMMUNITION IN ARMY AND TROOPS

Location Small arms Arty and mtr MRL Tank PVO
Army rear 0.05 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.3
16th MRD 0.4 0.4 0.5 1.2 0.8
18th MRD 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.4
19th MRD 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3
21st MRD 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4
17th TD - - - - -
20th TD - - - - -

 
 

Air

 
 

Air is a functional area that is different from the others. This is because the fixed wing aircraft at front level are found in a separate air army and there are no fixed wing aircraft in the combined arms armies or divisions. Nor do the armies or divisions have air planning officers on their permanent staffs. This function is accomplished by teams of air force officers sent from the air army to the combined arms armies and divisions. with the inclusion of helicopters in the armies and divisions these formations have again activated planning functions for air activities, but different from the fixed wing planning and control, which remains an air force function. Following are samples of the various instructions sent from one headquarters to another or given by the commander to his staff.



Combat Instructions of the Air Army Staff of the Front to the Ground Army on Aviation Matters (Army's Helicopters etc)

The air army staff issues instructions to the army chief of staff on various matters relating to the employment of aviation in support of army operations. The instructions contain the following points:
-- composition and time of arrival of the center of combat control of the air army, the group for combat control, the target identification posts, and radio navigation posts at army and divisions, with the objective of organizing interaction between air and ground forces and control of air movement and combat actions of various types of aviation in the army area;
-- the army will be supported by the following regimental air sorties for each day of the operation;
-- the following combat and transport helicopters will be made available for transporting air assault forces;
-- the following fighter and fighter-bomber aviation means will support transport aviation and transport helicopters in the assembly area for the airborne operation, during the flight time, and during the drop itself;
-- the army will employ the following measures for raising the level of combat readiness of the transport and combat helicopters. They will deploy to combat airfield locations in the following manner;
-- the following quantity of bombs, rockets, and ammunition (including chemical) will be used in the operation, with the following resupply during the operation, and the army will create the following supply reserves at the end of the operation;
-- the following quantity of air ammunition, napalm, fuel, and material supplies will be used for the operation, with the following capability for resupply during the operation, and creation of reserves at the end of the operation;
-- the army will conduct interaction with the following formations and units of fighter aviation of front during the preparation and during the operation;



Combat Instructions of the Army Commander on Aviation Means and Helicopters Subordinate to Him

The army commander issues his guidance on the employment of aviation and his helicopters in the form of instructions. These include the following points:
-- missions for participation in the air part of the preparation, support and accompanying fire along with the artillery;
-- distribution of aviation forces and means by mission and by formations (divisions);
-- the role of helicopters in the battle against tanks and armored forces;
-- the missions for transporting and support of air assault landing;
-- organization of emergency resupply of ammunition by helicopters for ground units;
-- evacuation of wounded and sick from the battlefield;
-- organization and conduct of air observation and reconnaissance;



Missions of the Center for Combat Control of the Air Army

The center of combat control of the air army consists of a few officers from the air army staff with signal means and automatic control means (computer link). It is sent from the air army to the first-echelon ground force army's command post. The center deploys to the army command post and fulfill missions during the preparation phase and course of the operation. The air force officers work most closely with the army chief of staff, and also with the chief of the operations directorate and to a lesser degree, but still closely, with the chiefs of reconnaissance and PVO, and chief of artillery. Their main duties are as follows:
-- they collect data on the air and ground situation in front of the army.
-- they call for individual strikes of fighter bomber aircraft from the air army taken out of the designated quantity allocated to support the army each day, in accordance with the commander's decision and the conditions of the situation. (This varies, but may be 3 regimental sorties per day). They designate the targets and control the aircraft during the operation.
-- they conduct interaction of the air forces with the army's forces with the aim of providing air support for the following missions:
----- during the front first nuclear strike for re-reconnaissance of targets;
----- during the breakthrough of the enemy main defense and the course of the operation: for aerial reconnaissance, air preparation, air support, and air accompanying fire.
----- during loading and dropping of air assault forces: conduct of aerial reconnaissance, conduct of the landing itself, support and aerial cover over the assembly area, during the flight, during the landing, and during the subsequent battle on the ground;
----- during the commitment into the engagement of the second-echelon: aerial reconnaissance, cover of the movement of the second-echelon, cover and support of the second-echelon during its commitment, and support during the subsequent battle;
----- during repelling enemy counter-attack (blow): reconnaissance of the enemy's counter attacking grouping, cover and support of the forces repelling the counter-attack;
----- during forcing water obstacles: aerial reconnaissance, cover and support of the forces during preparation and during the crossing, and during the battle in the enemy depth;
----- report to the air army about airfields that the army has captured. These air fields may be used by the air forces during the operation.
-- in accordance with the situation, if the army has already used its allocated air flights, the control group can call the air army for more resources, if the army commander requests support for important missions
-- conduct of air reconnaissance and provide the resulting information to the army staff
-- organization of interaction of the fighter aviation with the formations and units of the army PVO rocket forces during covering the army's main forces from enemy air strikes in the course of the most important missions;
-- control of air movement of all types of air forces in the army area and support of the security of their own aviation in the army's area;
-- control of the activities of the group of combat control that is located at the division command posts and the posts for navigation and target designation that are deployed in the army area;
-- conduct of signal interaction and target designation and identification of friend and foe between air forces and ground forces;



Missions of the Group of Combat Control:

The group of combat control is composed of a few officers from the air army staff with signal means and means for automatic control who are sent to the command posts of the first-echelon divisions. They work mostly with the chief of staff and chief of the operations directorate. They fulfill the following missions during the preparation phase and the course of the battle.
-- collect data on the air and ground situation in the division's attack area;
-- call for and direct the air resources that are designated for division support by the army commander. In accordance with the commander's decision and conditions of the situation, they control the use and direction of these air strikes during the battle;
-- organize interaction of the air forces with the division forces during the fulfillment of the breakthrough of enemy defenses, commitment of second-echelon, repelling of counterattacks, forcing of water obstacles, and during other missions during the offensive battle;
-- during assault landing (tactical landings): conduct of aerial reconnaissance, choosing the helicopter pads for the assault landing, cover of the landing force in the assembly area, during flight, during landing, and during the battle on the ground with air forces (fighters and fighter-bombers;
-- fulfillment of missions for aerial reconnaissance, sequence of re-reconnaissance, and providing of aerial reconnaissance information to the division staff;
-- organization of interaction between the fighter aviation and the division PVO rocket forces for cover of the main grouping during the fulfillment of most important missions from enemy air strikes;
-- they send representatives of the air forces with communication means to organize interaction with regiments and forward detachments that are fulfilling the most important missions;
-- designate targets for aircraft and navigation for aviation and combat helicopters against ground targets that are forward of the division's attack area;
-- issue signals for interaction and identification of friend and foe between the air forces and ground forces;
-- establish the posts for target designation on helicopters and small aircraft and on combat vehicles (BMP's) and APC's during the attack. They designate ground targets for the air forces and combat helicopters;
-- establish posts for visual observation for conduct of reconnaissance and observation of the air situation and observation of enemy air forces that can't be seen by the radar stations (low level flights) in the division attack area and warning the forces about enemy air flights;



Points for Guidance and Target Designation

Two or three points for guidance and target designation are sent from every center for control of air forces. They as a rule are located at the command posts of the PVO rocket forces and sometimes they are airborne, located on small aircraft or helicopters. The guiidance and target designation points have their own complex of radars, communication means, and automatic control devices. With the use of these they control aviation and pilotless apparatus and create the best tactical conditions against the targets. Observation of targets is also conducted by the crews with the help of radar location stations that are located on special aircraft and by visual means. The guidance and target designation points fulfill the following missions;
-- support of aircraft, helicopters and other aircraft flight to the combat area and directing them against ground or naval targets;
-- direction of fighter aircraft against enemy aerial targets
-- support of security of air forces against destruction by own PVO and support of security of flights in the army area
-- support of interaction of fighter aircraft with PVO rocket units and anti-aircraft artillery forces;
-- support of identification of friend and foe of aviation with ground forces;
Besides this the air forces sometimes establish points of guidance and target designation set up only with the limited mission of control of fighter aviation against enemy airborne targets;



Report of Air Army Control Group Leader to Ground Army Commander

The leader of the air army control group informs the army commander of his presence and availability for support. He repeats the information contained in the front directive on the number and type of air sorties that will be available to the army.



Orders of Army Commander on Air Assault Operations

The army commander issues instructions governing the planning of air assault operations. The instructions cover the following points:
-- location and time for air assault actions;
-- combat missions of air assault in the depth of the enemy area;
-- order (sequence) of conduct of nuclear strikes, air strikes and rocket strikes on the targets in support of the air assault action and their support during the air assault action once on the ground;
-- order for interaction with fighter and fighter bomber aviation and interaction with forces that will link up on the ground;
-- location of assembly area for air assault forces, time for occupying the area, time for moving to the waiting area, and time to load on the aircraft;
-- organization of troop control;



Instructions of the Army Staff on Air Forces (Helicopters) to the Division Staff

The operations directorate of the army staff prepares and issues instructions on the use of army air assets (helicopters) and information on air force support coming to the division from the front. The instructions include the following points:
-- the composition and time of arrival of the air control group, and the post for guidance and target designation, two different teams from the air army). These teams have the aim of conducting interaction between the air forces and the division, and providing support for the movement and flight of front and transport aviation in the division attack area.
-- designation of the number of aircraft sorties that will be given to support the divison each day;
-- the divison will receive the following transport helicopters for the air assault landing;
-- how the divison air assault force will be supported (covered by air) by front fighters and army PVO in the assembly area, during the flight, during the landing phase and during the battle;
-- instructions on measures for bringing division combat and transport helicopters to full combat readiness and occupation of helicopter airfields and their deployment;
-- what norms will be allowed for expenditure of chemical and conventional rockets and bombs during the battle and their resupply;
-- what norms of expenditure will be available for aerial ammunition, napalm, fuel, and material supplies during the battle and their resupply;
-- instructions on evacuation of wounded and sick from the battlefield and delivery of critical supplies by air.



 
 

Figure 255 Distribution of Air sorties


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Air Defense

 
 

The following documents are for air defense. The army chief of air defense receives rather detailed instructions from the front chief of air defense. Air defense is a functional area in which the army's forces and means must be closely integrated with those of the front. Furthermore, PVO rockets must be carefully integrated with the PVO fighter aircraft to perform the air defense function, and all of this must be coordinated with other friendly aircraft to avoid fratricide. Following are samples of the main documents.



Combat Instructions of Front Staff to the Army on PVO

The front staff in the name of the commander issues instructions to the armies on all aspects of the employment of air defense forces and means. This information supplements that contained in the operational directive. It is prepared by the front chief of air defense and sent to the army chiefs of air defense troops. These officers use it as the basis for their clarification, estimate and decision. They report on the content to their army commander during his decision making process. The instructions contain the following points:
-- the following is the composition of PVO that will be given for reenforcement of the army
-- the army will accomplish interaction with the following formations and units of fighter aviation, anti-air rocket forces of front, and units of PVO of the adjacent armies;
-- the formations and units of fighter aviation, anti-air rockets of front, and units of PVO of adjacent armies have the following missions;
-- the following means will be used to accomplish interaction with the previously mentioned units;
-- the following quantity of anti-air rockets will be available during the first operation; the following are means for resupply distribution by mission and between rocket units; and the army will create the following reserves of air rocket supplies at the end of the operation;
-- the following quantity of anti air ammunition is available for use by the army during the operation and for creation of reserve supplies at the end of the operation;
-- the front will reenforce the army with the following forces and means of front PVO at these times and for fulfilling the following missions;
-- the following means and methods will be employed for repelling the enemy's air strikes;
-- the army will take the following measures on achieving higher combat readiness of PVO forces to repel an enemy surprise attack, employing the following means for repelling it, and the the following composition of the army duty PVO forces;
-- army PVO will be deployed in the following order (sequence), will employ the following methods for maneuver during the operation, and PVO forces and means and reconnaissance and warning system will be ready at the following times;
-- the army will provide the following support for the flights of long range aviation, front aviation, and transport aviation that will fly over the army's air defense sector;
-- the army will provide the following PVO cover for the commitment into the engagement of the front second-echelon army;


Army Commander's Decision on Air Defense

The army commander evaluates the following during the process of making the decision: the status and capabilities of the army's air defense units and resources;
-- the groupings of PVOS and military district air defense troops, deployed in the army's marching zone;
-- groupings, capabilities, and character of operation of the enemy air force.



Army Commander's Instructions on Air Defense

On the basis of deductions derived from such evaluations, the army commander specifies the following to the army's chief of air defense:
-- which groupings of army forces and which targets should be covered in which phases;
-- how and in what method the coordination between army's air defense units and PVOS air defense system and military districts (fronts) air defense troops and means should be established;
-- method of reconnaissance of enemy aircraft, warning of the troops, and the method of troop control of air defense troops during the movement.


Combat Instructions of the Army Commander on PVO:

The army commander issues his instructions on employment of air defense means to the chief of air defense. This along with the instructions from higher headquarters forms the basis for the chief of PVO to organize his planning. The instructions contain the following points:
-- the main army PVO forces will be concentrated to cover the following army groupings, units, and targets during the preparation phase and the course of the operation;
-- the enemy's main air strikes will be repelled by employing the following methods. (this means in what sequence of participation of rocket forces with fighter aviation in detail. For specific details see lectures on PVO).
-- the army PVO will interaction with fighter aviation, front PVO forces, and PVO forces of neighbor armies and division in the following manner;
-- the army duty status PVO forces will be the following;
-- the following is the order and time for deployment of army PVO forces and the reconnaissance and warning system at the beginning of the operation and for its maneuver during the operation;



Organization of Air Defense in Army Offensive Operations

Organization of air defense is a number of measures taken by the chief of army air defense and his staff to organize air defense in support of army offensive operations. These measures include the following:
-- planning army air defense and conveying missions on air defense to troops;
-- establishing groupings of air defense troops in the departure (FUP) areas, preparing them for combat actions and maintaining constant combat-readiness to repel enemy air attacks.
-- organizing air defense during the conduct of offensive operations to accomplish missions related to the following:
----- assault crossing over major water obstacles;
----- committing second-echelon forces into combat;
----- repulsing enemy counterblows;
-- organizing troop control and interaction of air defense forces and means;
-- organizing combat support measures and supply of air defense guided rockets.



 
 

Planning Air Defense

The chief of army air defense prepares army air defense plans after receiving missions from the army commander. He studies the instructions from the higher staff on air defense and all-around assessment (estimate) of the situation. He then issues instructions and combat instructions on air defense to motorized rifle, tank large units, and air defense units.



Air Defense Plan

The army's chief of air defense works out the army's air defense plan (on the map with written details, covering the entire length of the operation or march) on the basis of the army commander's decision and the instruction of higher headquarters. This plan illustrates the following:
-- conclusions of the estimate of the situation on the enemy air force;
-- the sectors and march routes of army units, indicating the timing and locations of embarkation, debarkation, assembly areas, daily (nightly) resting areas, crossing of mountain passes, major bridges, defiles etc.;
-- groupings of the country's air defense system and military district (front) air defense troops located in the army's marching zone;
-- organization of air defense cover;
-- organization of fighter aircraft cover;
-- organization of reconnaissance of enemy aircraft;
-- organization of troops warning system;
-- coordination of the army's air defense units with country's air defense system and military districts air defense troops and resources.

The air defense plan in army offensive operations is a detailed formulation of the air defense decision combined with calculations and necessary instructions. The air defense plan is a part of the plan of army offensive operations.

The air defense plan is graphically prepared on a 1/200,000 or 1/100,000 scale map with written instructions. In the graphic part of the plan the following elements are reflected:
-- composition, groupings, and likely direction of the attack from the aerial enemy and the main groupings of enemy ground forces;
-- operational formation of army troops, its command posts, army boundaries, and army missions;
-- position areas of air defense and radio technical units, immediate adjacent, front and national air defense means operating in army areas, in departure (FUP) areas, and in the entire depth of army offensive operations. The line of reconnaissance of the aerial enemy by radar and the destruction (killing) zone of air defense means.
-- fighter aviation airfields, lines of intercepting enemy aircraft, areas of air patrolling;
-- missions conducted by forces and means of other branches of services in the interest of air defense (where, when, and by what means enemy air targets are destroyed.
-- directions (areas) of the flight of aircraft carrying airborne assault troops;
-- bridges and crossings over rivers.

Other information and calculations are reflected in writing in written instructions along with necessary annexes. The written instructions illustrate the following:
-- brief deductions of the assessment of the enemy;
-- concepts and missions of air defense;
-- combat composition of air defense troops and means and their combat capability;
-- control of air defense forces and means;
-- organizing coordination (interaction) with fighter aviation and other air defense means;
-- availability, supplying (delivering), and distributing rockets (rounds);
-- methods of numbering air targets;
-- warning troops of the aerial enemy;
-- combat-readiness and combat standby (on-call) duties of air defense means.

Annexes to air defense plans include the following:
-- plan of detection (reconnaissance) of the aerial enemy;
-- warning and signal diagram;
-- other necessary tables and graphics.

Army air defense plans are signed by the army's chief of staff and chief of air defense. They are approved by the army commander. Written instructions are signed by the chief of army air defense.



Instructions of the Army Staff on Air Defense (PVO) to the Divisions

The army chief of air defense prepares and issues instructions to the division chiefs of air defense on the specifics of PVO activities. This enables the divisions to organize their planning to insure that the division air defense in integrated into the army plan. In the past the division was often reenforced with anti-aircraft artillery from the army, but now it usually has sufficient rocket weapons. The major support from army comes in the form of the coverage over the division area provided by army anti-air rocket units positioned within or to the rear of the division area. The instructions cover the following points:
-- what is the composition of PVO forces that will reenforce division if any;
-- interaction will be accomplished with which rocket units of army and adjacent divisions and units of fighter aviation of front;
-- what means will be used for accomplishing interaction with previously listed units in the FUP areas and during the offensive;
-- what norms will be allowed for expenditure of anti-air rockets in the battle and the means for resupply during the battle;
-- what norms are allowed for expenditute of anti-air ammunition and its resupply;
-- what measures must be taken for support of high combat readiness of the division PVO forces, deployment of PVO forces in the FUP areas, composition of duty forces of the division PVO;
-- what is the system of reconnaissance and warning of PVO during the period in which PVO are coming to the state of full combat readiness, during the occupation of the FUP areas, and during the course of the battle;
--what will be the order for repulse of the enemy's aerial attack strikes;
-- what will be the order of maneuver and cover for division forces by the PVO forces of the division during the battle and cover of division forces during the main missions by the army PVO forces;
-- what means and methods will be used for identification of friend and foe and support of aircraft flights of own aviation in the division area;

 
 

Engineer

 
 

Combat Employment of Engineer Troops in Army Offensive Operations


Aims of Engineer Support in Army Offensive Operations

Aims of engineer support in army offensive operations include the following measures:
-- establishing necessary conditions for timely movement and deployment of army troops for the attack;
-- protecting army troops against all enemy means of destruction;
-- repulsing possible enemy attacks;
-- conducting attacks at high speeds under conditions of mass-destruction.

Aims are achieved through accomplishment of a number of engineer support missions. The content and volume of these missions depends on the concept of the operation and the concrete conditions of operational situations under which army offensive operations are prepared and conducted.



Engineer Support Tasks During Preparation of Operations

The following are elements of engineer support tasks during preparation of operations:
-- engineer support for departure (FUP) areas and preparation of first-echelon large units to initiate the attacks;
-- engineer installation (preparation) for deployment areas of second-echelon large units and army reserves;
-- engineer installation (preparation) for position areas of rocket, air defense rocket, and large units;
-- preparation of routes which support movements of second-echelon's large units, rocket troops, air defense rocket troops, and command posts (control points);
-- engineer installations (preparation) for army's command posts (control points) deployment areas;
-- conducting measures for engineer support of repulsion of likely enemy counterattacks;
-- preparations for conduct of engineer measures which eliminate consequences of enemy nuclear attacks;
-- conducting measures on operational concealment and deception.



Principle Missions for Engineer Support During the Conduct of Army Offensive Operations

The principle missions for engineer support during the conduct of army offensive operations are as follows:
-- support of movement and deployment of army troops during attacks and while passing through obstacles;
-- support of breakthroughs of enemy defenses and development of attacks of first-echelon large units passing through obstacles and areas of destruction;
-- engineer support for combat actions of rocket and air defense rocket large units;
-- engineer support during crossings of water obstacles;
-- engineer support for movement and commitment of second-echelons into engagements;
-- engineer support for combat actions of tactical airborne assaults;
-- engineer installation (preparation) for army command posts (control points);
-- conducting engineer measures for elimination of consequences of enemy nuclear attacks;
-- support and supply of troops during preparations and while conducting operations, by engineer armament, equipment and material, and by providing technical support for engineer troops.

The aforementioned tasks are conducted by engineer troops, as well as by motorized rifle and tank large units.



Groupings of Engineer Troops in Army Offensive Operations

The following are groupings of engineer troops in army offensive operations:
-- engineer troops being attached to first-echelon large units and rocket and air defense rocket troops;
-- engineer units conducting army engineer support missions;
-- one to two mobile obstacle detachments;
-- engineer reserves.

The grouping is not a permanent structure. The grouping changes during the course of the operation in accordance with the situations.


Missions and Assignment of Army Engineer Troops During Army Offensive Operations

Missions and assignments of army engineer troops during army offensive operations are as follows:
-- combat engineer regiment (ISP): Reinforces engineer capabilities of first-echelon divisions to which it is attached;
-- engineer road construction and bridging regiment (IDORMP): Employed at army level to conduct missions in support of maneuver of second-echelon troops, and construction of supply and evacuation routes;
-- pontoon bridge regiment (POMP): Attached to first-echelon divisions and assigned to establish army crossing sites;
-- assault crossing battalion (DesPB): Attached to first-echelon divisions to establish crossing sites;
-- engineer obstacle battalion (IBZAG): Assigned to form mobile obstacle detachments (POZ) and to establish obstacles in the depths of attack areas;
-- engineer company of command posts (control points) (IRPU): Assigned to establish and construct army command posts (control points);
-- engineer company of repair and evacuation (IRER): Assigned to conduct repair and evacuation of engineer equipment;
-- engineer company of rear service (IR Tiel): Assigned to establish and conduct army rear service control points.



Organization of Combat Employment of Army Engineer Troops in Offensive Operations

Organization of combat employment of army engineer troops in offensive operations includes a number of measures conducted by the chief of army engineer troops and his staff. They plan combat employment of engineer troops and all-around engineer support.

The most important measures on preparation and combat employment of engineer troops in army offensive operations are as follows:
-- making decisions and planning engineer support;
-- conveying engineer instructions and missions to combined arms large units, engineer units, and sub-units;
-- grouping of engineer troops during preparations of army offensive operations and during its conduct;
-- preparing attack departure (FUP) areas for the army, divisions, and command posts;
-- collecting and dumping engineer equipment, armaments, and material means;
-- organizing political work in engineer units and sub-units;
-- organizing types of combat support measures including engineer support;
-- preparing engineer troops for execution of assigned missions;
-- maintaining high combat-readiness for conduct of combat actions.

Organizing engineer support and combat employment of army engineer troops in support of offensive operations is conducted on the basis of the following:
-- concept of the army commander's decision;
-- the army commander's instructions on engineer support;
-- instructions of the chief of front engineer troops.

Based on the concept of the decisions of the army commander, his instructions on engineer support, and instructions from the front's chief of engineer troops; the chief of army engineer troops organizes the engineer plans for offensive operations. This is done after an all-around clarification of the assigned missions and estimate of the situation.



Engineer Support During Assault River Crossings During Army Offensive Operations

During the conduct of offensive operations army troops will be forced to assault-cross water obstacles where the enemy puts up resistance and conducts combat actions. This is an attempt to delay the advance of attacking troops. Therefore, the enemy must be prevented from establishing defenses on water obstacles.

The principle form for crossing water obstacles is assault river crossings from the lines of march (from movements). The aims of army troops assault river crossings are the following:
-- support approaches and troop arrival at water obstacles;
-- unhindered (uninterrupted) crossings of troops from water obstacles;
-- develop the attack on the far bank.


Tasks of Engineer Support

The tasks of engineer support during assault river crossings are as follows:
-- conduct of continuous and active reconnaissance of water obstacles and the enemy on approaches to water obstacles and on far banks;
-- wise selection of crossing sites;
-- making timely decisions on assault river crossings and conveying missions to troops;
-- destroying and suppressing enemy forces defending water obstacles;
-- seizing available crossing points, river areas suitable for assault crossings, and seizing areas of the far banks;
-- extending routes to water obstacles and to crossing areas;
-- timely movement and approach of crossing means to water obstacles;
-- quick establishment of the crossing sites, wise (effective) maneuver of crossing means;
-- close concealment (maskirovka) of real crossing sites and creation of deceptive crossing sites;
-- organizing traffic control (commandant) service at crossing sites;
-- troop crossings on a wide front at high speeds;
-- reliable air defense of crossing sites and support of crossing forces by aircraft, artillery, and rocket troops;
-- protecting crossing sites from enemy destructive actions;
-- protecting crossing sites and crossing troops from enemy mass-destruction weapons.

The army organizes assault crossings over medium size water obstacles. Smaller rivers (less than 60 m wide) are assault crossed by divisional means. In order to insure a high speed of attack (advance), assault river crossings must be rapidly organized and conducted. Forward detachments cross in 1.5-2 hours. First-echelon divisions cross in 5-7 hours. The army crosses during a 12-15 hour period of time. To achieve this aim (to meet the aforementioned time) in the assault river crossing areas the following are established:
-- assault crossing sites;
-- raft crossing points;
-- bridges;
-- fording sites.

Army second-echelon and army troops (other than first-echelon forces) are crossed over bridges established by the army. To insure a high speed of attack the following crossing sites are established for each first-echelon division:
-- at least 4-6 assault crossing points, i.e., 1-2 points for each first-echelon battalion;
-- 4-6 raft crossing points;
-- 3-4 underwater or fording crossing points for tanks;
-- one bridge crossing point.

Groupings of engineer troops for support of assault river crossings from lines of march (movement) are designated and established during assignment of missions prior to attacks. It is reconfirmed during conduct of attacks.

Engineer sub-units assigned to support forward detachment assault crossings move within the composition of forward detachments. Sub-units assigned to support crossings of main forces of first-echelon divisions move behind forward detachments or in the composition of main forces. This means that when the enemy weakly occupies the river's far bank, the engineer sub-units assigned to support the crossings of the main forces of first-echelon divisions move behind the forward detachments. But, if the far bank is strongly occupied by the enemy forces, these engineer sub-units move within the composition of the main forces of first-echelon divisions.

First-echelon divisions normally cross wide rivers by using assault crossing and raft crossing means. Depending on the situation army second-echelon units cross by bridges, rafts, or assault crossing means.

Organization of traffic control (commandant) service at crossing points is provided by engineer sub-units. Such service during movement toward crossing points is organized and provided by motorized rifle units.



Engineer Support for Commitment of Second-Echelon (Reserves) into Combat

The aims of engineer support for commitment of second-echelon troops into combat are as follows:
-- to insure timely arrival of second-echelon troops at the line of commitment;
-- effective support of deployment of second-echelon troops during their movement;
-- protection of these troops against enemy flank strikes.



Engineer Tasks During Commitment

Engineer tasks during commitment of second-echelon troops into combat are as follows:
-- conduct of engineer reconnaissance of terrain in areas of advance, as well as, in areas of commitment of second-echelon troops;
-- preparing roads to support movement and deployment of second-echelon troops for combat;
-- breaching lanes in enemy obstacles in areas of deployment of second-echelon troops and during their commitment into combat;
-- covering of second-echelon flanks by engineer obstacles in areas of enemy threats.

The movement of second-echelon troops from assembly areas is normally conducted on routes prepared in advance. During this phase second-echelon troops may also use roads prepared by first-echelon divisions during the conduct of attacks. The second-echelon troops composed of one division will need two to three routes for movement to lines of commitment. Preparation of routes are conducted in a limited time. The speed of their preparation must be coordinated (harmonized) with the speed of advance of first-echelon troops. For the preparation of each route one engineer road construction company is assigned. Therefore, to prepare all routes of movement for second-echelon divisions the following are required:
-- one engineer road construction and bridging battalion;
-- pontoon and bridge construction sub-units.

Simultaneously, one or two alternate routes are prepared.
When the volume of work to support crossing through obstacles and areas of destruction is great, bypassing routes are prepared by using engineer reserves.
To support deployment of second-echelon troops each battalion will require one to two routes. This task is accomplished by organic engineer sub-units which also breach lanes in enemy mine obstacles.
Sometimes the situation will require second-echelon troops to be committed into combat on an unexpected new direction. In this case the chief of engineer troops works out the details with the chief of operations directorate. They then accomplish the following:
-- study information about possible new routes;
-- conduct helicopter reconnaissance;
-- assign engineer road construction and bridging sub-units to each route;
-- employ engineer reserves to meet new requirements.

The covering of second-echelon flanks in areas of commitment into combat is conducted by the employment of mobile obstacle detachments (POZ) in interaction with antitank reserves.



Principle Measures of Organization of Engineer Support at Army Level

Organization for combat employment includes many things from making the decision and preparing the plan to grouping the forces and insuring their combat readiness. The first point is making the decision. To make the decision the commander and chief of engineers work together with their staffs in a sequence of clarification, estimation, and preparation of plans. The chief of engineers has two tasks, one is to help the commander in his decision process and the other is to supervise his own staff in the preparation of details of engineer plans made on the basis of the commander's decision. The chief of engineers must not only plan for the use of the specialist engineer troops, but also must guide the engineer support work done by the lower echelons including non-engineer combat troops. For this reason he issues two separate types of instructions. One is instruction on engineer work to engineer units. The other is instructions on engineer support measures to the lower combat arms units.

The engineer staff bases its own plans for engineer work on three sources; the operational missions assigned the army, the engineer missions given in instructions from higher headquarters, and the army commander's decision. These three sets of information or data govern the work of the engineer staff in planning the use of engineer forces and means.


Sequence of Decision Making

The discussion of the role of the chief of engineers in the commander's decision process is keyed to the following outline of the steps in their interactive process. See the diagram showing this process at the beginning of Chapter Six.



Sequence of Organization of Engineer Operations during Army Offensive

Army Commander --------------------------------------------------------------------------------Engineer

1. Receives Missions from front ------------------------------------------------------Receives instructions from front Engineer
2. Commander Clarifies Mission ---------------------------------------------------------------Clarifies Instructions
3. Briefs Engineer on outcome ------------------------------------------------------------------Report to commander on engineer missions
of the clarification of mission --------------------------------------------------------------------received from higher headquarters
and issues initial instructions
4. Commander and staff make ------------------------------------------------------------------Does the following:
estimate of situation ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- estimate situation on on basis of higher echelon's ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------instructions.
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------issue instructions to engineer units on combat ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------readiness, reconnaissance, and maskirovka -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- coordinate engineer tasks with other arms;
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ - prepare suggestions to the army commander on the --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------establishment of the engineer aspects of ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------defensive systems and employment of engineer means
5. Army commander makes the decision and issues missions. ----
6.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Engineer chief conducts clarification of the engineer -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------mission-
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- - estimate of the situation
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- makes the decision on engineer issues
7. Staff conducts planning -----------------------------------------------------------------------Staff participates and contributes
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ - completes the engineer plan and engineer parts of other plans
-------------------------- 1. plan to repel enemy initial strike:
-------------------------- 2. enemy reconnaissance. and surveillance plan
-------------------------- 3. maskirovka plan
-------------------------- 4. airbase construction
-------------------------- 5. CP relocation

The army commander and chief of engineers work separately and together in the following sequence.

--1. The army commander receives the army operational mission from the higher headquarters through operational channels or directly from the front commander. At the same time the army chief of engineers receives instructions on engineer matters from the chief of engineers at front level. These instructions will contain the following information. They will give the composition of the engineer troops for the army and especially what engineer troops will be attached from front for the operation and when each unit will be available. They will give the engineer missions planned at front to which the army is expected to contribute. Especially in the initial phase of war there will be immediate engineer tasks such as preparation of roads and positions which the front will plan and all armies will execute. Then they will give the engineer missions that the front will conduct itself which are in the interest of the army, such as some reconnaissancenaissance. Then they will give specific missions that the army must do such as river crossings.
The front distribution of engineer troops is in accordance with the plan for grouping engineers. The army in the main attack will get more extra units. It will likely get the extra combat regiment, and engineer road and bridge regiment and pontoon bridge unit etc.
The front engineer plan shows the missions given the army during the preparation phase and during the conduct of the operation. It shows the combat regiments and road and bridge regiment of the army must conduct by observation some reconnaissancenaissance along the border. The details of the instructions on how to do this must be conveyed to the army. The engineer work to prepare assembly areas is given in the front plan and it shows who will do it when and where and how. The work is done by army and by first-echelon divisions. The missions planned by front that affect the army are part of these instructions.
-- 2. Meanwhile the army commander receives the front mission and clarifies the operational aspects on his mission in order to understand it and make it more clear. He considers the concept of operation of the front commander and the role of the army in this concept. He considers how to support the front concept and from that consideration he can issue his initial guidance to subordinates and staff. At that point he exchanges information with the engineer as well at the other staff members. The chief of engineers is at that time clarifying the engineer instructions he has received and determining how many engineer units he will have and when and what their capabilities are and what differences there may be in engineer support during the preparation phase and the combat phase. He notes what missions have been planned at front level.
-- 3. Once the engineer chief has clarified the engineer instructions he can report the commander on the engineer missions and capabilities and give suggestions to the commander on the use of engineer troops to support the army operation. The chief of staff or perhaps the commander himself will brief the chief of engineers of the clarification of the operational mission and will issue the preliminary operational instructions. The outcome of the clarification determines the principle measures that must be done immediately. The clarification of the operational mission will give the location of the main attack direction and sector, the penetration area, the width of the attack area, the combat grouping of the army etc. From this the chief of engineers will know where the bulk of engineer support must be concentrated and the number of forces in each echelon etc. This gives the engineer an idea on how to group the engineer units to support the operation. At the same time the commander will give a brief outcome of his clarification and the chief of engineers will give the chief of staff or commander the instructions he has received from higher headquarters. He gives the locations, status, capabilities, experience etc of the engineer units. The commander then knows the status of his engineer forces and what they can do in support of the operation.
-- 4. Then working in parallel with the chief of engineers and the other staff sections, the commander makes his estimate of the situation which includes analysis of the enemy, own forces, adjacent forces, terrain, political situation etc. and the chief of engineers participates in this process by presenting suggestions on the combat employment of engineer forces and means. In order to do this he must make first his own estimate of the situation focused on the engineer factors affecting the conduct of the mission. At The same time he has to issue his own preliminary instructions to the engineer troops telling them what must be done immediately. In many cases the tasks overlap. He must coordinate activities. In other cases when the decision has not yet been made units are already moving forward and they may need immediate engineer support both on their routes and in the new assembly areas. So the initial engineer instructions take care of measures that the engineer must organize immediately.
The suggestions of the chief of engineers to the army commander on the employment of engineer forces and means focus on the following three issues: 1. the composition of own engineer troops and status of engineer supplies and equipment and capability to do engineer work. 2. the assessment of the enemy forces on the basis of engineer factors including the terrain itself, the enemy defensive measures and what they have done to and with the terrain. This is done on the basis of the engineer reconnaissance. It concerns the enemy engineer preparation such as type of defense line, level of preparation, type of engineer work, location, characteristics, and type of minefields and obstacles, nuclear fougass and how to defuse them. He reports on the specifics of rivers in enemy area including the current, banks, depth, bottom character, fords and crossing and what kind of engineer equipment can and cannot be used. He gives specific information on defiles, narrow areas, bottlenecks and coastlines. He provides the commander with information on enemy and what he has done to the terrain. Then 3rd he makes suggestions to the commander on the grouping of engineer forces and means and their combat employment and missions during the offensive.
-- 5. The army commander makes the decision and assigns the missions to the combat forces. The army commander's decision is based in part on the same suggestions the chief of engineers gave him. Now in the decision those suggestions come back as assignments to the engineers.
-- 6. The chief of engineers now must complete his clarification of the mission based on the total information, especially the commander's decision. He then makes the final estimate of the engineer situation and makes his decision on engineer issues.
-- 7. The army staff conducts planning of the operation and the engineer staff participates in that plus plans the engineer aspects. The engineer must not only make the engineer plan but also contribute to other special plans such as the maskirovka plan, the plan to repel the enemy attack the reconnaissancenaissance plan, the plan for airbase construction and the plan for relocation of the command posts.



Items in the Plan of Engineer Support

The map shows most of the items of engineer support. Other items are in the tables and some in the instructions issued the the engineer.

The plan can be considered in six sections. The first is engineer support tasks during the preparation phase. This describes what the engineers will do and who will do it. This always includes reconnaissance and also support for SSM brigades and preparation of CP's and maskirovka and the others in the list of tasks. These are shown on the table. Then the engineer must distribute the forces and means to the tasks and plan the timing. The tasks done during the operation are more decentralized. There are also some more tasks not done during the preparation phase. The areas for doing them and the time are shown. at the division level they show engineer troops to sub-unit level ie companies and at the army and front level just the groups of units by type of unit. However if a more detailed table is desired the units can be listed with a separate column for each numbered unit and each can be mentioned by name.

The deployment area for all engineer units are shown and where they will relocate to during the operation. The method for relocation is shown on the map including their routes of movement. The organization of supply of engineer supplies and equipment is shown in tables.

Other elements include the areas for breakthrough, the number of lanes in enemy mine fields and nuclear mines, the river crossing areas for army and front In the division plan the river crossings are shown to the regimental level. The roads and column paths to the river crossing sites and for second-echelon units prior to reaching the line of commitment are indicated on the plan. The plan shows the enemy positions, the terrain areas of interest, the enemy intention on counterattacks the boundary lines between units and the departure areas.

The enemy situation and the commander's decision in terms of missions and areas are shown and the grouping of forces. In the tables they show the front, army, and division organic units and the attached units. Another table shows the availability of supply of engineer equipment and how much is on hand, how much is used each day and how much arrives and is on hand at the end. This includes mines, explosives, prefab materials, equipment etc. Items shown on the graphic part of the plan include the operational formations the enemy and breakthrough areas the command posts of front and army and their relocation, the line of commitment of 2nd echelons. At the division level the plan shows more detail. The mobile obstacle detachments are used with the anti-tank reserve. The location of the anti-tank units is given in the artillery plan and there the line for the mine fields in front of them are given in a line. However the POZ is also used in some cases to cover the flank of an advance or the more specific lines against an enemy counterattack. The plan for the use of the POZ separate from the POZ is shown on the engineer map. This shows the width and depth of mine fields and their type and where the lanes will be. Lanes in friendly mine fields are opened by hand during the night before attacks. Lanes in enemy minefields are opened by mechanical means such as mine plows and explosives. In a table they show when and which lanes will be improved or widened and where the traffic control points will be.

For division river crossings the areas are shown in detail for regimental crossing sites. The information for calculations includes the combat composition of the formations and what changes will occur during the operation. They have specifics on which battalions do the work and the distribution of forces and the measures to put into action in a separate annex. Other measures are in the chemical protection plan. The division has space on the map to place the table of missions and tasks, but the army table is so large it is made into a separate document.

The table shows the aim for engineer support. The aim has three general elements; one is to create favorable conditions to use own means of destruction against the enemy. Two is protection against the enemy means of destruction and three is support for the advance at a high speed to include the creation as well as breaching of mine fields.

The first point includes such tasks as creation of positions for rocket units and command posts. The second is protection of forces by trenches and shelters and camouflage. The aim will include these three elements. It can be given in more specific terms including the names of units and location of specific obstacles and mines and rivers and the actual rate of movement desired.

The actual engineer work required in support of these three aims differs. For one it is improvement of positions, for another is a different kind of preparation and for the third it is work on movement routes etc. The engineer can see that for instance to support the high speed of advance he may need more road and bridge units in one area. Or he may have to concentrate engineer units for construction in another area. The tasks are developed to implement the aim.

The left column in the plan shows the tasks. It is divided in two parts preparation phase and during the operation. The first task in engineer reconnaissance. The task at army and front level is not given too specifically since it is accomplished by units which decide how to do the details themselves. It just gives the main elements and says what is to be collected and the time and space and units. The units will select who is to do it. At the division level the details are assigned to he units and they are told specifically what to look for and where and when and how.

The engineer reconnaissance is conducted by small groups as part of other reconnaissance or by engineer reconnaissance. They have four types of general reconnaissance. 1 is reconnaissance detachment, 2 is separate reconnaissance patrol, 3 is reconnaissance patrol, and 4 is combat reconnaissance patrol. Then there is also the ambush group. The names denote different size units. The reconnaissance detachment is largest, it is a company from the division reconnaissance. It can cover a sector 6-8 km wide and actually is made up of several patrols that cover the width of the 8 km sector. The reconnaissance patrol is a platoon or squad size. The engineer can be part of this. The reconnaissance moves 30-40 km ahead of the forces.

The separate reconnaissance patrol from the division or regiment is a platoon the engineer reconnaissance can be included. The reconnaissance patrol is a small part from the separate patrol or detachment. The combat reconnaissance patrol is from the combined arms company or battalion.

Separate engineer reconnaissance may be a engineer reconnaissance group which is not a large as a reconnaissance detachment. It can be platoon size, a platoon from the engineer battalion or the reconnaissance company of the combat engineer regiment. The engineer reconnaissance patrol is smaller. It is separate from the reconnaissance group. There are also engineer observation points for continuous observation. Not all reconnaissance is planned by the army. Some is given by specific guidance in the reconnaissance plan of the chief of reconnaissance and other is given in instructions given by staff to units.

Engineer support is given for fortifying the FUP areas. The troops need to be covered while part of the troops go to the border the rest of the forces deploy to the FUP areas. The distance of the cover force from the border is 5 km. The engineers must support the preparation of the defense line and cover in the FUP areas for first-echelon units and for this they use combat engineer units. The road and bridge units establish the roads between the areas. This takes 2 days at army level.

The engineer work in deployment areas for second-echelon and their FUP areas is usually worked on by the engineer position units which have the large earth moving equipment. They build personnel and vehicle shelters. The road and bridge units also work with 3nd echelon units.



Missions to units

SSM and SAM units have help from engineer units. They need more engineer support because their positions are large and there are several of them and the roads in their positions need to be well built. The infantry and tank use division units. The arty builds its own positions but may get help in mountain areas

The preparation of routes to support movement of second-echelon and SAM this is done by the road an bridge units. There are two types of roads. One is the permanent roads that will be used for supply and evacuation. These are built by the large engineer units of the rear services. They also have the rokad routes which are the lateral roads behind the first-echelon division, the second-echelon division and the second-echelon army areas. The other is the maneuver routes for the combat columns. These are paths that support the combat vehicles. They are simple routes prepared by engineer equipment at high speed. The road company can prepare 8-10 km a hour which is about the speed of movement of the vehicles. The dozers and graders just move along and clear a path and remove trees etc. The route is dirt for the cross country vehicles. So one company can support one column and a battalion can support a division and a regiment of the road construction brigade can support an army provided the area is average terrain not under direct fire of enemy. The roads are built to the deployment areas and up to the state border during the preparation phase. Then they are extended into enemy territory along with the attack.

The plan for engineer preparation of FUP areas shows how many army and front CP and main CP and rear points are needed. The preparation of defensive lines and mine fields especially in the initial period of war is important because the enemy can launch an attack while the troops are still preparing for the offensive. The likely enemy avenues of attack and favorable terrain are covered with more elaborate defensive prepared positions and obstacles. The troops are supported by engineer units.

The deceptive positions and assembly areas are in the maskirovka plan. This is not planned by the engineers. The deception plan is done by the operations directorate. In this plan they give the specifics of missions to the engineers. This is separate from the general plan. The overall deception plan shows what all units must do, including infantry, artillery, air forces, reconnaissance, radio etc.

There are two kinds of maskirovka. One is the defensive camouflage measures taken by all units to cover themselves and hide etc. The other is the active creation of deception by such things as the building of false positions by the engineer maskirovka units. So the maskirovka units are participating in the maskirovka plan and all units are doing their own local maskirovka too. Then other units may do such things as make false moves and open false lanes in enemy mine fields and mount false attacks etc.

Water purification is another engineer task. Where local surface sources are not available they dig wells. They purify, decolor, decontaminate, soften, and freshen the water. They may set priorities on use. Surface water may be for washing and underground water for drinking. They set up one water point for each battalion or four per regiment.

Preparation of engineer measures to eliminate consequences of enemy use of nuclear weapons. The engineers establish combined rescue units including engineer road and combat units, chemical decontamination units, medical units, and motorized rifle battalion. The rifle battalion will be designated by the operations staff and shown on the eng ineer plan. They set up one detachment in the engineer regiment. Also in each division they plan a unit and organize it, but do not call it out until needed.



Plan for Employment of Engineers

The chief of army engineer troops organizes the engineer plans for offensive operations on the basis of the army commander's concept in his decision, his instructions on engineer support, and instructions from the front's chief of engineer troops. This is done after an all-around clarification of the assigned missions and estimate of the situation.

The plan for engineer support of army offensive operations is the principal document of the army engineer staff. It is considered part of the army's plan for offensive operations. The engineer plan is prepared on a 1/200,000 or 1/100,000 scale map with written instructions. The plan is signed by the chief of engineer troops and the chief of staff of the army. It is approved by the army commander. The graphic part of the plan includes the following:
-- principal tasks of engineer support during preparation of operations;
-- principal tasks of engineer support during conduct of operations;
-- areas and times of conduct of these missions and troops assigned to accomplish them;
-- areas of deployment of engineer troops in attack departure (FUP) areas and their movements during conduct of operations;
-- organizing support and supply of troops in terms of engineer equipment, armaments, and materials;
-- brief description of enemy forces, means, and character of his likely (possible) actions;
-- operational formation (postroenie) of army troops and divisions in attack departure (FUP) areas, the immediate and long-range missions of the army, and the immediate, subsequent, and daily missions of divisions;
-- areas of breakthrough of enemy defenses;
-- lines of commitment of the army second-echelon into engagement;
-- command posts of the army in attack departure (FUP) areas and their relocation (movement) during the conduct of offensive operations;
-- army boundaries and boundaries between divisions;
-- likely (possible) assault crossing sites at water obstacles during the conduct of offensive operations;
-- likely lines of launching of enemy counterstrikes.

The following points are reflected in written instructions:
-- combat composition and groupings of army engineer troops and distribution of engineer troops amongst divisions, and elements of combat formations, and their distribution in terms of combat missions, and regroupment of engineer troops during operations;
-- availability and distribution of engineer armament and equipment in terms of different missions and among divisions;
-- composition of mobile obstacle detachments, movement support detachments, and engineer reserves;
-- measures on protection of troops against enemy mass-destruction weapons.



 
 

Figure 245 Distribution of Front and Army Engineers {short description of image}

 
 

GROUPING OF THE ENGINEER TROOPS DURING THE ARMY'S OFFENSIVE OPERATION

ENGINEER TROOPS COMBAT ENGINEER UNITS ROAD CONST UNITS PONTOON BRIDGE UNITS ASSAULT RIVER CROSS UNITS ENGR OBST BN ENGR MINE CLEAR BN CP CONST UNITS
ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORMATION CMBT ENGR REGT 104 CE BN 105 CE BN ROAD & BRG BN ROAD & BRG BN PTN BRG REGT 12 PTN BRG REGT ASLT CROSS BN 111 ASLT CROSS BN CP REAR CP
112 MRD (MAIN ATTACK)
113 MRD (MAIN ATTACK)
114 MRD
115 MRD
90 TD (AT TIME OF COMMIT)
SSM & SAM UNITS
ARMY ENGR SUPT
MOB OBST DET
ENGR RESERVE

 
 

Figure 246 Distribution of Front and Army Engineers

{short description of image}
 
 

Figure 246 GROUPING OF THE ENGINEER TROOPS DURING THE ARMY'S OFFENSIVE OPERATION

ENGINEER TROOPS COMBAT ENGINEER UNITS ROAD CONST UNITS PONTOON BRIDGE UNITS ASSAULT RIVER CROSS UNITS ENGR OBST BN ENGR MINE CLEAR BN CP CONST UNITS
ELEMENTS OF COMBAT FORMATION CMBT ENGR REGT 104 CE BN 105 CE BN ROAD & BRG BN ROAD & BRG BN PTN BRG REGT 12 PTN BRG REGT ASLT CROSS BN 111 ASLT CROSS BN CP REAR CP
112 MRD (MAIN ATTACK) 2 BNS 1 BN 1 BN 1 CO
113 MRD (MAIN ATTACK) 1 BN 1 BN 1 BN 1 C0
114 MRD
115 MRD 1 BN 1 BN
90 TD (AT TIME OF COMMIT) 1 BN
SSM & SAM UNITS PSN BN
ARMY ENGR SUPT # IN REGT + + + + + + +
MOB OBST DET 2 CO
ENGR RESERVE 1 BN 1 BN

 
 

Signal

 
 

Plan for Employment of Signal Troops

The following points are shown on the army signal plan map (1:200,000 or 1:100.00)
-- boundaries and missions of army and divisions;
-- command posts of army and divisions in the FUP areas and relocation of command posts during the conduct of the operation;
-- command posts of the rocket troops and artillery and air defense troops;
-- command posts of radio electronic combat troops, reconnaissance troops, engineer troops, chemical troops, etc;
-- areas of deployment of army mobile rear base and division rear bases, bases of rear services hospitals, sections of army's rear services rocket technical bases and other important installations of army rear services;
-- signal centers of the army' and divsions' command posts;
-- axis and directions of army's and divisions' wire communication system;
-- directions, axes, and circular paths of mobile communication means of the army and divisions;
-- centers and stations of army and division's field mail service;
-- areas of deployment of signal supply and repair units of the army.


 
 

Maskirovka

 
 

Maskirovka PLANS

The aim of maskirovka is to insure surprise strikes on the enemy, to confuse the enemy about the targets, place, and time for these strikes, to maintain secrecy of the real intentions, and to show deceptive groupings to the enemy. The army is executor of tasks specified in the front maskirovka plan. Basic forms for achieving maskirovka aims include:
-- secrecy;
-- showing deceptive actions;
-- spreading disinformation.

Special effort must be made to deceive the enemy about the location of rocket and artillery positions, location of main striking group, and location of command posts.

Readers should consult the section on Maskirovka in the Front planning section and the separate lectures on maskirovka.

 
 

Defense Against Mass Destruction Weapons at Army Level

Organization of Protection of Forces and Means and Rear Services from Enemy Use of Nuclear Weapons

The constant possibility of enemy use of mass destruction weapons makes it necessary to protect the forces and rear service targets. Since the enemy has this capability, the army must insure that it is protected from their use. Protection of forces against this is the most important aspect of combat support measures. The aim of protection is to reduce the enemy forces that can use nuclear forces, weaken enemy capability. This means deliver a nuclear strike on the enemy first to weaken the results of the enemy use of mass weapons. Then, if the enemy uses mass weapons, take measures to protect against them. The following measures are used to protect forces from the effects of mass destruction weapons.
-- determine results of enemy use of mass weapons and assess results;
-- direct protection against mass weapons, that means prepare engineer measures and build engineer facilities, etc;
-- if enemy uses mass weapons, take measures to restore combat effectiveness.

Protection of forces against enemy mass weapons is organized on the basis of the following points:
-- the concept of the operation and the army combat mission in the operation;
-- capability and intention of the enemy to use mass weapons - how enemy will use them;
-- quantity and capability of forces and means of protection in the army
-- engineer defense protection of locations - how locations help in the protection like forests and cover natural conditions;
-- how much time they have for commander for organization of protection;
-- conditions of weather and time of year.

The basic organizer is the army commander. The basis is the operations directive of the front commander, instructions on protection against enemy use of mass weapons, and army commander's decision and his instructions on protection. The staff and chiefs of services and special services participate in the organization of protection of forces and rear.

The commander's instructions to his staff on this subject include what and how the staff themselves will do the work of preparation on defense, while the instructions from the army headquarters to the divisions and others are on what they will do. The instructions are issued by the chief of operations directorate in the name of the commander. The army staff and chiefs of services together prepare the organization of protection of forces from mass weapons. The staff is the basic organizer. They work in interaction with the various chiefs in planing and organizing the work for protection of forces. The staff controls the execution of the missions for protection of forces. They have the following documents:
-- operations plan and operations directive;
-- plan for special forces and combat arms plan have sections for arms and for the services and subordinates.

The measures are also in the plan for protection of forces.
The instructions of the army commander have the following points:
-- what is the combat formation what is the main axis and what missions where and when to concentrate the forces for protection against mass weapons;
-- level of preparation of engineer works in the FUP areas and during the operation including positions for rocket forces and air defense and command post and reserve and second-echelon all mentioned in this section;
-- missions for chemical, radiation, and biological reconnaissance;
-- the order for dispersion of forces and means and use of natural and artifical cover;
-- organization of operational maskirovka with the aim of increasing protection against the enemy's use of nuclear weapons;
-- designation of forces and means for restoring combat effectiveness and for liquidating the results of the enemy's use of chemical or neucear weapons;
-- time for participation and axis of operation of the special detachment for rescue and liquidation of nuclear effects, including the engineer, chemical and medical components; What rescue detachment and when and where and what composition and how they will operate in general and how the engineer units for protection will operate.
-- what documents will be prepared discussing the protection of troops and what time they must be prepared by the staff, and when they should be dispatched to subordinates;

The instruction is written by chief of operations and commander approves and sends to chiefs of combat arms, special troops, and services.


Plan for Protection of Forces and Means

This is the basic document prepared by the army staff. It has the following parts:
-- the title and heading;
-- the aim;
-- main missions to be accomplished;
-- designation of forces and means to accomplish all tasks;
-- designation of individual personnel responsible for accomplishing each task.

The plan is prepared in three parts. The first part describes the missions andmeasures to be taken prior to the beginning of the operation. The second part specifies the missions and measures to be accomplished during the operation. The third part gives the missions of troop control. The plan is signed by the chief of the operations directorate,the chief of chemical service and chief of staff. It is approved by the army commander.



Basic Mission of Radiological - Chemical Reconnaissance

The chemical reconniassance units perform the following tasks:
-- conduct of radiological/ chemical reconnaissance on the axis of the main attack;
-- conduct reconnaissance of basic and alternate assembly areas for rocket and arty and CP and rear services and second-echelons;
-- perform reconnaissance for the line of commitment of the second-echelon, and for the entire zone of the offensive and alternate assembly areas;
-- conduct detailed reconnaissance on the narrow main attack axis and where the second-echelon goes into combat and where the reserve is located; when a division moves they reconnaissance the route of movement as well a line of commitment;
-- reconnaissance of the zone or region of damage in the interest of the movement of the rescue detachments;
-- reconnaissance of areas for air assault landings;

For each reconnaissance unit or sub-unit and group or detachment they specify the zone and route and responsibility. Radiation and chemical reconnaissance is a part of chemical support measures. It is organized by the chief of the chemical service, who is responsible for its accomplishment. However, the army staff also participates in the details, especially the chief of reconnaissance since reconnaissance is a general aim of the headquarters. Nevertheless, control of the chemical reconnaissance forces is done by the chief of chemical troops. The data received by chemical reconnaissance is used for improving the commander's decisions when he decided on the axis and regions for operations. Reconnaissance is also to enable the chemical troops to fulfill their mission. They must also provide special decontamination and liquidation of the results of the use of nuclear and chemical weapons. This means mainly the support of the movement of the special decontamination and rescue detachment and provision of special control along with the engineers and medical forces.

Liquidation of Results of Enemy Use of Mass Destruction Weapons

Liquidation of consequences is the restoration of combat effectiveness of troops and rear services and also the creation of good conditions for the continued accomplishment of the missions by the forces. The aim of liquidation and restoration of combat capability includes the following measures:
-- forecasting the radiation, chemical and bacteriological conditions in regions;
-- reconnaissance of areas of destruction and contamination;
-- giving helping work and cleaning and evacuation of personnel and combat equipment from the regions of destruction;
-- special and full decontamination of forces;
-- repair of roads for maneuver and creation of conditions for engineer reconstruction;
-- open passages in the contaminated regions and bypasses repair the damaged bunkers and shelters and evacuate people;
-- fire fighting and control of fire in regions and prevent the spread of fire;
-- disinfection, degassing and de activation of equipment and personnel;
-- purify water and food;
-- control of epidemic against enemy use of bacteriological weapons.



Missions of Forces that Participate in the Liquidation of the Consequences of Enemy Mass Destruction Weapons

Various units participate such as chemical, engineer, medical, and combined arms.
These include engineers to perform the following tasks:
-- reconnaissance of damage in zone of destruction and fires and where dams have resulted in flooding;
-- repair and rebuild roads;
-- support of movement into areas by the rescue services by opening passages;
-- purify water.

Chemical forces fulfill following missions:
-- recon for radiation and chemical;
-- special and full decontamination of forces;
-- disinfection, degassing, and dis-activization.

Medical units perform the following tasks:
-- help to wounded and sick and medical support for casualties;
-- reconnaissance for bacteriological contamination;
-- taking measures for quarantine;
-- struggle against illness and epidemics.

The combined detachment for rescue service is organized according to the plan and then receives its mission after enemy use of mass destruction weapons. It is organized in two ways. One way is to actually establish it ahead of time and its component units are assembled in one location ready for immediate use. The second way is to organize it on paper and all participating units are designated, but they are not assembled. They continue to do their usual work in various places. They are assembled when needed after enemy use of mass weapons. In the detachments they have the following sub-units; one motor rifle company or up to a MR battalion, a chemical unit, engineer units, road construction or combat engineer unit, and medical units.


 
 

Army Rear Service in Offensive Operations

 
 

Composition, Missions, and Capabilities of Army Rear Service Units and Installations

The army's rear service is organized in the form of a mobile establishment so that it may quickly and effectively meet all of the army's material requirements during the conduct of the operation. It is a relatively strong establishment with 7,000 personnel and 2,500 vehicles. The composition of the army's rear service includes the following elements:
-- army material support brigade;
-- rocket mobile base;
-- separate road construction and traffic battalion;
-- separate bridging company;
-- armored vehicle evacuation battalion;
-- motor vehicle evacuation company;
-- separate engineer repair and evacuation company;
-- medical units;
-- veterinary detachments;



Missions of Army Rear Service

Rear service support is a number of measures taken on organization of rear service, preparing and using communication routes and transport means, material, technical, medical, and other types of troop support and services. Missions of the rear service are as follows:
-- providing troops with all types of material means, timely establishment of material reserves and maintaining the stock of material reserves at prescribed norms and their constant transportation to the troops;
-- preparing the supply routes and supporting the operation of supply routes and transport means and organizing traffic services on army supply routes;
-- collecting and evacuating damaged vehicles and repairing damaged vehicles when the army is reinforced (given) repair units;
-- providing medical assistance (aid) and treatment of wounded and sick; evacuation of wounded and sick to front medical bases; conducting antiepidemic measures and taking measures on hygiene and preventive medical service in the army;
-- organizing protection, defense, and security of rear service targets and maintaining order in the army's assigned service area;
-- providing quarters and veterinary support and exploiting captured material.

The rear service is controlled by the army commander through the deputy army commander of rear service and his staff, the deputy army commander for armaments and technical services with staff, and chiefs of branch of arms and services who are directly under the army commander. The following services are directly under the army's chief of rear services:
-- foodstuff supply service;
-- POL supply service;
-- clothing supply service;
-- medical service;
-- veterinary service;
-- military communication;
-- quarters and housing section;
-- military commercial establishment.

The following services are directly under the army deputy commander for armaments and technical services:
-- rocket and artillery armament;
-- armored and motor armament;

The following services are directly under the army commander:
-- engineer service;
-- chemical service.

The area of army's rear service in the departure area for the attack (FUP area), in which the rear service elements will deploy, is specified by the chief of front rear service. The boundaries of the army's rear service area are as follows:
-- on the flanks - the boundaries with adjacent armies;
-- at the rear - the boundary of the front's rear service area;
-- at the front - the lines of first-echelon division depots.

The rear service of the army and the division are fully mobile and relocate behind the advancing forces and conduct the supply of troops.



Organizing the Army's Rear Service in Offensive Operations

Organizing the rear service in an offensive operation consists of a series of measures taken by the army commander, chief of rear services and his staff, and other related elements to insure uninterrupted and effective rear support service during the operation. The most important measures are as follows:
-- making the decision by the deputy chief of army commander for rear service on organizing and planning rear service support;
-- conduct of measures on preparing, deploying, and positioning rear service units and installations during the preparation of the operation and their relocation during the operation;
-- assigning missions to rear service units and installations;
-- all-around support of the troops;
-- interaction (coordination) of rear service support;
-- continuous and sustained control of the rear service and continuous communication;
-- continuous control of execution of given orders and instructions.



Planning Rear Service

Planning of the rear service in army offensive operations is conducted on the basis of following:
-- the directive of the front's chief of rear services on rear service;
-- the decision of the army commander for the operation;
-- the decision of the deputy army commander for rear service (chief of the rear service) on organizing rear service support;
-- information (data) about the volume of material reserves, number and composition of our own forces, etc.

A unified plan is prepared for the operation with or without the use of nuclear weapons. The plan is organized in terms of the army's missions during the operation. Support measures during the conduct of the immediate mission (during the first two to three days), are worked out in more detail. The annexes to the plan such as the supply of the material means, support of desants, regrouping of forces, etc. are also prepared.

The army's rear service support plan is part of the plan of the operation. The rear service plan fully contains all elements required in troop control documents. The plan must reflect the important issues in a condensed form. The plan should be organized consistently with the concept of the operation and the army's missions. The main effort of the rear service must be concentrated on the support of the grouping of forces conducting the main mission. The plan reflects rear service support measures conducted by the deputy army commander for rear services and service elements directly under his control. The plan also reflects support of the troops by ammunition and equipment (in terms of units of supply measurement and weight), because the chief of the rear service is responsible for their timely delivery. Supply of troops with rockets and their transportation by special transport means, as well as technical support of armament, armored vehicles, motor and tractor, and other equipment are reflected in separate plans of the chiefs of related services who are not under the deputy commander for rear services. The plan of army rear service reflects the following:
-- area of responsibility of army rear service;
-- principle tasks of rear service;
-- composition of rear service;
-- redeploying rear service while preparing the operation and relocating it during the operation;
-- army communication routes and their restoration in case of destruction;
-- material support of army troops;
-- medical support of army troops;
-- protection, security, and defense of the army's rear service;
-- organizing the control of rear service and rear service control points in the departure area and its relocation during the operation;
-- army's attack sector and its missions, areas of deployment of the important elements of the army's combat formation in the departure area;
-- rear service control points and rear service elements of divisions in the departure (FUP) area.

The army's rear service support plan is prepared on a 1/200,000 or 1/100,000 map with written instructions, or it is prepared in written form with a map annex. The plan is signed by the deputy army commander for rear service (chief of the rear service) and his chief of staff. It is cleared with the army's chief of staff and approved by the army commander.



Establishment of the Army's Rear Service in Offensive Operations and its Relocation During the Operation

The establishment of the rear service is a series of measures on creation (stockpiling) of material and technical reserves, their distribution to troops, employment of rear service forces and means, and creation of conditions for uninterrupted supply to the troops of material means during the operation. The establishment of the rear service includes the following:
-- preparation of rear service units and installations for action and work;
-- deployment and relocation of rear service units and installations;
-- measures on protection of rear service targets against mass-destruction weapons, providing for their defense and security.

The rear service is established in accordance with the commander's decision for the operation and the conditions of the situation. Organization of rear service is tailored in compliance with the grouping of forces and means. Preparation of rear service units and installations for action and support of troops during operations is achieved through augmentation of rear service units and installations with personnel, equipment, and material means; conduct of combat, political and special training, and preparation of rear service equipment for operation.

Preparation of the rear service is conducted during peacetime, at the beginning and during the conduct of the war. In peacetime measures are taken on maintaining constant combat-readiness. At the beginning of the war preparation of rear service includes measures on bringing rear service units and installations to the state of full combat readiness. During the war measures are taken to insure uninterrupted supply of the troops.



Requirements of the Army for the Principal Types of Material Means in Offensive Operations, Volume of Reserves, and Their Echelonment

The expansion of the scope of the army's operation, increasing number of technical equipment in the army and their intensified use increase the consumption of material means in troops and complicate the support of the troops. The army's requirement for material means is determined on the basis of its consumption during the preparation and conduct of the operation, as well as the amount of material reserves planned to be maintained at the end of the operation. The consumption of material means depends on the scope of the operation, character of combat action, number of personnel in the army, terrain and weather conditions, time of the year etc. At the end of the operation the material reserves must be replenished so that the army can initiate the subsequent operation. The requirement for POL constitutes 10-40% of the total weight of the army's material means. The expenditure of ammunition in battle without the use of nuclear weapons is high. During the first day of the operation the expenditure rate of artillery rounds reaches 1.5-2.5 units of fire. The expenditure of ammunition in battle without the use of nuclear weapons is 1.5 times more than in operation with the use of nuclear weapons.



Organization of Control of the Rear Service, Composition of the Army's Rear Service Control Points

Control of rear service is part of troop control and includes control of action of rear service units and services and installations directed toward timely and fully support the army troop with material means. Rear service control should provide the following:
-- maintenance of high morale of personnel;
-- constant readiness of the rear service for continuous support of troops;
-- planning and organization of rear service support;
-- assignment of missions to rear service units and installations;
-- interaction regarding rear service support;
-- continuous control of the accomplishment of given orders and instructions;
-- establishment of uninterrupted communication of the rear service.

In modern conditions, the rear service must be firm, uninterrupted, and flexible and should provide the following:
-- timely deployment of the rear service units and their relocation;
-- continuous supply of material means;
-- quick restoration of communication routes and damaged equipment;
-- timely medical support;
-- effective use of rear service forces and means and their maneuver;
-- taking measures on protection, defense, and maintenance of the rear service.

Firm and reliable control of rear service in a modern operation is possible when controlling elements of the troops and of the rear service both fully know the principles of the conduct of operations, forms of rear service support of modern means of combat, and their impact on the rear service. Control of rear service and support of army troops is conducted by the commander himself through his staff, his deputies for rear service and for technical affairs and armament and their staffs, as well as through chiefs of engineer, chemical, and other services. The commander is fully responsible for the rear service support of the army troops.

Control of rear service is exercised from the rear service control point and is conducted by the deputy commander for rear service. The following are positioned in the rear service control point:
-- rear service staff;
-- branches and services providing support to the troops;
-- control elements not integrated into the command post.

The rear service control point is established in a place from which uninterrupted control of rear service and communication with the command post are achieved (10-15 km behind the command post). Relocation of the rear service control point is conducted only with the permission of the army commander in line with the relocation of the command post.

When the rear service control point becomes out of commission, control of the rear service is temporarily conducted by the head of the rear service operational group attached to the command post or by the commander of the army's material support brigade. The responsibility may also be delegated to the rear service of one of the divisions.

The rear service signal battalion deploys close to the rear service control point and provides communication for the rear service control point with other necessary organs and establishes the signal center of the rear service control point. The signal battalion is composed of two radio and two telegraphic and telephone companies. The battalion by its organic equipment can establish the signal center of the rear service control point in two locations simultaneously with providing radio and radio relay communication. Therefore, the battalion is capable of establishing radio and radio relay communication from the rear service control point to the army's large units and units and to the rear service units from two locations.



 
 

Figure 247 Echelonment of Material Reserves in the Army {short description of image}

 
 

Figure 247 Echelonment of Material Reserves in the Army

Ammo (units of fire) POL (refill) Rations

(days)

Location Inf. Arty & Mtrs Reactive Arty. Tank Air Defense Gas Diesel
Total in the Army for 6-7 days) 1.15 1.3 1.3 2.65 2.5 2.16 3.1 15
In Army (2 days) 0.15 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.46 0.7 2
In Troops (4-5) days) 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.25 2.0 1.7 2.4 13
In Div. depots 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.5 2
In units 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.75 1.5 1.4 1.9 11

 
 

Figure 248 ARMY REQUIREMENT FOR MATERIAL MEANS DURING OFFENSIVE OPERATION {short description of image}

 
 

Figure 248 ARMY REQUIREMENT FOR MATERIAL MEANS DURING OFFENSIVE OPERATION

Ammunition (units of fire) POL (refills) Rations (Daily)
Infantry Artillery and Mortar Tank Air Defense Gas Diesel
Expenditure in the operation With the use of nuclear weapons 1.0 - 1.6 2.1 - 3.2 2.4 - 3.2 3.5 - 5.6 7 - 8
Without the use of nuclear weapons 1.8 - 2.0 1.5 - 5.0 3.0 - 4.0 1.4 - 2.4
To establish reserves at the end of the operation 1.15 1.3 2.65 2.5 2.16 3.1 15
Total requirements for operation With the use of nuclear weapons 2.15 - 2.75 5.05 - 5.85 22 - 23
Without the use of nuclear weapons 2.95 - 3.15 5.8 - 6.3 5,65 - 6.65

 
 

Figure 249 ECHELONMENT OF MATERIAL MEANS IN FRONT

{short description of image}
 
 

Figure 249 ECHELONMENT OF MATERIAL MEANS IN FRONT

Location Ammunition POL (refills) Rations

( daily )

Inf Arty Tank Air Def. Air Motor gas Diesel Aviation
Total in front

Including:

2.15 3.25 5.25 5.75 17.5 5.15 7.65 15 28-29
In troops 1.0 1.0 2.35 2.0 -- 1.7 2.4 -- 13
In army

(2 days)

0.15 0.3 0.4 0.5 - 0.45 0.7 -- 2
Air army reserves 1.75 -- -- -- 17.5 3.0 3.5 7.5 21
In front forward bases 0.22 0.45 0.6 0.7 -- 0.6 1.0 -- 3 - 4
In front rear bases 0.78 1.5 2.0 2.55 -- 2.3 3.5 7.5 10

 
     

   {short description of image}  
 

SOVIET VOROSHILOV ACADEMY LECTURES
HANDBOOK FRONT OPERATIONS

 
 

CHAPTER SIX

TROOP CONTROL DOCUMENTS - PART TWO


 
 

IV. FRONT HEADQUARTERS


 
 

Operations

The operations directorate prepares operational directives and plans and serves as the central coordinator for all the other directorates in their troop control functions. This section contains the documents received by and prepared in this directorate. The section also includes a brief recapitulation of the basic concepts about the organization and planning of combat discussed in more detail in chapters One and Four.



Main Measures for Preparation of Front Offensive

The following are the principal component activities performed as part of preparation for an offensive operation.
-- making the decision and planning the operation;
-- conveying missions to the troops and organization of interaction;
-- preparation of attack staging areas, command posts, and signal communications systems;
-- procurement and stockpiling of material supplies;
-- organization and conduct of political affairs;
-- organization of all types of supporting measures and troop control;
-- preparation of troops for combat action under whatever initial conditions may occur;
-- maintaining constant high combat readiness in troop units.



Initial Data Constituting the Basis for Preparation

The following information forms the basis on which the commander prepares the formation for combat with the assistance of the chief of staff and operations directorate.
-- aim of the operation and missions of the front in the directive from higher headquarters;
-- actual composition of troops and means;
-- assessment and evaluation of all situation information;

The front prepares the initial offensive operation during peacetime. Preparation for subsequent operations during war is conducted during the course of the first front operation. All measures related to preparation must be carried out with strict observance of secrecy. In actual practice the front plan will be prepared in the general staff as part of the over all war plan. The front's operations are an integral part of the theater strategic operation. In fact the Soviets have concluded that the scope of warfare has increased to such an extent that execution can no longer be conducted at the level of individual fronts, but must be centralized under one concept at the Theater of Military Operations (TVD) level. Consequently, should war break out the front will execute a plan that was meticulously planned months or years before. However, there will always be last minute adjustments required to account for recent developments and changes in the situation. The front will receive a directive from the STAVKA or the high command of the TVD. The commander will have to conduct the usual decision process to clarify his mission from this directive and make a thorough estimate of the situation. This process and its resulting documents is described in Chapter Four and illustrated in this chapter.



Operations Directive Received by Front/

The front will be alerted by direct electronic communication via code word message alarm signal. The specific orders will come in the form of an extract from the TVD operations order. The following is a sample of the kind of extract from the TVD operations plan and directive that might be received by the front. As a general rule this would have been prepared in great secrecy in peacetime with the close participation of the front commander and a few key staff personnel.



 
 

EXCERPTS FROM THE OPERATIONAL DIRECTIVE OF

THE WESTERN TVD HIGH COMMAND OF FORCES

 
 

The commander in Chief of the Western TVD has given a detailed operational directive to the Central Front at --- dated ---. The main points of the directive are as follows:

1. All forces of the Central Front secretly are to be brought to full combat readiness. The combat security areas, FUP areas, (starting areas) for the attack, assembly areas, artillery positions and rocket launching areas, command posts and other deployment areas must be occupied in accordance with specified plans. Depending on the situation, in areas designated in the plans, where the movement of troops cannot be concealed from the enemy, the troops must deploy in the specified areas under the guise of field exercises.

2. The following targets are planned for destruction by the initial strategic nuclear strike:
-- destruction of nuclear weapons, rocket launching means, nuclear armed aircraft of 2nd and 4th OTAK's, airfields and air bases, nuclear submarines, surface ships at sea and in ports, and nuclear depots.
-- destruction of the enemy's groupings of armed forces in their areas of deployment and mobilization, strategic reserves, concentration of large airborne units and means of their landing.
-- disruption of the enemy's state and high military command and control system by destroying the control centers of the political leadership of the enemy's coalition, destruction of the command and control system of strategic and operational echelons, destruction of the enemy's major signal centers, control centers of air forces, PVO, radar posts, directing radio stations, and enemy radio transmitting and receiving centers.
-- destruction of military economic bases of the NATO countries, destruction of industrial centers and targets, energy installations, large depots of forces and material reserves.
-- destruction of the enemy's communication routes, major railroad centers, seaports, civilian airfields, major bridges, hydrological installations on rivers, and canals.


3. In case the operation does not begin with a nuclear strike the following targets are to be destroyed during the course of the air operation in the TVD conducted by the air armies of the VGK, front aviation, naval aviation and PVO fighter aircraft.
-- destruction of nuclear weapons, nuclear depots, POL depots, ammunition, and material and technical supplies;
-- destruction of aircraft and flight personnel on the airfields;
-- destruction of the enemy's naval strike aircraft in their combat maneuver areas and at their bases;
--destruction of the command and control and guidance system of air defense aircraft and the state and military command and control system, automatic control systems, signal centers, radar posts, radio transmission and reception centers;
-- destruction and mining of flight pads and military and civilian airfields.


4. The Central Front attacks from the line Liberwalde - Rebau with the main attack in the direction Eisenach - Bad Hersfeld - Wetzlar - Simmern and Wetzlar - Rmelskirchen and the secondary attack in the direction Hildburghausen - Hassfurt - Wurzburg - Mosbach - Heidelberg - Bad Kreuznach and a third axis from Wolfsburg - south of Hannover - Bielefeld - Rmelskirchen and destroys the main forces of the NATO US V and VII Corps, German III Corps, Belgian I Corps and British I Corps in the area in coordination with a converging strike by the Baltic Front and at the end of D + 6 of seizes as its immediate mission the line Munster - Langenfeld on Rhine - Eiskirchen - Neubering motor circuit - Mosel River at Traben - Kaiserlautern. It then continues the attack in the direction of Submus - Luxemburg - Longwy - Sedan - Laon - Amiens - Abbeville and destroys the approaching enemy reserves in Holland and in Belgium and in France in coordination with the Southwestern front and at the end of D + 13 seizes the long range mission line of the North Sea coast from Middlburg to Calais to Boulogne-sur-mer to St Valery and the mouth of the Somme then back to Beauvais and Chambly.

The boundary with the Baltic Front passes through Lieberwalde - Friesack - 445 (E10o - 58o N 52o - 27o) - Hannover - Westfalen - Borken - Rhine at Quijk - along the Rhine river to the coast at Zierlezee.

The boundary with the Southwestern Front passes through 1848 (E 14o - 10o N 50o - 51o ) - 2762 (E 13o - 16o N 50o - 36o ) - Rebau - Hallfeld - 1634 - Hochmuhl - Landau in der Pfaltz - Merlebach - Verdun - Mourmelon le grand - Viarmee (E 2o - 18o N 49o - 10).

Subsequently the front must be ready for the next operation to participate in the occupation of northern and western France to the Spanish border.


5. The operation is conducted with full preparation to use nuclear and chemical weapons.

The boundary between the strategic initial nuclear strike and the initial nuclear strike of the front passes at a depth of 300 km west of the border between East and West Germany. Therefor the targets located inside this area must be planned for destruction by the front initial nuclear strike.

The front initial nuclear strike is conducted simultaneously with the initial strategic nuclear strike.

The operational situation and status of the front nuclear strike targets are to be followed closely and necessary changes made in the plan for the front's initial nuclear strike as required so that all nuclear weapons are aimed at currently active targets.

As the signal for the initial strategic nuclear strike is given, the air force aircraft are made airborne and at the specified time drop their bombs on planned targets.


6. To land one airborne assault division, 4 aviation transport divisions are allocated. Airborne assault landings in support of front objectives may be anticipated on D + 4 across the Rhine between Bad Kreuznach and Mainz and on D + 5 between Kerpen and Duren - Erftstadt. The specific missions of the airborne assault division, areas of operation, areas of landing, objectives, sectors of flight of military transport aviation, the method of air support in the landing areas, during the flight and during the landing operation and during the combat action are to be planned with interaction and coordinated action of the main command of the PVO of the Warsaw Pact, main command of military aviation forces and the front commander.


7. The Warsaw Pact PVO command additionally organizes the following measures:
-- transmission of air and cosmic reconnaissance information on the enemy's air and cosmic attacks to all air defense command posts through the warning systems (nets).
-- designation of the sectors of action for rocket troops and PVO fighter aircraft for the fronts, fleet, and Warsaw Pact forces.
-- during the maneuver of fighter aircraft for providing support for seaborne and airborne assaults, designation of the method of the use of airfields for action in full flight range.
-- the method of action of the air defense forces during the enemy's massive cosmic and air strikes, which will be determined by the commander of PVO of the Warsaw Pact.

8. The forces of the Northern Fleet and the Baltic Fleet, in addition to their principle missions, at the beginning of the combat action, completely blockade the Danish Coasts and launch strikes against combat actions and naval movements of NATO forces in the Northern Sea, British Channel and Atlantic Ocean and prevent the arrival of American reserves from overseas areas to the European coasts.


9. The material reserves of the operational formations, large units, and units must be supplied up to the designated norms.


10. During the movement of the second echelon forces from the interior of the country, their supply during movement across the Warsaw Pact countries' territories is being conducted in accordance with the pre-agreed written acts.


11. Inside the NATO countries there are a number of communist parties of Marxist-Leninist orientation and some of them are actively operational in support of the Warsaw Pact. During the course of the military action the declaration of progressive governments by these parties and the opening of interior fronts are anticipated. Such actions are to be supported and reinforced by effective military action and by the employment of airborne assaults.

The relation of the rest of the population is based on irreconcilable antagonism toward the Warsaw Pact, while some of the leftist parties and trade unions are indifferent to communism and to Soviet policies.


 
 

Clarification of Mission

The front commander will perform the "clarification of the mission even though he was involved in the creation of the original war plan.


Estimate of Situation

The estimate of the situation may take the following form:


Instructions to Chief of Staff



Initial Instructions (warning order)

The commander issues initial instructions on actions that must be accomplished immediately and gives general guidance to the subordinate commanders to prepare for impending action.

 
 

SAMPLE

 
 

Offensive operations are planned to be conducted in the near future; therefore I order the following instructions:

1. The plans of full combat readiness for operations and mobilization should be implemented.

2. All headquarters, troops and logistic installations, and mobilization and supply elements must be brought to a state of full combat readiness. The areas of combat security (the covering force), assembly areas (the which are occupied when alarm signals are given) and command posts are to be occupied. Measures on preparation for the attack should be put into practice in accordance with related plans.
-- (note: The above points are issued only when the troops have not been brought to the state of full combat readiness in the initial phase of the war.)

3. The augmentation of personnel, equipment, vehicles, weapons, ammunition and other supplies should be supplied up to established norms from supply sources. Personnel replacement depots and centers for supply of equipment and weapons should be established and activated in troop assembly areas. The equipment, weapons and vehicles which require repair should be repaired and made operational as soon as possible by troops and repair elements. If the equipment cannot be repaired by troops and maintenance facilities it should be evacuated to front repair installations.

4. The wounded and sick requiring a long period of treatment are to be evacuated to central, permanent hospitals. Medical facilities should be prepared to receive the wounded and sick.

5. Garrison property and stores and additional equipment should be turned into the related authorities and post equipment should be turned into local authorities. Logistic property sections should take necessary measures to implement this.

(The chief of staff familiarizes all chiefs of staff departments and chiefs of combat and combat support arms and services with the mission and advises them to make the necessary calculations and prepare the required documents to help the commander make his decision. They are also asked to prepare their suggestions on the best method of employment of their related arms and services during the operation. These will be reported to the commander. The chief of staff specifies the time the suggestions are to be reported to the commander.



 
 

Figure 251 Calendar Plan

ACTIVITIES OF COMMANDER AND ORGANS OF CONTROL OF FRONT ORGANIZATION, PLANNING, AND PREPARATION OF OPERATION

Measures Who participates
1. Clarification of mission Commander, C/S,

Political Dpty.

2. Initial Instructions Chief, Ops Dir.
3. Briefing to Chiefs acquainting them with the mission Chief of Staff
4. Estimate of the situation Commander, C/S,

Chiefs of arms and services

5. Making the Decision Commander
6. Reconnaissance on ground Commander, C/S,

1st Dpty,

others

7. Issuing Missions to Subordinate Commanders Chief of Ops. Dir., C/S,

Commander

8. Planning the Operation C/S, Chiefs of arms and services
(This begins with receipt of the mission (map work) and ends with report to higher headquarters.)
Plan of Operation Chief of Operations
A. Nuclear Strike Annex Chief Ops. Dir., C/S, Arty, C/S Air
B. Airborne Oper. Annex Chief Ops. Dir,

Chief of Air,

Chief Trans., others

C. Naval Amphib. Annex Chief Ops. Dir.,

Chief Naval Amphib.

D. Prep of FUP areas and routes Chief Ops Dir,

Chief Engr.

E. Maskirovka Annex Chief Ops. Dir.,

Chief Engr.,

Chief REC

F. Defense against mass destruction wpns. annex Chief Ops Dir,

Chief Chem.

Chief Engr., Officer from Rear Services

G. Supply of Hydrometerology Chief of Hydrometerology
H. Supply of Topogeodetic Chief of Topogeodetic service
I. Troop Control annex Chief Ops. Dir.,

Chief Signal

J. Radioelectronic Annex C/S, Chief Signal,

Air Commander

Chief REC,

Chief Arty.

K. Computer Center Annex Chief computer center
Signal Plan Chief of Signal
Reconnaissance Plan Chief Reconnaissance
Arty and rocket Plan Chief Arty.,

Chief Recon.

Air Army Deployment Plan Commander Air Army
Air Defense Deployment Plan Commander Air Defense
Engineer Plan Chief Engineer
Chemical Plan Chief Chemical
Rear Service Plan Deputy CO for Rear Service
Political Action Plan Deputy CO for Political
9. Organization of Interaction Commander, C/S

First Deputy

10. Preparation and move to FUP Areas Chief Ops Dir.,

Chief of Engr.,

Unit Commanders

11. Preparation of CP's C/S,. Chief Ops Dir.,

Chief of Signal

12. Preparation of signal Chief of Signal
13. Supply Depots and Material

delivery to units

Chief of Technical and Armament

Chief Rear Services

14. Organization Political work Chief Political Dept.
15. Organization Combat Support Chiefs Services, C/S
16. Organization Command System Chief Signal,

Chief Ops. Dir.

17. Preparation of Troop Units for combat action Unit commanders
18. Control and Assistance

to troop units

Commander, C/S.,

Chiefs of arms and services



____________________________________________

Chief of Operations

Chief of Staff

Figure 251 - Calendar Plan

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Duties of Front Commander and Staff

The commander's duties are described in detail in Chapter Four.

Suggestions of Front Staff Officers

The suggestions and recommendations presented by each principal staff officer are discussed in Chapter Four.



Making the Decision

The front commander's decision constitutes the basis for all measures related to preparation and conduct of the operation. The commander must concentrate all his talent, ability, foresight, and art to make a rational decision. This is achieved only through a clear understanding of the concept of the superior commander, a close and accurate study of the aims and missions of the front's operation, an all around assessment, and evaluation of the situation, and well formed operational forecasting.



Contents of the Clarification of the Mission

The clarification will focus on the following issues:
-- proper and accurate understanding of the front's aim and mission;
-- the role and place of the front in the TVD strategic operation;
-- missions of adjacent fronts, operational formations, and others;
-- conditions for interaction with adjacents.



Content of the Assessment of the Situation

The commander's assessment will enable him to reach conclusions about the most current possible status on the following subjects:
-- enemy forces;
-- friendly forces including adjacents;
-- terrain and geographic situation;
-- radiation, chemical and biological situation;
-- national and class composition of the population and other economic and political factors;
-- economic situation;
-- hydrometerologic situation, weather, season, daylight and other factors.



Organization of the Decision

Planning of the operation is conducted by front staff on the basis of the front commander's decision and his instructions. During planning all issues and details of the commander's decisions are thoroughly organized as follows:
-- sequence and form of execution of each operational mission;
-- effort of troops and consumption of supplies in each mission and on each direction of the attack;
-- method of coordination (interaction) among the troops during the mission;
-- issues relating to political and party affairs;
-- combat support measures;
-- troop control.



 
 

Front Commander's Decision



Operation Plan on Map

(We made extensive maps using Soviet methods and symbols for all activities from regiment to front - they are deposited in the Map Division of the Library of Congress)

When the plan of the operation is prepared in a graphic form (on the map) it is shown on a 1/500,000 or 1/200,000 scale map. The map-form plan shows the following:
-- enemy groupings of forces and means and the character of his likely actions;
-- operational formation (deployment) of the front forces in the FUP (staging--starting) area;
-- front's immediate and long-range missions, their contents, their depth, time of accomplishment, and speed of attack;
-- direction of the main and other attacks;
-- penetration areas to breakthrough enemy defenses;
-- missions and targets of nuclear weapons during the initial nuclear strike conducted by front rocket troops and the front air army;
-- the boundary separating areas of nuclear strikes delivered by strategic weapons and front means; directions of attacks and missions of armies (corps) showing times of their accomplishments and boundaries;
-- method and form of commitment of second-echelon troops into combat;
-- composition, missions, areas, and times of dropping (landing) of airborne and seaborne assault troops;
-- deployment of command posts of the front and armies at the beginning of the operation and their movement (relocation) during the operation;
-- boundaries with adjacent armies of other fronts and missions of these armies;

Moreover, the scope of the operation is shown on the map. All other information, calculations, and guiding data are described in written instructions.



Written Instructions on the Plan

Written instructions and details usually include the following. These are provided in either written statements or tables to accompany the plan.
-- assessment of the enemy situation, capabilities, and intent;
-- combat composition of the front and its capabilities;
-- correlation of forces and means;
-- aim and concept of the operation;
-- availability, time of delivery, and distribution of nuclear, special rounds, and material supplies;
-- distribution of forces and means;
-- distribution of aircraft sorties among missions and armies;
-- method of providing security for friendly troops during nuclear strikes;
-- method of conduct of attack preparatory, supporting fire, and other related instructions.



Written Plan

When the plan of the offensive operation is prepared in written form, the contents and order of their presentation are as follows:
-- deductions from the clarification of the mission and assessment of the situation;
-- aim and concept of the operation;
-- missions and methods of the use of nuclear and conventional means of destruction;
-- missions of first-echelon armies, missions of second-echelon troops, airborne and seaborne assault troops, reserves, and method of their action;
-- missions and forms of combat employment of rocket and artillery troops;
-- missions and methods of combat actions of the air army;
-- missions of air defense troops and methods of repelling enemy air attacks;
-- method of coordination (interaction) among troops;
-- measures for all-around support of the operation;
-- missions and methods of the conduct of party and political affairs;
organization of troop control and signal communication.



Plan Annexes

The annexes to the plans of front offensive operations include the following:
-- plan of the initial strike of the front;
-- plan for preparation and occupation of the FUP areas for the attack (staging--departure areas);
-- plan of operational Maskirovka;
-- plan of employment of airborne (seaborne) assault troops;
-- other plans and documents;
-- plan of political affairs.



Plan for FUP Areas

The plan should be prepared on a 1/200,000 scale map with a written annex and a graphic of the arrival of troops at FUP areas. On the map portion of the plan of preparation and occupation of the FUP areas, the following matters are graphically depicted:
-- location of permanent military posts (assembly areas occupied at the alarm signal by the troops) of formations and headquarters;
-- FUP areas (staging area and departure areas);
-- directions of arrival (movement) of troops to FUP areas;
-- composition of forces and means assigned to cover troops and directions of their approach (movement) to specific covering lines and positions;
-- system of engineering fortifications at lines, areas, and positions;
-- areas and lines of establishment of engineer obstacles and demolitions;
-- other details.



Written Plan for FUP Area

The written portion of the plan includes the following:
-- assessment of likely enemy actions and the most probable directions of his attack;
-- composition and mission of covering troops;
-- mission of troops in the main groupings of forces on repulse of enemy surprise invasions;
-- principal measures on engineer support in the FUP and approach areas;
-- engineer troops assigned to conduct such measures;
-- time and method of arrival (movement) of formations and units to the FUP areas.



Preparing the Troops and FUP Areas Prior to the Initiation of Military Action

Along with the decision and working out the plan of operation, a great deal of organizational work, requiring a lot of time, must be conducted by the commander, staff, and field command and control organs of the front. This involves the following:
-- preparation of generals and officers;
-- conveying missions to the troops and organization of coordination (interaction) among them;
-- conduct of reconnaissance;
-- conduct of combat, political, and operational preparation (training) of the troops and staff;
-- conduct of engineer work (establishment of engineer fortifications) in the FUP areas;
-- preparation and deployment of the rear services;
-- measures on preparation (readiness) of troop control and all-around combat supporting measures, in the interest of troop combat actions during the operation.



Explanatory Notes for the Plan

On the following pages are shown samples of the various written notes which are attacked to the operations plan map.

The first note is generally placed in the upper right section. It is a brief rendition of the estimate of the opponent's possible actions as stated in the commander's estimate of the situation and first paragraph of the operational directive.

The second note is the statement of the commander's concept and aim of the operation, again as found also in the operational directive.

The third note is the scope of the operation showing the following numerical indices:
-- width:
-- depth:
-- duration:
-- average rate of advance:

 
 

Combat Grouping of front

This table (note 4) shows how the forces and means will be organized into combat formation.

COMBAT GROUPING OF FRONT
UNITS/AVAIL D D + 4 D + 8 D + 11 TOTAL
1ST ECH CAA
TA
2ND ECH CAA
TA
SEPARATE DIVISION MRD
SEPARATE TD
ROCKET UNIT
AIR ARMY FIGHTER
F-BOMBER
BOMBER
ARTILLERY
ANTI-TANK
AIR DEF ROCKET
 
 

Figure 252 - Combat Grouping of the Front
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Distribution of Support Units

This table is used to display information on which support units will be distributed to each major formation. This sample is for the armies in the Soviet Western Group of forces.

 
 
DISTRIBUTION OF SUPPORT UNITS
ARMY & FRONT RESERVE ROCKET & ARTY AIR DEFENSE ENGINEER CHEMICAL
2 GA
NG A
20 GA
1 GTA
8 GA
3 SA
RESERVE DIVISIONS
FRONT MOB OBST DET
DIRECT CONTROL
 
 

Figure 253 - Distribution of Support Units

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Figure 254 Availability and Time of Use of Chemical and Nuclear Weapons

This table contains information on the distribution of chemical and nuclear warheads to the formations and in time by the front's missions.

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Figure 255 Distribution of Air Support

This table shows the distribution of air sorties available to the front.


DISTRIBUTION OF AIR SORTIES
UNITS COMBAT COMPOSITION TOTAL EMPLOYMENT INITIAL NUCLEAR STRIKE IMMED. MISSION LONG RANGE MISSION RESERVE
FIGHTER
FIGHTER BOMBER
BOMBER
TOTAL
AIR RECON
 
 

Figure 255 Distribution of Air Sorties

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Figure 256 Correlation of Forces Tables

These tables are used to tabulate the quantitative and qualitative data on friendly and enemy forces and their density on the ground. A separate calculation is made for each situation starting with the first day and proceeding to the completion of the long range mission. A total of eight correlations is provided in this sample.

 
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Measures to Protect Against Nuclear Weapons

This brief annotation to the frontplan map gives the following information:
-- safe line for fires (security distance);
-- warning signals;
-- method for marking own troops' locations.



Security Distances

The security distance of the attacking troops from the center of nuclear bursts depends on the following:
-- yield of nuclear rounds to be used;
-- types of bursts;
-- direction and speed of wind;
-- Time of day (during hours of darkness the light radiation of nuclear bursts is two times more effective than during the daylight hours).

The security distance of attacking troops (personnel in the open and in top-open APCs in the daylight) from the center of explosion (burst) is as follows:
-- 5 kilotons -- 2.5 km
-- 10 kilotons -- 3.0 km
-- 20 kilotons -- 3.8 km
-- 30 kilotons -- 4.4 km
-- 40 kilotons -- 5.2 km
-- 100 kilotons -- 6.5 km
-- 200 kilotons -- 8.2 km
-- 300 kilotons -- 9.4 km

If friendly troops are not warned the security distance for 5 and 10 kilotons increases 4.5 times, for 20, 30, 50, and 100 kilotons 3.5 times, for 200 and 300 kilotons 2.5 times. At night these distances double.



Warning Signals

These are code words given over radio and telephone.

Marking Troop Location

The troops carry colored marker panels, which may be laid out on the ground to show pilots the forward line of troops. Colored smoke may also be used.

 
 

Figure 257 Availability and Technical Condition of Tanks and Armored Vehicles

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Figure 258 Availability, Location, and Distribution of Material Supply

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Figure 259 Distribution of Artillery

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Fogure 260 Distribution of Frontan Artillery and Artillery of the VGK

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Figure 261 Signal Warning Plan

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Coordination (Interaction) Table

The organization of interaction in the offensive operation must provide for the coordination of the following actions during the accomplishment of assigned missions:
-- nuclear strikes of front rocket troops and front aviation;
-- strikes launched by the means of the Supreme High Command and adjacents;
-- actions of armies and formations organic to the front;
-- actions of combat and combat support arms and air forces in terms of objectives, times, and places. Action of front air defense troops are coordinated with actions of national air defense forces. The principal measures on establishment of all-around support in the interest of the combat action of the troops must be confirmed.

Coordination (interaction) in terms of targets between the strategic rocket forces, long-range aircraft, adjacents and front's means, can be established in three ways. One is by specifying the boundaries to separate the destruction areas of the enemy targets assigned to each one of them. The second is by assigning specific targets to each element in the same area. The third method is a combination of both forms can be used. The form to be used is determined by the general staff.



 
 

Figure 262 Table of Cooperation (Interaction)

TABLE OF COOPERATION OF FRONT FORCES IN OFFENSIVE OPERATION

ARMY ARMY ARMY ARMY 2ND ECH SSM AIR ARMY ARTY PVO ANTI-TANK ENGR RES CHEM RES AIRBORNE
FIRST NUCLEAR STRIKE
REPELLING ENEMY INVASION
CROSSING BOUNDARY + ENGAGE IN SECURITY ZONE
BREAK THROUGH ENEMY PREPARED DEFENSE AND ARTY - AIR PREPARATION
REPULSE ENEMY COUNTER BLOW
AIRBORNE ASSAULT
FORCE WATER BARRIER
ALERT & WARNING SIGNALS
SECURE COMMITMENT SECOND ECHELON
 
 

Figure 262 Table of interaction

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Format of Operations Directive

The following is the general format for a front level operations directive. This is prepared by the operations department on the basis of the front commander's decision, which in turn is based on the directive received from the higher headquarters (General staff of TVD). The staff prepares the operational directive after the front commander makes his decision. The operational directive is personally prepared by the chief of staff or the chief of operations. But the points related to the missions of combat and combat support arms and services of are prepared by the respective chiefs of departments and incorporated into the directive. For security reasons the full text of the operational directive is not sent to all to all operational formations and large units of combat and combat support arms and services. Each unit receives only the part directly related to it.

 
 

serial number

secret

copy number

OPERATIONS DIRECTIVE of ----- Front commander

-----------Command Post: map 1:200000 year 1984 time and date

1. The assessment given in the deductions made from the estimate of the situation.

2. The mission of the front and concept of operation:
- - the main enemy grouping to be destroyed
- - method and form of its destruction
- - the main and other axes
- - the operational formation of the front forces for the attack
- - character of maneuver

3. Missions of adjacent forces and boundaries with them:

4. Missions to subordinate troops:
- - first echelon combined arms and tank armies
- - second echelon armies
- - rocket and artillery troops
- - air army
- - airborne formations
- - air assault formations and units
- - seaborne assault forces
- - air defense troops
- - combined arms reserve
- - anti-tank reserve
- - engineer troops
- - chemical troops
- - other elements of the front's operational formation

5. Instructions on coordination (if required):

6. Instructions on support of combat actions (if required):

7. Time to be prepared for the attack.:

8. Troop control:
- - command posts
- - deployment of command posts and axes of relocation
- - deputies
- - signal communication

Signature of CO

Signature of C/S



 
 

Description of Content of Front Operations Directive


First Echelon Armies

When assigning missions to first echelon armies the commander explains the following points:
- - combat composition
- - attachment and supporting means
- - direction of main attack
- - immediate and subsequent missions
- - the number of nuclear rounds and conventional rockets to be used in the operation
- - enemy targets in the army sector planned to be destroyed by front nuclear means
- - the mission of adjacent armies the method of coordination with them and the boundaries.
- - the command post


Rocket Forces

The rocket forces of the front are instructed as follows:
- - the targets to be destroyed during the initial nuclear strike
- - the number and yield of nuclear rounds to be used against each target, the type of burst, time of readiness for fire, and time for issuing nuclear and conventional warheads.
- - measures for maintaining the constant combat readiness of rocket forces for launching nuclear strikes
- - the method and time of deployment of rocket forces for the strategic operation and their movement during the course of the operation


Artillery

During assignment of missions to the artillery the following points are included:
- - group organization of artillery
- - method of conducting preparatory fire
- - method of conducting supporting fire to support the attack of the troops


Air Army

The air army is given the following instructions:
- - tasks during initial nuclear strike
- - missions during participation in the air operation to destroy the grouping of enemy air force in the theater of military operations and to achieve air superiority
- - missions during preparatory fire
- - missions during the support of the attack of front troops
- - distribution of sorties to different missions
- - reconnaissance missions
- - etc.

Second Echelon Army

The mission of the second echelon armies includes the following points:
- - the concentration area and FUP positions and the method of their occupation and fortification
- - the areas of responsibility to fight against enemy air assault elements and reconnaissance groups and spies.
- - the methods of advance from the beginning of the attack
- - the areas or line of commitment, direction of attack, and possible missions
- - in addition to this the second echelon army is advised on the attachments it will receive at its commitment into combat and also the targets to be destroyed by front nuclear weapons and aircraft in the sector of its attack.

Air Defense

The air defense troops are given the following tasks:
- - the grouping of the troops and the logistic installations to be covered by the main effort of air defense means at the beginning and in the course of the operation.
- - the method for repelling enemy air strikes
- - the method of coordination with fighter aircraft and with national air defense formations and large units
- - the composition of standby (on call) means and troops
- - the methods and time of deployment of large units and units of air defense at the beginning of the operation and their maneuver during the course of the operation

Air Assault

The air assault elements are given the following instructions:
- - the composition of each air assault element
- - the areas and time and means of air dropping or landing
- - the combat missions during the operation in the enemy rear
- - the method of launching air and nuclear strikes on targets located in the landing zones and in the areas of operations of the air assault units.
- - the method of coordination with the air force and the main forces attacking from the front. the departure areas (to meet aircraft), the time of their occupation and time of readiness of each separate air assault element to be dropped or landed.
- - organization of command and control

Amphibious Assault

The mission to seaborne assault troops includes the following points:
- - composition and mission
- - the time, place and method of landing on enemy shore (coast)
- - the method of support by ships and air force during combat during landing and future operations.
- - the assembly areas, embarkation centers, the direction of approach to these centers and the time to be prepared for movement.
- - the method of providing security during embarkation and movement at sea
- - the method of coordination with naval forces, rocket units, air force and the main forces attacking along the coastline.

Combined Arms Reserve

The front combined arms reserve is given the following instructions:
- - composition and mission
- - areas of deployment and method of movement

Other Reserves

The missions assigned to engineer, chemical and other reserves include the following points:
- - composition and missions
- - the area of deployment
- - the method of movement during the course of the operation


 
 

Front Directive - blank sample


Operations Directive of the ________ Front

Command Post ... map 1:1,000,000, 1983 ed. 1330 1, 2, 1985


 
 

1. Enemy Situation

In accordance with the international crisis and the deterioration of the international situation, the enemy has secretly brought his armed forces to a state of full combat readiness, and is preparing a surprise invasion into the territory of the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

The ___ front is confronted by the NATO forces organized into _______ in its first echelon composed of __ infantry, mechanized and armored divisions, ___ nuclear SSM's, ___ nuclear artillery pieces, ____tanks, ___ artillery, ____SAM's and ____aircraft and helicopters.

In the second echelon, the _____ Corps is deployed while mobilizing German and Dutch units are in reserve with a total of ___ divisions, ___ nuclear SSM's, ___nuclear artillery pieces, ___ tanks,___ artillery, ___SAM's, and ___ aircraft and helicopters.

The enemy has deployed intermediate (medium range) strategic nuclear rockets in the theater against the _____ front.  The enemy operation is supported by ___combat aircraft including ___ aircraft with nuclear capabilities. The enemy will try to destroy the Warsaw Pact forces by a surprise and decisive attack and disrupt its preparation for the offensive operation.  If the Warsaw Pact forces are able to overtake the enemy in preparations and launch of the attack, the enemy is likely to conduct delaying action along several pre-prepared defensive lines mostly on main rivers to inflict the heaviest losses on WP forces and eventually destroy it in counter-blows.

The enemy's counter-blows are likely to be launched from the line: ___________ in the direction of ______________, and from the line: _________ in the direction of __________________.

After the arrival of main strategic reserves from the depth of his position the enemy is likely to launch a decisive counter- offensive.  The opposing enemy is capable of allocating up to ___ nuclear rounds in the initial NATO nuclear strike and to engage the targets in the area of the _______ front by which it can destroy _______ divisions and the detected nuclear weapons of the WP forces. It can also inflict losses to other important targets.  The enemy has a significant capability to conduct air operations.



2. Aim and concept of the operation

Exploiting the consequences and impact of the strategic nuclear strikes or the theater air operation, the ___________ front offensive operation is aimed at: destruction of the enemy's nuclear forces, inflicting losses on its air force and their airfields, its command posts, and its main forces and reserves on the ground. Then, following the artillery preparation fire, quick development of the offensive in the two directions _____________ and`___________________; destruction of the enemy main forces of ___________in the area ___, _____, _____, _____, ____; development of the attack in the directions of ______________and __________; seizure of the coast line _____________ on the ____ day of the operation; and blocking the maritime and naval traffic in the British Channel.



Concept of the Operation

Using ______ nuclear rounds with a total yield of _____ kt in the initial nuclear strike, the front destroys enemy nuclear forces and inflicts heavy losses over the main forces and the command posts of ______, ____ and _____ and the enemy`s immediate operational reserves, then by launching attacks along two ground and one naval direction with the main attack in the direction of _____________ by the _______________ Army and the __________, supporting the attack in the direction of south of _________________ by the ______________ and in the naval direction ________________ by the amphibious group.

Then by employing ____ nuclear rounds and the commitment of the _______ Army into combat and an amphibious action of the _____ from the _____ and the _______ from ___________ by sea, the front develops the attack in the directions: _________ and _____________; destroys the approaching enemy reserves and its nuclear weapons, air bases, and vital targets in the depth of the enemy area; seizes ____________ on the _____ day of the operation; and blocks the British channel to naval traffic. On the _______ day of the operation the commitment of the ______ on _______, an airborne assault brigade on the __________, and on _______ commitment of the ___________ south of __________ are anticipated. The _______ front will maintain a reserve of _____ nuclear rounds.

The operational grouping of the ________ front is in two echelons: in the first echelon from the right __________, ____________, and ___________: in the second echelon the __________________ Army. The __________ front combined arms reserve is composed of the ___________ and the __________________.

The amphibious group landing on _____________ consists of the __________________, and the _________________ in the first echelon; and the ____________ in the second echelon. The __________ is in reserve.



3. Adjacent Fronts

Our neighbor on the right, the ________________, have the mission of _______________________, and subsequently, ___________________. (A general discussion of the mission of the __________ may be added.) The ___________ will provide support for front amphibious landings in _________ and along the __________.

The _________ front, on the left, has the immediate mission of reaching the line ___________________, and subsequently the line _____________.

The boundary line with the ___________ front will be the line _________.



4.  Tasks for Subordinate Ob'edineniia and Soedineniia

A) ______________________________ reinforced with ________ advances from the line ______________ to launch the main blow in the direction of ____________ , to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area _____________, and at the end of the __________ day reach the line __________, and subsequently advancing in the direction of _________ to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and, at the end of the operation's ______ day, reach the line _______________.

Allotted for the conduct of the operation are __ nuclear, __ chemical and ___ conventional-rocket warheads.

The subsequent sites in the army's attack zone are destroyed by the front's rocket brigades.

On the right, the ______________ attacks in the direction of _________, ____, its immediate mission being to seize the line _____ and, subsequently, the line ___________. )

The boundary with this army is the line ____________.

On the left is the ___________ of the __________ front. Their main attack in the direction of ... , their immediate objective being the line ... and, subsequently, the line ...

The boundary with them follows the line _______.

Organize a close coordination with them in breaking through the enemy's prepared defense at the juncture of both armies during the artillery and aviation preparation and support them during the offensive operation as they fulfill their immediate and subsequent tasks.

Position the command post in the _____________ area, and the rear control post in the _____________ area.

B) ________________________(Designate units)

Advances from the line __________ to launch the main blow in the direction _________, to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area _____________ at the end of the ________ day reach the line __________. subsequently advance in the direction ____________ to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and at the end of the operation's ____________ day reach the line _______________. Allotted for the conduct of the operation are ___ nuclear, ____ chemical, and ___ conventional rocket warheads.

C) _______________________(Designate units) etc...

Advances from the line _______________ to launch the main blow in the direction _______________ to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area _______________, __________. At the end of the ________- day reach the line ____________. subsequently advance in the direction _______________ to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and at the end of the operation's _______ day reach the _______________. Allotted for the conduct of the operation are __ nuclear, __ chemical, __ conventional rocket warheads.

Conduct close coordination with the ___________ for seizure of __________.

D) (Designate units and supporting naval task forces). The Amphibious assault force will seize a landing area -------------, link with airborne and heliborne elements and take control of ---------. The initial assault landing will be at D + ___. The landing force will be supported by fire from naval task force ___. Air bombing strikes will be conducted at ____.

The landing force will assemble for the operation in the vicinity of _________. The ______________ will board ships there at ____. The ______________ will arrive in the vicinity of ____________ by sea from ___________.

Security from enemy air attack for embarkation, assembly, and movement toward Denmark will be provided by the _________.

Commander of the Naval Desant Group will coordinate directly with the commander of the Baltic Fleet and the commanders of the naval task forces providing support.

E) The Rocket Troops:  during the first nuclear strike are to destroy the enemy's nuclear means and nuclear stockpiles, air-nuclear forces, and destroy his main groupings, especially the groupings of tank troops; disrupt the enemy's military-state control system, such as command posts, means of communication and communications junctions, control posts and means of radioelectronic warfare; destroy his PVO; strike the enemy's rear sites and disrupt his economic potential.

Enemy sites are suppressed and destroyed in the following manner:  nuclear weapons - by a 10-kiloton air burst; a motorized infantry division or a tank division - by a 20-kiloton air burst; a control post or a nuclear stockpile - by a 100-kiloton ground burst; a communications junction, control post or PVO - by a 3-kiloton air burst; airfields and rear targets - by a 40-kiloton air burst.

-- launch preparation time is H-20, 20 minutes before launch time

-- time for allocating nuclear and chemical munitions is 3 hours. P-3 hrs.

-- time for allocating conventional munitions is 3 days.  Ch - 3 days.

-- conduct constant surveillance of the sites, which are to be destroyed by nuclear weapons, and refine the plan of the first nuclear strike..

-- insure the full combat readiness of the rocket troops and control means, and be ready to carry out combat tasks.

-- carefully organize the rocket-technical securing of the troops.

-- carry out the engineering preparation of the position areas, organize the camouflage of the combat units, and the protection of the rocket troops against mass destruction weapons.

-- organize the timely forward movement of the rocket troops during the offensive operation.

F) Artillery:

-- organize the following artillery groups in the ob'edinenia, soedineniia and units:

-- a) army artillery groups - 8-10 battalions.

-- b) division artillery groups - 4-6 battalions.

-- c) regimental artillery groups - 3-4 battalions.

The artillery, in the beginning, and during the course of the operation, fulfills the following tasks:

-- a) the suppression and destruction of the enemy's offensive nuclear weapons;

-- b) defeating the enemy during his invasion;

-- c) defeating the enemy while crossing the state frontier and during the battle for the enemy's combat security zone;

-- d) reliably defeat the enemy during the breakthrough of his prepared defense;

-- e) suppress the enemy during the air fire support of the attack;

-- f) assist the troops fighting in the enemy's defensive depth;

-- g) defeat the enemy's counterblow grouping;

-- h) support the fronts' troops in forcing water barriers;

-- i) destroy the enemy's artillery and mortar batteries;

-- j) cover open flanks, spaces and breaches in the combat formation;

-- k) support the commitment of the front's second echelon into the engagement;

-- l) the artillery density in breaking through the enemy's prepared defense is to be no less than 100-120 guns and mortars per kilometer of front; the duration of fire support is 30-40 minutes, and the expenditure of shells is .8-1 unit of fire during the attack's fire preparation.

-- m) the fire support of the attack is conducted by the consecutive concentration of fire (PSO), the artillery barrage (OV), and the joint employment of PSO and OV at a distance of 3-4 kilometers in the enemy's defensive depth.

G) The Air Army

During the first nuclear strike, destroy the enemy's nuclear weapons, nuclear stockpiles and air-nuclear forces; defeat the main groupings, especially tanks; disrupt the military's and state control, such as command posts, communications means and communications junctions, control posts and radioelectronic means; destroy his PVO; attack his rear sites and disrupt his economic potential.

Participate in the air operation to destroy the enemy's air grouping and securing air superiority (if it is conducted);

During the aviation preparation and support of the attack and the aviation accompaniment, suppress and destroy the enemy's offensive nuclear weapons, artillery, tanks, command posts, defensive strong points and crossing sectors located beyond the range of the artillery;

-- suppress and destroy the enemy's reserves;
-- carry out air reconnaissance of the enemy;
-- cover the troops and rear sites against the enemy's air attacks.

Air Resources are to be distributed in the following manner:

-- a) ________ regimental sorties for each day of the operation for the armies attacking in the main directions;

-- b)____ regimental flights for each day of the operation for the armies attacking in other directions;

-- c) ____ regimental sorties in the reserve of the front commander

H) Second Echelon Army

The _________________, artillery, SSM, PVO and helicopters.  These take up their positions at their jumping-off points in the areas of _____________.  Fit out the jumping off point for the offensive in the full engineering sense to protect the troops from the enemy's mass destruction weapons.

The army's zone of responsibility for combatting airborne landings, reconnaissance and diversionary groups are determined by ______________________.

From the beginning of the offensive the army moves up along the following seven routes:

-- Rte. 1 one division

-- Rte. 2

-- Rte. 3 army staff and staff units

-- Rte. 4 second division

-- Rte. 5

-- Rte. 6 third division

The army is committed to the engagement from the line _________ and launches its main attack in the direction of_________________ having as its immediate task the seizing of the line ________________; or, the army is committed to the engagement from the line ______________, with its main blow in the direction of _________________, so as to seize the line _______________.

When being committed into the engagement the army is reinforced by an artillery division and an anti-tank-artillery brigade, and is supported by three flights (sorties) by the aviation groups.  While being committed to the engagement, the army is supported by the front's nuclear weapons and an air army, and launches nuclear strikes against enemy sites so as to support the armies in its zone of attack.

I PVO Troops

Front PVO concentrates its main efforts for covering the main tank and motorized rifle groups of the ob'edinenie attacking in the main directions, the most important rear sites, as well as the covering of the front's troops in carrying out important tasks such as seizing the forward zone, airborne landings, forcing water obstacles, and repulsing the enemy's counterblows.

The fire system for the guided-rocket and antiaircraft troops of the front should be coordinated with the fire system of army and division PVO in accordance with a unified plan as to directions and combat methods of actions so that they are able to repulse the enemy's massed air attacks.

Organize the coordination of the guided rocket and anti-aircraft troops with fighter aviation and the PVO troops of the Warsaw Pact countries in seizing the jumping-off point and during the offensive, so as to repulse the enemy's massed air attacks.

Maintain the majority of the shock army's fighter aviation on duty at the airfields and, at threatening times, 1/6 in the air over the most important directions so that the area for intercepting the enemy aviation is within the bounds of our anti-aircraft fire.

Maintain all soyidineniia and units of PVO in full combat readiness and outfit the fire and reserve positions in their starting points for an advance, and be ready to repulse the enemy's massed air attacks.

Carry out the transfer of units during the offensive so that all PVO weapons are ready to repulse enemy strikes in carrying out the front's most important tasks.

J Airborne Landings

One airborne landing consists of the _______________ and the other of the __________________.

The starting points for the landings are ________________. The landing on _____________ takes place on _______, south west of _______. The landing in the enemy's rear takes place on the ______ day of the operation, in the area of _______, and are carried out by the ___________ military-transport divisions.

The mission of the airborne landing by the ____________ is to destroy the nuclear stockpile in the area of _______________ and the enemy's nuclear weapons in the area of ________________, and to seize bridgeheads across the _______ and to secure its forcing by the front's main forces on the march.

The mission of the ______________ is to seize favorable terrain inland from the amphibious landing zone and to secure the landing from attack by enemy reserves. The Division is to move promptly toward __________ and seize the capital of Denmark.

Before the landing, grouped nuclear strikes or intensive conventional bombings are carried out in the landing area and in the operating area of the military-transport aviation, so as to suppress and destroy the enemy's reserves and anti-aircraft defense.

For suppressing the enemy's PVO, fighter and fighter-bomber aviation, radioelectronic suppression means, tactical and tactical-operational rockets are employed.  Covering the troops and aviation in their starting points for the landing is carried out by the forces of the national PVO (strany) and of the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

Organize coordination with the troops of national air defense and of the Warsaw Pact countries in the jumping-off point for the landing.  During the flight coordinate with the front PVO, the air army, the troops of the front and long-range aviation.  During the landing and combat activity, coordinate with the armies of the first echelon, front aviation and long-range aviation. The departure area for the landing is _______, and the time for seizing the forward area is seven hours before takeoff.

Fueling and material supply areas for transport aviation are in _______________, _______________, _________________, etc.

The organization of landing control is carried out from a command post in the area of ________________, a forward command post in the area of __________________, and an auxiliary command post in the area of __________________.

K Combined Arms Reserves

The combined-arms reserves consists of the _______ and the ________, and they are to be prepared to carry out assignments which arise unexpectedly during the operation.

Billeting areas are as follows:  _____ at ____________, the ______ in _________,

During the offensive operation the combined arms reserve moves up along the following directions: _________along _________________

The distance between the combined-arms reserve and the troops of the first echelon should not exceed 70 kilometers during the operation.

L Anti-Tank Reserves

The ______ helicopter regiment, as part of the front's anti-tank reserve, is billeted in the area of _______________, to fight the enemy's tanks in the front's main directions of attack.  Direction no. 1 is __________________, and direction no. 2 is _____________________.

The anti-tank reserve is moved forward during the offensive operation in the direction of _______________.

M Front Engineering Reserves

The 75th engineer- sapper regiment, the _____________ engineering obstacle battalion, and the _______________ pontoon-bridging battalion, after carrying out their assigned tasks while preparing the operation, become part of the front engineering reserve and are ready for carrying out engineering tasks arising unexpectedly during the offensive operation.

The front engineering reserve is billeted in the area of _________________, and during the offensive operation, moves forward in the direction of __________________.

N Chemical Reserves

In the front's chemical reserve are included the 245th detached special decontamination battalion, the _________ detached chemical defense battalion, and the __________ detached decontamination battalion. The chemical reserve carries out chemical tasks arising unexpectedly while conducting the offensive operation. The chemical reserve is billeted in the area of __________________, and during the offensive operation, moves up in the direction of ___________________.



5 Front Troop Control:

The command post is in the area of _________.

The forward command post is in the area of __________________.

The rear control post is in the area of ___________________.

The auxiliary control post is in the area of ________________, for controlling the front's troops attacking in the direction of _____________________.

The command post, forward command post and the rear control post move forward in the direction of _________________.

The auxiliary control post moves forward in the direction of _____________________.

Deputies: the front chief of staff, the first deputy commander of the front, and the chief of the political directorate.

Communications are organized with all control points through radio, radio-relay, telephone-telegraph, with subordinates, neighbors and units interacting with yours.

Signatures:

1.  Chief of the Operational Directorate
2.  Front Chief of Staff
3.  Front Commander

 
 

Front Directive for Central Front



I Approve __/__/89
Central Front Commander
Colonel General ___
(Signature)


Serial Number:
SECRET
Copy No.



 
 

Operational Directive of the Central Front

Command Post ... map 1:1,000,000, 1983 ed. 1330 1, 2, 1985

 
 

1. ENEMY SITUATION

In accordance with the international crisis and the deterioration of the international situation, the enemy has secretly brought his armed forces to a state of full combat readiness, and is preparing a surprise invasion into the territory of the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

The Central Front is confronted by the NATO forces organized into the US V and VII Corps, German III Corps, Belgian I Corps and British I Corps in its first echelon, composed of __ infantry, mechanized, and armored divisions, ___ nuclear SSM's, ___ nuclear artillery pieces, ____tanks, ___ artillery, ____SAM's and ____aircraft and helicopters.

In the second echelon, the US III Corps is deployed while mobilizing German and French units are in reserve with a total of ___ divisions, ___ nuclear SSM's, ___nuclear artillery pieces, ___ tanks,___ artillery, ___SAM's, and ___ aircraft and helicopters.

The enemy has deployed intermediate (medium range) strategic nuclear rockets in the theater against the Central Front.  The enemy operation is supported by ___combat aircraft including ___ aircraft with nuclear capabilities. The enemy will try to destroy the Warsaw Pact forces by a surprise and decisive attack and disrupt its preparation for the offensive operation.  If the Warsaw Pact forces are able to overtake the enemy in preparations and launch of the attack, the enemy is likely to conduct delaying action along several pre-prepared defensive lines mostly on main rivers to inflict the heaviest losses on WP forces and eventually destroy it in counter-blows.

The enemy's counter-blows are likely to be launched from the line: ___________ in the direction of ______________, and from the line: _________ in the direction of __________________.

After the arrival of main strategic reserves from the depth of his position the enemy is likely to launch a decisive counter- offensive.  The opposing enemy is capable of allocating up to ___ nuclear rounds in the initial NATO nuclear strike and to engage the targets in the area of the Central Front by which it can destroy _______ divisions and the detected nuclear weapons of the WP forces. It can also inflict losses to other important targets.  The enemy has a significant capability to conduct air operations.



II MISSION CONDUCTED BY FORCES OF THE THEATER AND ADJACENT FRONTS

Our neighbor on the right, the Baltic Front, has the mission of destroying NATO forces in the NORTAG army group area and occupying Denmark and northern West Germany to the North Sea Coast, and subsequently, preparing for an amphibious assault landing in Great Britain. (A general discussion of the mission of the __________ may be added.)

The boundary line with the Baltic Front will be the line Lieberwalde - Friesack - 445 - Hannover - Westfalen - Borken - Rhine at Quijk - and Rhine River to the seacoast at Zierlezee.

The Southwestern Front, on the left, has the immediate mission of reaching the line ___________________, and subsequently the line _____________.

The boundary line with the Southwestern Front will be 1848 - 2762 - Rebau - Hollfeld - 1634 - Hochmuhl - Landau in der Pfalz - Merlebach - Verdun - Mourmelon le grand - Viarmee.



III. AIM AND CONCEPT OF THE OPERATION

Exploiting the consequences and impact of the strategic nuclear strikes or the theater air operation, the Central Front offensive operation is aimed at: destruction of the enemy's nuclear forces, inflicting losses on its air force and their airfields, its command posts, and its main forces and reserves on the ground. Then, following the artillery preparation fire, quick development of the offensive in the two directions Eisenach - Hersfeld - Wetzlar - Simmern and Hildburghausen - Hassfurt - Wurzburg - Mosbach - Heidelberg - Bad Kreuznach to encircle and destroy the US V and VII Corps and in the two directions Wolfsburg - south of Hannover - Bielefeld - Rmelskirchen and Eisenach - Hersfeld - Wetzlar - Rmelskirchen; to encircle and destroy the German III Corps, Belgian I Corps, and British I Corps. Development of the attack will take place in the direction of Submus - Luxembourg - Longwy - Sedan - Laon - Amiens - Abbeville - North Sea coast; seizure of the coast line from Middlburg to Calais to Boulogne sur mer on D + 13; and blocking the maritime and naval traffic in the British Channel.

Concept of the Operation

Using ______ nuclear rounds with a total yield of _____ kt in the initial nuclear strike, the front destroys enemy nuclear forces and inflicts heavy losses over the main forces and the command posts of ______, ______ and _______ and the enemy`s immediate operational reserves, then by launching attacks along three ground directions with the main attack in the direction of Eisenach - Bad Hersfeld - Wetzlar - Simmern by the Eighth Guards Army and the First Guards Tank Army, supporting the attack in the direction Mulhausen - Marburg on der Lahn and by the Twenty-Eighth Guards Army in the direction Hildburghausen - Hassfurt - Wurzburg - Mosbach - Heidelberg - Bad Kreuznach.

Then by employing ____ nuclear rounds and the commitment of the Seventh Guards Tank Army into combat and airborne assault landings across the Rhine River, the front develops the attack in the directions Submus - Luxembourg - Longwe - Sedan - Laon - Amiens - Abbefille - North Sea coast; destroys the approaching enemy reserves and its nuclear weapons, air bases, and vital targets in the depth of the enemy area; seizes the seacoast on the 14th day of the operation; and blocks the British Channel to naval traffic. On the 5th and 6th days of the operation the commitment of the ______ and ____ airborne divisions are anticipated. The Central Front will maintain a reserve of _____ nuclear rounds.

The operational grouping of the Central Front is in two echelons: in the first echelon from the right the Twentieth Guards Army, the First Guards Tank Army, the Eighth Guards Army, and the Twenty-eighth Guards Army: in the second echelon the Seventh Guards Tank Army. The Central Front combined arms reserve is composed of the ___________ and the __________________.



IV. I ORDER

Tasks for Subordinate Ob'edineniia and Soedineniia

A) Twentieth Guards Army reinforced with ________

-- Advances from the line ______________ to launch the main blow in the direction of ____________, to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area _____________, and at the end of the __________ day reach the line __________, and subsequently advancing in the direction of _________ to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and, at the end of the operation's ______ day, reach the line _______________.

--- Allotted for the conduct of the operation are __ nuclear, ___ chemical and ___ conventional-rocket warheads.

-- The following enemy sites in the army's attack zone are destroyed by the front's rocket brigades: ________, _____.

-- On the right, the XX Army of the Baltic Front attacks in the direction of _________, ____, its immediate mission being to seize the line _____ and, its subsequent mission is the line ___________.

-- The boundary with this army is the line Lieberwalde - Friesack - 445 - Hannover - Westfalen - Borken - Rhine at Quijk -Rhine River to the seacoast.

-- On the left is the First Guards Tank Army.

-- The boundary with them follows the line Belzig - Eglin - Osterode am Harz - Solling - along river to Marsberg - Meschede - Remelskirchen - Grevenbroun.

-- Organize a close coordination with them in breaking through the enemy's prepared defense at the juncture of both armies during the artillery and aviation preparation and support them during the offensive operation as they fulfill their immediate and subsequent tasks.

-- Position the command post in the _____________ area, and the rear control post in the _____________ area.



B) The First Guards Tank Army reinforced with

-- Advances from the line __________ to launch the main blow in the direction Mulhausen - Marburg on der Lahn - and Marburg - Rmelskirchen, to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area _____________ at the end of the fourth day (D + 3) reach the line Marsberg - Medebach - Battenberg - Marburg on der Lahn. Subsequently advances in the direction ____________ to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and at the end of the operation's seventh day (D + 6) reach the line _______________. Allotted for the conduct of the operation are ___ nuclear, ____ chemical, and ___ conventional rocket warheads.

-- The following enemy sites in the army's attack zone are destroyed by the front's rocket brigades: ________, _____.

-- The army FUP area is Welberstadt - Nordhausen - Bad Langensand - Bielefeld - Lindau.

-- On the right is the Twentieth Guards Army

-- The boundary with them follows the line Belzig - Eglin - Osterode am Harz - Solling - along river to Marsberg - Meschede - Remelskirchen - Grevenbroun.

-- Organize a close coordination with them in breaking through the enemy's prepared defense at the juncture of both armies during the artillery and aviation preparation and support them during the offensive operation as they fulfill their immediate and subsequent tasks.

-- On the left is the Eighth Guards Army

-- The boundary with them follows the line Eilenburt - E 11o 34' - Eisenach - Mast 2474 - N 51o 13' - 1427 (E 80 26', N 50o 8') - Rhine at Neuwied.

-- Position the command post in the _____________ area, and the rear control post in the _____________ area.



C) The Eighth Guards Army reinforced with

-- Advances from the line _______________ to launch the main blow in the direction Borndorf - Bad Hersfeld - Wetzlar - Simmern to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area _______________, __________. At the end of D + 3 reach the line Wetzlar - Bad Nauheim. Subsequently advance in the direction _______________ to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and at the end of the operation's _______ day reach the _______________. Allotted for the conduct of the operation are __ nuclear, __ chemical, __ conventional rocket warheads.

--The following enemy sites in the army's attack zone are destroyed by the front's rocket brigades: ________, _____.

-- The army FUP area is 1352 - Gotha - Zelle - Seitz - Weissenfeld.

-- On the right is the First Guards Tank Army

-- The boundary with them follows the line Eilenburt - E 11o 34' - Eisenach - Mast 2474 - N 51o 13' - 1427 (E 80o 26', N 50o 8') - Rhine at Neuwied.

-- On the left is the twenty eighth Guards Army

-- The boundary with them follows the line Mittwelda - Kahla - 2425 (E 10o 26' N 50o 37') - Gersfeld - Bad Vilbel - Frankfurt - Rhine at Bingen - Trier.

-- Position the command post in the _____________ area, and the rear control post in the _____________ area.



E) Twenty eighth Guards Army reinforced with ________

-- Advances from the line ______________ to launch the main blow in the direction of Hildburghausen - Hassfurt - Wurzburg - Mosbach - Heidelberg - Bad Kreuzach, to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area _____________, and at the end of the fourth day reaches the line Gelnhausen - Aschaffenburg - Michelstadt - Mosbach, and subsequently advancing in the direction of _________ to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and, at the end of the operation's seventh day, reaches the line _______________.

-- Allotted for the conduct of the operation are __ nuclear, __ chemical and ___ conventional-rocket warheads.

-- The following enemy sites in the army's attack zone are destroyed by the front's rocket brigades: ________, _____.

-- The army FUP area is Suhl - Lausche - Plauen - Schwarzenhe -Karl-Marx Stadt - Gera.

-- On the right is the Eighth Guards Army

-- The boundary with them follows the line Mittwelda - Kahla - 2425 (E 10o 26' N 50o 37') - Gersfeld - Bad Vilbel - Frankfurt - Rhine at Bingen - Trier.

-- On the left is the ___________ of the Southwestern Front. Their main attack in the direction of ... , their immediate objective being the line ... and, subsequently, the line ...

-- The boundary with them follows the line 1848 - 2762 - Rebau - Hollfeld - 1634 - Hochmuhl - Landau in der Pfalz - Merlebach - Verdun - Mourmelon le grand - Viarmee.

-- Organize a close coordination with them in breaking through the enemy's prepared defense at the juncture of both armies during the artillery and aviation preparation and support them during the offensive operation as they fulfill their immediate and subsequent tasks.

-- Position the command post in the _____________ area, and the rear control post in the _____________ area.

-- Conduct close coordination with the ___________ for seizure of __________.

\
(Designate units and supporting airborne forces). The airborne assault landing force will seize a landing area between Bad Kreuznach and Mainz, link with the --- army and heliborne elements and take control of crossings on the Rhine River. The initial assault landing will be at D + 4. The landing force will be supported by fire from front rocket brigades. Air bombing strikes will be conducted at ____.



E) The Rocket Troops:  during the first nuclear strike are to destroy the enemy's nuclear means and nuclear stockpiles, air-nuclear forces, and destroy his main groupings, especially the groupings of tank troops; disrupt the enemy's military-state control system, such as command posts, means of communication and communications junctions, control posts and means of radioelectronic warfare; destroy his PVO; strike the enemy's rear sites and disrupt his economic potential.

Enemy sites are suppressed and destroyed in the following manner:  nuclear weapons - by a 10-kiloton air burst; a motorized infantry division or a tank division - by a 20-kiloton air burst; a control post or a nuclear stockpile - by a 100-kiloton ground burst; a communications junction, control post for PVO - by a 3-kiloton air burst; airfields and rear targets - by a 40-kiloton air burst.

- Launch preparation time is H-20, 20 minutes before launch time

- The time for allocating nuclear and chemical munitions is 3 hours. P-3 hrs.

- The time for allocating conventional munitions is 3 days.  Ch - 3 days.

- Conduct constant surveillance of the sites, which are to be destroyed by nuclear weapons, and refine the plan of the first nuclear strike..

- Insure the full combat readiness of the rocket troops and control means, and be ready to carry out combat tasks.

- Carefully organize the rocket-technical securing of the troops.

- Carry out the engineering preparation of the position areas, organize the camouflage of the combat units, and the protection of the rocket troops against mass destruction weapons.

- Organize the timely forward movement of the rocket troops during the offensive operation.



F) Artillery:

Organize the following artillery groups in the ob'edinenia, soedineniia and units:

-- a) army artillery groups - 8-10 battalions.

-- b) division artillery groups - 4-6 battalions.

-- c) regimental artillery groups - 3-4 battalions.

The artillery, in the beginning, and during the course of the operation, fulfills the following tasks:

-- a) the suppression and destruction of the enemy's offensive nuclear weapons;

-- b) defeating the enemy during his invasion;

-- c) defeating the enemy while crossing the state frontier and during the battle for the enemy's combat security zone;

-- d) reliably defeat the enemy during the breakthrough of his prepared defense;

-- e) suppress the enemy during the air fire support of the attack;

-- f) assist the troops fighting in the enemy's defensive depth;

-- g) defeat the enemy's counterblow grouping;

-- h) support the fronts' troops in forcing water barriers;

-- i) destroy the enemy's artillery and mortar batteries;

-- j) cover open flanks, spaces and breaches in the combat formation;

-- k) support the commitment of the front's second echelon into the engagement;

-- l) the artillery density in breaking through the enemy's prepared defense is to be no less than 100-120 guns and mortars per kilometer of front; the duration of fire support is 30-40 minutes, and the expenditure of shells is .8-1 unit of fire during the attack's fire preparation.

-- m) the fire support of the attack is conducted by the consecutive concentration of fire (PSO), the artillery barrage (OV), and the joint employment of PSO and OV at a distance of 3-4 kilometers in the enemy's defensive depth.



G) The Air Army

During the first nuclear strike, destroy the enemy's nuclear weapons, nuclear stockpiles and air-nuclear forces; defeat the main groupings, especially tanks; disrupt the military's and state control, such as command posts, communications means and communications junctions, control posts and radioelectronic means; destroy his PVO; attack his rear sites and disrupt his economic potential.

- Participate in the air operation to destroy the enemy's air grouping and securing air superiority (if it is conducted);

- During the aviation preparation and support of the attack and the aviation accompaniment, suppress and destroy the enemy's offensive nuclear weapons, artillery, tanks, command posts, defensive strong points and crossing sectors located beyond the range of the artillery;

- Suppress and destroy the enemy's reserves;

- Carry out air reconnaissance of the enemy;

- Cover the troops and rear sites against the enemy's air attacks.

Air Resources are to be distributed in the following manner:

-- a) ________ regimental sorties for each day of the operation for the armies attacking in the main directions;

-- b)____ regimental flights for each day of the operation for the armies attacking in other directions;

-- c) ____ regimental sorties in the reserve of the front commander



H) The Seventh Guards Tank Army (Second Echelon Army)
- _________________, artillery, SSM, PVO and helicopters. 

These take up their positions at their jumping-off points in the areas of Treuenbreitzen - Wittenberg - Torgau - Finsterwalde - Sperenberg.  Fit out the jumping off point for the offensive in the full engineering sense to protect the troops from the enemy's mass destruction weapons.

The army's zone of responsibility for combatting airborne landings, reconnaissance and diversionary groups are determined by ______________________.

- From the beginning of the offensive the army moves up along the following seven routes:

---Rte. 1 one division

---Rte. 2

---Rte. 3 - army staff and staff units

---Rte. 4 second division

---Rte. 5

---Rte. 6 third division

The army is committed to the engagement from the line Gondershausen - Wachtberg - Mendig on the Mosel river; or on the line Prum (1610) - Bitburg - Trier on the Mosel River; and launches its main attack in the direction of Bitburg - Trier - Luxembourg - Longwy - Sedan - Rethel - Laon - Abbeville, having as its immediate task the seizing of the line Rocroi - Rethel - Sammery.

When being committed into the engagement, the army is reinforced by an artillery division and an anti-tank-artillery brigade, and is supported by three flights (sorties) by the aviation groups.  While being committed to the engagement, the army is supported by the front's nuclear weapons and an air army, and launches nuclear strikes against enemy sites so as to support the armies in its zone of attack.



I - PVO Troops

Front PVO concentrates its main efforts for covering the main tank and motorized rifle groups of the ob'edinenie attacking in the main directions, the most important rear sites, as well as the covering of the front's troops in carrying out important tasks such as seizing the forward zone, airborne landings, forcing water obstacles, and repulsing the enemy's counterblows.

The fire system for the guided-rocket and antiaircraft troops of the front should be coordinated with the fire system of army and division PVO in accordance with a unified plan as to directions and combat methods of actions so that they are able to repulse the enemy's massed air attacks.

Organize the coordination of the guided rocket and anti-aircraft troops with fighter aviation and the PVO troops of the Warsaw Pact countries in seizing the jumping-off point and during the offensive, so as to repulse the enemy's massed air attacks.

Maintain the majority of the shock army's fighter aviation on duty at the airfields and, at threatening times, 1/6 in the air over the most important directions so that the area for intercepting the enemy aviation is within the bounds of our anti-aircraft fire.

Maintain all soyidineniia and units of PVO in full combat readiness and outfit the fire and reserve positions in their starting points for an advance, and be ready to repulse the enemy's massed air attacks.

Carry out the transfer of units during the offensive so that all PVO weapons are ready to repulse enemy strikes in carrying out the front's most important tasks.



J Airborne Landings

One airborne landing consists of the _______________ and the other of the __________________.

The starting points for the landings are ________________. The landing across the Rhine between Bad Kreuznach and Mainz takes place on D + 4. The landing across the Rhine between Kerpen and Duren - Erftstadt takes place on D + 5. These are carried out by the _______ military-transport divisions.

The mission of the airborne landings is to complete the encirclement of the NATO corps east of the Rhine River, seize crossings over the river for exploitation by front armies and to secure its forcing by the front's main forces on the march.

Before the landing, grouped nuclear strikes or intensive conventional bombings are carried out in the landing area and in the operating area of the military-transport aviation, so as to suppress and destroy the enemy's reserves and anti-aircraft defense.

For suppressing the enemy's PVO, fighter and fighter-bomber aviation, radioelectronic suppression means, tactical and tactical-operational rockets are employed.  Covering the troops and aviation in their starting points for the landing is carried out by the forces of the national PVO (strany) and of the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

Organize coordination with the troops of national air defense and of the Warsaw Pact countries in the jumping-off point for the landing.  During the flight coordinate with the front PVO, the air army, the troops of the front and long-range aviation.  During the landing and combat activity, coordinate with the armies of the first echelon, front aviation and long-range aviation.

The departure area for the landing is ________________, and the time for seizing the forward area is seven hours before takeoff.

Fueling and material supply areas for transport aviation are in _______________, _______________, _________________, etc.

The organization of landing control is carried out from a command post in the area of ________________, a forward command post in the area of __________________, and an auxiliary command post in the area of __________________.



K Combined Arms Reserves

The combined-arms reserves consists of the _______ and the ________, and they are to be prepared to carry out assignments which arise unexpectedly during the operation.

Billeting areas are as follows:  _____ at ____________, the ______ in _________,

During the offensive operation the combined arms reserve moves up along the following directions:

----_________along _________________

----_________ along _________________

The distance between the combined-arms reserve and the troops of the first echelon should not exceed 70 kilometers during the operation.



L Anti-Tank Reserves

The ______ helicopter regiment, as part of the front's anti-tank reserve, is billeted in the area of _______________, to fight the enemy's tanks in the front's main directions of attack.  Direction no. 1 is __________________, and direction no. 2 is _____________________.

The anti-tank reserve is moved forward during the offensive operation in the direction of _______________.



M Front Engineering Reserves

The 75th engineering-sapper regiment, the _____________ engineering obstacle battalion, and the _______________ pontoon-bridging battalion, after carrying out their assigned tasks while preparing the operation, become part of the front engineering reserve and are ready for carrying out engineering tasks arising unexpectedly during the offensive operation.

The front engineering reserve is billeted in the area of _________________, and during the offensive operation, moves forward in the direction of __________________.



N Chemical Reserves

In the front's chemical reserve are included the 245th separate special decontamination battalion, the _________ separate chemical defense battalion, and the __________ separate decontamination battalion.
The chemical reserve carries out chemical tasks arising unexpectedly while conducting the offensive operation.

The chemical reserve is billeted in the area of __________________, and during the offensive operation, moves up in the direction of ___________________.

5 Front Troop Control:

The command post is in the area of _________.

The forward command post is in the area of __________________.

The rear control post is in the area of ___________________.

The command post, forward command post and the rear control post move forward in the direction of _________________.

Deputies: the front chief of staff, the first deputy commander of the front, and the chief of the political directorate.

Communications are organized with all control points through radio, radio-relay, telephone-telegraph, with subordinates, neighbors and units interacting with yours.

Signatures:
1.  Chief of the Operational Directorate
2.  Front Chief of Staff
3.  Front Commander

 
 

Reconnaissance



The reconnaissance directorate works closely with the operations directorate and under the supervision of the chief of staff to develop plans for obtaining the information required by the commander to make the best possible decisions. In the course of this work they prepare or use the following documents.



Duties and Responsibilities

The front commander and staff have the following responsibilities for organizing the troop control of reconnaissance operations. The commander analyzes the requirements for information and determines the reconnaissance needed. He defines and specifies the missions to be accomplished and the objectives to be achieved. The front commander specifies the following:
-- a. The aim of reconnaissance
-- b. Basic tasks of reconnaissance
-- c. Reconnaissance troops and means to conduct reconnaissance and collect information prior to the commencement of combat operations.
-- d. What reconnaissance information is collected and when it must be collected.
-- e. On which objectives, areas and directions the main efforts of reconnaissance must be concentrated.

The commander listens to the reports of the chief of staff and chief of reconnaissance concerning the organization of reconnaissance planning. He also specifies the additional troops and means which he desires to employ to accomplish reconnaissance tasks.
The front chief of staff is directly responsible for the organization of reconnaissance. He interprets the commander's instructions and converts them into specific tasks.
In his instructions the chief of staff gives the following:
-- a. Specify in detail the reconnaissance tasks assigned by the commander and higher headquarters and the sequence of their execution as well as the allocation of troops and means for the performance of each task.
-- b. Specify the measures for coordination among the different types and methods of reconnaissance.
-- c. Specify the time and method of collection of reconnaissance information.
-- d. Confirms and adjusts objectives and areas and axes where the main effort of reconnaissance will be concentrated.
-- e. Specifies the troops and means to be employed for accomplishment of most important missions.
-- f. Specifies the main measures on readiness of reconnaissance forces
-- g. Specifies the deadline for preparation of the reconnaissance plan and the combat instructions on reconnaissance and when it must be forwarded to him for his approval and endorsement.
-- h. Specify the reconnaissance reserve of troops and means.

Based on the instructions of the front commander and chief of staff, the chief of reconnaissance begins to organize the reconnaissance for the operation. The measures and actions taken by the front's chief of reconnaissance include the following:
-- a. Issuing the reconnaissance combat mission to various reconnaissance troops and the establishing the time for completing each mission as well as the time and method for reporting reconnaissance information.
-- b. Establishing the measures for coordination (interaction) among the various reconnaissance activities and units conducting them.
-- c. Issuing instructions to the reconnaissance troops concerning the method of their movement to their deployment areas.
-- d. Instructing the front's reconnaissance staff on preparing the reconnaissance plan.
-- e. Controlling the attainment of assigned missions.

The essence of reconnaissance planning is the rational and best allocation of the various specific troops and means, on the basis of their capabilities, to the individual missions and objectives. Depending on the situation the reconnaissance plan is prepared in a written form with a map annex or it is worked out on a map with written instructions. The reconnaissance plan should reflect the following points:
-- a. The aim and specific tasks of reconnaissance with the reconnaissance sectors (areas, axes).
-- b. The troops and means allocated for reconnaissance and their distribution in terms of missions and objectives (targets).
-- c. The timing of the accomplishment of the assigned missions and the time to acquire the required information from higher headquarters and other headquarters.
-- d. The reserve of reconnaissance troops and means.
-- e. Organization of command and control of reconnaissance troops and means and the method of sending reconnaissance reports.
-- f. The plan also may include other guidelines, instructions and information on preparation and conduct of the reconnaissance.

 
 

Duties of the Chief of Reconnaissance


l. The chief of reconnaissance is responsible for the training, and insures the high combat readiness of the reconnaissance troops. He exercises troop control over them and supervises the conduct of the operation of reconnaissance units and subunits. He is responsible for the following items.
-- collection, study and analysis of the derivation of deductions about reconnaissance information about the enemy and terrain and timely presentation of the important information to the chief of staff and higher commander and staff.
-- derivation of the aims and tasks of reconnaissance and the allocation of required troops and reconnaissance means to accomplish these.
-- preparation of the reconnaissance plan and issuance of missions to the reconnaissance department staff. The reconnaissance plan is signed by the chief of staff and approved by the commander.
-- coordination of all efforts of different reconnaissance means in terms of their missions and objectives
-- preparation of units and sub-units (groups) (GRG from SPETZNAZ) at army level which has two sections each with 4 groups. The front level battalion has 35 to 40 groups operating up to 800 km deep.
-- preparation of unit and subunits assigned to conduct reconnaissance and insuring their all round support
-- control of the execution of assigned instructions and orders and practical assistance to staffs and commanders of units and sub units in accomplishment of reconnaissance missions.
-- organization of continuous communications with units and subunits (groups) assigned to combat reconnaissance and also with the headquarters of subordinate operational formations and large units.
-- reception of reconnaissance reports from aircraft.
-- organization and conduct of actions about the protection of reconnaissance units, subunits and groups against mass destruction weapons.
-- communication of reconnaissance information inside the staff and to subordinate, adjacent and coordinating headquarters.



 
 

Instructions on Reconnaissance from GRU or Reconnaissance Directorate at TVD

SAMPLE

 
 

RECONNAISSANCE ANNEX TO THE GENERAL SITUATION

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT THE

SITUATION OF ENEMY FORCES AND RECON TROOPS


The composition of the reconnaissance available to the front by the Supreme High Command includes the following:
-- The location and deployment of the reconnaissance troops are shown on the attached overlay.
-- All reconnaissance troops are 95% complete in equipment and 91% complete in personnel.
-- From the instructions on and reconnaissance received from the chief reconnaissance GRU of the high command of the TVD, the following points are noted.

 
 

FORMAT

 
 

THE REPORT (DOKLAD) OF THE CHIEF OF FRONT'S RECON

DURING THE FRONT COMMANDER'S

PROCESS OF MAKING THE DECISION


Assessment of the enemy's nuclear rocket troops, their location, number of nuclear rockets the enemy can launch on targets in the front area and their range.

Situation, status and characteristics of reconnaissance troops.


Requirement of the front during the operation.


Availability and supply of assets during the operation.


Strength (completeness) level of personnel and combat equipment in recon.



Format - Suggestions of Chief of Reconnaissance

 
 

SAMPLE

SUGGESTIONS OF CHIEF OF RECON TO FRONT COMMANDER

 
 

l. The composition, grouping, and operational situation of the enemy forces generally along the front area and in front of adjacents

2. assessment of enemy ground forces
-- how many divisions to include infantry, armored and airborne division and how many of each.
-- how many tanks, artillery, mortars, antitank-guns antitank guided rockets and SAMs are there in these divisions.
-- how many divisions deployed on the first operational echelon, to include the total number of tanks, guns and mortars, antitank guns, antitank guided rockets, and SAMS.
-- how many divisions in 2nd echelons and reserves to include number of same weapons etc.
-- where is the likely axis of enemy main attack, how many divisions employed there and what is total number of tanks etc .
-- the secondary attacks are expected in what directions and how many divisions will be employed in each direction. What will be the total number of weapons such as tanks and antitank guns, ATGM SAMs etc.

3. Assessment of enemy nuclear weapons
-- What will be the total number of nuclear rounds rockets and bombs the enemy is expected to use in his initial nuclear strike.
-- location of most important systems of nuclear delivery means such as rockets, aircraft and nuclear depots.

4. Assessment of enemy air force.
-- the number and of types of enemy aircraft in the Front operational area including the aircraft with nuclear capability.
-- airfield (location and characteristics)
-- in what directions the enemy will attempt to penetrate through air defense systems of friendly troops.
-- likely direction of main attack and distribution of enemy aircraft along the different directions.
-- forms of operations of enemy air forces to include the air operation with number of aircraft to be participating in each. (They are thinking about massive air strikes and strategic air strikes.)
-- the command and control and guidance system for aircraft to targets and in assigned locations.

5. Assessments of enemy air defense
-- what rocket and air defense artillery systems are included in enemy forces to include fighter aircraft and their number
-- strong and weak directions and areas in enemy air defenses
-- likely reenforcement of air defense from other areas.

6. Assessments of enemy logistic echelons.
-- location of enemy logistic echelon, depots, supplies, routes airports, supply bases and ports.
-- availability and volume of supplies to enemy logistic echelons.
-- evaluation of enemy supply system.

7. General deductions from estimate of enemy situation and suggestions.
-- density of enemy forces along the entire Front and entire depth and on each axis of operations (including air and air defense)
-- concept and character of enemy likely actions
-- direction of main attack and other attacks and how many divisions will be operating on each
-- operational formations
-- time of initiation of attack by enemy
-- enemy air support situation
-- enemy's strength, combat experience, training and morale
-- the nature and character of engineer fortifications, obstacles and terrain conditions in theater of military operations.
-- enemy strong and weak points
-- most dangerous action by enemy
-- in case enemy initiates nuclear war -how many nuclear rounds can it use - by what units and what means the nuclear weapons can be delivered - in what depth nuclear weapons can be used by enemy
-- how many strikes can be launched to include the percentage of total nuclear rounds in each strike and the time gap between strikes
-- most favorable targets for front initial nuclear strike
-- EEI
-- detection of enemy nuclear and chemical means
-- enemy ground force groupings and command posts
-- enemy airfields, areas of deployment of air defense means, guidance centers and radars.
-- mobilization centers and the formation of operational reserves
-- naval forces and their bases
-- defensive lines and other important enemy targets.

 
 

Front Commander Instructions on Reconnaissance



The front commander analyzes the requirements for information and determines the reconnaissance needed. He defines and specifies the missions to be accomplished and the objectives to be achieved. He specifies the following:
-- a. the aim of reconnaissance
-- b. basic tasks of reconnaissance
-- c. reconnaissance troops and means to conduct reconnaissance and collect information prior to the commencement of combat operations.
-- d. what reconnaissance information is collected and when it must be collected.
-- e. on which objectives, areas and directions the main efforts of reconnaissance must be concentrated.

The commander designates targets for reconnaissance and when and on what axis to focus the main effort of reconnaissance.

He defines the data he wants and when he needs it and in what form the reconnaissance forces may be used especially prior to the offensive.

He also specifies the additional troops and means which he desires to employ to accomplish reconnaissance tasks.



Chief of Staff Instructions on Reconnaissance

The front chief of staff is directly responsible for the organization of reconnaissance. He interprets the commander's instructions and converts them into specific tasks. In his instructions the chief of staff gives the following:
-- a. specifies in detail the reconnaissance tasks assigned by the commander and higher headquarters and the sequence of their execution as well as the allocation of troops and means for the performance of each task;
-- b. specifies the measures for coordination among the different types and methods of reconnaissance;
-- c. specifies the time and method of collection of reconnaissance information;
-- d. confirms and adjusts objectives and areas and axes where the main effort of reconnaissance will be concentrated;
-- e. specifies the troops and means to be employed for accomplishment of most important missions;
-- f. specifies the main measures on readiness of reconnaissance forces;
-- g. specifies the deadline for preparation of the reconnaissance plan and the combat instructions on reconnaissance and when it must be forwarded to him for his approval and endorsement;
-- h. specifies the reconnaissance reserve of troops and means;



Sequence for Preparing Reconnaissance Plan

1. Mark available and current information about the enemy on the map and draw the boundary lines of armies and the front.

2. Mark the areas and directions (axes) of particular attention.

3. Specify and single out that reconnaissance information which requires confirmation, updating and recontrol.

4. Calculate the capabilities of reconnaissance troops and means and their distribution in terms of targets and directions (axes)

5. Specify the areas and the lines of deployment and operation of reconnaissance organs (elements) and specify their missions.

6. Establish the method for repeated checking of the targets of the initial nuclear strike, both before and after the first strike.

7. Assess the enemy's likely actions, the grouping of his troops and means prior to the initiation of combat actions and during the course of the combat operation.

8. Determine the specific reconnaissance mission prior to the operation and in the course of the conduct of the operation.

9. Specify the time of acquisition of reconnaissance information for the initial nuclear strike, initiation of the attack by friendly forces, commitment of the second echelon forces into combat, assault river crossing, fighting the enemy's advancing reserves, etc.

10. Specify measures on reinforcement and activation of the reconnaissance for the upcoming war and for the phase of the initiation of military operations.



 
 

Content of Reconnaissance Plan

SAMPLE

PLAN FOR EMPLOYMENT OF RECON TROOPS


The reconnaissance sectors (areas, axes), the aim and specific tasks of reconnaissance.
The troops and means allocated for reconnaissance and their distribution in terms of missions and objectives (targets).
The timing of the accomplishment of the assigned missions and the time to acquire the required information from higher headquarters and other headquarters.
The designation of a reconnaissance troops and means reserve.
Organization of command and control of reconnaissance troops and means and the method of sending reconnaissance reports. The plan also may include other guidelines, instructions and information on preparation and conduct of the reconnaissance.

Front plan of reconnaissance includes the following points on aerial reconnaissance:
-- The missions and limits (areas) of aerial reconnaissance;
-- The number of allocated sorties for the accomplishment of each mission;
-- The most important reconnaissance targets;
-- The method and time of sending aerial reconnaissance reports.

The map annex, attached to the reconnaissance plan, normally reflects the following:
-- Boundaries of the front and of armies
-- The targets and axes of reconnaissance and the areas where special attention of the reconnaissance is to be concentrated.
-- The units, subunits and groups (detachments) of special reconnaissance troops and the sources of espionage reconnaissance.
-- The main directions of aerial reconnaissance to cover the areas of deployment of the airfields where the reconnaissance aviation forces are based. The scale and dimension of vertical and oblique aerial photography of these airfields.
-- The main and alternate areas of the deployment of front reconnaissance troops and means and the method of their movement and relocation in the course of the operation.
-- The line up to which all types of arms and services may conduct reconnaissance prior to the initiation of the operation.

The written instructions attached to the map type reconnaissance plan briefly reflects the following points:
-- The aim and main tasks of the reconnaissance and the time of their accomplishment
-- Calculation of the troops and means in terms of missions, the days of operation and the axes of action, along with other information which can not be shown on the map.
-- Instructions on material (logistic) support.
-- Instructions on coordination (interaction).
-- Instructions on communications.



 
 

Figure 264 Guiding Data of Reconnaissance Plan

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Figure 265 Graphic Plan of Simultaneous Flight of Reconnaissance Air

GRAPHIC PLAN OF SIMULTANEOUS FLIGHT OF THE RECON.

AIRCRAFT OF ___ AIR ARMY FOR CONFIRMATION RECON.

OF TARGETS OF THE INITIAL NUCLEAR STRIKE

1. FORCES AND MEANS TO BE EMPLOYED


RECON AVIATION UNIT AND SUB UNIT


NUMBER OF AIRCRAFT SORTIES


NUMBER OF COMBAT READY AIRCRAFT (COF. .90)


PARTICIPATING AIRCRAFT IN SIMULTANEOUS FLIGHT




RESERVE


OPERATIONAL RECON AVIATION REGT


TACTICAL RECON AVIATION REGT


TOTAL
 
 

Figure 265 Graphic Plan of Simultaneous Flight of Reconnaissance Air

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Figure 266 Calculations of Reconnaissance Forces

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Figure 267 Distribution of forces and means to tasks

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Figure 268 Written Instructions to Reconnaissance Plan

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Figure 268 Written Instructions to Reconnaissance Plan

WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS TO:

RECONNAISSANCE PLAN OF FRONT FROM ____ TO ____ NO.12

MAP: 1:500,000 ___ 2ND ED, 1964

1. RECONNAISSANCE AIM:

To determine the time and forms of deployment of NATO aggressors against the Central front forces, to determine the grouping of armed forces in the central region and the CENTAG Army group and 2nd OTAK, likely enemy intentions in his first operation; in the course of the combat action - timely detection of changes in composition and character of action of NATO forces.

The main effort of reconnaissance is concentrated in the direction of


2. MAIN RECONNAISSANCE TASKS, TIME OF THEIR EXECUTION AND EXECUTING ELEMENTS.

What tasks are conducted by front

Main reconnaissance tasks

Reconnaissance forces and means

Time of execution

PRIOR TO THE BEGINNING OF THE OPERATION

IN THE COURSE OF THE OPERATION

DURING THE IMMEDIATE MISSION

DURING THE LONG RANGE MISSION

3. At the end of the front's offensive the following reconnaissance assets should remain in the front'sreserve

.
Agent reconnaissance sources:
SPETZNAZ reconnaissance groups:
Reconnaissance aircraft sorties

4. Measures on the employment of Reconnaissance forces and means:

a. Agent reconnaissance
b. Special Purpose Reconnaissance
c. Air Reconnaissance
d. Armies' Reconnaissance forces and means

5. Troop Control of front reconnaissance forces and means:

Troop control of the reconnaissance forces and means is conducted from the command post and forward command post in the following manner:

6. Reporting the results of reconnaissance:

a. Armies' Chiefs of reconnaissance:
b. Front reconnaissance units commanders:
c. From front to GRU:
7. Information Dissemination:
   
 
 

Figure 269 Written Instructions for front Reconniassance

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Figure 269 Written Instructions for front Reconniassance

WRITTEN INSTRUCTIONS TO:

RECONNAISSANCE PLAN OF FRONT FROM ____ TO ____ NO.12

MAP: 1:500,000 ___ 2ND ED, 1964

1. RECONNAISSANCE AIM:

To determine the time and forms of deployment of NATO aggressors against the Central front forces, to determine the grouping of armed forces in the central region and the CENTAG Army group and 2nd OTAK, likely enemy intentions in his first operation; in the course of the combat action - timely detection of changes in composition and character of action of NATO forces.

The main effort of reconnaissance is concentrated in the direction of

2. MAIN RECONNAISSANCE TASKS, TIME OF THEIR EXECUTION AND EXECUTING ELEMENTS.

What tasks are conducted by front Main reconnaissance tasks Reconnaissance forces and means Time of execution

PRIOR TO THE BEGINNING OF THE OPERATION

Preparation of the operation 1. Timely detection of enemy actions on preparation for launching initial nuclear strike. Special attention is to be paid to ....., ....., ..... guided rocket (YPS) units.

Detection of moving of the rocket forces out of their permanent posts, deployment of nuclear bomb stocks, airfield used by nuclear aircraft and standby nuclear delivery means. Special attention should be paid to British 150th and 650th battalions of Pershing guided rockets.

Agent reconnaissance sources;

3rd Radio and 3rd Radio- Technical

Regiments of the front; 1st, 4th, and 7th armies;

6th Front air army; GRU and Baltic fleet; Western TVD.

From 8.25
2. Disclosing the coordinates of enemy mobile targets planned to be hit in front initial nuclear strike. Special attention must be paid to 150 and 650 C (British) guided rocket battalions, 3rd tank and 1, 67, 11, 13 mechanized divisions in.......Hawk battalions, 1st corps CP and airfields...... Agent recon sources; 3rd radio and 3rd radio technical OSNAZ Regiments; of the front; 1st, 4th, 7th armies and 6th air army; GRU, Baltic fleet, Western TVD From 8.75
3. Continuous observation and surveillance of enemy large units which are ready to initiate combat action in front area...... Same as above. From 8.25
4. Detection of the preparation of aircraft based

on aircraft carriers.

Continuous observation and detection
5. Detection of the movement of Hawk SA guided rockets and occupation of positions by them and finding the coordinates of their launching positions.
6. Command Posts.
7. Air Force.
8. Mobilizations of forces.
9. Preparation of departure areas.
Total assets planned to be employed in accomplishment of the above tasks in the phase of preparation of the operation:

28 agent recon sources

221 Radio and Radio-tech posts

12 sorties of air reconnaissance per day

IN THE COURSE OF THE OPERATION

DURING THE IMMEDIATE MISSION

Initiation of initial nuclear strike (by the beginning of the operation or during it). The main efforts of the reconnaissance must be concentrated on the main grouping of the Northern Army Group, 2 OTAT and allied armed forces. Massive flight of

front 6th air army.

From P to P + 0.40
1. Confirmation of coordinate of targets planned to be destroyed. agent recon 3R and 3RT Regiments.

1st, 4th, and 7th

armies.

One day prior to the operation to P + 0.40
2. Assessment of the level of destruction of targets hit by initial nuclear strikes. 6th air army

3 Spetznaz Bn.

From P + 1.00 to P + 10.00
Participation of front6th Air Army in air operation to destroy enemy air force Location airfields of tactical air crafts, Guided SSM positions, location of nonguided SSM (NURS), guided SAM, CP's of air force, ground troops and air defense forces.Special attention must be paid to nuclear capable aircraft. 6 air army

3R and 3RT OSNAZ regts of the front, GRU, Baltic fleet, and Western TVD.

One day prior to operation to D day
Repelling enemy invasion and conduct of major meeting engagements 1. Locating the areas of aircraft flights, composition, direction, altitude and areas of their operation. Agent Recon sources; 6 air army and 3R and 3RT OSNAZ regiments, GRU, 1st, 4th, and 7th armies. D day
2. Disclosing the direction of movement of enemy's first echelon large units of ground forces toward the border. Special attention must be paid to the direction of .... Same as above. D-2 to D day
Passage through enemy covering force zone 1. Disclosing the composition of enemy's grouping in Covering Zone. 6th air army; 3 radio and 3 radiotech. OSNAZ Regiments 1st, 4th, and 7th armies. H hr to H + 8.00
Passage (penetration) through enemy forward defense lines. 2. Presence and nature of enemy's engineer works in the Covering Zone. Locating groupings of enemy forces, its engineer works, fire system, obstacles, and nonoccupied areas. Special attention must be paid to nuclear weapons and enemy reserves. Same as above. 1st and 2nd days of operation and 4 hrs prior to penetration or passage
Landing of air and seaborne assault forces in ___ and __. 1. Character of enemy's anti-airborne and anti- seaborne assaults and related engineer works. 6th air army

3 SPETZNAZ Bn, GRU, agent recon sources, Baltic fleet.

3rd and 5th days of operation and 4 hrs prior to assault
2. Grouping of enemy ground air and air defense forces in the area of airborne assault.
3. Grouping of enemy naval forces in .......(seaborne assault area).
Repelling enemy's counter blows 1. Observation of enemy reserves and enemy's mobilization activities in areas..... and .....; composition of the forces and directions of their movements. 6th air army

3 Radio and 3 RT OSNAZ Regiment; 3 SPETZNAZ Bn, GRU; Central Front.

From D + 1 thru D+6 or enemy's counter blow
2. By the beginning of enemy counterblows, disclosure of the composition and location of guided SSM (YRS) and guided SAM (ZYRS), aircrafts, artillery, and the directions of counter-blows.
Commitment of front's second echelon army into engagement 1. Enemy grouping of forces and means in the area of operation of 8th army to include enemy composition combat capabilities and character of enemy defenses. 6th air army, 3R and 3 RT OSNAZ Regts.; 33 SPETZNAZ Bn. 1st, 4th, and 8th armies. From D+7 or one day prior to commitment to H-4 hrs
Pursuit and destruction of retreating enemy 2. Nature and status of the directions to be followed

by 8th army after commitment.

Same as above.
1. Disclosure of enemy's retreat and the direction of the retreat of main forces. Same as above.
2. Intermediate defensive lines and their engineer works.
3. Presence and character of contaminated and flooded

areas.

Total assets assigned for the immediate mission.

28 agent recon groups

32 SPETZNAZ groups

400 sorties of recon aircraft

150 radio and radio tech posts

DURING THE LONG RANGE MISSION

The main effort of reconnaissance is to concentrate for the destruction of Northern Army Group, 2 OTAK and allied armed forces in the strait areas and destruction of enemy strategic reserves.
Crossing Rhine River 1. Character of enemy action on the river, presence of obstacles, engineer obstacles on the river. 6th air army; 3 R and 3 RT OSNAZ Regts

3 SPETZNAZ Bn, 4th and 8th armies; GRU, agent recon sources, Central Front.

From D+9 to 4 hrs before the crossing
2. Disposition of enemy defenses on the river.
3. Availability and status of bridges and crossing sites.
4. Presence and character of action of enemy operational reserves and their status.
Destruction of enemy deep (strategic) reserves 1. Presence and landing of enemy's strategic reserves in front area and their composition. 6th air army, agent recon sources, GRU,

3 SPETZNAZ Bn, Baltic Fleet, Central Front.

Through the operation
2. Observation and following of the mobilization process of new reserves. Disclosure of the intention of Western Command regarding the employment of these reserves. 6th air army, agent recon sources, GRU,

3 SPETZNAZ Bn, Baltic Fleet, Central Front.

From D+5
Organization of anti-seaborne assault on coasts at ___ 1. Detection of enemy preparation for landing seaborne assault forces. 6 air army, agent recon, Baltic fleet, Central Front
2. Observation and following of Western seaborne assault task forces and the nature of their operation at..... 6 air army agent recon, Baltic

fleet, GRU.

Total assets assigned to the subsequent mission: 20 agent recon sources, 25 SPETZNAZ groups, 96 Radio and Radio-Tech OSNAZ posts, 200 sorties of recon air.
3. At the end of the front's offensive the following reconnaissance assets should remain in the front's reserve.
Agent reconnaissance sources: 20
SPETZNAZ reconnaissance groups: 8
Reconnaissance aircraft sorties 36
4. Measures on the employment of Reconnaissance forces and means:
a. Agent reconnaissance Infiltration of agent reconnaissance sources of the front (Marshroutniko, V.) in the rear of the enemy area should be effected in the following manner: on the night of 9.4 up to 2 sources, on the night of 9.5 up to 3 sources, on the night of 9.6 up to 2 sources. Their objective will be disclosure of the deployment of enemy's striking group's large units in the direction of Luxembourg and Antwerp.

Preparing the sources who are going to infiltrate in the enemy area should be effected from the beginning of the combat action at 20:00, 8.8.

Infiltration of the sources in terms of days of the operation:

First Day 2 sources

2nd Day 2 sources

3rd Day 3 sources

4th Day 1 source

5th Day 2 sources

9th Day 2 sources

b. Special Purpose Reconnaissance Two groups of SPETZNAZ recon are to be detached to infiltrate in to the enemy rear in Ruhr area, 7 SPETZNAZ Recon group in area from Frankfurt to Heidelberg, 25 SPETZNAZ recon groups in the direction of Luxembourg - Brussels.

The infiltration of SPETZNAZ groups by transport aircrafts and helicopters is scheduled as follows:

--First Day 4 groups 4th Day 4 groups

--2nd Day 9 groups 5th Day 7 groups

--3rd Day 4 groups 6th Day 3 groups

c. Air Reconnaissance Prior to the initiation of the operation, the air reconnaissance is conducted by 12 recon aircraft sorties per day without crossing the border to include 6 sorties for radio-technical reconnaissance and 6 sorties for air observation and oblique photography.

To conduct air reconnaissance beyond the border (violating enemy's air space) in the enemy's air space 6 air crews should be prepared (2 air crews in each air reconnaissance regiment). Their actual flight will be initiated by the permission of the general staff of the armed forces.

To reconfirm targets of the initial nuclear strike, reconnaissance is conducted by simultaneous flight of 100 recon aircraft from (P) to (P+0:40 -- "P" is the launch time of nuclear strike.

To assess the results of the initial nuclear strike of the front (152 targets) a flight of 60 reconnaissance aircraft is planned.

d. Armies' Reconnaissance forces and means A full system of observation by technical equipment should be organized along the border by the reconnaissance forces and means of first echelon large units and combat support arms once the covering troop occupied their positions. Up to the arrival of covering troops, observation must be conducted by officers' observation posts without disturbing the standing regime of border troops (each first echelon division establish one post.)

After full combat readiness at the front level the following elements are to be assigned for recon tasks:

--Troops observation posts 42

--Artillery observation posts 39

--Radio and radio-technical posts 104

By the initiation of combat action and during the course of the operation reconnaissance is conducted by the following means:

--Reconnaissance groups of the troops (first echelon divisions) 54

--Artillery observation posts 286

--Sound Recon posts 9

--Radio and radio-technical posts 276

--Radar Reconnaissance posts 81

5. Troop Control of front reconnaissance forces and means:

Troop control of the reconnaissance forces and means is conducted from the command post and forward command post in the following manner:

--OSNAZ Radio and Radio-technical units by radio using telegraphic equipment of secret Command and Control (3ACf) and cipher system through the command post of the Reconnaissance Directorate of the front.

--Communication with agent reconnaissance and SPETZNAZ recon units is established by quick action radios and telegraphic reception from OSNAZ signal centers by direction-oriented radios.

--Communication with Armies' Reconnaissance Chiefs is established by front and armies signal centers.

--Communication with the Chiefs of Reconnaissance of Baltic Fleet and Central Front is established through Radio Communication Centers of OSNAZ and the front.

6. Reporting the results of reconnaissance:
a. Armies' Chiefs of reconnaissance: --Recon reports daily at 06:00 and 14:00--Situation reports at 0:500 and 13:00.

--Reports on the situation of reconnaissance troops and means and accomplishment of their tasks in a 24 hour period should be sent daily at 24:00 and situation reports at 20:00.

b. Front reconnaissance units commanders: --Results of reconnaissance are to be reported 4 times a day at 05:00, 11:00, 17:00, 23:00.

--Important information should be reported immediately.

c. From front to GRU: --Reconnaissance reports are to be sent daily at 07:00 and 15:00 and situation reports at 05:00 and 13:00.

--Reconnaissance summary on situation is to be reported daily at 20:00.

--Situation of reconnaissance units and accomplishment of their daily missions is to be reported daily at 20:00.

--Important information on enemy should be reported immediately.

7. Information Dissemination: --Mutual exchange of information between the headquarters of Central Front, Baltic fleet, and Baltic Front is conducted by mutual exchange of documents, reconnaissance information, and personnel information through secret signal channels.

--Reconnaissance information originated at the armies are communicated by signal communication means, courier service, or they are included in reconnaissance summaries, diagrams, maps.

 
 

Figure 270 Front Reconnaissance Plan Map

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Artillery

 
 

Artillery support is a fundamental and critical part of every Soviet major combat operation. At the front level the commander uses his artillery to influence the outcome of the operation by strongly weighing the amount of front artillery he provides to the army(ies) making the main attack. The necessary calculations and resulting directives and instructions are prepared by the staff of the chief of artillery and rocket troops.



Combat Instructions of TVD Commander on Rocket Troops and Artillery

The following points are included in the instructions on employment of rocket troops and artillery issued by the TVD staff to the staffs of fronts:
-- artillery forces which are designated to support the front, their time of arrival and location of deployment, their composition and level of manning in personnel and weapons; shown in a table indicating unit organization, number and type of guns;
-- boundary line between strategic and front nuclear strikes;
-- planned rocket fires of front with the aim of conducting the first nuclear strike on the basis of exact reconnaissance data to destroy the following targets:
---- destruction of nuclear weapons such as nuclear rockets, aviation with nuclear bombs, and nuclear depots;
---- destruction of main grouping of enemy including his tactical nuclear forces;
---- destruction of troops control system including CP's, signal centers, and aviation navigation posts;
---- destruction of PVO means and radars;
---- suppression of rear service targets.
-- during the preparation period and course of the offensive all rocket forces come to the highest combat readiness and one third of rocket forces assume direct readiness # 3 to prepare to fire;
-- the quantity of chemical, nuclear, and conventional rocket warheads available for the operation;
-- the quantity of ammunition available for use in the offensive;
-- to insure the rapid movement of forces on the direction of the main attack, use only chemical or air burst nuclear strikes in order to avoid destruction on the terrain;
-- deliver ammunition directly to the gun positions at the outset to support the rapid resupply during the fire preparation phase;
-- targets on the front axis that will be destroyed by strategic aviation and nuclear submarine fire;
-- means for receiving reconnaissance data from space;
-- preparation of main and alternate positions for rocket forces and artillery in the FUP area for the offensive; deployment of artillery and rocket forces and operational maskirovka including the use of radio electronic combat means for maskirovka;
-- support for the commitment into the engagement of the second echelon armies or fronts from the strategic reserves.



Suggestions of Chief of Artillery and Rocket Forces of the Front during the Estimate of the Situation by the Front Commander

The presentation by the chief of rocket troops and artillery to the front commander is in three parts; his estimate of the situation pertaining to enemy artillery forces and means, his summary of the status of own artillery resources, and his suggestions (recommendations) on the best employment of artillery and rocket forces in support of the front mission. The main points include the following as illustrated in this sample for the Central Front:

--- Enemy forces:

-- Directly opposing the front are located the I UK (blue) Army Corps, I BE (violet) Army Corps, III GE (brown_ Army Corps, V and VII (green) U. S. Army Corps. In their composition are included the following rocket and atomic artillery.

 
 

Figure 271 Enemy Forces

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Figure 271 Enemy Forces

ENEMY NUCLEAR Missile AND ARTILLERY

Atomic artillery Nuclear rockets Nuclear Warheads
Unit 155mm bns 203mm bns Lance Sergeant Pershing
I UK Corps 3 1 1 1 110
I BE Corps 2 1 1 1 40
III GE Corps 3 1 1 1 60
V U. S. Corps 2 2 1 1 1 150
VII U.S. Corps 3 2 1 1 1 180
Strategic med. range rockets 360
Total 900

 
 

Strategic missiles and operational/tactical rockets have occupied their firing positions and are at a state of higher combat readiness. But part of the tactical rockets and atomic artillery to this time have not occupied their positions. The range of fire of the 155mm guns is 18,100 meters, the 203.4 mm guns is 21,000 meters, the the Honest John rocket is 40 km, the Sergeant is 140 km, and the Pershing is 740 km.
The range of the medium strategic missiles 2500 kms.

The enemy in the first nuclear strike may employ up to 700 nuclear warheads and may suppress the front's forces to the full depth. This requires that the enemy's preparation to employ nuclear weapons be carefully and exactly observed and at the determination of his preparedness it is essential that front forces preempt the enemy with our own strike. This will require that the rocket forces be kept at the highest level of preparedness. The enemy's medium range strategic rockets are located in the following areas; ___, ___, and___. Pershing positions are located at ___ and ___ and ___. Sergeant battalions are located ___, ___, and ___. The positions of the Sergeant battalions of the Vth and VIIth Corps have not yet be determined. Reconnaissance must locate their positions and follow them.
-- Assessment of high precision weapons: inncludes the following points; grouping, composition, location, character of activities, capabilities;
--The enemy has designated firing positions in his covering force area, however his artillery has not yet occupied positions there;
-- On the forward defense line the majority of artillery is in prepared positions. The enemy self-propelled artillery at the beginning of its combat action will rapidly occupy its positions and camouflage them and be prepared to fire. For this reason artillery reconnaissance and air and radio-technical reconnaissance must find these positions quickly and report on them. The depth of enemy's range of fire is up to 20 km. For this reason the main forces of the motor rifle and tank formations and units must not occupy FUP areas for the offensive closer than 20 km from the enemy defense lines.

--Own forces

The Central Front has been reenforced for the offensive with 3 artillery divisions and 2 heavy artillery brigades of the reserve of the high command. The composition of these forces in personnel is 90% and from the point of view of equipment 95%.

The Central Front has 5 armies and the artillery of the high command, this all totals to 6400 artillery and mortars and almost 2500 anti-tank guns and guided rockets. In accordance with this, the front is capable and prepared to conduct breakthrough of the enemy defense at a total width of 32 km. The density of artillery on a single km of front will be 100 - 120 guns and mortars.

Supplies of ammunition are at designated norms at the units and army and front depots. For conduct of the offensive operation the front expenditure requirements in ammunition, its resupply during the operation, and creation of supply reserves at the end of the operation are shown in the following table:

 
 

Figure 272 Ammunition requirements and supply

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Figure 272 Ammunition requirements and supply

AMMUNITION REQUIREMENTS, ECHELONMENT, AND RESUPPLY DURING FRONT OPERATION
TYPES OF AMMUNITION IN UNITS OF FIRE
TOTAL REQUIREMENT, QUANTITY, ECHELONMENT AND RESUPPLY SMALL ARMS ARTY & MTRS MRL TANK PVO AIR
TOTAL REQUIRED 4-4.5 7.5-9.0 7.5-9.O 7.5-8.0 8.5-9.5 22-23
QUANTITY ON HAND 2.15 3.25 3.25 5.25 5.75 17.5
WITH TROOP UNITS 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.25 2.0
AT ARMY DEPOTS 0.15 0.30 0.30 0.40 0.50
AT FRONT DEPOTS 1.0 1.95 1.95 2.6 3.25 17.5

(AIR)

ARRIVE DURING OPERATION 1.85-2.3 4.25-5.75 4.25-5.75 2.25-2.75 2.75-3.75
USED IN OPERATION 1.85-2.3 4.24-5.75 4.25-5.75 2.25-2.75 2.75-3.75
CREATE SUPPLY AT END OF OPERATION 2.15 3.25 3.25 5.25 5.75

For conduct of artillery preparation we must supply to the initial firing positions 2.5 units of fire. This is a critical task that will require the attention of the rear service transport elements.

 
 

Suggestions:

One most important mission of artillery during the offensive is the successful completion of the breakthrough of the enemy defense positions. To enable the front artillery organization to be capable of fulfilling that mission, for its conduct, I suggest that the front organize the following artillery groups in the armies , divisions, and regiments:
-- for armies - up to 10 battalions;
-- for divisions on main axis - up to 6 battalions;
-- for regiments on main axis - up to 4 battalions;
For repelling enemy tank attacks I recommend front create the following anti-tank reserves of the formations, large units, and units:
-- a. in the front - 2 anti-tank reserves, one with the composition of up to 1-2 anti-tank brigades and the other of the combat helicopter regiment MI-24 ;
-- b. in the armies - 1 anti-tank regiment;
-- c. in divisions that are on the main axis - 1 anti-tank battalion;
-- d. in the regiments that are on the main axis - 2 anti-tank batteries;
I recommend the distribution of the artillery from the reserve of the high command in the following manner:
-- a. First Guards Tank Army - ___ division;
-- b. Eight Guard Army - ___ division:
-- c. 28th Guards Army - ___division;
-- d.
During the commitment into the engagement of the second echelon army, it should be reenforced with the following artillery ___division;
-- Anti-tank reserve for the armies=___ brigades
-- The width of the breakthrough sector for armies should be distributed as follows:
---- First Guards Tank Army - 8 km
---- Eight Guards Army - 8 km;
---- 28th Guards Army - 8 km;
---- _______ - 8 km

Duration for conduct of artillery preparatory fire and the participation of artillery in it will be determined according the actual situation conditions and the nature of the enemy defense according the recommendations of the chiefs of artillery of the armies.
Artillery support during the course of the offensive must be conducted in a manner to insure the uninterrupted forward movement of the tank and motor-rifle forces. I recommend that, if the enemy has a deep defense area, artillery preparatory fire must be conducted by means of single or double barrage fire to the depth of the full positions of the first echelon battalions, and by means of single or double successive fire to the depth of the first echelon brigades. Artillery accompanying fire should be by means of massive and concentration fire.


Rocket forces

The majority of rocket forces of front are moving into their position areas, and rocket forces of the armies have occupied their positions and division rocket forces are located at a distance of 10 km from the state border in accordance with plans. They have occupied their positions and they are prepared. One third of the rocket forces of front and armies are at a status of combat alert at level 3 of combat readiness for firing. Rocket forces of the front, armies, and divisions in personnel are at 93% and in combat equipment at 97%.

Front has in its composition 100 launchers R-65 and 92 R-300 launchers. For the initial nuclear strike the front is capable of destroying 6 - 9 enemy divisions, and also to suppress nuclear depots, command posts of army groups, corps, divisions, and brigades; the important centers of alarm and guidance, and control of air forces, PVO; and it also may partly suppress tactical aviation on the airfields and also the basic majority of anti-air rockets.

Front for the conduct of the offensive requires 484 rockets, of which 182 are the R-300. At present 250 R-65 and 140 R-300 are on hand in the rocket units and the remainder will arrive during the course of the operation.

For conduct of the offensive operation, the front requires 500 conventional rocket R-65 and 276 rockets R-300 and 200 chemical rockets for R-65 and 92 rockets R-300. All these are on hand in the rocket units.

The most important mission of rocket forces during the offensive is conduct of the initial nuclear strike. In this strike I recommend that we destroy the following targets:
-- a. enemy nuclear rocket in areas ___, ___;
-- nuclear storage at ___, ___;
-- aviation carrying nuclear weapons at ___, and ___;
-- b. destruction of___, and ___ divisions of ___ Corps and ___ division of___corps etc.;
-- c. destruction of command posts of corps ___, ___; and signal communication centers in ___ area; centers for guidance of aviation at ___.
-- d. destruction of anti-air defense system at ___ etc. and radar stations at ___.
-- suppression of rear service targets at ___, ___.

With the aim of strengthening the front initial nuclear strike, I recommend that the rocket forces of divisions of the second echelon armies also participate in it. For this I recommend that they also occupy firing positions at 10 km from the state border.



Combat Instructions of Front Staff on Employment of Rocket Troops and Artillery to Army Staff

The following points are included in the instructions given by the front chief of rocket troops and artillery to the chief of rocket troops and artillery at army:
-- what artillery formations and units and anti-tank units are being assigned to reenforce the army;
-- the time for their assignment, location of their deployment and their organization and composition;
-- organization of security (cover) provided by artillery and rocket forces for the deployment of the army and occupation of the FUP areas by the main army forces;
-- width of the army breakthrough sector in the enemy first defensive line and the density of artillery per kilometer of breakthrough frontage, the time of artillery preparatory fire and amount of ammunition to be used in the preparatory fire;
-- the composition of artillery groups:
---- army group
---- divisions on main attack axis;
---- regiments on main attack axis;
--methods for conduct of support and accompanying fire;
-- means for use of artillery and rocket forces in securing the commitment into the engagement of the second echelon army of the front;
-- organization of anti-tank reserve;
---- army reserve;
---- division on main attack axis;
---- regiments on main attack axis;
-- conduct of air preparation, support, and accompaniment during the corresponding phases of artillery fire including its direction against which targets and reserves in interaction with artillery;
-- quantity of expenditure of ammunition during the offensive and amount required for creation of reserves at end of the operation;
-- how to resupply ammunition during the fire preparation phase directly to army, division, and regimental artillery groups.



Rocket (Missile) forces

upon receipt of the alarm signal how the rocket and artillery forces will shift to the higher state of combat readiness with 30% of rockets going to preparation stage number 3, ready to fire, with the aim of being ready for destruction of the most important enemy targets (especially nuclear weapons) and for participation in the front initial nuclear strike;
-- which rocket forces will participate in the initial nuclear strike;
-- planning for the army rocket forces with the aim of their participation in the front initial nuclear strike conducted on the basis of exact reconnaissance data, for the destruction of the following targets:
---- destruction of nuclear weapons, rockets, launchers, aviation carrying nuclear bombs, atomic artillery, and nuclear depots.
---- destruction of the main forces of which corps and divisions in what region;
---- destruction of control points of divisions and brigades in the area ___ and aviation control navigation centers;
---- destruction of PVO forces and means in which areas, and radar locating stations located ___.
---- suppression of rear service targets in specified regions;
-- plan to use air bursts and chemical strikes in areas on the main attack axis with the aim of reducing the collateral damage to the area and reduce radiation;
-- plan and graphic of the participation of rocket forces in the nuclear strike must be prepared and delivered to the front staff by ___ time;
-- targets in the army area which will be destroyed by front forces;
-- quantity of resupply of nuclear, chemical, and conventional racket warheads during the operation, divided according to use in front first nuclear strike and by army missions;
-- security provided by artillery for commitment into the engagement of the front second echelon;
-- means for securing reconnaissance data from space;
-- time to be prepared to accomplish assigned missions.



 
 

Combat Instructions of the Front Commander on Artillery

Series number
Secret
Copy number #

 
 

To: Chief of Artillery of Eighth Guards Army

Combat instructions on employment of artillery

Command Post ___: Time ___: Date___:

Map__: Scale__; Time of year:


1. The 100th Artillery Division and 103rd Heavy Artillery Brigade of the reserve of the high command are assigned to the army for the offensive. The artillery division will arrive at ___ hrs on ___ date in ___(location) area. The heavy artillery brigade at ___hrs on ___ date will assemble in ___ area. The organization, types of weapons, and number of guns per battery are shown in annex # 1.

2. With the aim of securing (covering) the deployment of the main forces of the army, the destruction of possible enemy strikes, and support for the army going over onto the offensive, each first echelon division will deploy three or four artillery battalions in the covering force area. Prepare positions for this artillery at a distance of 3 - 7 kms from the state border. Also with this aim and for participation of the rocket battalions of first echelon divisions in the initial nuclear strike, deploy these battalions 10 km from the state border. These positions are camouflaged against enemy observation and reconnaissance. In the army FUP areas with the aim of repelling possible enemy strikes, prepare and camouflage main and alternate positions for artillery;

3. The army breakthrough zone in the enemy forward first defense zone is not less than 8 km wide and the density of artillery in this zone will be not less than 110 guns and mortars per km.

4. During the breakthrough of the defense and during the course of the offensive organize the following artillery groups in army, divisions, and regiments that are on the main axis of advance:
-- army artillery group of not less than 10 battalions;
-- division artillery groups of 6 battalions;
-- regimental artillery groups on main axes of up to 4 battalions;

5. With the aim of development of the offensive at a high tempo into the depth of the enemy defense, artillery support fire will be conducted up to the depth of the rear of the enemy first echelon brigades by means of single and double barrage fire and successive concentration fire. After this, accompanying fire for attacking forces will be conducted by concentration fire or massive fire.

6. Commitment into the engagement of the front second echelon army will be supported by a minimum of 10 artillery battalions in the composition of army, division, and regimental artillery groups in the region of commitment in addition to the artillery of the second echelon itself.

7. The composition of the anti-tank reserve of army, divisions, and regiments will be designated by the chief of rocket troops and artillery at the decision of the army commander. (Note that in the composition of the army anti-tank reserve will be the anti-tank brigade of the reserve of the high command.

8. During the conduct of the artillery preparation, support, and accompanying fire; aviation preparation, support, and accompaniment will be conducted by three fighter bomber regimental sorties. Designation of targets and times for air strikes and for support of the security of aviation during fire preparation and the course of the operation is coordinated between the chiefs of rocket troops and artillery, PVO, and the center of combat control of the air army.

9. The quantity of ammunition for the offensive and for creation of reserves at the end of the operation is shown in the annex.

10. For the conduct of fire preparation during the breakthrough of the enemy first line ammunition will be delivered and dumped directly at the firing positions of regimental, division, and army artillery groups. Plan that the duration of fire preparation will be 40 minutes and the quantity of ammunition expended will be 1 unit of fire. This may be changed as needed according to the latest reconnaissance data.

11. The time to be prepared to fulfill the missions is ___.

12. Command posts are located at___.


Signed Chief of front artillery
Chief of Staff of front artillery
Chief of artillery operations department



 
 

Order of Front Chief of Rocket Troops and Artillery to the Front Anti-tank Reserve



Serial Number
SECRET
Copy Number

 
 

To: the Commander of front AT Reserve # 1

Order from chief of rocket troops and artillery

Command post __ Time__ Date__ Map__ Scale__ year__


1. Assessment of enemy
In accordance with the worsening international situation, the commander in chief of NATO forces is secretly bringing NATO forces to full combat readiness and plans a sudden surprise attack on the Warsaw Pact forces. Directly in front of the Central Front are located the forces of the Vth and VIIth U. S. Corps, the IIIrd German Corps, the IInd Belgian Corps, and the Ist British Corps; in the first echelon. These units have the following: ___motorized, mechanized and tank divisions with ___ nuclear rockets, ___atomic artillery, ___tanks, ___ artillery and mortars, ___air defense weapons, ___ helicopters, and ___ combat aircraft.

In the second echelon the U. S. IIIrd Corps deploys and the forces of the West German and French armies are mobilizing to create reserves. In the composition of these forces are the following: ___motorized, mechanized and tank divisions with ___ nuclear rockets, ___atomic artillery, ___tanks, ___ artillery and mortars, ___air defense weapons, ___ helicopters, and ___ combat aircraft. The enemy against the Central Front has ___ medium range strategic rockets. The enemy operations are supported by the 4th OTAC with ___ combat aircraft.


2. The Central Front delivers its main attack on the axis ___. which is conducted by the forces of the 8th Guards Army. The front immediate mission is to seize the line ___ by the 6th day. The front will commit into the engagement the 7th Guards Tank Army on the axis ___ , and on the 13th day reach the coast line between __ and __.


3. The front commander in chief orders:
The ___ Anti-tank Brigade will form the first AT reserve of the front and will deploy in the region ___. It conducts battle against the enemy tanks on the axis of the front main attack: possible lines of repelling enemy counter attacks of tanks are planned ahead to be the following:
-- Line # 1: ___ to ___ axis __
-- Line # 2: ___ to ___ axis ___
-- Line # 3: ___ to ___ axis __
-- Line # 4: ___ to ___ axis ___

The AT reserve during the course of operation moves behind the ___ division of the 8th Guards Army. It will be prepared to repel counterattacking enemy tanks in coordination with the front 1st Mobile Obstacle Detachment and other forces of the army.


4. The quantity of ammunition for the AT artillery and AT rockets during the offensive is 8 units of fire.


5. The time to be prepared to fulfill missions is ___.


6. The command post of the chief of artillery and rocket forces is ___.

Signature: Chief of artillery
Signature: Chief of staff of artillery
Signature: Chief of artillery operations department

 
 

Figure 273-4-5 Plan for employment of Rocket Troops

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Figure 276 Echelonment of Material Means in the Front

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Air

 
 

Air Components in the Preparation of front Offensive Operations

The air army commander conducts both his planning and subsequent air army combat actions themselves on the basis of instructions issued by the commander in chief of the air forces and the decision for the offensive operation made by the front commander.



Instructions of the Commander in Chief of the Air Forces

The instructions given by the commander in chief of the air forces normally include the following points:
-- instructions on deployment of the air army forces and means from currently occupied airfields to new airfields;
-- instructions on preparing a network of main and alternate airfields and also deceptive airfields;
-- instructions on establishing material reserves in the air army mobile bases and on the airbases and airfields used by the air army;
-- instructions on air technical support (to include air traffic control, meteorological support, airfield maintenance, and other similar activities);
-- if a strategic air operation is to be conducted in the context of the TVD strategic operation, instructions on the role and missions of the air army in the operation;
-- if an airborne assault operation is planned in the TVD, instructions are included on the missions, role, and participation of the air army;
-- instructions on air combat support measures (during flight) for long-range aircraft and military transport aviation which operate in the area of operations of the air army and designation of flight corridors for such aircraft;
-- coordination of front air army operations and long-range aircraft operations during the initial strategic nuclear strike and during the strategic air operation;
-- coordination of the front air army with military transport aviation and long-range aircraft during the airborne operation;
-- instructions on supply of nuclear rockets and bombs during the preparation and conduct of the offensive operation;
-- other instructions as needed.



Suggestions of the Air Army Commander to the Front Commander

When the front commander receives the mission for the offensive operation he clarifies it, and, if time is available during his estimate of the situation, he listens to the reports of the chiefs of the different departments and commanders of combat arms and special troops. In this case they report to the front commander on the instructions they have received from higher headquarters, the situation and status of their respective forces, and present their suggestions on the combat employment of their related arms and services. In this case the commander of the air army informs the front commander about instructions received by him from the commander in chief of the air forces and coordinating instructions from higher headquarters and adjacents and other factors based on the operations of adjacent air forces, long-range, transport, and naval aviation which might affect the front's mission either positively or negatively. He also reports the latest information about enemy air forces, as received by his means and that of higher air forces. (He also provides this information to the chief of reconnaissance.) Then he reports the following points during the estimate of the situation:
-- situation and status of air army troops, including where they are, what they are doing, how many airfields and kinds of airfields, etc.;
-- strength of air army troops in terms of aircraft, helicopters, flight crews, supplies, technical materials, and support;
-- situation and status of existing airfields and airbases;
-- deployment of air army forces to new main airfields and the establishment of alternate airfields as well as the preparation of deceptive airfields;
-- capabilities of the air army in the initial nuclear strike of the front to include the number of nuclear bombs and rockets that can be delivered by the air army and how many enemy troops and targets can be destroyed;
-- capability of the air army during the air operation;
-- capability of the air army in support of an airborne landing of tactical airborne assault units;
-- capability of the air army during the preparatory fire, supporting fire, and the course of the front's ground force armies' offensive;
-- capability of the air army in reconnaissance, particularly in the reconnaissance of targets immediately after the initial nuclear strike;
-- capability of the air army to distribute and allocate sorties in terms of front missions, and army missions throughout the operation;
-- capability of the air army to cover the main grouping of frontal forces and rear services installations against enemy aircraft.

The air army commander then makes his suggestions on the employment of air army troops in the following situations:
-- during the initial nuclear strike;
-- during the air operation (if such is planned at the front level);
-- during the landing or dropping of tactical air assault troops;
-- for covering the main front grouping and rear service installations from enemy air attack;
-- the use of air forces to seek and destroy enemy nuclear delivery means;
-- the distribution of air sorties for support of the first echelon armies during the operation;
-- the destruction and suppression of enemy reserves;
-- air reconnaissance.



The Front Commander's Assignment to the Air Army

The front commander assigns the following tasks to the air army after he makes his decision:
-- missions and targets for the air army during the initial nuclear strike. (The air army is normally given small and mobile targets and those located in the deeper areas to be covered in the operation);
-- missions and targets for the air army during the air operation. (If such is planned at front level);
-- missions for the air army during the artillery preparatory fire (in the penetration area, enemy nuclear weapons, command posts, artillery, tanks, rear services); during the assault support fire phase (targets on the direction of the main attack, such as nuclear targets, command posts, artillery, tanks, aircraft, reserves, and other small mobile targets out of range of artillery) and during the course of the offensive operation;
-- reconnaissance missions;
-- distribution of aircraft sorties in terms of front missions and the missions of first-echelon armies;
-- missions of covering the main front grouping and rear service installations against enemy air strikes;
-- missions for destruction and suppression of enemy reserves.



 
 

Figure 277 Distribution of Air Sorties in Terms of Missions

A sample of this table appears on this and the following three pages.

DISTRIBUTION OF AIR SORTIES RESOURCES IN TERMS OF MISSIONS AND DAY OF THE FRONT'S OFFENSIVE OPERATION

TASKS

LARGE UNITS & UNITS

D
D + 1
TASKS
NO & SIZE OF SORTIES NO. OF AC

TASKS
NO. & SIZE OF SORTIES NO. OF AC
FIGHTER AVIATION 335 DIV ESCORT 249 DIV SORTIES

AIR DEFENSE COVER (AD PLAN)

COVER SEABORNE ASSAULT

RECON

RESERVE

2 REGT

6 REGT

1 REGT

1 SQN

1 REGT

62

170

31

10

31

ESCORT 249 DIV SORTIES

AIR DEFENSE COVER

COVER SEABORNE ASSAULT OPS

RECON

RESERVE

2 REGT

4 REGT

1 REGT

1 SQN

1 REGT

58

116

29

9

58

365 DIV ESCORT 283 DIV SORTIES

AIR DEFENSE COVER (AD PLAN)

COVER AIRBORNE ASSAULT

2 REGT

6 REGT

2 REGT

1 SQN

2 SQN

62

170

60

10

31

ESCORT 283 DIV SORTIES

AIR DEFENSE COVER

COVER COMMITMENT OF 2GTA'S OF OMG

RESERVE

2 REGT

4 REGT

1 REGT

1 REGT

58

116

29

58

141 DIV ESCORT 611 DIV SORTIES

AIR DEFENSE COVER (AD PLAN)

COVER AIRBORNE ASSAULT

RECON

RESERVE

3 REGT

6 REGT

1 SQN

1 SQN

1 SQN

85

170

10

10

10

ESCORT 611 DIV SORTIES

AIR DEFENSE COVER

COVER COMMITMENT OF 4CAA OMG

RESERVE

2 REGT

4 REGT

1 REGT

1 REGT

58

116

29

58

FIGHTER BOMBER AVIATION 249 DIV AIR OPS

NUCLEAR SEARCH & DESTROY

SUPPORT 2 GTA

SUPPORT AIRBORNE ASSAULTS

RECON

RESERVE

5 REGT

1 REGT

3 REGT

2 REGT

1 SQN

1 REGT

140

30

85

18

10

30

INTERDICT ENEMY RESERVES

NUCLEAR SEARCH & DESTROY

SUPPORT 2 GTA

RECON

RESERVE

2 REGT

1 REGT

3 REGT

1 SQN

1 REGT

58

28

80

9

28

283 DIV AIR OPS

NUCLEAR SEARCH & DESTROY

SUPPORT 4 CAA & 5 CAA

RECON

RESERVE

4 REGT

2 SQN

4 REGT

1 SQN

1 REGT

118

18

118

10

30

DESTROY ENEMY AIR ON AIRFIELDS

NUCLEAR SEARCH & DESTROY

SUPPORT 4 CAA & 5 CAA

SUPPORT REPULSION OF ENEMY COUNTER-STRIKE

RESERVE

1 REGT

1 SQN

4 REGT

1 REGT

1 REGT

58

28

116

28

28

BOMBER AVIATION 611 DIV AIR OPS

NUCLEAR SEARCH & DESTROY

INTERDICT ENEMY GA RESERVE IN AREA

RECON

RESERVE

2 REGT

2SQN

1 REGT

--

2 SQN

60

18

30

18

DESTROY ENEMY AIR FORCE IN AREA

DESTROY ENEMY GA RESERVE

NUCLEAR SEARCH AND DESTROY

RECON

RESERVE

2 REGT

2 REGT

1 REGT

1 SQN

1 REGT

58

58

28

9

RECON AVIATION 112 TAC REGT RECON PLAN

RESERVE

3 REGT

1 REGT

85

30

RECON PLAN

RESERVE

2 REGT

1 REGT

58

28

118 TAC REGT RECON PLAN

RESERVE

3 REGT

1 REGT

85

30

RECON PLAN

RESERVE

2 REGT

1 REGT

58

28

515 OP REGT RECON PLAN

RESERVE

2 REGT

1 REGT

60

30

RECON PLAN

RESERVE

2 REGT

1 REGT

58

28

TRANSPORT AVIATION (HEL) TRANSPORT AIR-BORNE ASSAULT

SUPPLY & EVACUATION

RESERVE

2 REGT

1 REGT

1 REGT

102

54

54

TRANSPORT AIR-BORNE ASSAULT OF GTA + 4 CAA

SUPPLY & EVACUATION RESERVE

1 REGT

1 REGT

1 REGT

50

50

50


This table is prepared by the front air force staff to show the allocation of aircraft to all the air missions - escort, reconnaissance, air defense cinterdiction, ground support, attack on enemy air fields, support of airborne or air landing assault, and reserves. The sample table shows only D day, D + 1, and D + 6. The full table, of course, would show similar information for all days out to the end of the front operation. According to the reorganization of the Soviet air forces the bomber divisions were removed from the front air armies and placed in strategic or theater level air armies. There they are available either for allocation to individual fronts or for use by the TVD commander in mass strikes. We have shown in this plan the allocation of a bomber division to this front.


DISTRIBUTION OF AIR SORTIES RESOURCES IN TERMS OF MISSIONS AND DAY OF THE FRONT'S OFFENSIVE OPERATION

TASKS

LARGE UNITS & UNITS

D + 2

D + 6

D + 7 ETC
TASKS NO +

SIZE OF

SORTIES

NO. OF AC TASKS NO & SIZE OF SORTIES NO. OF AC
FIGHTER AVIATION 335 DIV ESCORT 249 DIV SORTIES

AIR DEFENSE COVER IN...

COVER MOVEMENT OF 2ND ECH 5 GTA

RECON

RESERVE

1 REGT

2 REGT

1 REGT

1 SQN

1 REGT

30

60

30

9

30

365 DIV ESCORT 283 DIV SORTIES

COVER COMMITMENT OF 5 GTA

AIR DEFENSE IN AREA.....

RESERVE

1 REGT

1 REGT

2 REGT

1 REGT

30

60

30

30

141 DIV ESCORT 611 DIV SORTIES

AIR DEFENSE IN AREA....

COVER AIRBORNE ASSAULT BDE

RESERVE

1 REGT

2 REGT

1 REGT

1 REGT

30

60

30

30

FIGHTER BOMBER AVIATION 249 DIV SUPPORT COMMITMENT OF 5 GTA

DESTROY ENEMY AIR & RESERVES

RESERVE

3 REGT

2 REGT

1 REGT

85

60

30

283 DIV DESTROY ENEMY FORCES & RESERVES ON..... RIVER

SUPPORT RIVER CROSSING OF 1 GTA & 5 GTA

RESERVE

1 REGT

3 REGT

1 REGT

30

85

30

BOMBER AVIATION 611 DIV AIR ACTION TO SUPPORT RIVER CROSSING

SUPPORT OF THE OPERATION OF AIR ASSAULT BDE

RESERVE

2 REGT

1 REGT

1 REGT

60

30

30

RECON AVIATION 112 TAC REGT RECON PLAN 2 REGT 40
118 TAC REGT RECON PLAN 2 REGT 40
515 OP REGT RECON PLAN 2 REGT 40
TRANSPORT AVIATION (HEL) TRANSPORT AIRBORNE ASSAULTS ACROSS RIVER

SUPPLY & EVACUATION

RESERVE

1 REGT

1 REGT

1 REGT

40

40

12


 
 

Figure 277 Distribution of air sorties in missions
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Figure 278 Graphic of Initial Nuclear Strike by Air Army{short description of image}


 
 

Figure 279 Graphic of Air Operation
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Air Defense

 
 

General Staff Instructions on Air Defense

The general staff (commander of military district) specifies the following in its instructions on the air defense system:
-- What air defense large units of the PVOS system, and what air defense resources of military districts have been deployed in the army's marching zone, and what missions have been assigned to them;
-- Method of coordination (interaction) of army air defense units with the above-mentioned PVOS and military district air defense means;
-- Method of reconnoitering the enemy air activities and warning of the army troops about enemy aircraft.



Instruction of TVD Headquarters on Air Defense

The following points are contained in the directive and instructions issued by the TVD headquarters to the front:
-- composition of front air defense troops and fighter aviation of the front air army;
-- interaction of the front air defense is coordinated with what national air defense large units and formations, and air defense of adjacent fronts;
-- missions of large units and formations of national air defense forces, navy, adjacent fronts and method of interaction with them;
-- missions of front air defense on the following:
---- organization of aerial enemy reconnaissance and method of warning of the troops;
---- areas and targets to be covered by the air defense troops;
----boundaries of front air defense forces;
---- participation of front and its missions in repulsing the enemy's massive air strike;
---- missions on support of the flight of long range aviation, transport aviation and naval aircraft within the boundaries and area of the front;
----air defense cover of supply routes and cover of the second echelon front forces and other strategic reserves in the front area.
--supporting measures:
---- supply of rockets and air defense ammunition;
---- air defense maskirovka;
---- radio electronic warfare;
---- other measures.
--air defense troop control points, communication centers and the method of their relocation during the operation.



Contents of the Decision of the Front Commander on Air Defense During the Offensive

The front commander of air defense forces makes a decision concerning the employment of air defense forces and means. The decision contains the following points:
-- place, time and that grouping of forces (targets) for which the main effort of the air defense is concentrated for covering at the beginning and during the conduct of the operation;
-- grouping of forces and means of the front air defense;
-- which armies must be reinforced by the front air defense means and by what air defense forces and means, at what time, and for the accomplishment of what missions of the operation;
-- the method for repulsing enemy air strikes;
-- principles of the interaction of the front air defense forces among themselves;
-- distribution of combat sorties of fighter aviation;
-- measures on high combat readiness of the air defense system in case of the enemy's surprise attack and method for repulsing it; and composition of on duty forces and means of the front's air defense troops;
-- method of deployment of air defense large units and units and their maneuver during the operations, time of preparation of the air defense forces and means and reconnaissance and warning system in general at the beginning of the operation;



Front Instruction on Organization of Air Defense

As part of the directives and instructions issued by the front commander the following points are specified for air defense troops and means:
-- deductions from the assessment of the aerial enemy, grouping of the aerial enemy and characteristic of his action;
-- missions of the air defense;
-- instructions on reinforcement of armies by air defense means;
-- interaction:
-- interaction of air defense troops with fighter aviation;
-- interaction with national air defense troops;
-- missions of front's fighter aviation on air defense cover of front forces and targets;
-- troop control.



Report and Suggestions of the Chief of Front's Air Defense During Front Commander's Decision-making

During the front commander's decision-making he calls upon the chief of air defense to provide information and make suggestions on the proper use of air defense forces and means. This includes the following:

Information
-- asessment of aerial enemy:
---- composition of the enemy
---- likely characteristics of enemy action;
---- directions of strikes;
---- action in terms of altitudes, number of aircraft in groups, etc.
-- stuation, status and characteristic of action of the front air defense troops;
-- capabilities of the front air defense troops regarding repulsion of enemy's massive air strikes, covering of vital front targets during critical phases of the operation;
-- aailability and supply of air defense rockets during the preparation and during the conduct of the operation;
-- srength level of air defense troops in terms of personnel and equipment;
-- mssions of air defense troops during the preparation of the operation and targets to be covered;
-- missions of the air defense troops during the operation and the method of their relocation;

Suggestions
-- method of repulsing the enemy's massive air strikes;
-- suggestions on reinforcement of armies by front air defense means at specific times, during specific missions and specific phases of the operation;
-- suggestions on distribution of air sorties of the fighter aviation;
-- method of reconnaissance of the aerial enemy and warning of the troops during the preparation and conduct of the operation;
-- organization of interaction among front air defense troops, with national air defense troops and adjacent fronts; interaction among air defense rocket troops and fighter aviation of the front's air army;
--calculations related to the employment of the front's air defense troops to be used in making the decision by the front commander.



Control of Fighter Aviation

At the time the air force is raised to the state of full combat readiness, the air army deputy commander, along with a number of air force officers and communications means, moves to the front's main command post and closely interacts with the chief of the front's air defense regarding the control and combat employment of the fighter aviation in the following areas:
-- the method of warning on the air situation;
-- the distribution of the areas of combat action of fighter aviation and units of air defense rocket and artillery;
-- specifying interaction of aircraft with air defense rocket and artillery in a single area;
-- specifying duty areas (combat air patrol) of fighter aviation in the air and interception lines of the aerial enemy and specifying which fighter aviation will be on duty status at the airfields as well as development (expansion) of their action during the enemy's air strikes.
-- deployment and method of relocation of positions, observation posts, guidance and target identification points at the locations of air defense rocket troops;
-- support of flight security of friendly aircraft in fire zones of air defense rocket and artillery;
-- specifying signals for interaction, mutual identification and target identification;

 
 

Engineer

 
 

Employment of Engineer Troops in Front Offensive Operations



Aim of Engineer Support in Front Offensive Operations

The aims of engineer support in offensive operations are the following:
-- to create necessary conditions for timely and concealed (secret) movement and deployment of front forces for the attack;
-- maintain and enhance protection of personnel and equipment against all enemy means of destruction;
-- repulse likely enemy attacks and strikes;
-- support of high speed attacks in obstacle and mass-destruction areas.

These aims are achieved through the accomplishment of a number of engineer support tasks. The content and volume of these tasks depend on the concept of the operation and the concrete operational and strategic situation under which the offensive operation is prepared and conducted.



Engineer Support Tasks During the Preparation of Front Offensive Operations

The following are engineer support tasks during the preparation of front offensive operations:
-- engineer reconnaissance of the enemy and the terrain;
-- engineer support of the preparation of the offensive operations of first-echelon armies;
-- engineer preparation of facilities (fortification) for the position areas of rocket troops and air defense rockets;
-- engineer preparation of facilities for deployment (assembly) areas of second-echelon troops and front reserves;
-- establish road networks to support the maneuver of front troops;
-- engineer preparation of facilities for troop control points;
-- conduct engineer measures in support of operational maskirovka;
-- engineer support for departure (initial) airfields of front aviation;
-- engineer supply of front troops and technical support of engineer troops;
-- prepare defensive lines on desired directions to repel enemy attacks, in case of the explicit threat of enemy aggression;
-- make preparations regarding the conduct of engineer measures to eliminate the consequences of enemy nuclear attacks.



Engineer Support Tasks During Conduct of Front Offensive Operations

These tasks are conducted to establish favorable conditions for the development of the attack at high speed and protection of personnel against enemy means of destruction. They are as follows:
-- engineer reconnaissance of the enemy and the terrain;
-- engineer support for the attack of first-echelon armies during their passage through enemy security zones, breakthroughs of enemy defenses, and development of the attack in the depth of enemy defenses;
-- engineer support for major river crossings;
-- engineer support for movement and commitment of front second-echelon troops and reserves;
-- support for consolidation of important lines and repulsion of counterstrikes of large enemy groupings;
-- support for landings and combat actions of airborne and seaborne assault forces;
-- engineer support for front aviation combat actions;
-- engineer support for actions of rocket (SSM) and air defense rocket troops;
-- establishment of front command posts;
-- operational maskirovka;
-- extraction and purification of water;
-- elimination of the consequences of the enemy's use of mass-destruction weapons and restoration of combat capabilities of front troops;
-- organization of the supplying of troops with engineer equipment and material.



Organization of Combat Employment of Engineer Troops in Front Offensive Operations

The organization of combat employment of engineer troops in offensive operations includes a number of measures conducted by the chief of engineer troops and his staff on planning and all-around engineer support of the offensive operation. The most important elements of organization of combat employment of engineer troops are as follows:
-- making decisions and planning engineer support;
-- assigning missions and engineer instructions;
-- grouping the engineer troops during preparation for offensive operations and during conduct of offensive operations;
-- preparing attack departure (FUP) areas and command posts (control points);
-- collecting and dumping engineer equipment, armament, and material;
-- organizing political work in engineer units and subunits;
-- organizing all types of supporting measures including engineer support;
-- preparing engineer troops for combat action;
-- maintaining high combat-readiness for conduct of assigned missions.

Engineer support of the offensive operation is conducted on the basis of the following:
-- the concept of the decision of the front commander;
-- the front commander's instructions on engineer support;
-- the instructions of the chief of engineer troops of the higher echelon.

The chief of front engineer troops organizes the plan of engineer support of the offensive operation based on the aforementioned.



Plans for Engineer Support

The plans for engineer support of offensive operations are prepared on a 1/500,000 or 1/200,000 scale map with written instructions. The plan reflects the following:
-- principle tasks of engineer support:
---- 1. engineer support tasks during preparation of operations;
----2. engineer support tasks during the conduct of the operation.
--areas and times of the conduct of the aforementioned missions and troops assigned to accomplish them;
-- deployment areas for engineer troops during the conduct of the operation;
-- method of relocation of engineer troops during the conduct of the operation;
-- organization of support and supply of troops by engineer equipment, armament, and material.



Graphic Part of the Plan

The graphic part of the plan reflects the following:
-- brief assessment of the strength, means, and likely character of enemy actions;
-- operational formation (structure - deployment) of the front and armies in the departure (FUP) areas and the immediate and long-range missions of the front and armies;
-- areas of breakthroughs in the enemy's defense;
-- lines of commitment of second-echelon forces of armies and the front into engagement;
-- command posts (control points) of the front and armies in the departure (FUP) areas and their relocation during the operation;
-- boundary lines between armies and with adjacent fronts.

The written instructions include information and necessary calculations such as the following:
-- combat composition, grouping and distribution of engineer troops among armies, elements of combat formations and different missions, and regroupment of engineer troops during the operation;
-- availability and distribution of engineer equipment and material in terms of missions and among armies;
-- measures on protection of troops against enemy mass-destruction weapons.



Grouping of Engineer Troops

Engineer troops are grouped as follows to conduct various engineer missions in front offensive operations:
-- engineer troops assigned to conduct engineer support missions at front levels;
-- engineer troops attached to first-echelon armies;
-- engineer troops being attached to front surface-to-surface and air defense rocket troops;
-- one to two mobile obstacle detachments (POZ);
-- engineer reserve.

The grouping of engineer troops is not a permanent structure. Depending on the actual situation it is changed and reformed during the conduct of the operation. On the basis of the plan of front engineer support missions are assigned to the following:
-- troops;
-- motorized rifle and tank formations;
-- large units.

They are assigned through instructions on engineer support to engineer units and large units through combat instructions.



Engineer Support During Assault River Crossings of front Forces

Engineer support for assault river crossings over wide rivers is organized to create favorable conditions for the following:
-- rapid arrival of troops to river obstacles on a wide front;
-- their crossing at current speeds of attack;
-- development, without halt, of the attack into the depth of enemy defenses.

During the process of making decisions the following are assessed:
-- width, current velocity, depth, nature of the river beds and banks;
-- presence of hydrotechnical establishments, bridges, crossings, fords, communication routes;
--seasonal characteristics;
-- time of day;
-- other factors.

Crossing over small rivers (60 m wide) is organized by division commanders using divisional forces and means. Crossing medium rivers (60-150 m wide) is organized by army commanders using army forces and means. The front commander organizes crossings over wide (major) rivers (more than 150 m wide) using front forces and means.

In the Western TVD it will be necessary to cross 2-3 wide (major) rivers before reaching a depth of 600-800 km. In case of the destruction of dams, the number of rivers of that size to be crossed by the front may increase.

The wide (major) rivers are crossed from the move (without stopping). If crossing from the move (line of march) does not succeed, crossing is conducted after brief preparation. A planned (deliberate) crossing over wide (major) rivers is conducted when our own forces initiate the crossing from a position of direct contact with the enemy on the river.

While making the decision, the front commander in addition to other common issues specifies the following points:
-- assault crossing areas of first-echelon armies;
-- methods of troop river crossings;
-- employment of crossing means and their maneuvers;
-- location of front crossing points, time of their preparation, and form of their use;
-- organization of air defense at assault river crossing areas and conduct of other supporting measures.

Engineer support of wide (major) river crossings conducted at front levels includes the following: (See Chapter Five for capabilities and norms for river crossings)
-- engineer reconnaissance of rivers to the entire depth of the front offensive operations, roads leading to rivers, and enemy defenses on water obstacles;
-- support of rapid and organized movem ent of troops to water obstacles;
-- establishment of crossing points and crossing support for first-echelon armies, rocket troops, air defense rockets, second-echelon troops, reserves, and rear service elements;
-- organization and conduct of traffic, commandant, rescue, and evacuation services at crossing points;
-- establishment of departure (FUP) areas of troops for river crossings and positions of air defense rocket and antiaircraft artillery units which cover crossing points;
-- establishment of underwater bridges, bridges to replace floating bridges, and establishment of deceptive crossing points;
-- providing security for crossing points against floating mines and enemy saboteurs.

The following combat employment is specified on the basis of the front commanders decision:
-- pontoon bridge construction;
-- assault river crossings;
-- engineer bridging units.

When available means are limited crossing means are attached to armies operating on main directions or where success has been achieved and part of the crossing means such as one sixty ton bridge are retained at the front level as reserve.



Engineer Support of Commitment of Front Second-Echelon Troops into Engagement

Commitment of front second-echelon troops into engagement is planned during the initial planning of front offensive operations. During the conduct of the operation, the time and the line of commitment of the front's second-echelon is reconfirmed.

The aim of engineer support of commitment of second-echelon troops into engagement is to provide for the following:
-- timely arrival of second-echelon troops in specified areas (lines of commitment(;
-- support of their advance;
-- their deployment;
-- their protection against enemy strikes from the flanks.

The engineer support of the movement of the front's second-echelon troops and their commitment into engagement includes the following measures:
-- engineer reconnaissance of the movement area of the secondechelon army and the direction of movement of reserves;
-- establishing deployment (assembly) and daily (nightly) rest areas;
-- establishing troop movement routes;
-- engineer support for preparing crossing sites at water obstacles, during advance, and for movement of the second-echelon;
-- supporting deployment of large units during commitment into combat;
-- breaching lanes in areas of enemy obstacle, deployment, and commitment of second-echelon troops into engagement;
-- covering troop flanks during their deployment and commitment into engagement by mobile obstacle detachments and antitank reserves of the front and armies;
-- conducting measures on operational deception (maskirovka);
-- conducting measures eliminating consequences of enemy nuclear weapon use.

The movement of second-echelon troops from assembly areas is usually conducted on available roads prepared in advance. Roads stretched by first-echelon armies during the operation may also be used. To support the movement of a second-echelon army at least two routes are required for each first-echelon army division and at least one route for army troops. Thus, depending on the number of divisions moving in the army's first-echelon a total of at least five to seven routes will be needed for the movement of the front's second-echelon army for commitment into engagement. Routes are prepared for use in a limited time. The speed of their preparation must be coordinated with the speed of advance of the first-echelon armies. On each direction one engineer road construction company is needed. For all directions (roads) one engineer road construction and bridging regiment and pontoon and bridge units are required. Simultaneously, one to two alternate (reserve) routes are also established.

If the terrain is rugged and if there is alot of obstacles and destruction, the engineer reserves are also employed to construct bypassing routes.

During deployment of front second-echelon troops into engagement, each battalion needs one to two routes which will be established by second-echelon engineer subunits. Lanes in mine obstacles are also breached by these subunits.

To support the commitment of second-echelon troops into engagement the chief of engineer troops closely works with the front's operational directorate to conduct engineer reconnaissance of roads by helicopter.


Engineer Support for Consolidation of Vital Seized Lines and Repulsion of Enemy Counterstrikes During Conduct of Offensive Operations

Organization for engineer support of vital seized lines depends on the following:
-- conditions of operational situation;
-- conditions of terrain;
-- repulsion of counterstrikes of groupings of enemy forces.

The front consolidates the seized lines in the following situations:
-- during arrival of troops at seacoasts;
-- when the front reaches the final line of the assigned mission;
-- when the front is forced to repel counterstrikes of superior enemy forces.

The nature of engineer support will depend on these conditions.



Aim of Engineer Support

The aim of engineer support under these conditions is to create necessary conditions providing for the following:
-- stability and firmness of defense;
-- enhancing effectiveness of fire of all types of weapons;
-- increasing protection of personnel and equipment.

Engineer tasks in such conditions are as follows:
-- engineer fortification of positions of first-echelon armies;
-- engineer fortification of positions of artillery, rocket troops, air defense rocket, and artillery;
-- establishment of engineer obstacles in front of forward lines, on open flanks, and in the depth;
-- construction of roads supporting the maneuver of troops while taking up the defense;
-- establishment of command posts (control points) installations.

The following are employed to establish engineer fortifications:
-- engineer units and subunits of first-echelon defending armies;
-- front reserve engineer units and subunits;
-- front trench-digging (fortification) units and subunits.

Time for conducting this mission will be very limited. It will last a few hours or up to one day (24-hrs.). Engineer work will be first priority.


Engineer Obstacles

To establish engineer obstacles actions are conducted the same way as they are for establishment of obstacles in front of the forward defensive line and in the depth of the defense. To accomplish this mobile obstacle detachments of the front and first-echelon armies are employed. They interact with antitank reserves or act independently to conduct their missions. front engineer reserves may also be employed to establish engineer obstacles. In addition to obstacles established in front of forward defense lines, obstacles are also established in depths. Depending on the situation, in areas of likely enemy counterstrikes, obstacles are further reinforced. To establish such obstacles combat engineer subunits operating from helicopters are employed.



Preparation of Roads

The preparation of roads to support the movement of troops to designated areas and maneuver routes to support the maneuver of troops are conducted by army and front engineer road construction units.

Engineer preparation of positions of rockets and artillery troops are conducted by troops employing their own engineer sub-units and combat troops.

 
 

Figure 280 Distribution of front engineers and engineer units of VGK
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Figure 280 Distribution of front engineers and engineer units of VGK

GROUPINGS OF ENGINEER TROOPS FOR FRONT OFFENSIVE OPERATION

Engineer Units



Elements of FRONT

Combat Formations

Combat Eng. Regts Engr Rd & Bridge Bde Pontoon Bridge Regts Assault River Crossing Bns Maskirovka Bns Mine Clear Bns CP Const Bns Engr. Repair Bns Engr Obstacle Bn
1 Rgt 12 Rgt 13 Rgt 11 Bde 14 Bde 15 Bde 4 Rgt 16 Rgt 17 Rgt 3 Bn 8 Bn 4 Bn 19 Bn CP Bn Rear Bn 114 Bn 115 Bn 116 Bn 117 Bn
12 Army (Main Attack)
13 Army (Supporting Attack)
14 Army
15 Tank Army At Time of Commitment
FRONT Control Engr Tasks
Rocket & SAM Troops
POZ #1
POZ #2
Engineer Reserve

 
 

Signal

 
 

Organizing and Planning Signal Communications in Front Offensive Operations

One of the most important conditions for insuring troop control in front offensive operations is establishing constant, uninterrupted signal communications. Establishing warning communications systems is one of the most important responsibilities of the commander and staff along with organizing and maintaining continuous signal communications with the following:
-- subordinate formations;
-- large units and units;
-- interacting troops;
-- rear services.

The chief of signal is responsible for organizing and maintaining uninterrupted signal communications. Through the chief of signals, the chief of staff guides and leads the process of organizing communications with the following:
-- subordinate and interacting formations;
-- large units and units.

He specifies the principle measures on organizing signal communications and employment of signal communication means.

Signal communication is organized and planned on the basis of the following:
-- front commander's decision for the offensive operation;
-- instructions from the chief of staff and chief of signal;
-- instructions from higher command.



Plan for Employment of Signal Troops

Contents of the Signal Plan

Within the signal plan there are separate sections and diagrams dealing with the following elements of front wide communications: radio relay, landlines (local and auxiliary), axes of communications, and establishment of intermediary communications centers. Generally, only those items which cannot be sufficiently addressed in the signal plan diagrams are covered by narrative discussion. In terms of responsibility for the planning and organization of signal components; courier, radio relay, and landline communications are handled by the front staff.

There are three major heading in the written part of the signal plan. The first is the "Aim and Concept of the Signal Plan". The second is the "Mission of the signal units". The third major heading is the "Establishment of Communications Links". This last heading includes information for radio, radio relay, land line, and courier communications.

Planning signal communications includes working out the signal plan prepared on a 1/500,000 or 1/200,000 scale map. It reflects the following communications systems:
-- wire communications systems;
-- radio-relay communications systems;
-- mobile communications systems;
-- diagram of the radio communications system.

On the plan map the following points are marked:
-- boundaries and missions of fronts and armies;
-- command posts of front and armies in the FUP area and relocation of them during the conduct of the operation;
-- command posts of the air army, rocket troops and artillery, and air defense troops;
-- command posts of radio-electronic combat troops, reconnaissance troops, engineer troops, and chemical troop, etc.;
-- areas for deployment of forward and rear bases of the front rear services, bases of the front's rear services hospitals, the front's forward hospitals bases, sections of the front's rear services rocket technical bases, and other important installations of the front's rear services;
-- signal centers of the front's and armies command posts;
-- axis and directions of the front and armies wire communications systems;
-- axis and directions of the front and armies radio-relay communications systems;
-- direction, axes, and circular paths of mobile communications means of the front and armies;
-- centers and stations of the front and armies field mail service and the front's bases and state field mailing centers;
-- the airfield for the combined signal aviation regiment;
-- areas of deployment for front signal supply and repair units.

As for front radio communications, the diagram of radio communications is prepared. In addition a number of tables, annexes, and written instructions and documents are prepared as annexes to the signal plan. The signal plan is signed by the front chief of staff and chief of signals. It is approved by the front commander.



Tables in the Signal Plan

One of the first tables to appear in the signal plan is the "Distribution of Signal Units and means". This table contains instructions for the various signal battalions regarding their responsibilities in setting up communication links between the various command posts. The table assigns different battalions to establish signal centers for command posts at various stages of the operation, i.e. front main, front forward, front auxiliary.

The frequency allocation table outlines the band-widths within which the command, staff, and other radio nets and directions will be operating. This preplanned assignment is intended to alleviate interference between friendly units before the operation actually begins. Another table which appears within the signal plan is the "Table of Resources", which resembles a TOE chart for the signal assets of the given echelon.

In general, these instructional documents fall into three classes. The first is the combat documents, which are actual guides for the operation, such as the radio signals plan. front level information displaying nets and directions in tabular form is not disseminated beyond front headquarters. A second class of document is the instructional documents, which include such items as the distribution of signal units and means as well as the frequency charts. The third class of documents is explanatory documents, and these are basically support documents such as the resources table. Only written documents are disseminated. The full scale charts and maps may be viewed by lower echelon officers when at the front headquarters and notes may be made of the information. But such charts and tables may not be physically removed from the front (or army or division) headquarters.

Combat instructions are compartmented and distributed to the appropriate officers at the lower command echelons. These documents are signed by the front chief of staff, sent to the signals chiefs at lower echelons, and reviewed by the front staff at well.

An additional set of documents and staff exist for secret communications, which include cryptological communications. The staffs of these directorates and sections have access to the necessary ciphers and codes. Although much of the documentation is compartmented apart from normal signals materials, no separate net exists strictly for cryptographic communications.



Cryptographic security instructions

SAMPLE

To the ------ Army Chief of Staff:

1. Documents to be used:

-- conversation table (#0460A)

-- code table (#0891B)

2. After --- (date) use the following code keys:

-- for conversation table -- key series #3 column #65

-- for code table.. key series #2

3. Alternate code keys

-- for conversation

-- for code table

4. Signal for switch to alternate code keys--

5. Report compromise of code key by signal ....

Chief of cipher section Chief of staff

 
 

Figure 281 Frequency allocation table
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Figure 281 FREQUENCY ALLOCATION TABLE

FREQUENCY ALLOCATION TABLE

Radio nets

Type of Radio sets and assigned frequency blocks

R-140 R-137 R-130 R-111 R-123 R-102 R-145
Command net #1
Command net #2
Command net #3
Command dir #3
Command dir #4
Command dir #5
Staff net #6
Staff dir #7
Staff dir #8
RT&A net #9
Air net #10
Engr. etc
 
 

Figure 282 Conversation table
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Figure 282 Conversation table

CONVERSATION TABLE

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10
















 
 

Radio-electronic Warfare

 
 

Principle Measures for the Organization of Radio-electronic Warfare

General

In front offensive operations, radio-electronic warfare is organized by the front staff on the basis of the decision of the front commander and the instructions of the armed forces general staff on radio-electronic warfare. Before the front commander makes his decision the front staff estimates the electronic situation, determines the number of command posts and important electronic targets in the enemy command and control system of troops and weapons to be destroyed, and proposes suggestions to the front chief of staff on the organization of radioelectronic warfare. In the process of making operational decisions the front commander specifies the forms for interrupting the enemy command and control system and the measures to protect the reliability of friendly forces' command and control.

The chief of staff issues instructions on radio-electronic warfare on the basis of the commander's decision, and with close consideration for the suggestions made by the chief of operations, the chief of reconnaissance, the chief of radio-electronic warfare and the chiefs of other arms and services.  In such instructions the chief of staff specifies the aim, the general concept of radio-electronic warfare, and the principal targets in the enemy electronic system to be destroyed by fire.

He also assigns the following missions to the chiefs of combat arms, special troops, and services, and also to organic and attached operational formations, large units and units: the component elements of radio-electronic warfare, including electronic reconnaissance, electronic jamming, electronic protection and the distribution of electronic means and supplies.  All measures to be taken in this connection are coordinated with each other.

Following the announcement of the front commander's decision and the instructions of the chief of staff on the organization of radio-electronic warfare, the front staff plans radioelectronic warfare, establishes the required grouping of troops and means to conduct electronic jamming, organizes the preparation of such groups to execute the assigned missions, issues missions for radioelectronic warfare to the troops, organizes control over the execution of the assigned mission and also organizes the troop control and interaction among the troops and means employed to conduct radio-electronic warfare.



The content and method for conducting the principal measures for the organization of radioelectronic warfare.

Estimate of the Electronic Situation:

The estimate and assessment of the electronic situation, as a element in the estimate of the general situation, is made by the front staff and all chiefs of combat and combat support arms and services who are involved in the employment of electronic means. The assessment is made in close consideration of the forms of conduct of the offensive operation with or without the employment of nuclear weapons, and in accordance with the operational situation and the direction of the troops' operation.  The estimate of the electronic situation considers enemy electronic systems and means used in command and control of its troops and weapons in the front's attack area, enemy radioelectronic warfare means, friendly electronic systems and means, front electronic jamming troops and means, terrain conditions and the transmission of radio waves. 

Analysis and assessment of enemy electronic systems and means used in command and control of its troops and weapons are made jointly by the chief of radioelectronic warfare and chief of reconnaissance.  They determine the most important and dangerous elements of the enemy's electronic systems in order that they will be jammed during the operation by electronic jamming devices in coordination with friendly means of destruction that are to be employed to destroy enemy electronic systems and means by firepower.  They consecutively analyze and evaluate available information on each enemy command and control system with their different elements and at different levels of command from army group and OTAC down to and including battalions.

Depending on the conditions of preparation for the operation, during the planning of the operation of friendly forces, the enemy may not have succeeded in the deployment of its forces and their field command and control system. Therefore, during the assessment and estimate of the electronic situation and electronic systems used in command and control of the enemy nuclear force, army, air and air defense forces, the most likely grouping (configuration) of enemy electronic troops and means is taken into consideration.

For each enemy electronic system, the mission, significance, composition, deployment, capabilities, and likely routine of operation are analyzed and evaluated.  Their strong and weak points and aspects, as well their most dangerous elements, are determined and, finally detailed calculations concerning the jamming of likely electronic targets at each echelon and in each system are worked out.



Conclusion

In the conclusion of the estimate of the electronic situation relevant deductions about capabilities, methods, forms and the duration of destroying the operation of enemy systems in the course of offensive operations, with or without employment of nuclear weapons, are made and accordingly, the required number and type of troops and means are specified for the conduct of electronic jamming.

In respect to each enemy electronic system, the chief of the front radio-electronic warfare assesses, on the basis of detailed calculations, the capabilities of special purpose units in jamming enemy systems on the axis of the main attack and on supporting attack directions, in connection with the mission of the troops in the operation.

On the basis of the assessment of the enemy electronic system the chief of front radioelectronic warfare, jointly with the front's operation department, specifies the number of command posts and electronic targets to be jammed and to be destroyed in the enemy command and control system during the offensive operation, with or without the employment of nuclear weapons.

All chiefs of combat and combat support arms and services at front's headquarters, who are utilizing electronic means in their own operations, including the chief of radioelectronic warfare, make a special estimate of the electronic situation in support of electronic protection of the system and means used in their respective arms and services.  In the process of system assessment, they consider the detected or likely grouping of enemy electronic reconnaissance and electronic jamming troops and means and, consequently, they determine the enemy capability to detect and jam the operation and also destroy the electronic systems employed in their respective arms and services by electronic jamming and by rockets equipped with electronic homing guidance.  They also assess the impact of enemy actions to transmit false information. Their estimate of the situation is made on the basis of detailed calculations in close consideration of the characteristics and operational routine of their own electronic systems, as well as enemy electronic reconnaissance means and electronic jamming stations. 

The overall estimate of the electronic situation concerning the friendly forces should be made by the chief of the operations department on the basis of special assessments made by the chiefs of radioelectronic warfare, reconnaissance, signal, air defense, and artillery and rocket troops.

The conclusion deduced from the estimate of the electronic situation is reported to the front commander before he makes the decision about the operation. Such deductions are also reflected in planning documents for radioelectronic warfare.

The content of such deductions can be as follows: 
-- likely impact on the electronic situation in case of the employment of nuclear weapons; likely impact of the actual conditions under which the offensive operation is conducted; measures taken by the Supreme Command and adjacent units for radioelectronic warfare. 
-- enemy electronic targets and command posts to be destroyed by destructive means or to be jammed by jamming means; the capabilities of the front to interrupt the command and control of enemy troops and weapons by electronic jamming means. 
-- enemy capability to detect and interrupt the operation of the front electronic system, likely axes of concentration of the efforts of enemy electronic reconnaissance means, as well as of its electronic jamming developed prior to the commencement of operations as well as during the conduct of the operation.
-- suggestions for the organization of radioelectronic warfare. 


Decision

In making the decision for the operation (combat action), the commander specifies:  on what axes, in which phases, at what levels, and by what forms and means, enemy command and control of the troops should be destroyed.  He also specifies the measures to ensure the reliability of friendly forces command and control of the troops.

On the basis of the commander's decision, and in close consideration of the suggestions made by the chiefs of operation, reconnaissance, and radioelectronic warfare, and the chiefs of the other arms and services, the front chief of staff issues instructions on radioelectronic warfare which are documented in the form of combat instructions on radioelectronic warfare.  In such instructions the following points are specified. 
-- the axes of concentration of the main efforts of radioelectronic warfare, the method and forms of its execution, the method covering and protecting the grouping of troops and targets against enemy electronic jamming operations;
-- targets and principal means in the electronic system of enemy command and control which are to be destroyed by fire power;
-- missions to chiefs of departments of arms and services, operational formations, large units and units on all component aspects of radioelectronic warfare including electronic reconnaissance, electronic jamming and electronic protection.



Planning Radio-electronic Warfare

On the modern battlefield, radio-electronic warfare is of a universal nature and is involved in the combat employment of all combat arms, combat support arms and services.  Therefore, radio-electronic warfare is an area of responsibility and interest of the front commander, army and division commanders, combined arms and special arms staffs, and the chiefs of all arms and services.  It is by no means the responsibility and area of operations of the chief of radioelectronic warfare alone. Generally, the principal organizer of radioelectronic warfare is the staff of the combined arms formation (front staff, army staff), primarily the chief of staff. 

The measures for radio-electronic warfare are planned in the framework of the operation.  It is reflected in the following documents: 
-- in the reconnaissance plan and in the plans for the combat employment of special purpose units and special purpose reconnaissance units;
-- in the plan for electronic jamming;
-- in the plan for combat employment of artillery and rocket troops;
-- in air defense, signal communications, engineer and chemical plans and in the operational concealment plan.

The following points concerning radio-electronic warfare are reflected in the plan of the operation: 
-- inflicting losses on enemy command posts and signal centers by nuclear attacks and fire strikes;
-- seizure of enemy command posts and signal centers;
-- destruction of enemy radio-electronic warfare means.

The following points are reflected in the reconnaissance plan and the plans for combat employment of special-purpose units and special-purpose reconnaissance units:
-- missions to acquire information about enemy electronic means and to provide combat arms and services as well as electronic jamming troops with reconnaissance information;
-- the employment of special-purpose reconnaissance groups using different types of electronic jamming devices;
-- missions to protect electronic systems of reconnaissance organs and units;
-- missions of special-purpose reconnaissance groups on reconnaissance, destruction and seizure of enemy command posts and electronic means.

The following points are reflected in the plan for electronic jamming worked out by the chief of radioelectronic warfare: 
-- mission to detect enemy electronic means, and on target indication for electronic jamming means;
-- missions of electronic jamming units to jam and interfere in the operation of electronic systems and means in the enemy command and control set-up;
-- protection of electronic means, as well as of special-purpose radio and radio-technical units; measures to supply equipment and stores to electronic systems in case of enemy jamming operations.

The following points are reflected in the plan for combat employment of artillery and rocket troops: 
-- missions to deal with enemy electronic means;
-- employment of different types of electronic jamming means;
-- inflicting losses on enemy command posts, signal center electronic troop control means, enemy electronic warfare means and reconnaissance means;
-- measures to protect artillery and rocket troops' electronic systems.

Moreover, measures concerning radioelectronic warfare are all reflected in air defense, signal, engineer support and chemical support plan as shown below: 

--In the air defense plan:
---- missions to detect enemy radioelectronic means, as well as its electronic jamming devices used in support of the combat employment of enemy aircraft;
----destruction of flying objects carrying jamming devices measures to protect air defense electronic means. 

--In the signal plan:
---- measures to protect signal electronic means and system. 

--In the engineer support plan:
---- the use of radar, laser, and infrared reflectors. 

--In the chemical support plan:
---- the use of aerosols to jam enemy electronic means;
----in the engineer and chemical directorates of front headquarters, plans to protect troop control means are organized as well.


The Electronic Jamming Plan:

The electronic jamming plan is usually worked out graphically on the map. It reflects the employment of electronic jamming units.  Moreover, written instructions are also attached to the plan. On the map, the following points are illustrated:
-- detected and likely units of enemy troops, their electronic means including radioelectronic men and material in the front's attack zone;
-- enemy command posts and important electronic targets to be destroyed by front and army troops and equipment in accordance with the decision of the front commander;
-- some elements of the front's operational formation; (organization for combat)
-- the areas of deployment, missions and operating zones of the special-purpose radio and radio-technical unit; the time of conducting radio jamming and the method of their maneuver in the course of the operation;
-- deployment of special-purpose radio and radio-technical unit's command posts in the starting area;
-- measures to be taken by engineer troops for concealment of the troops, the direction of movement of the troops, river crossings and rear services installations;

The following points are reflected in the graphic portion of the combat employment of electronic jamming units: 
-- missions of electronic jamming troops during the initial nuclear strike and during the accomplishment of important missions by front troops or different days of the offensive operation:

-- To special-purpose radio units:
---- detecting and jamming enemy radio and radio-relay communications;

--To special purpose radio technical units:
---- protecting front troops and targets against enemy radioelectronic warfare;
----the time of relocation of the positions of radioelectronic warfare units, time of reconnaissance and electronic jamming;
---- capabilities of electronic jamming units.

In the written part of the electronic jamming plan, those points are specified which can not be reflected on the map; such points are the following: 
--deductions from the assessment of enemy electronic systems and means;
-- objective and concept of electronic jamming prior to the commencement of combat operations, during the launch of the front's initial nuclear strike and the enemy nuclear counterstrike, during the initiation of the attack by front troops and during the accomplishment of the immediate mission;
-- missions of front special-purpose radio and radio-technical units and adjacent special-purpose units cooperating with the front, in accordance with the missions of the front in the offensive operation;
-- the main measures for electronic protection to be taken by special purpose radio and radio-technical units;
-- reconnaissance missions to be conducted in support of electronic jamming.  Method of coordination between special-purpose radio and radio-technical units and special-purpose reconnaissance troops;
-- organization of the command and control of electronic jamming personnel and equipment, and cooperation between them.

The number and content of the questions and points to be reflected in the electronic jamming plan may differ with specific conditions and the nature of the preparation and conduct of the offensive operation.  In the process of planning, the radioelectronic warfare department, in compliance with the instructions of the chief of staff, coordinates the content of the plan with the departments of operations, reconnaissance, signal and with chiefs of combat arms, with the staff of air army, with the staff of transport aircraft command, and with the staff of airborne assault troops. The plan is signed by the chief of staff and chief of radioelectronic warfare and approved by the front commander. The mission and specific measures for the destruction of enemy command posts and important electronic targets by the action of rocket troops, air forces, artillery, airborne and seaborne assault landing troops, and special purpose reconnaissance groups are generally illustrated in the plan of operation.  They are reflected in more detail in the plans for the combat employment of respective arms and troops. The missions of radioelectronic warfare are assigned to subordinate echelons by combat instructions prepared in compliance with the instructions of the chief of staff on the organization of radioelectronic warfare



 
 

Maskirovka

 
 

Basic methods for maskirovka

The types of methods employed depend on the type of military operation being subjected to maskirovka. Forces on the offensive will require different techniques than those on the defensive. Marches will be different from attacks or concentrations in assembly areas. The following measures are deemed significant in relation to offensive operations:
-- secret bringing of the forces and means to full mobilization;
-- secret movement of forces and means into the initial and final concentration and assembly (FUP) areas;
-- secret regrouping of the air army on operational airfields;
-- conduct of various maskirovka methods to conceal the concept of the operation as a whole;
-- concealed deployment of command posts, first echelons, second echelons and other installations into secret places;
-- creation of false military elements, including installations and large and small units;
-- imitation methods for depicting false assembly areas, artillery firing positions, rocket launch areas, and especially false airfields, etc.
-- if the enemy does expect an impending attack, then concealment of the axis of the real main attack and depiction of a false attack axis;
-- use of secret signal systems and communication systems that are more difficult to compromise, such as telephone and couriers or, if necessary, UHF radio.
-- conduct of local, tactical maskirovka measures by all types of units, with or without professional engineer assistance.



Organization of Maskirovka

Maskirovka must be carefully organized with respect to mission, time, and place. This is the basic responsibility of the front staff. Organization is conducted on the basis of the operational directive and the instructions on as maskirovka from higher headquarters and the operational decision and instructions of the front commander. The chief of staff directly supervises the effort, while the chief of the operations directorate takes the leading role in coordinating and providing details. All the chiefs of combat and support arms and services participate, along with the deputy commander for rear services. The staff organizes maskirovka in response to a number of specific situational factors including: the enemy's reconnaissance capabilities, the conditions of weather and terrain, and the capabilities of own forces and means. Preservation of secrecy is a prime consideration. Only the key staff members participate in formulating the details. The actions that are then generated in fulfillment of the plan are not necessarily identified as having anything to do with maskirovka and even for those that do the aim is not revealed. The plan will take account of and use all the various means that are available for deceiving the enemy. The most critical element to be concealed is the concept and aim of the combat operation. Along with this then goes the missions of forces and means, their locations, the location of command posts, the artillery and rocket positions, air fields, direct preparations for nuclear strikes, and the timing of deployments and other actions.

In organizing maskirovka it is important to avoid simple, stereotypical or patterned activities. Success is achieved in the following ways:
--maskirovka methods are conducted in close relation to the times, sequences and requirements of the operational plan.
-- the maskirovka plan itself must be secret. Typically it is prepared in a specially secured room, not open to subordinates. If the enemy discovers the essence of the maskirovka plan, he will be greatly strengthened.
-- the commander and staff must exercise central and continuous direction and monitoring to check on the effectiveness of the various methods.
-- all means must be employed in a complex and interactive manner to counter all enemy reconnaissance methods. If the staff even suspects the enemy has penetrated the design, the project should be terminated or at least changed significantly.
-- the procedures should include not only passive measures, but also and especially active ones. Activeness of maskirovka is a key principle. In other words, not only conceal real assembly areas, but also show false ones. And the false activities must be conducted in conjunction with real ones to give them credibility.
--maskirovka must be agile and able to change rapidly in accordance with the changing situation.
--it must be realistic down to many small details.
--it must be constant.



Sequence of Organization

The commander is responsible for maskirovka as a combat support measure. He issues instructions on maskirovka and on this basis and the instructions of higher echelons, the staff organizes it. The main officers are the operational staff and rear staff and engineer and other staff officers.



Contents of Commander's Instructions on Maskirovka
-- aim, tasks and measures of maskirovka;
-- forces and means to be used;
-- place and deadlines for executing maskirovka;
-- individuals responsible for maskirovka measures;
-- procedure for monitoring maskirovka.

Maskirovka is organized in subordination to, but in conjunction with the operational plan in the following sequence:
-- making the decision and establishing the aim;
-- developing the plan
-- issuing the orders and instructions;
-- conducting troop control;
-- supervising and inspecting execution.

The decision and aim are developed on the basis of the commander's overall operational decision by the commander himself or the chief of staff. The operations directorate then prepares the elaborate plan with the participation of the other directorates. A special group is organized to create the plan and also to inspect its execution. The decision contains the following points:
-- aim;
-- missions which must be accomplished;
-- forces and means to be employed;
-- specific means to accomplish each task;
-- times for execution;
-- how sequences of actions will interrelate;
-- control measures and troops control system.

The aim is determined and described in terms of the aim of the operation itself. It will be different in each operation. The detailed planning is done on the basis of the decision and prepared in two parts. The graphic part of the plan is show on a map. This depicts real and false unit assembly areas, main attack axis, unit boundaries, weapons positions, etc. and the times for fulfilling each task shown. The written part of the plan consists of notes specifying the forces and means, the signals, the statement of aim and concept, control actions, and the description of various methods that cannot be depicted on the map. An important part of the plan is the designation of the responsible individuals for each activity and the discussion of how individual activities will be inspected for effectiveness. The plan is signed by the chief of operations and the chief of staff and approved by the commander.

The orders and instructions to subordinates are issued on the basis of the plan. They are promulgated in a manner that won't reveal the aim or intent of the maskirovka. In other words, while a critical aspect in the issuing of basic, standard operational orders is to insure that they are thoroughly understood as to aim as well as content, for orders relating to maskirovka it is critical to conceal the aim of the activities being ordered.

One way this is accomplished is to keep the various complex activities separate. For a normal order requiring the interaction of many elements, for instance in the construction of an airfield, their interaction is specified and explicitly assured by direct contact. However, for the creation of a false airfield, which will require at least as much coordinated activity for depicting the many different aspects, such as buildings, radars, dummy airplanes, POL dumps, etc. the coordination is handled centrally, but without the direct interaction of the various players. Likewise, all control measures are conducted centrally and the observation and inspection is done by a specially created operational group.



 
 

MASKIROVKA PLAN


Approved:
Commander, 30 Army
Date:


PLAN OF THE 30TH ARMY FOR CAMOUFLAGE MEASURES AND A FEINT ATTACK IN THE DIRECTION REMBKOVO-SKOROSKKY TO SUPPORT THE MAIN ATTACK

Objective: To deceive the enemy concerning our strength, equipment, operations, and intentions.

Mission:
-- 1. To insure surprise for our operations.
-- 2. To reduce our losses in personnel and equipment.

Methods: To ensure successful completion of the mission, small units and deceptive techniques will be used along the direction of the feint attack to:
- - represent assembling of troops.
- - prepare simulated artillery and weapons positions, and mine fields.
- - build dummy weapons and tanks.
- - clear passages through enemy mine fields and determine avenues of approach for tanks.
- - construct dummy bridges.
- - carefully reveal positions to the enemy by day and by night along the direction of the feint attack, and to conduct strict camouflage discipline along the direction of the main attack.
- - work along the direction of the main attack to give the appearance of organizing a stabilized defense position.

Forces and Means: Two rifle battalions and the division artillery from the 45th Rifle Division 1st and 2d Companies of the 4th Engineer Battalion.

Equipment:Improvised and local, 1,000 sheets of plywood, paint. 10 vehicles (with permission for 2 refuelings), 2 motorcycles available on requisition by responsible commanders.

Command:1st Assistant Chief or Operations, 30th Army , is responsible for supervision and control of camouflaging. Engineer-Major (Chief of Technical Section, 5th Engineer Battalion) and representative from staff of 31st Rifle division-technical assistants. For constructing and simulating combat positions-command personnel and equipment of 31st Rifle division.

 
 

PLAN OF THE 30TH ARMY FOR CAMOUFLAGE MEASURES AND A FEINT ATTACK IN THE DIRECTION REMBKOVO-SKOROSKKY TO SUPPORT THE MAIN ATTACK

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Defense Against Mass Destruction Weapons


 
 

Organization and Capabilities of Front Chemical Troops

The defense against and use of mass destruction weapons are actions in which many types of forces participate. However, the chemical troops play an especially significant role. The following chemical service units are found at the front level.
-- chemical protection brigade;
---- 3 chemical protection battalions;
----1 chemical reconnaissance battalion;
----signal company;
----headquarters and service company.
--road chemical protection battalion;
-- radiation and chemical reconnaissance battalion;
-- personnel and equipment decontamination battalion;
-- smoke battalion;
-- mobile analytical plotting station (RAST);
-- nuclear burst direction finding battalion (special control);
-- also other small units and sub units for chemical actions. For instance, each staff and major independent unit itself including the front staff, the rocket brigade, and the air defense brigade has a company for chemical protection. Also there are chemical protection battalions at each front forward base (mobile material supply brigade) and at the front rear base.
-- the air army has radiation reconnaissance capability and units for chemical reconnaissance and protection of airfields.

These units have the following characteristics and capabilities:
-- Chemical protection brigade;
-- This unit has three chemical protection battalions and one battalion of chemical and radiation reconnaissance and one signal company and the brigade staff and service units. The separate battalions for chemical protection have the mission of special decontamination of forces when the enemy uses nuclear or chemical weapons. These battalions work on personnel or equipment. The battalion has three companies, two are for decontamination of technical equipment (DKV and ARS) and one company for self propelled equipment (TMS -65) (heat) for decontamination and a DDA laundry unit for clothing. The battalion in the course of 11 - 12 hours can decontamin