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Operational Directive of the Baltic Front

Command Post ... map 1:1,000,000, 1983 ed. 1330 1, 2, 1985


1. Enemy Situation

In accordance with the international crisis and the deterioration of the international situation, the enemy has secretly brought his armed forces to a state of full combat readiness, and is preparing a surprise invasion into the territory of the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

The Baltic Front is confronted by the NATO forces organized into AFNORTH and the NORTHAG group from AFCENT the Danish Jutland Division, German 6th Armored Infantry Division, I Netherlands Corps, and II German Corps in its first echelon composed of 10 infantry, mechanized and armored divisions, ___ nuclear SSM's, ___ nuclear artillery pieces, ____tanks, ___ artillery, ____SAM's and ____aircraft and helicopters.

In the second echelon, the III U.S. Corps is deployed while mobilizing German and Dutch units are in reserve with a total of 14 divisions, ___ nuclear SSM's, ___nuclear artillery pieces, ___ tanks,___ artillery, ___SAM's, and ___ aircraft and helicopters.

The enemy has deployed intermediate (medium range) strategic nuclear missiles in the theater against the Baltic Front.  The enemy operation is supported by ___combat aircraft including ___ aircraft with nuclear capabilities. The enemy will try to destroy the Warsaw Pact forces by a surprise and decisive attack and disrupt its preparation for the offensive operation.  If the Warsaw Pact forces are able to overtake the enemy in preparations and launch of the attack, the enemy is likely to conduct delaying action along several pre-prepared defensive lines mostly on main rivers to inflict the heaviest losses on WP forces and eventually destroy it in counter-blows.

The enemy's counter-blows are likely to be launched from the line: Bremen - Buchholz in the direction of Bremerhaven - Celle, and from the line: Hanover - Nienburg in the direction of Minden - Celle.

After the arrival of main strategic reserves from the depth of his position the enemy is likely to launch a decisive counter- offensive.  The opposing enemy is capable of allocating up to ___ nuclear rounds in the initial NATO nuclear strike and to engage the targets in the area of the Baltic Front by which it can destroy 8 - 9 divisions and the detected nuclear weapons of the WP forces. It can also inflict losses to other important targets.  The enemy has a significant capability to conduct air operations.


2. Aim and concept of the operation

Exploiting the consequences and impact of the strategic nuclear strikes or the theater air operation, the front offensive operation is aimed at: destruction of the enemy's nuclear forces, inflicting losses on its air force and their airfields, its command posts, and its main forces and reserves on the ground. Then, following the artillery preparation fire, quick development of the offensive in the two directions Salzwedel - Weser and south of Lubeck - Flensburg; destruction of the enemy main forces of NORTHAG in the area Lubeck, Wolfsburg, Osenburg, Odens, Copenhagen; development of the attack in the directions of Enschede - The Hague and Abunra - Alberg; seizure of the coast line Hjorring - Klitmaler - Den Helder - Hague on the 11th day of the operation; and blocking the maritime and naval traffic in the British Channel.

Concept of the Operation

Using 380 nuclear rounds with a total yield of 9600 kt in the initial nuclear strike, the front destroys enemy nuclear forces and inflicts heavy losses over the main forces and the command posts of AFNORTH, I NL and I GE Corps and the enemy`s immediate operational reserves, then by launching attacks along two ground and one naval direction with the main attack in the direction of Salzwedel - Weser by the Second Guards Tank Army and the Fifth German Army forces, supporting the attack in the direction of south of Lubeck - Flensburg by the Polish Pomeranian Army and in the naval direction Rugen - Copenhagen by the amphibious group.

Then by employing 250 nuclear rounds and the commitment of the Eleventh Guards Army into combat and an amphibious action of the 44th MRD from the Baltic MD and the 37th MRD from the Leningrad MD by sea, the front develops the attack in the directions: Weser - Enschede - The Hague and Abunra - Alberg; destroys the approaching enemy reserves and its nuclear weapons, air bases, and vital targets in the depth of the enemy area; seizes the Danish and Dutch coastlines on the 11th day of the operation; and blocks the British channel to naval traffic. On the third day of the operation the commitment of the Polish Airborne Division on Sjaelland Island (west of Copenhagen), an airborne assault brigade on the Weser River south of Niemburg, and on D + 9 commitment of the 2nd Airborne Division south of Apeldoorn are anticipated. The front will maintain a reserve of 130 nuclear rounds.

The operational grouping of the front is in two echelons: in the first echelon from the right the Pomeranian Army, the German Fifth Army, and the Second Guards Tank Army: in the second echelon the Eleventh Guards Army. The front combined arms reserve is composed of the Fortieth Guards Tank Division and the 98th Division (Polish).

The amphibious group landing on Denmark consists of the Second Naval Infantry Brigade, and the 34th Airborne Division in the first echelon; and the 44th and 37th MRD's in the second echelon. The Polish First Sea Landing Division is in reserve.


3. Adjacent Fronts

Our neighbor on the right, the Baltic and Northern Fleets, have the mission of seizing control of the Baltic and the Northern Seas, and subsequently, the Danish islands. (A general discussion of the mission of the Baltic Fleet may be added.) The Baltic Fleet will provide support for front amphibious landings in Denmark and along the German coastline.

The Central Front, on the left, has the immediate mission of reaching the line Munster - Munchen-Gladbach - Frankfurt, and subsequently the line Middelburg - Dunkerque - West of Abbeville.

The boundary line with the Central Front will be the line Berlin - Hannover - Osnabruck - 1230 - 144 - Charleville - Abbeville.


4. Tasks for Subordinate Ob'edineniia and Soedineniia

A) Second Guards Tank Army (16th Guards Tank Div., 21st Motorized Rifle Div., 25th Tank Div., 94th Guards Motorized Rifle Div., 24th Guards Tank Div,. and 3rd Guards Motorized Rifle Div,, artillery, SSM, PVO and helicopters), reinforced with ________ advances from the line (Salzwedel - Wolfsburg) to launch the main blow in the direction of (Salzwedel, Nieuberg, Bramsche), to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area (3, 12, 13, 4, 14), and at the end of the fourth day reach the line (6, 5, 7), and subsequently advancing in the direction of (5, 8, 9) to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and, at the end of the operation's seventh day, reach the line (236, Osnabruch, Bramsche).

Allotted for the conduct of the operation are 87 nuclear, 43 chemical and 122 conventional-missile warheads.

The subsequent sites in the army's attack zone are destroyed by the front's rocket brigades

On the right, the German 5th Army attacks in the direction of Luneburg, Ahlhorn, its immediate mission being to seize the line (209 - 280) and, subsequently, the line Bremerhaven - 282)

The boundary with this army is the line Salzwedel - Neuruppen - 280 - 236.

On the left is the 20th Guards Army of the Central Front. Their main attack in the direction of ... , their immediate objective being the line ... and, subsequently, the line ...

The boundary with them follows the line Berlin - Hannover - Osnabruck - 1230 - Charleville - Abbeville.

Organize a close coordination with them in breaking through the enemy's prepared defense at the juncture of both armies during the artillery and aviation preparation and support them during the offensive operation as they fulfill their immediate and subsequent tasks.

Position the command post in the _____________ area, and the rear control post in the _____________ area.

B) GDR MD V and NGF: (8th, 4th MRD's, 7th, 28th, 30th TD's) artillery, SSM, PVO, etc...

Advances from the line (230 - 225) to launch the main blow in the direction (230 - 205), to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area (230 - 361 - 518 - 554 - Bremerhaven) at the end of the fourth day reach the line (209 - 280). subsequently advance in thedirection (551 - 243) to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and at the end of the operation's seventh day reach the line Bremerhaven - 282). Alloted for the conduct of the operation are 70 nuclear, 50 chemical, and 98 conventional missile warheads.

C) Pommeranian Army (20th, 11th Armored Div's, 12th, 3rd, 8th MRD's) artillery, SSM, PVO, etc...

Advances from the line (265 - 328) to launch the main blow in the direction Lubeck - Fendsburg) to destroy the enemy's main forces in the area Lubeck - Hamburg, North Sea Coast - Rendsburg. At the end of the fourth day reach the line Kiel - 284. subsequently advance in the direction Rendsburg - Kolding to destroy on the march the enemy's arriving reserves and at the end of the operation's 11th day reach the North Sea coast from Frederikshavn - Sondbjerg. Alloted for the conduct of the operation are 60 nuclear, 45 chemical, 75 conventional missile warheads.

Conduct close coordination with the First Sea landing group for seizure of central Denmark.

D) First Naval Desant Group (2nd naval Infantry Brigade, 44th and 37th MRD's, Polish Sea Landing Division, supporting naval task forces). The Amphibious assault force will seize a landing area south of Copenhagen, link with airborne and heliborne elements and take control of Sjalland Island. The initial assault landing will be at D + ___. The landing force will be supported by fire from naval task force ___. Air bombing strikes will be conducted at ____.

The landing force will assemble for the operation in the vicinity of Rugen Island. The 2nd Naval Infantry Brigade will bord ships there at ____. The 44th and 37th MRD's will arrive in the vicinity of Rugen Island by sea from Tallinin and Leningrad.

Security from enemy air attack for embarcation, asssembly, and movement toward Denmark will be provided by the 2nd PVO Army.

Commander of the Naval Desant Group will coocrdinate directly with the commander of the BAltic Fleet and the commanders of the naval task forces providing support.

E) The Rocket Troops:  during the first nuclear strike are to destroy the enemy's nuclear means and nuclear stockpiles, air-nuclear forces, and destroy his main groupings, especially the groupings of tank troops; disrupt the enemy's military-state control system, such as command posts, means of communication and communications junctions, control posts and means of radioelectronic warfare; destroy his PVO; strike the enemy's rear sites and disrupt his economic potential.

Enemy sites are suppressed and destroyed in the following manner:  nuclear weapons - by a 10-kiloton airburst; a motorized infantry division or a tank division - by a 20-kiloton airburst; a control post or a nuclear stockpile - by a 100-kiloton ground burst; a communications junction, control post or PVO - by a 3-kiloton air burst; airfields and rear targets - by a 40-kiloton air burst.
----- - Launch preparation time is H-20, 20 minutes before launch time
----- - The time for allocating nuclear and chemical munitions is 3 hours. P-3 hrs.
----- - The time for allocating conventional munitions is 3 days.  Ch - 3 days.
----- - Conduct constant surveillance of the sites, which are to be destroyed by nuclear weapons, and refine the plan of the first nuclear strike..
----- - Insure the full combat readiness of the rocket troops and control means, and be ready to carry out combat tasks.
----- - Carefully organize the missile-technical securing of the troops.
----- - Carry out the engineering preparation of the position areas, organize the camouflage of the combat units, and the protection of the rocket troops against mass destruction weapons.
----- - Organize the timely forward movement of the rocket troops during the offensive operation.

F) Artillery:
----- - Organize the following artillery groups in the ob'edinenia, soedineniia and units:
---------- a) army artillery groups - 8-10 battalions.
---------- b) division artillery groups - 4-6 battalions.
---------- c) regimental artillery groups - 3-4 battalions.

The artillery, in the beginning, and during the course of the operation, fulfills the following tasks:
----- a) the suppression and destruction of the enemy's offensive nuclear weapons;
----- b) defeating the enemy during his invasion;
----- c) defeating the enemy while crossing the state frontier and during the battle for the enemy's combat security zone;
----- d) reliably defeat the enemy during the breakthrough of his prepared defense;
----- e) suppress the enemy during the air fire support of the attack;
----- f) assist the troops fighting in the enemy's defensive depth;
----- g) defeat the enemy's counterblow grouping;
----- h) support the fronts' troops in forcing water barriers;
----- i) destroy the enemy's artillery and mortar batteries;
----- j) cover open flanks, spaces and breaches in the combat formation;
----- k) support the commitment of the front's second echelon into the engagement;
----- l) the artillery density in breaking through the enemy's prepared defense is to be no less than 100-120 guns and mortars per kilometer of front; the duration of fire support is 30-40 minutes, and the expenditure of shells is .8-1 unit of fire during the attack's fire preparation.
----- m) the fire support of the attack is conducted by the consecutive concentration of fire (PSO), the artillery barrage (OV), and the joint employment of PSO and OV at a distance of 3-4 kilometers in the enemy's defensive depth.

G) The Air Army
----- - During the first nuclear strike, destroy the enemy's nuclear weapons, nuclear stockpiles and air-nuclear forces; defeat the main groupings, especially tanks; disrupt the military's and state control, such as command posts, communications means and communications junctions, control posts and radioelectronic means; destroy his PVO; attack his rear sites and disrupt his economic potential.
----- - Participate in the air operation to destroy the enemy's air grouping and securing air superiority (if it is conducted);
----- - During the aviation preparation and support of the attack and the aviation accompaniment, suppress and destroy the enemy's offensive nuclear weapons, artillery, tanks, command posts, defensive strong points and crossing sectors located beyond the range of the artillery;
----- - Suppress and destroy the enemy's reserves;
----- - Carry out air reconnaissance of the enemy;
----- - Cover the troops and rear sites against the enemy's air attacks.

Air Resources are to be distributed in the following manner:
----- a) three regimental sorties for each day of the operation for the armies attacking in the main directions;
----- b) two regimental flights for each day of the operation for the armies attacking in other directions;
----- c) two regimental sorties in the reserve of the front commander

H) Second Echelon Army
----- - Eleventh Guards Army (1st, 88th, 26th, 107th MRD's), artillery, SSM, PVO and helicopters.  These take up their positions at their jumping-off points in the areas of Templin, Finow, Oranienburg.  Fit out the jumping off point for the offensive in the full engineering sense to protect the troops from the enemy's mass destruction weapons.

The army's zone of responsibility for combatting airborne landings, reconnaissance and diversionary groups are determined by ______________________.
----- - From the beginning of the offensive the army moves up along the following seven routes:
----------Rte. 1 one division
----------Rte. 2
----------Rte. 3 - army staff and staff units
----------Rte. 4 second division
----------Rte. 5
----------Rte. 6 third division

The army is committed to the engagement from the line (282 - 578) and launches its main attack in the direction of Bramsche - Enschede having as its immediate task the seizing of the line Zwolle - Deventer; or, the army is committed to the engagement from the line (292 - 371), with its main blow in the direction of Bramsche - Appeldoorn, so as to seize the line Appeldoorn - Arnhem.

When being committed into the engagement the army is reinforced by an artillery division and an anti-tank-artillery brigade, and is supported by three flights (sorties) by the aviation groups.  While being committed to the engagement, the army is supported by the front's nuclear weapons and an air army, and launches nuclear strikes against enemy sites so as to support the armies in its zone of attack.

I - PVO Troops

Front PVO concentrates its main efforts for covering the main tank and motorized rifle groups of the ob'edinenie attacking in the main directions, the most important rear sites, as well as the covering of the front's troops in carrying out important tasks such as seizing the forward zone, airborne landings, forcing water obstacles, and repulsing the enemy's counterblows.

The fire system for the guided-missile and antiaircraft troops of the front should be coordinated with the fire system of army and division PVO in accordance with a unified plan as to directions and combat methods of actions so that they are able to repulse the enemy's massed air attacks.

Organize the coordination of the guided missile and anti-aircraft troops with fighter aviation and the PVO troops of the Warsaw Pact countries in seizing the jumping-off point and during the offensive, so as to repulse the enemy's massed air attacks.

Maintain the majority of the shock army's fighter aviation on duty at the airfields and, at threatening times, 1/6 in the air over the most important directions so that the area for intercepting the enemy aviation is within the bounds of our anti-aircraft fire.

Maintain all soyidineniia and units of PVO in full combat readiness and outfit the fire and reserve positions in their starting points for an advance, and be ready to repulse the enemy's massed air attacks.

Carry out the transfer of units during the offensive so that all PVO weapons are ready to repulse enemy strikes in carrying out the front's most important tasks.

J Airborne Landings

One airborne landing consists of the 2nd Airborne Division and the other of the Polish Airborne Division.

The starting points for the landings are ________________. The landing on Sjalland Island takes place on D Day, south west od Sopenhagen. The landing in the enemy's rear takes place on the 10th day of the operation, in the area of Appledoorn, and are carried out by the 104th and 105th military-transport divisions.

The mission of the airborne landing by the 2nd Airborne Division is to destroy the nuclear stockpile in the area of _______________ and the enemy's nuclear weapons in the area of ________________, and to seize bridgeheads accross the Wesser and to secure its forcing by the front's main forces on the march.

The mission of the Polish Airborne Division is to seize favorable terrain inland from the amphibious landing zone and to secure the landing from attack by enemy reserves. The Division is to move promptly toward Copenhagen and seize the capital of Denmark.

Before the landing, grouped nuclear strikes or intensive conventional bombings are carried out in the landing area and in the operating area of the military-transport aviation, so as to suppress and destroy the enemy's reserves and anti-aircraft defense.

For suppressing the enemy's PVO, fighter and fighter-bomber aviation, radioelectronic suppression means, tactical and tactical-operational rockets are employed.  Covering the troops and aviation in their starting points for the landing is carried out by the forces of the national PVO (strany) and of the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

Organize coordination with the troops of national air defense and of the Warsaw Pact countries in the jumping-off point for the landing.  During the flight coordinate with the front PVO, the air army, the troops of the front and long-range aviation.  During the landing and combat activity, coordinate with the armies of the first echclon, front aviation and long-range aviation.

The departure area for the landing is ________________, and the time for seizing the forward area is seven hours before takeoff.

Fueling and materiel supply areas for transport aviation are in _______________, _______________, _________________, etc.

The organization of landing control is carried out from a command post in the area of ________________, a forward command post in the area of __________________, and an auxiliary command post in the area of __________________.

K Combined Arms Reserves

The combined-arms reserves consists of the 98th MRD and the 40th Tank Division, and they are to be prepared to carry out assignments which arise unexpectedly during the operation.

Billeting areas are as follows:  98th MRD ____________, the 40th TD in _________,

During the offensive operation the combined arms reserve moves up along the following directions:
-----98th MRD along _________________
-----40th TD along _________________

The distance between the combined-arms reserve and the troops of the first echelon should not exceed 70 kilometers during the operation.

L Anti-Tank Reserves

The ______ helicopter regiment, as part of the front's anti-tank reserve, is billeted in the area of _______________, to fight the enemy's tanks in the front's main directions of attack.  Direction no. 1 is __________________, and direction no. 2 is _____________________.

The anti-tank reserve is moved forward during the offensive operation in the direction of _______________.

M Front Engineering Reserves

The 75th engineering-ranger regiment, the _____________ engineering obstacle battalion, and the _______________ pontoon-bridging battalion, after carrying out their assigned tasks while preparing the operation, become part of the front engineering reserve and are ready for carrying out engineering tasks arising unexpectedly during the offensive operation.

The front engineering reserve is billeted in the area of _________________, and during the offensive operation, moves forward in the direction of __________________.

N Chemical Reserves

In the front's chemical reserve are included the 245th detached special decontamination battalion, the _________ detached chemical defense battalion, and the __________ detached decontamination battalion.

The chemical reserve carries out chemical tasks arising unexpectedly while conducting the offensive operation.

The chemical reserve is billeted in the area of __________________, and during the offensive operation, moves up in the direction of ___________________.

5 Front Troop Control:

The command post is in the area of _________.

The forward command post is in the area of __________________.

The rear control post is in the area of ___________________.

The auxiliary control post is in the area of ________________, for controlling the front's troops attacking in the direction of Lubeck - Copenhagen.

The command post, forward command post and the rear control post move forward in the direction of _________________.

The auxiliary control post moves forward in the direction of _____________________.

Deputies: the front chief of staff, the first deputy commander of the front, and the chief of the political directorate.

Communications are organized with all control points through radio, radio-relay, telephone-telegraph, with subordinates, neighbors and units interacting with yours.


-----1.  Chief of the Operational Directorate

-----2.  Front Chief of Staff

-----3.  Front Commander