Division rear services includes the same categories of activities as
rear services at higher levels, namely technical support, medical support,
material support, and planning of rear service activity. This lecture will
discuss how these deploy and relocate in the division area. It will describe
the extent of technical and medical support at division level and what can and
cannot be done there. What is not done at division is done at army level or
front level. The lecture includes discussion also of the capabilities and
structure of the material support battalion, which is the principal rear
services unit in the division. When we discuss division rear services we
actually enter a new level of rear services, that of the troops. Previously we
discussed the operational rear services, that is the rear of army, front,
districts, air defense armies, fleets, and the TVD.
The rear services of the troops includes division, regiment, and
battalion rear. This is the tactical level rear services. This is not different
from the operational level because of the level but activity itself, but it is
different from rear services at operational level in a way because at the
operational level they are more concerned about sustainment and survivability,
but at the tactical level they are more interested in maneuver, dynamism, and
flexibility. At the tactical level the forces may suffer damage everywhere. So
the deployment of rear services has a different flavor at operational level
from rear services at troop level.
Rear service is a collection of rear service units and subunits assigned to
provide rear services support to large units, units, and sub units. It includes
the same kind of organizations and functions as other rear services such as
medical, supply, and technical activities and traffic control and roads etc.
Organization of rear service of troops
Organization of rear service, like organization as a category elsewhere, is
understood to include a series of measures and activities carried out to
perform the rear services mission.
The first activity is insuring the proper combat readiness of the troops and
means. Combat readiness is an important category everywhere. It includes
training, maintenance of equipment, personnel readiness, plans for movement,
and construction and stocking of depots.
Making the decision for the rear service action, planning, and assignment of
missions to rear service units is another vital category of activity. In the
Soviet terminology planning is only one phase of organization, while making the
decision is another phase. Thus for rear services as well planning is only one
part of the activity at division level and only one phase of organization,
which does not include decision making itself. The three phases or the cycle
can be seen in the following way: first the general idea of the problem is
determined in preparing for the operation, then the decision on what to do is
developed and formulated, and finally in the planning they determine how to use
the resources in accomplishing the decision and how to control them to make
sure that the plan will be accomplished the way they have worked it out. Thus,
organization includes preparing, first getting combat ready, then making the
decision on what to do in the specific situation, then developing the planning
on how to do it. After that comes the practical phase, in which deployment of
the units is the first action. Then comes relocating the forces and means
during the operation in order to keep them at a convenient distance from the
Specifying the supply and evacuation routes is an important action because when
it comes to the real situation no matter how many roads are available it is
difficult to control traffic unless elements are organized and supply routes
designated for units.
The type of support shows the management function with a list of rear service
activities. Rear services is considered an economic issue by philosophy, that
is the management or the allocation of resources to jobs. *even after the
decision is made they still need to establish a material support philosophy and
a medical and a technical philosophy to guide the function of the systems.
These are worked out in accordance with the situation.
They have to make logistics support function in accordance with the situation
to meet the possibilities and opportunities of the situation. In other words,
although the commander makes a decision and plan he still has to establish
Then security, defense, and protection of rear area is a major concern as well.
Continuous control of rear communication lines (that is roads and railroads)
and execution of orders are two more functional areas. Troop control is more
like a constructive approach to the troops. The commander must make sure that
subordinates have received instructions; second, that they have understood them
the way the higher headquarters wants, and, third, make sure that they are
going in the right direction and not off in a wrong way. So control is
continuous. That is why a staff officer will spend half of his time with
troops, not sitting in his office, in order to help explain what the
subordinates are to do right. Sometimes subordinates think staff officers sit
in their office and make out plans that won't work. So to relate plans and
orders the staff officers go to help subordinates. The higher level should be
able to feel responsible to go down to the executing elements to see that they
can do the job right.
These are elements included in organization of rear services at any level. We
will cover these elements today. This covers all aspects of rear services in
Soviet system. In summary, preparation of assets, making a decision on how to
use them, then planning on what to do, then preparation of the environment all
constitute part of organization of rear services.
Combat readiness of rear service
There are three levels of combat readiness just as with other forces. These are
constant, higher, and full readiness.
Constant readiness is the level in peacetime, when the troops conduct normal
training activities and are kept in status according to war plans at a specific
level of personnel and equipment. In the division if the division is planned to
be employed as first echelon division of a first echelon army, they will be in
full strength because they may go at any day according to the mission. That is
the constant state for that division, but there are divisions that will be
committed on D plus 12, so those divisions have time to conduct mobilization so
those divisions are not kept at full strength in peacetime. Whatever the level
a particular unit has in peacetime it is kept at a level proportioned to its
wartime mission. That level for that division is constant readiness. The point
is that constant readiness is not a unified term having a set standard content
or criteria. Everyone has its own state of constant combat readiness according
to the wartime mission. Some divisions may be 30% and another may be at 100 %.
Both are at constant combat readiness.
It is very important to insure that the state of readiness is proportional to
job requirements of the division, especially in the initial phase of war.
Readiness means not only time to get ready, but also is related to the area in
which the unit will serve. If you have a division fully organized at full
strength and it is located at the Baltic area, but is going to be used in the
Caucasus it is not in a proper state of constant combat readiness unless it can
operate in the different area. In Afghanistan the Soviet divisions were not
ready for operation in mountain areas, so their constant combat readiness was
not fully met.
In rear services they may have some equipment that will not work properly in
the area, so this is part of combat readiness too. So you have to know the type
of missions that you will met in the area of operations. One of the main
reasons for casualties in Afghanistan was disease. They were not ready to meet
the medical requirements of the area.
Higher combat readiness is a more specific concept related to the specific
situation. It is the status that is taken when state of war is near and there
is a possibility of war or something will happen internally. In this case they
raise the state of readiness to the higher level. But is difficult to define
this too. A state of higher readiness is the state from which the unit can go
to full readiness in the shortest time. But what is the shortest possible time
no one knows. So in the case of rear services it is a problem to define higher
readiness. It is clear, however, that the unit cannot afford to have its
officers and soldiers off post and must call all personnel back from leave and
TDY and make preparations to evacuate the sick for long term treatment and
prepare vehicles for movement etc. However the unit will still remain in
Full combat readiness is the status from which the unit should be able to
conduct combat action. It includes full strength in people and equipment,
troops well trained, staff ready to perform well. The troops should leave the
permanent area and deploy to assembly area or move to departure area or move to
cover the border. Rear services are the same way in this. They follow their own
troops and must be able to support the upgrading of the combat troops while
preparing themselves. Rear service elements simultaneously support first
themselves in going to the full readiness state and second help others to go to
full readiness. Sometimes the unit can go from constant to full readiness
directly, when the situation demands quick preparation. In that case the alarm
is given and forces go to full readiness immediately.
Bringing rear service to full wartime level. In that case establish
mobilization areas near division troops and go to assembly area. The alert
assembly areas are places to facilitate protection of troops, that is a place
only to get troops out of the permanent areas, not a mission oriented place. It
is just a quick evacuation of garrisons to differentiate these from areas for
-----Augment personnel etc. Distribution of ammo etc
-----deployment of concealment of rear services
If unit is to cover the state border then it does not occupy an alert area but
deploys directly to the border. A rear control point is located at a specified
place. This time is when the unit moves from a peacetime control structure to
the wartime structure and from permanent areas to mobile control areas.
These are the principal elements of bringing rear services to full readiness.
Making the decision and planing
Rear service support is conducted simultaneously with operational planning. The
division commander receives the operations order from the army commander and
the chief of rear services receives the rear service directive from the army
chief of rear. This directive will include specific things like the boundaries
of the division, the supply routes assigned to the division and what other
elements of the army are deployed in the division area and what are attached to
the division. It tells how the evacuation of damaged vehicles will be handled.
These and other issues are in the directive from army. As the commander gets
the order the chief receives the directive on the establishment of rear
services. The chief clarifies his instructions and determines what does it mean
and how does it help the division to conduct support and what restrictions are
placed on the division.
The division commander will brief the chief of rear on the situation. The chief
of rear gets the idea of the missions and boundaries and distances required for
the operation. The chief of rear will report to the commander on what
instructions were received and how they affect the operation. Then they start
the estimate of the situation. Both the commander and chief of rear do
estimates. The chief of rear prepares suggestions to the commander. He tells
the commander what might be the best use of the rear services in support of the
operation. Then the division commander makes his decision and issues
instructions on rear services. The commander has studied the mission and knows
the needs. Now he issues instructions to be the basis of planning.
Contents of Division commander instructions
The commander decides the area of deployment and direction of movement for the
rear services elements. This is based on two things - the directive of the
higher echelon and the requirements of the situation as the division commander
The supply routes also are based on the same two things - the higher directive
and the situation.
Volume and time of material reserves
It is important to establish the material reserve in line with the preparation
of the division before the combat action. For instance, if the division
commander decided at a certain point to make a relief in place by one regiment
to another, this will have an affect on rear service issues.
Missions and capabilities and suggest the following
-----consumption norms - The division receives its mission daily, so the
consumption for the first day is the extent that the division knows what it
will be doing. The entire scope of the division plan is a one day break down by
episode within a day. This includes for example the preparatory fire,
commitment of 2nd echelon, and repelling of enemy counterattack.
The method and time to prepare equipment and evacuation also is based on the
same two things. These are the instructions the commander issues to rear
service. These are the initial data for the chief of rear services to organize
his planning of rear service action.
On the basis of these and instructions received from higher headquarters, the
chief of rear conducts his own estimate of situation according to the usual
form. Then on the basis of the estimate the chief of rear makes his decision.
His decision is the basis for the plan of rear services. His decision gives
information for different elements, while the division commander's decision is
the basis for planning. The chief of rear gives elaboration for points within
the plan. The rear chief elaborates, does not change the plan of the commander.
In order to prepare the plan the staff has a longer time than just from after
the making of the decision. The staff starts before the decision to make
general parts of the plan in order to enable subordinates and lower echelons to
conduct their planning. The rear service order is given at the same time as the
division operation order. If it cannot be given at the same time then a combat
instruction is given. There are two types of instruction just as with other
types of support. One instruction is to the lower headquarters about rear
services and the other is on rear services. In other words the regiments
receive an instruction on rear services actions to take and they receive an
instruction about what rear services actions will be taken in general. The rear
services elements directly under the division receive direct instructions on
what actions they will perform.
The rear service order have specific elements
Contents of div order
It begins with boundaries of rear service area and gives the time the
boundaries become effective. It shows the areas of deployment of units etc and
lists all elements of the division such as the material support battalion, the
medical battalion, other elements in the division and where they will go and
where relocate. The boundaries follow identifiable terrain features. There is a
problem in the desert when one cannot find good boundary features.
Evacuation routes etc. who prepares routes and who gives support like traffic
Volume as division co specified
missions to units
organization of security
location of rear service control point
give combat instructions to lower units and give instructions on rear to
regiments. same like other.
Planning for rear service is not sole responsibility of rear because there are
others involved. It is a collective work with principal actor is chief rear
listed on VG are others
the div rear service staff
chief of div staff
chief of technical support
chief of arty and engineers and chemical
These people have aspects of rear service functions.
The rear service staff consists of several chiefs of individual departments of
the rear services. It includes the chief of staff of rear service, the chief of
POL department, of clothing department, chief of communications department
(that is roads), the chief of the supply, the chief of quartering, chief of
-----. The chief surgeon is chief of division's medical department . He is
responsible for public health etc.
Planing is collective work
Cannot do everything suddenly. Planning is continuous process. The staff can do
some things before receiving orders
Vg Planning what can be done prior to order
Preparation of area in engineer work. That is trenches, shelters, positions for
protection of area, etc.
Collect reserves - this is bringing reserves up to full status.
Repair of equipment should be done and get rid of un-repairable
Evacuation of sick is another important preliminary activity. In addition to
that can prepare some parts of documents such as to show the general boundaries
of the division operational area, the general mission for the day and basic
calculations of material requirements. Some norms and some idea of the actions
to be undertaken will allow for basic calculations.
Division rear II
On the basis of the decision of division commander and decision of chief of
rear services a plan for rear service support is prepared. The plan includes
measures taken by chief of rear service and services under him and attachments
to plan will include other things as well. Plan is prepared on 1 to 50 thousand
scale map for graphic part of plan. The graphic part will include the
---info on enemy
---boundaries of area
---situation of friendly troops
---mission of div and regiment
---areas of deployment
---what enemy will do
---boundaries shown on flanks and rear rear
Boundaries are given by higher echelon
Situation of friendly shown so rear service support is provided according to
that situation. If the division is deployed in 3 regiments in first echelon in
departure areas and tank regt in 2nd echelon the plan map shows where rear
service elements of regiments are located. It shows covering troops, artillery
of troop, arty units, rocket bn, (FROG) bn deployed forward. It shows the
missions of the division and boundaries of regiments during action. It shows
the line of commitment of the 2nd echelon. The plan will show the rear service
elements in the departure area and their relocation and show rear service
control point and div material support bn. It also shows the workshops, the
separate medical detachment from army coming to the division, the vehicle
evacuation unit from army, the ambulance company, engineer evacuation company,
and regimental rear service elements. All are shown in original areas and in
relocation areas shown to end of first day. The map shows the supply route and
lateral rocade along the rear service elements of regiments and the army rocade
through rear service elements of division then the supply routes to each
What cannot be shown on graphics is described in written instructions.
VG - content of written instructions
The written instructions list theprincipal tasks. They write what they will do
and put the lists in a blank part of the map. The list gives the composition of
rear service elements including organic and attached elements.
Material support is type of management method.
Medical support gives methods.
Action transport gives how the transportation system will operate such
as how many round trips will be taken each day and where they will go. It shows
the number of supply vehicles, how and where and what time they move. depending
on location of units and combat formations, method of food to include when hot
meals will be given and how field rations will be provided by the rear service.
The plan for repair of clothing will show the same kind of detail.
The method of chemical decontamination will also be shown in detail.
All of these will be in written form on map.
About the deployment and position of rear service troops, that is - how
to do it. The rear service troops will be deployed in an area designated for
rear services with close concentration on the requirements to sustain troops
and provide continuous support to troops in action. Then in order to deploy and
position rear service units the maximum use is made of terrain features for
cover and concealment. Existing routes, water sources, and other local material
will be taken into consideration. In the offensive battle the rear service area
is designated for the first echelon divisions. The area of rear service is
given by the army commander through his deputy for rear. In that case what is
important is the location of the division rear line. Depending on division
structure, the line will be closer or more in depth. Mostly for first echelon
divisions the rear line is drawn so as to be in one line with the rear of the
other divisions. The area for rear service depends on the situation and
composition of the division, on the layout of army rear service elements, and
on the availability of routes, power sources, water sources, cover and
concealment of terrain, etc. The depth of the rear boundary is up to 40 km in
the attack and in defense up to 60 km.
During the attack from line of march and when there are no adjacents, such as
when the division is committed as the 2nd echelon division in offensive or when
committed as a division as OMG or during action in terrain like mountains, the
area of rear area is normally not designated because there are no flanks, so
they don't need a rear boundary either. In this case units are kept at a
distance on the basis of the commander's decision.
The layout of the rear area is given in more elaborate form in defense. It is
divided into regimental rear as well as division rear. On defense the plan
shows the regimental rear boundaries as well. These are not shown for the
offensive. The rear area in defense is only shown or even designated for first
echelon regiments, not 2nd echelon, because the second echelon is in the
division rear area. In an attack with regiments don't assign regimental rear
At tactical troop level for troops rear service the Soviets need part of rear
service well forward while some other elements can be deployed further back. So
at tactical level they have a 1st and 2nd echelon of rear services. The first
echelon is deployed close to first echelon of combat troops for immediate
support. They can give limited but immediate support. Support from the 2nd
echelon of the rear services is more elaborate but not so immediate. To bring
both requirements for immediacy and elaborateness they divide the rear service
elements into the two groupings and locate them in the different areas. The
first line of rear services has the medical facilities, some evacuation
capability, and the ammunition and POL supply as well as thearea for collection
of damaged vehicles. The medical battalion and repair battalion are deployed
close to units. The rest of the rear service units to include the material
support battalion, transport units, depots, and separate medical detachment are
further back. Those in the first echelon are behind the first echelon of the
division. The rest in the 2nd echelon or rear will be behind the division 2nd
echelon in the division rear area.
In attack the division first echelon rear includes ammunition reserves, POL,
spare parts, and repair capabilities provided in accordance with experience on
what will need to be replaced. The medical battalion or the separate medical
detachment from army locates forward to be able to handle casulaties promptly.
A part of the repair facility and spare parts forms at the evacuation point.
These move and are not stationary. They move with the first echelon troops. As
ammunition and POL are provided they move forward.
The chart shows the regimental rear service area and elements of division
medical bn and ammunition and evacuation units forward of the regimental rear
service area. Then it shows the rest of rear services in back of the division.
There are five levels of medical support
In the second line of the division rear service they locate the separate
material support battalion, the field bakery, and the combined depot and
transport units, the separate medical detachment, and the rest of the repair
facilities and control point. These are deployed behind the 2nd echelon of the
combat units of the division.
The medical battalion goes into a deployment area first into the first echelon
to do its job and when it is full then the separate medical detachment from
army replaces it in the first echelon further forward, while the medical
battalion finishes its work. But if there are massive casualties suddenly like
from an air or chemical attack and the division receives many casualties then,
the separate medical detachment will deploy immediately to help the medical
battalion right away.
During the attack the damaged tanks and APC and vehicles are either repaired on
the spot or they are evacuated to collection point of damaged vehicles for the
division. They are collected in one area so they can be worked on in place. In
modern conditions the rear service of the division operates continuously
Elements are not placed in a way to move in 24 hours. Here the elements are
moving forward and backward constantly. They conduct support continuously. At
the division level only limited local resources are used and only limited
repair done. They can only exploit so much of local material. Field expedient
of using local material depends on initiative and imagination of division rear
Relocation of rear service first echelon moves with troops. For the rest,
relocation is conducted during the night because during day it is difficult to
move. Movement includes also closing out one area and loading up equipment and
can be risky during daytime. During day the rear service also are busy
conducting support and cannot easily quit to move, so during night forthem may
be a better time when they are able to move. Depending on speed of attack, the
rear service of division will relocate once or twice in 24 hours.
Axis routes come from the division depots to the regimental depots and
artillery positions. Lateral routes extend along the line of regimental depots
and along the line of the division rear bases.
We covered decision making, planning position, and relocation of rear service
To sum up, prepare rear service of division at different level of combat
readiness then use it on basis of direction of higher echelon and division
Making decision is done by chief of rear services. The plan is a vehicle to
accomplish missions. When they make the decision and deploy, what is important
is the method for conduct of support.
Management of support
What is material support
The material support is conducted to meet the requirements for timely and full
support of units and subunits. They have to deliver fully in terms of norms and
level of consumption and do it on a timely basis, therefore the contents of
material support is the reception, maintaining, transportation, and deliver of
material received from higher echelon such as the army material support
brigade. The division must maintain this and deliver it when needed. Rear
service support is a continuous cycle. They cannot just dump everything to the
lower echelon too soon. Delivery must be gradual. And the division must
transport the supplies until they are delivered. It must make sure always that
material that was delivered reaches the consumer at the right time.
Another principle is continuous delivery and another one is to deliver the
right material at the right time.
The planner have a necessity for continuous control
types of material supply
ammo weapons spare parts
armor supplies etc.
Material support is supply of all these kinds of items. This is for main
components and spare parts, not end items like entire tanks or APC's. In order
to conduct material supply they have to have the combat battalion material
supply platoon and the regimental material supply company. And the division has
the material supply battalion. They have the capacity to receive and maintain
supplies and have the transport elements to move and deliver them.
Certain amounts of material supplies are consumed in a day on the basis of
statistics and norms for planning and WW II experience. The consumption for one
soldier has been calculated 20 kg per soldier per day on this basis. Of this
about 2 kg was food. However in the local wars of the 1970's according to
experience in 24 hrs consumption per soldier increased to 90 kg. and the
Soviets believe this number will increase continuously in the future.
At tactical level in order to maintain mobility of troops mobile material
reserves are established. These materials are loaded on trucks and tanks etc.
with the guns and mortars and other items and in mobile workshops and with
individuals. These are maintained to be there always. The amount of material
and echelon is shown in table.
Level of material in mobile reserve is determined on basis of directive of
higher echelon. It is part of establishment of unit and should be there
whenever unit is inspected. Calculate for normal situation that division should
be able to conduct on its own for 3 to 4 days. In addition to mobile material
in large units and subunits they can establish additional reserves. If there is
an outpost they will dump material for months at a time.
During preparation of offensive they again can establish additional reserves,
especially for artillery fire they establish separate reserve of ammunition in
gun positions and use it at the position and don't carry it forward.
On the basis of orders and situation during the course of combat they can
conduct maneuver of material from one area to another to help successful units
to move faster and conduct important missions or to resupply in areas where
enemy has destroyed most of reserve. Maneuver of supply to meet immediate
requirements on local areas. When opening new directions also conduct this
maneuver. During restoration of combat capability of troops after nuclear
attack this maneuver of supplies is one of the measures used.
The material reserve is divided into two categories; consumable and
untouchable. The untouchable is part set up on basis of instruction of higher
headquarters. What can be used from material reserve whenever used must he
replenished. The amount considered to be untouchable is a certain amount of
ammo and food and other. These cannot be consumed, only used on instruction of
regimental commander or sometimes battalion commander. This varies with
situation and is something ordered by higher commanders.
transport from higher to lower with transport of higher
medical and technical support and then control of rear
Technical support is a complex of methods taken with the repair of equipment
and weapons. Timely repair is critical in modern battle. It also includes the
technical preparation of the equipment prior to the battle.
Technical support first became very important during the First World War. But
the separate post ofchief of the technical service was not established until
after 1975. At that time technical support became a separate category. Prior to
then it was one of the categories within the rear service support.
Now the requirments for technical support are so specialized that they require
extensive training and study to prepare properly.
The most basic measures are the servicing of equipment done by the crew and
drivers. These are simple lubrication and checking of components. The technical
servicing are divided into categories on the basis of the scale of work to be
done. The services are performed according to standards of milage or hours of
operatpiece of equipment there are several special services.
For instance tanks have the following kinds of services.
The first is the diagnostic check or inspection done by the crew each time the
tank is used and during halts. They check the tank prior to leaving the
motorpool, during halts on the march, prior to conducting fire and before a
training exercise. In this service they look at the items and check for general
security and levels of lubrication etc. They check the systems according to a
check list and the service manual. It takes 15 - 30 minutes for the beginning
inspection and 10 to 15 minutes during breaks on the march.
Technical service 1 is done on return to the motor poo. orwhen there is a break
between combat or lull in battle. In this they wash the vehicle and check the
oil and lubrication and refil as needed.
Technical service 2 Varies with each model tank. For the T 54 the crew and the
mechanic from the repair unit work with the chief of technical services
For tech service 3 it is done after 2000 to 2200 km and takes 8 to 12 hours.
For motor vehicles there is a different set of technical services
The first is the inspection done by the driver at the motor pool. This is a
daily inspection done again when the truck returns to the motorpool
There are repair principles. The first of these is that the repair comes to the
unit rather than the reverse.
The order of priority is for first repair on those damaged items that can be
repaired in the shortest time and with the least amount of special work. This
is usually accomplished in the unit.
Routine repair is 100 % done in the unit
Medium repair is 50% done in the unit and 50% at front level
Capital repair is 0% in unit and all at factories or at front level
Light repair is mostly what is needed. it includes changing simple items.
Medium repair includes changing major assemblies. It can be done on the spot as
well. What cannot be done is evacuated.
Light repair is done by the forces, crews and mechanics in the regiment
anddivisoin. The dirvers participate. The unit mechanics help the drivers with
For medium repair as a rule the driver also accompanies the vehicle. it can be
done at army if the army has received a repair unit from front. Otherwise it is
done at front level. For medium major subassemblies are exchanged.
Evacuation is done by higher headquarters sending means down to lower not the
reverse. For evacuation also the priority is to take first the most important
items such as command vehicles and rocket launch vehicles and also to take
first the items that can be repaired fastest. The 2nd order ti to take what can
be repaired at regiment and division relatively soon. The 3rd priority is to
take the rest of the equipment.
The best varient is to repair right in place where damaged on the battlefield.
If this is not possible then evacuate to a covered place. If that can't be done
then take to the evacuation point. and fourth evacuate to depots.
The evacuation is organized on the basis of a reconnaissance and observation
system that has regular observation posts. Evaculation is done by technical
evacuation means from higher units. Or it can be done by like types of
vehicles. That is one tank can tow another. Other transport that is going to
the rear can be used to haul dammaged equipment. Equipment may require help
when it is not damaged by enemy action. For instance tanks can get stuck in the
mud or trucks may be stalled and unable to make a steep inclide. There re
provisions for providing assistance with winches and towing equipment.
Technical service requires that crews are well trained and know how to maintain
their vehicles and how to perform servicing. EVen during battle, whenever there
is a lull training on technical servicing is given to the crews.
Control of technical support is an important command function. It is part of
troop control itself. The commander is personally responsible. He has now a
deputy for technical matters. This deputy prepares his estimates and plans on
the basis of the decision of the commander and the instructions from higher
headquarters. He conducts technical service during the battle from the
observation post and the rear service command post. Technical service
evacuation and repair has its own signal communications system. The technical
support system must work in close interaction with the rear service system.
Successful completion of the combat mission depends on successful fulfillment
of the requirments of technical servicing. and the interaction of technical
service with rear service and the command.
Troop control of rear services in general is conducted from the rear control
point. A representative of the rear services is also at the main command post.
Copies of the rear service documents are located at the rear post and the main
post and also with the chief of the material support battalion. If therear
control post is destroyed he direction shifts to the rear representative atthe
main command post, if he is also out then control is taken by the commander of
the material support battalion. As a last resort if these are all out then
control shifts to the chief of rear of one of the regiments.
The rear control post is only moved on the order of the division commander.