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Various types of artillery will be involved in the accomplishment of a variety of tasks in offensive operations, and a considerable amount of munitions will be expended. In this regard, along with solving other problems, it is essential to determine the total requirement for artillery, the procedure for placing it, and the expenditure of ammunition.

The requirement for artillery is determined by proceeding from the number of fire missions which it accomplishes in a simultaneous allocation of fire ----- in a relatively short period of time under conditions of a limited adjustment of fire for the purpose of sequentially destroying enemy targets.

The lessons of warfare have shown that the greatest number of tasks accomplished by artillery in simultaneous firing will be during preparatory firing. Consequently, the amount of artillery calculated for preparatory fire should be sufficient for accomplishing tasks in the course of fire support.

The following methodology may be used to calculate the required amount of artillery. First, the total number of tasks concerned with destroying the enemy in preparatory fire is determined by an analysis of enemy defense. Then the tasks which will be assigned to aviation and other means of destruction are established.

As a result, the total number of artillery fire missions is obtained. Subsequently, calculations of requirements for artillery are carried out either on the basis of the average approximate operational rates for the number of guns (subunits) needed for accomplishing specific fire missions, which have been verified in warfare, or else on the basis of a determination of the total adduced area of all objectives (targets), considering the required density for neutralizing them.

The first method for calculating the requirement for artillery is presented in Table 1.


Table No. 1 Calculation for the requirement for artillery for a 1km enemy defense breakthrough sector.

Designation of objectives (target) Number of targets Destroyed by aviation and other means Destroyed by artillery Artillery required (guns, _____ mortars, _____
For destroying 1 target Total for 12 km breakthrough sector
Platoon strong points 3 - 3 18 54
Tank companies in a staging area 3 3 - - -
Infantry companies in a staging area 3 3 - - -
Artillery batteries 6-7 3 3-4 9 27-36
Artillery platoons 1-2 - 1-2 6 6-12
Control posts 2-4 1-2 1-2 6 6-12
Radar Stations 1-2 - 1-2 6 6-12
Total 19-24 10-11 9-13 - 99-126

From the table it is evident that in these specific situation a density of artillery of about 100-130 guns, mortars, and -----per 1km breakthrough sector is required for the simultaneous neutralization of 9-13 of the indicated objectives (targets).

Given the same conditions, we will examine the requirement for artillery using the second method utilizing the so-called adduced area (privedenna ploshchad), the area of the given target, adduced according to the amount of the required expenditure of ammunition per area of covered ---- forces, taking into account the density of the neutralization.


Table No. 2 A calculation of the adduced area of the objectives (targets) for 1 km breakthrough sector of the enemy's defense.

Designations of objectives (targets) Number of targets destroyed by artillery Range of fire (km) Density of neutralization (%) Expenditure of 122 mm shells on 1 hectare of target Adduced area of neutralization
Of one target Of all targets
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Platoon strong points on the forward edge (9 ha) 2 up to 10 100 150 9 18
Platoon strong points to the rear 1 up to 10 50 75 4.5 4.5
Artillery batteries 2-3 up to 10 100 220 1.5 3-4.5
Artillery batteries 1 15 100 440 3 3
Mortar Platoons 1-2 up to 10 100 165 1 1-2
Control posts (up to 3 ha 1 up to 10 100 150 3 3
Control posts (up to 3 ha 1 15 100 300 6 6
Radar Stations (up to 1 ha 1 up to 10 100 80 0.5 0.5
Radar stations (up to 1 ha 1 15 100 160 1 1
Total 11-15 40-425

The total adduced area is multiplied by the rare of expenditure of shells for neutralizing the covered personnel and equipment of a force (150 122 mm shells per ha) and divided by the approximate expenditure of ammunition designated for preparatory fire/ If .8 units of fire (64 122 mm shells) are expended in preparatory fire, the total requirement for artillery amounts to 94-100 guns per 1km of the breakthrough sector.
(40 to 43) x 150=94 to 100

Thus, both methods give roughly equal results. A more precise result is obtained using the second method. However, this method requires more complicated calculations and is, in practice, usually used at the divisional level for a detailed planning of firing. The first method is more often used for operational calculations at the army level.

Knowing the requirement for artillery for 1 km, it is not difficult to establish the total amount needed for breakthrough sectors and throughout the army offensive sector as a whole.

The requirement for artillery for accomplishing the basic tasks examined above and the creation of this necessary and advantageous grouping is ensured by virtue of the authorized artillery of the army and artillery reinforcement.

In each specific case, the reinforcement of the army with artillery can be different, since it depends on a number of factors. The most important of these include: the senior commander having artillery available; the tasks accomplished by the armies in the operation; the nature of the enemy's defense and the degree to which it is destroyed by aviation; the number of artillery tasks in preparatory fire and the sequence of their accomplishment; and also the conditions for establishing the most advantageous grouping of artillery for the purpose of ensuring independence in the troop combat operations during the operation.

A comparison of all these factors justifies the conclusion that the army attacking has the required artillery.