PLANNING SIGNAL SUPPORT IN FRONT OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS
One of the most important conditions for
insuring troop control in front offensive operations is establishing
constant, uninterrupted signal communications. Establishing warning
communications systems is one of the most important responsibilities of the
commander and staff along with organizing and maintaining continuous signal
communications with the following:
----- subordinate formations;
----- large units and units;
----- interacting troops;
----- rear services.
The chief of signal is responsible for organizing and maintaining uninterrupted
signal communications. Through the chief of signals, the chief of staff guides
and leads the process of organizing communications with the following:
----- subordinate and interacting formations;
----- large units and units.
He specifies the principle measures on organizing signal communications and
employment of signal communication means.
Signal communication is organized and planned on the basis of the following:
----- front commander's decision for the offensive operation;
----- instructions from the chief of staff and chief of signal;
----- instructions from higher command.
Contents of the signal plan
Within the signal plan there are separate sections and diagrams dealing with
the following elements of front wide communications: radio relay,
landlines (local and auxiliary), axes of communications, and establishment of
intermediary communications centers. Generally, only those items which cannot
be sufficiently addressed in the signal plan diagrams are covered by narrative
discussion. In terms of responsibility for the planning and organization of
signal components; courier, radio relay, and landline communications are
handled by the front staff.
There are three major heading in the written part of the signal plan. The first
is the "Aim and Concept of the Signal Plan". The second is the
"Mission of the signal units". The third major heading is the
"Establishment of Communications Links". This last heading includes
information for radio, radio relay, land line, and courier communications.
Planning signal communications includes working out the signal plan prepared on
a 1/500,000 or 1/200,000 scale map. It reflects the following communications
----- wire communications systems;
----- radio-relay communications systems;
----- mobile communications systems;
----- diagram of the radio communications system.
On the plan map the following points are marked:
----- boundaries and missions of fronts and armies;
----- command posts of front and armies in the FUP area and relocation
of them during the conduct of the operation;
----- command posts of the air army, rocket troops and artillery, and air
----- command posts of radio-electronic combat troops, reconnaissance troops,
engineer troops, and chemical troop, etc.;
----- areas for deployment of forward and rear bases of the front rear
services, bases of the front's rear services hospitals, the
front's forward hospitals bases, sections of the front's rear
services rocket technical bases, and other important installations of the
front's rear services;
----- signal centers of the front's and armies command posts;
----- axis and directions of the front and armies wire communications
----- axis and directions of the front and armies radio-relay
----- direction, axes, and circular paths of mobile communications means of the
front and armies;
----- centers and stations of the front and armies field mail service
and the front's bases and state field mailing centers;
----- the airfield for the combined signal aviation regiment;
----- areas of deployment for front signal supply and repair units.
As for front radio communications, the diagram of radio communications
is prepared. In addition a number of tables, annexes, and written instructions
and documents are prepared as annexes to the signal plan. The signal plan is
signed by the front chief of staff and chief of signals. It is approved
by the front commander.
Tables in the signal plan
One of the first tables to appear in the signal plan is the "Distribution
of Signal Units and means". This table contains instructions for the
various signal battalions regarding their responsibilities in setting up
communication links between the various command posts. The table assigns
different battalions to establish signal centers for command posts at various
stages of the operation, i.e. front main, front forward,
The frquency allocation table outlines the bandwidths within which the command,
staff, and other radio nets and directions will be operating. This preplanned
assignment is intended to alleviate interference between friendly units before
the operation actually begins. Another table which appears within the signal
plan is the "Table of Resources", which resembles a TOE chart for the
signal assets of the given echelon.
In general, these instructional documents fall into three classes. The first is
the combat documents, which are actual guides for the operation, such as the
radio signals plan. Front level information displaying nets and
directions in tabular form is not disseminated beyond front
headquarters. A second class of document is the instructional documents, which
include such items as the distribution of signal units and means as well as the
frequency charts. The third class of documents is explanatory documents, and
these are basically support documents such as the resources table. Only written
documents are disseminated. The full scale charts and maps may be viewed by
lower echelon officers when at the front headquarters and notes may be
made of the information. But such charts and tables may not be physically
removed from the front (or army or division) headquarters.
Combat instructions are compartmented and distributed to the appropriate
officers at the lower command echelons. These documents are signed by the
front chief of staff, sent to the signals chiefs at lower echelons, and
reviewed by the front staff at well.
An additional set of documents and staff exist for secret communications, which
include cryptological communications. The staffs of these directorates and
sections have access to the necessary ciphers and codes. Although much of the
documentation is compartmented apart from normal signals materials, no separate
net exists strictly for cryptographic communications.
The following points are shown on the
front signal plan map
(1:500,000 OR 1:200.00)
Boundaries and missions of front and armies
Command posts of front and armies in the FUP areas and relocation of
front and armies command posts during the conduct of the operation
Command posts of the air army, rocket troops and artillery and air defense
Command posts of radio electronic combat troops, reconnaissance troops,
engineer troopsk, chemical troops, etc.
Areas of deployment of forward and rear bases of front's rear services,
bases of front's rear services hospitals, front forward hospital
bases, sections of front's rear services rocket technical bases and
other important installations of front rear services.
Signal centers of the front and armies command posts.
Axis and directions of front and armies wire communication system.
Directions, axes, and circular paths of mobile communication means of the
front and armies.
Centers and stations of front's and armies field mail service and
front's bases and state field mailing centers.
The airfields for the combined signal aviation regiment.
Areas of deployment of signal supply and repair units of the front.
To the ------ Army Chief of Staff:
1. Documents to be used:
----- conversation table (#0460A)
----- code table (#0891B)
2. After --- (date) use the following code keys:
----- for conversation table -- key series
----- #3 column #65
----- for code table.. key series #2
3. Alternate code keys
----- for conversation
----- for code table
4. Signal for switch to alternate code keys--
5. Report compromise of code key by signal ....
Chief of cipher section Chief of staff
FREQUENCY ALLOCATION TABLE
Radio nets Type of Radio sets and assigned frequency blocks
R-140 R-137 R-130 R-111 R-123 R-102 R-145
Command net #1________________________________________________
Command net #2________________________________________________
Command net #3_________________________________________________
Command dir #3_________________________________________________
Command dir #4_________________________________________________
Command dir #5_________________________________________________
Staff net #6_________________________________________________
Staff dir #7_________________________________________________
Staff dir #8_________________________________________________
RT&A net #9_________________________________________________
Air net #10_________________________________________________
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10