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The elements of planning


While planning the operation, detailed contents of the action of troops in the entire area of operation in terms of different directions are worked out. The following are also evaluated and assessed:
Effectiveness of nuclear and conventional weapons;
Required density of artillery, tanks, and infantry battalions in the penetration areas;
Structure and required duration of artillery preparatory fire;
Form of attack support fire;
Capabilities for destroying the aerial enemy;
Requirements for air defense means.


Plan on map

When the plan of the operation is prepared in a graphic form (on the map) it is shown on a 1/500,000 or 1/200,000 scale map. The map-form plan shows the following:
----- Enemy groupings of forces and means and the character of his likely actions;
----- Operational formation (deployment) of the front forces in the FUP (staging--starting) area;
----- Front's immediate and long-range missions, their contents, their depth, time of accomplishment, and speed of attack;
----- Direction of the main and other attacks;
----- Penetration areas to breakthrough enemy defenses;
----- Missions and targets of nuclear weapons during the initial nuclear strike conducted by front rocket troops and the front air army;
----- The boundary separating areas of nuclear strikes delivered by strategic weapons and front means;
----- Directions of attacks and missions of armies (corps) showing times of their accomplishments and boundaries;
----- Method and form of commitment of second-echelon troops into combat;
----- Composition, missions, areas, and times of dropping (landing) of airborne and seaborne assault troops;
----- Deployment of command posts of the front and armies at the beginning of the operation and their movement (relocation) during the operation;
----- Boundaries with adjacent armies of other fronts and missions of these armies;

Moreover, the scope of the operation is shown on the map. All other information, calculations, and guiding data are described in written instructions.


Written instructions

Written instructions and details usually include the following:
----- Assessment of the enemy situation, capabilities, and intent;
----- Combat composition of the front and its capabilities;
----- Correlation of forces and means;
----- Aim and concept of the operation;
----- Availability, time of delivery, and distribution of nuclear, special rounds, and material supplies;
----- Distribution of forces and means;
----- Distribution of aircraft sorties among missions and armies;
----- Method of providing security for friendly troops during nuclear strikes;
----- Method of conduct of attack preparatory, supporting fire, and other related instructions.


Written plan

When the plan of the offensive operation is prepared in written form, the contents and order of their presentation are as follows:
----- Deductions from the clarification of the mission and assessment of the situation;
----- Aim and concept of the operation;
----- Missions and methods of the use of nuclear and conventional means of destruction;
----- Missions of first-echelon armies, missions of second-echelon troops, airborne and seaborne assault troops, reserves, and method of their action;
----- Missions and forms of combat employment of rocket and artillery troops;
----- Missions and methods of combat actions of the air army;
----- Missions of air defense troops and methods of repelling enemy air attacks;
----- Method of coordination (interaction) among troops;
----- Measures for all-around support of the operation;
----- Missions and methods of the conduct of party and political affairs;
----- Organization of troop control and signal communication.


Plan annexes

The annexes to the plans of front offensive operations include the following:
----- Plan of the initial strike of the front;
----- Plan for preparation and occupation of the FUP areas for the attack (staging--departure areas);
----- Plan of operational Maskirovka;
----- Plan of employment of airborne (seaborne) assault troops;
----- Other plans and documents;
----- Plan of political affairs.


Plan for FUP areas

The plan should be prepared on a 1/200,000 scale map with a written annex and a graphic of the arrival of troops at FUP areas. On the map portion of the plan of preparation and occupation of the FUP areas, the following matters are graphically depicted:

Location of permanent military posts (assembly areas occupied at the alarm signal by the troops) of formations and headquarters;

FUP areas (staging area and departure areas);

Directions of arrival (movement) of troops to FUP areas;

Composition of forces and means assigned to cover troops and directions of their approach (movement) to specific covering lines and positions;

System of engineering fortifications at lines, areas, and positions;

Areas and lines of establishment of engineer obstacles and demolitions;

Other details.


Written plan for FUP area

The written portion of the plan includes the following:

Assessment of likely enemy actions and the most probable directions of his attack;

Composition and mission of covering troops;

Mission of troops in the main groupings of forces on repulse of enemy surprise invasions;

Principal measures on engineer support in the FUP and approach areas;

Engineer troops assigned to conduct such measures;

Time and method of arrival (movement) of formations and units to the FUP areas.


Preparing the troops and FUP areas prior to the initiation of military action

Along with the decision and working out the plan of operation, a great deal of organizational work, requiring a lot of time, must be conducted by the commander, staff, and field command and control organs of the front. This involves the following:
----- Preparation of generals and officers;
----- Conveying missions to the troops and organization of interaction among them;
----- Conduct of reconnaissance;
----- Conduct of combat, political, and operational preparation (training) of the troops and staff;
----- Conduct of engineer work (establishment of engineer fortifications) in the FUP areas;
----- Preparation and deployment of the rear services;
----- Measures on preparation (readiness) of troop control and all-around combat supporting measures, in the interest of troop combat actions during the operation.


Organization of interaction

The organization of interaction in the offensive operation must provide for the coordination of the following actions during the accomplishment of assigned missions:
----- Nuclear strikes of front rocket troops and front aviation;
----- Strikes launched by the means of the Supreme High Command and adjacents;
----- Actions of armies and formations organic to the front;
----- Actions of combat and combat support arms and air forces in terms of objectives, times, and places. Action of front air defense troops are coordinated with actions of national air defense forces. The principal measures on establishment of all-around support in the interest of the combat action of the troops must be confirmed.
----- Interaction in terms of targets between the strategic rocket forces, long-range aircraft, adjacents and front's means, can be established in three ways. One is by specifying the boundaries to separate the destruction areas of the enemy targets assigned to each one of them. The second is by assigning specific targets to each element in the same area. The third method is a combination of both forms can be used. The form to be used is determined by the general staff.


Establishing interaction

Interaction in the front is established as follows:
----- Among first-echelon armies;
----- Among first- and second-echelon armies of the front;
----- Among formations, operational formations of combined arms, rocket and artillery troops, and the air force;
----- Coordination between rocket troops and the air army of the front;
----- Coordination between the front forces and airborne (seaborne) assault troops;
----- Coordination among front air defense troops and means.


Coordinating combat action

The combat actions of the troops are elaborately coordinated during their action, following the initial nuclear strike, and during the conduct of missions.

The following are examples:
----- Destruction of the enemy in the security (covering) zone;
----- Simultaneous actions to seize important areas and major operational targets;
----- Destruction of the enemy in the meeting engagement;
----- Encirclement of the enemy and destruction of an encircled enemy grouping, or his reserves and groupings of forces trying to launch a counterblow (counterattack).

Actions of the troops are coordinated in detail in terms of objectives, times, and places. In other cases, the combat action of the troops is always thoroughly coordinated in the same way when joint, concerted action is required to accomplish the missions.


Peacetime organizing

The following are organized and conducted during peacetime:
----- Combat, political, and operational training;
----- Preparation of troops and staffs.


Preparation of FUP areas

Preparation of the front troop's FUP areas for attack includes the following:
----- Installation of the FUP areas for the first-echelon formations;
----- Deployment areas of second-echelon formations and assembly (deployment) areas of front second-echelon troops and front reserves;
----- Main and alternate position areas of armies and front rocket and artillery troops;
----- Fire and deployment positions of air defense and radio-technical means;
----- Concealed, dirt surface, airfield bases;
----- Deployment areas of special troops (combat support arms);
----- Command posts and signal centers.


Preparation of FUP areas

In addition to this, during preparation of the FUP areas, the following are also done:
----- Signal communication lines are established;
----- Roads and bridges are developed to facilitate troop movement, supply of materials, and evacuation;
----- Obstacle and demolition areas are prepared on likely directions (axes) of possible enemy attacks.


Location norms for FUP areas

FUP areas for first-echelon formations (divisions) are prepared 20-40 kilometers from the national border. Therefore, these formations are protected against enemy artillery fire and the possible use of tactical-chemical weapons.

One to five kilometers from the border positions are prepared for covering troops, artillery, and for rocket (SSM) battalions of the first-echelon divisions. They are responsible for supporting the troops by nuclear strikes during the initiation of the attack by friendly forces and also during the repulsion of enemy surprise invasions. Areas of deployment for second-echelon divisions are prepared at a distance of 60-80 km from the border.


Combat support measures

Combat support measures conducted to aid the combat actions of the troops is one of the main factors in achieving a successful operation. Therefore, these measures must be thoroughly considered and organized in advance. Types of combat support measures include the following:
----- Reconnaissance;
----- Operational "Maskirovka;"
----- Protection of rear service troops and targets (installations), from mass-destruction weapons;
----- Engineer support;
----- Radio-electronic support;
----- Chemical support;
----- Hydrometeorological support;
----- Topogeodetic support;
----- Rear service support.



Organizing combat support measures

Combat support measures for the front offensive operation are organized on the basis of the front commander's decision and his instructions. Actions relating to combat support measures are organized directly under the supervision and leadership of the chief of staff.

The front staff organizes the following:
----- Reconnaissance;
----- Protection of troops and rear service installations from mass-destruction weapons;
----- Radio-electronic combat;
----- Hydrometeorological and topogeodetic support.


Troop control

One important element of preparation of the operation is the organization of troop control of the front forces in the operation. This includes planning of the following:
----- Preparation and deployment of the command posts in the FUP areas of the troops;
----- Method of relocation in the course of the operation;
----- Advance preparation of the command posts in terms of engineer work, communication lines, and signal centers;
----- Other measures.


Establishing command posts

Command posts and signal centers must be capable of ensuring firm, continuous troop control at the following times:
----- While bringing troops to full combat-readiness;
----- During movement of troops to, and deployment in, the FUP areas;
----- While initiating surprise attacks on the enemy;
----- During repulsion of enemy invasion;
----- During accomplishment of all other tasks in the operation with, or without, the use of nuclear weapons.

The following command posts are established during the offensive operation of the front:
----- Command posts (KP);
----- Forward command posts (PKP);
----- Rear service control points (TPU);
----- Auxiliary command posts (in some cases);