I. The responsibilities of the front commander and staff for
organization and command and control of reconnaissance in operations:
l. The front commander specifies the following:
----- a. The aim of reconnaissance
----- b. Basic tasks of reconnaissance
----- c. Reconniassance troops and means to conduct reconnaissance and collect
information prior to the commencement of combat operations.
----- d. What reconnaissance information is collected and when it must be
----- e. On which objectives, areas and directions the main efforts of
reconnaissance must be concentrated.
The commander listens to the reports of the chief-of- staff and
chief-of-reconnaissance concerning the organization of reconnaissance planning.
He also specifies additional troops and means which are to be employed for the
accomplishment of reconnaissance tasks.
The front chief-of-staff is directly responsible for the organization of
reconnaissance. He is obliged to carry out the following tasks:
----- a. To specify concretely the reconnaissance tasks assigned by the
commander and the sequence of their execution, as well as, specify the
allocation of troops and means for the accomplishment of each task.
----- b. To specify coordination among the different types and methods of
----- c. To specify the time and method of collection of reconnaissance
----- d. To specify the reconnaissance reserve troops and means.
----- e. To specify the time when the reconnaissance plan and combat
instructions of reconnaissance must be forwarded to him for his approval and
II. Basic measures concerning organization of reconnaissance in Front
1. Based on the instructions of front commander and chief- of-staff, the
chief-of-reconnaissance begins to organize the reconnaissance for the
operation. The measures and actions taken by the front's chief of
reconnaissance include the following:
----- a. Issuing the reconnaissance combat mission to various reconnaissance
troops and the specification of the time for accomplishment of missions, as
well as the time and method of reporting reconnaissance information. ----- b.
Specification of coordination (interaction) among the various reconnaissance
actions conducted at the front level.
----- c. Issuing of instructions to reconnaissance troops about the method of
their movement to the area of deployment.
----- d. Instructing the front's reconnaissance staff on the planning
and working out of the reconnaissance plan.
----- e. Controlling the accomplishment of assigned missions
III. Reconniassance planing; contents of the plan of reconnaissance in the
front offensive operation:
l. The essence of reconnaissance planning is the rational and best allocation
of troops and means relative to the missions and objectives in close
consideration of the capabilities of all types of reconnaissance means and
2. The plan of reconnaissance is worked out graphically on the map with written
instructions as its annex or it is prepared in written form with a map annex.
The reconnaissance plan includes:
----- a. The aim of the reconnaissance.
----- b. Reconnaissance tasks.
----- c. Identification of troops to conduct the reconnaissance.
----- d. The time of carrying out reconnaissance missions (tasks).
3. The reconnaissance plan has the following annexes:
----- a. Calculations of reconnaissance troops and means in relation to the
----- b. Instructions on communications.
----- c. Instructions on material (logistic) support.
----- d. Instructions on coordination (interaction)
4. In offensive operations the reconnaissance plan is worked out for the entire
period of the preparatory phase (preparation of operation) as well as for the
phase of accomplishment of the immediate and subsequent missions.
IV. Conduct of reconaissance during the preparation of the front
l. In the preparation phase for an offensive operation the main reconnaissance
efforts are concentrated on disclosing the time of commencement of the enemy's
combat operation (time of initiation of combat operation by the enemy), the
assessment of enemy groupings of forces, their composition, numbers
(identification) and the intentions of the enemy force.
2. The main efforts of reconnaissance are concentrated, in this phase, on the
direction of the front's main attack. In this phase the most important
reconnaissance missions should be executed by operational agent (agenturnaya)
reconnaissance, radio and radio techical (electronic-radar) reconnaissance, and
also by air reconnaissance without violating international boundaries.
V. Organization and planning of reconnaissance in an army defensive operation.
1. The character of the organization (planning) of reconnaissance in the army's
defensive operation depends on the conditions and method of taking up
(assuming) defense by the army. As the experiences of military operations
indicate, the army may assume the defense after the accomplishment of the
offensive (operation) (by the achievement of the mission) or to repel the
The army may also take up a deliberate defense at the beginning of the war.
2. Therefore, the organization and conduct of the reconnaissance in defensive
operations will have the following characteristics:
----- a. All of the army's reconnaissance troops might have been infiltrated
into the depth (rear) of enemy disposition as a result of previous operations
(special reconnaissance and operational reconnaissance troops).
----- b. The reconnaissance troops may have suffered casualties in personnel
and equipment, and resupply will be required before employing them to execute
----- c. The depth of reconnaissance operations in defense are far less than
those conducted in offenisive operation. Therefore, the main efforts of all
types of reconnaissance operations will be concentrated to disclose nemy's
striking groupings (main attack), the time of initiation of the attack by them
and likely (possible) concept of enemy's combat operations.
3. The reconnaissance plan in support of the army's defensive operation is
prepared and organized to cover reconnaissance operations during the entire
preparatory phase and the further 5-6 days of combat operations conducted in
the course of the army's defensive operation. At the same time the execution of
reconnaissance missions in support of resuming the army's offensive operation
should be anticipated in the plan, since the defense, as a type of combat
operation, is only of temporary nature and should be followed by offensive
operations at the first possible and feasible opportunity.