COMBAT EMPLOYMENT OF SIGNAL TROOPS INFRONT
Table of Contents
I. Combat Employment of Signal Troops in Front Offensive Operations 1
Principal Signal Tasks in Front Offensive Operations 1
Front's Signal Troops -- Missions and Capabilities 1
Signal Troops 2
Line Communication Units 2
Mail Stations and Installation and Combined Signal Aviation Regiments 3
Signal Supply and Repair Units 3
Composition of Army Signal Troops 4
Signal Center Units and Subunits 4
Signal Line and Cable Units 4
Field Mail Signal Service 5
Motorized Rifle and Tank Division's Signal Battalion 5
Motorized Rifle and Tank Regiment's Signal Company 5
Motorized Rifle and Tank Battalion's Signal Platoon 5
II. Principal Signal Communication Means and Systems 5
Signal Centers 6
Radio Communication 6
Radio Net 6
Radio Direction 6
Wire and Radio-Relay 7
Wire Communication 7
Wire and Radio-Relay Communication Direction 7
III. Principal Forms of Operation of Mobile Communications Means 7
Form of Communication Direction 7
Form of Communication Axis of Mobile Communications Means 7
Form of Circular Communications by Mobile Communications 8
Command Communication 8
Staff Communication 8
Communication of Chief Artillery and Rocket Troops and His Staff 8
Interaction (Coordination) Communication Systems 9
Signal Communication With Adjacents 9
Rear Service Communication 10
Warning Communication System 10
I. Combat Employment of Signal Troops in Front
Principal Signal Tasks in Front Offensive Operations
The following are the principal signal tasks in front offensive
----- - Timely communication of information about the enemy to the troops,
primarily on the use of enemy nuclear weapons.
----- - Communication of signals for bringing the troops to different states of
combat-readiness, primarily to the state of full combat-readiness which should
take one to three minutes. The signal is communicated simultaneously during a
period of twenty to thirty seconds.
----- - Providing command communications for the front commanders,
front staffs, and front control organs with the commanders,
chiefs of arms, and staffs of one level lower from the time of communication of
the "alarm" signal to the time of accomplishment of the long-range
----- - Providing for interaction of front troops with formations and
large units of other services of armed forces participating in strategic
operations and interactions among formations and large units participating in
front operations, such as interaction among ground forces, with first-
and second-echelon forces and reserves during the conduct of missions in the
----- - Providing for communication of signals, commands, and information on
air, radiation, chemical, bacteriological, and meteorological situations to the
troops and primarily information on air and radiation situations. It must be
noted that nuclear explosions and radiation in other areas will affect
----- - Providing for establishment of rear service signal communications, i.e.
establishment of communication in support of material, technical, medical, and
other types of front rear service support.
----- - Providing for communication for front rocket troops during the
conduct of initial and subsequent nuclear strikes.
Front's Signal Troops -- Missions and Capabilities
The following are front signal units and installations which include
signal centers, line troops, mail units, and supply and repair troops:
Signal troops assigned to establish signal centers:
----- - Signal regiment: assigned to establish and operate the communications
network of the front's command post.
The regiment can establish signal communications for the front's main
command post (KP) in two situations. The regiment is composed of two battalions
each establishing the (CP) communication in one situation.
----- - front's forward command posts (PKP) signal communication
battalion: assigned to establish the communication of the front's
forward command post (PKP). It is being structured to provide communication in
----- - Signal regiment for rear service control points (TPU): establishes, in
two situations, the communications for rear service control point (TPU) with
the rear service units and installations and with the lower echelons. The
regiment is composed of two battalions.
----- - Signal battalion for auxiliary signal centers (VUS): establishes six
auxiliary signal centers.
----- - Signal cable and line battalion: assigned to establish communication
lines within command posts. The battalion is capable of establishing up to 500
km of communication lines.
----- - Radio control center: is designated to control the observation of radio
and radio-relay communication's security rules and regulations for secrecy of
the troops and control in formations and large units organic to the
Line Communication Units
Line communication units are assigned to install radio-relay and telephone
lines, rokad lines (parallel to the frontline) and the main axes and
directions of line communication. They include the following units:
----- - Two radio-relay line battalions: assigned to establish the
front's radio-relay axis and the front's rokad. They are
capable of installing up to 1,000 km of axis and rokad lines.
----- - Two remote (long-range) communication battalions: assigned to establish
(install) the front's rokad. Each battalion is capable of installing
lines up to 480 km.
----- - Two battalions of installing-exploiting of cable lines: assigned to
establish permanent aerial (overhanging) lines and cables. Each battalion is
capable of installing 320 km of cable and 100 km of aerial (overhanging)
----- - Communication line battalions: assigned to install and establish line
communication of armies. Each battalion is capable of installing up to 400 km
of communication lines. The number of such battalions in the front
corresponds to the number of armies organic to the front.
----- - Rocket brigade line communications battalion: assigned to install and
establish line communication for the front's rocket brigades. Each
battalion is capable of installing up to 280 km of communication lines. The
number of such battalions in the front corresponds to the number of
rocket brigades organic to the front.
----- - Underground line communication company: assigned to install underground
Mail Stations and Installation and Combined Signal Aviation Regiments
Mail stations and installations and combined signal aviation regiments are
assigned to deliver classified combat documents to higher headquarters,
subordinates, and interacting troops. They include the following:
----- - forward field mail center;
----- - rear field mail center;
----- - field mail stations.
Several field mail stations are established in the front located in
the front's forward command post, main command post, rear service
control points, and headquarters of the front's subordinate troops.
These stations are responsible for the flow of mail.
----- - Field mail centers of the front's bases and state mail agency:
assigned to deliver personal and state (government) mail.
----- - Combined signal aviation regiment: assigned to transport staff officers
and deliver documents to specified points. The regiment is composed of two
----- - helicopter squadron which consists of 10 Mi-4 or Mi-8 helicopters and 6
Mi-1 or Mi-2 helicopters;
----- - fixed-wing squadron which consists of 6 AN-2 aircraft and 6 Yak-12
Signal Supply and Repair Units
Signal supply and repair units which consist of the following:
----- - four signal supply and repair depots;
----- - two mobile signal repair bases.
Composition of Army Signal Troops
The army has organic signal center units, line units, field mail units, and
signal repair and depot units to provide signal communication.
Signal Center Units and Subunits
The following are signal center units and subunits:
----- - Signal regiment: assigned to establish the communications of the army's
command post and forward command post. The regiment is composed of the
----- - two battalions of the signal center of the command post which can
establish communications in two situations;
----- - one signal company of the forward command post which can establish
communications for the army's forward command post in one situation.
The regiment has a strength of 1,155 personnel and there are 204 different
types of vehicles in the regiment.
----- - Rear service signal battalions: assigned to establish signal
communications for the army's rear service control points (TPU) in two
situations. The battalion has a strength of 450 personnel and there are 100
different types of vehicles in the battalion.
----- - Radio and radio-relay control centers: assigned to control radio and
radio-relay communication regulation and secrecy of troop control in
subordinate units and large units.
Signal Line and Cable Units
The following are signal line and cable units:
----- - Two radio-relay and cable battalions: assigned to establish radio-relay
and telephone communications with subordinate units and large units, among the
army's command posts in FUP areas, and during the conduct of the operation.
They establish communication in the form of axis and direction. The battalion
is composed of the following elements:
----- - one radio-relay company: there are 12 radio-relay sets, type R-409 or
R-405 in the company;
----- - two line and cable companies: each company has 120 km of P-272 type
cable with a total of 240 km of cable in two companies.
The battalion can establish signal and radio-relay axis up to 600 km. The other
radio-relay battalion is used to establish communications with divisions.
Communication is established in the form of communication directions. ----- -
Separate communication line company: assigned to establish communications with
the army's rocket brigade. The company has 8 R-409 or R-405 radio-relay sets
and 60 km of P-272 cable. The company can establish two communication
directions of 200 km each, one in the departure (FUP) area and one during the
conduct of the operation.
Field Mail Signal Service
The field mail signal service consists of the following:
----- - Field mail signal center: assigned to deliver mail and combat documents
to front elements, army large units, and command posts.
----- - Field mail signal station: assigned to deliver combat documents and
mail to field mail signal centers and personnel of all units and large units
and signal centers.
----- - Combined signal aviation squadron: assigned to carry combat documents,
mail, officers, papers, and other documents. The squadron has 12 helicopters
and fixed-wing aircraft (AN-2, Mi-4, Mi-2) and one Mi-4 helicopter equipped
with a R-979 radio set used for communications of airborne command posts.
Subordinate units have the following signal sub-units:
Motorized Rifle and Tank Division's Signal Battalion
Motorized Rifle and Tank Regiment's Signal Company
Motorized Rifle and Tank Battalion's Signal Platoon
II. Principal Signal Communication Means and Systems
The following are the principal means of signal communications:
----- - radio communication is one of the principal means used in all types of
----- - radio-relay communications;
----- - wire communications;
----- - various mobile communication means such as motorcycle, automobile, APC,
helicopter, and fixed wing aircraft;
----- - signal communication means.
Unified communications systems are established in formations, large units, and
units including the following:
----- - signal centers for command posts of the front and subordinate
and interacting formations, large units and units;
----- - retransmission (retranslyatsionie) points of
telegraphs and retransmission (perepreyomanie)
----- - radio net and radio direction systems;
----- - axis and direction of wire and radio-relay communications;
----- - direction, axis, and circular systems of mobile communication means.
The signal center is an organized integration of various signal equipment at
specified points. It provides communications for formations and large units and
units. In terms of their missions the signal centers are divided into signal
centers of command posts, forward command posts, alternate command posts, rear
service control points, and auxiliary signal centers.
Radio communication between two command posts can be established directly or
through an intermediate radio set. Communication through an intermediate radio
set is used in situations when direct communication between two points is
impossible due to insufficient power of transmitting sets or unfavorable
conditions for radio wave travel.
The intermediate set can receive the radiogram and can automatically
retranslate it, or retransmit it. In case of retranslation in the intermediate
set, the contents of the radiogram are automatically received and retransmitted
by another set.
The signal centers are deployed at an appropriate distance from related command
posts so that if in the case of signal center detection by the enemy the
location and secrecy of the command posts are not compromised.
Radio communication is established in the form of radio net or radio direction.
Radio net is a form of radio communication in which several radio sets are
simultaneously communicating on the same frequency.
Radio direction is a form of radio communication in which a radio communication
on one frequency is established only between two radio sets.
Wire and Radio-Relay
Wire and radio-relay communication is organized in the form of communication
axis or direction.
Wire communication axis is a form of organization of communications in which
the communications of the higher commanders (staffs) with several subordinate
commanders (staffs) is established along one wire or radio-relay line extended
on the direction of relocation the command posts of higher commander (staffs).
Along the communication axis auxiliary signal centers are deployed through
which communications are established with subordinate formations and large
units and units.
Wire and Radio-Relay Communication Direction
Wire and radio-relay communication direction is a form of communications
between two command posts through one wire (radio-relay) line established
between their signal centers or communication sets operating there.
III. Principal Forms of Operation of Mobile Communications Means
The principal forms of operation of mobile communications means are the
communications direction, axis, and circular form.
Form of Communication Direction
In the form of communication direction, the combat documents are sent from one
command post to another directly through one signal center, mailing center, or
station to another.
Form of Communication Axis of Mobile Communications Means
In the form of communication axis of mobile communications means the combat
documents from signal centers or mailing centers and stations to subordinate
and interacting staffs are sent through forward points located on one axis of
the operation of the mobile communication means.
Form of Circular Communications by Mobile Communications Means
In the form of circular communications by mobile communications means the
combat documents from one signal center or mailing center and station are
delivered successively to several signal centers and mailing stations (centers)
located on a circular path.
They are to deliver important documents or to convey combat missions to
subordinate formations, large units, and units. Signal officers are directly
sent to subordinate and interacting headquarters by fixed-wing aircraft,
helicopter, or other transport means.
During communication by radio, radio-relay, and wire communication means the
regulations of secrecy of troop control must be strictly observed. Radio means
should be protected against jamming and their reliable operation must be
To support front troop control during an operation different
communications systems such as command, staff, rocket troops and artillery, air
defense, air force, engineer, and chemical communications systems, as well as
interaction, rear service, and warning systems are organized. The following are
some details concerning these:
The command communication system supports the commander to conduct control of
subordinate formations and troops through direct conversation, issuing orders
and combat instructions, and receiving situation reports from them. The command
communication system should provide for direct conversations between
commanders, subordinate commanders, and staffs.
Wire communication, radio-relay, and mobile communication means are allocated
to establish command communication with higher command and staffs,. The radio
communication means can be used to establish communications with higher and
subordinate commands and staffs.
The staff communication system supports the staff in troop control, issuing
combat instructions to subordinate staffs, and receiving situation reports from
them. The system should provide for direct conversation with subordinate
Communication of Chief Artillery and Rocket Troops and His Staff
The communication of the front's chief of artillery and rocket troops
and his staff, with the chiefs of artillery and rocket troops of armies and
their staffs, as well as with the rocket brigades of the front's
rocket brigade is established through such communication systems.
Interaction (Coordination) Communication Systems
This system provides for coordination of combat actions of formations, large
units and units of all branches of arms, special troops, and adjacents. Such a
communication system is organized among command posts of interacting troops on
the basis of instructions from the commander who organizes and establishes the
interaction. In the absence of instructions from the higher command or when
interaction is interrupted (by the enemy), the interacting troop's commanders
and staffs are obliged to take their own measures for quickly establishing
(restoring) interaction communication systems.
The signal communication between combined arms formations, large units, and
units with artillery large units, units, and subunits is established by
artillery communication means.
The signal communication for ground forces with naval formations, large units,
and units with aviation forces is established through air force combat control
centers, combat control groups, and air force representatives assigned and
detached to ground forces headquarters with signal communication means.
The signal communication of ground forces with naval formations, large units,
and ships is established by means of each interacting formation, large unit and
unit among themselves or through the representatives of naval forces attached
to the headquarters of ground forces along with their signal communication
means. The signal communication means of motorized rifle units and subunits
with tank troops is established as follows:
----- - by radio: through radio communication means of each interacting unit
and subunit among themselves;
----- - by wire: by wire communication means of motorized rifle units and
----- - by mobile communication means and signal officers: assigned from tank
units and subunits to motorized rifle units and subunits.
Signal Communication With Adjacents
The signal communication with adjacents is established as follows:
----- - by wire and mobile communication means: from the right adjacent unit to
----- - by radio: by radio communication means of each interacting formation,
large unit, unit, and subunit;
----- - by radio-relay: through the higher headquarters by means of each
interacting formations and large units.
Rear Service Communication
The rear service communication system establishes communications for the chief
of rear services and his staff with the rear service units and installations
and lower echelons to control the action of rear service establishments and
action of the heads of services and chiefs of subordinate command's rear
The rear service communication system is established on the basis of
instructions from the front chief of staff, and the front
chief of signal troops.
Warning Communication System
This system supports warning troops, staffs, rear service units, and
installations of enemy air threats and use of mass-destruction weapons. The
warning is conducted by signal communication means specially designed for this
purpose, as well as by all other means assigned for troop and rear service