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MACHIAVELLI ON WAR

by John Sloan

This paper is intended to be an introduction to the study of the political and military theories of Niccolo Machiavelli. Machiavelli has been one of the most widely read and influential writers of the modern Western World. Yet after 450 years, students are still finding fresh ideas in his works. For further discussion and permission for academic use please contact the author.To return to the introduction page gohere .

Outline of the contents


General Introduction

Content of Military Theory


Principles of War


The Model Army


Summary and Conclusions


General Introduction

Life and Literary Works:

The Renaissance period was marked by a number of major changes in the political and military affairs of Western Europe. Some of these changes were the product of slow developmental processes which had been at work in Europe during the Middle Ages. But during the early Renaissance the tempo of change became more rapid. The age must have seemed a revolutionary one to a sensitive individual living in fifteenth and sixteenth century Italy.Go to top
Such a man was Niccolo Machiavelli. He was born on 3 May 1469 and grew up in the Florence of the Medici and Savonorola. Three of the most dramatic events of his youth were the death of Lorenzo de Medici on 8 April 1492, the invasion of Italy by Charles VIII in 1494, and the death of Savonorola on 23 May 1498. In addition of course the more distant discoveries by the period's active explorers must have caused their share of excitement.
He joined the civil service under the republican regime of Piero Soderini in 1498. He served as Secretary to the Ten of Liberty and Peace, was secretary to the Nine for Militia and Second Chancellor of the city. While in office he went on man diplomatic missions, including posts in France, Germany, and Rome. His duties placed him at the center of political affairs in Florence, where he had ample opportunity to observe from the inside the tortuous machinations that then characterized Italian politics.
The two critical experiences of Florentine political life at that time were the siege of Pisa( 1496-1509) and the attempt to prevent the return of the Medici to power. Due to his almost single-handed creation of the Florentine Militia, Machiavelli was deeply involved in the successful completion of the former and the disastrous failure of the latter.
With the return of the Medici in 1512, Machiavelli was dismissed from office, tortured, and exiled to his ancestral home outside the city walls. there he tried to satisfy his interest in politics by continuing his study of the classics. he was not content with the life of a secluded scholar, however, and attempted repeatedly to regain some position in the Florentine government. His main avenue of approach to the ruling powers was by writing a number of books designed to bring himself to their attention. his most important political works were The Prince, 1513; The Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy, 1513-1518; The Discourse on the War with Pisa, 1498; Report on the Fortifications of Florence, 1526; The Life of Castruccio Castracani, 1520; The Art of War, 1517-1520; Discourse on the Reform of the Government of Florence, 1519; and The History of Florence, 1520-1525. In addition, he wrote several literary works: Mandragola, a very successful play; Clizia, an adaptation from Plautus; Belfagor, a novel; A Discourse on Language; and several poems such as On Ambition, The first Decade, and Ass of Gold. Writing in an age when letter writing was a highly polished art, his dispatches, both official and private also stand out as masterpieces. Go to top
Machiavelli's efforts were successful in obtaining for himself several minor diplomatic missions and a consulting role in the improvement of the city fortifications during the emergency occasioned by the approach of Charles V's army. He had just earned enough favor with the Medici, however, to arouse the suspicion of the republican party that regained power in the wake of Charles' victory over the pope.. Machiavelli applied for reinstatement in the republican government but was turned down. Mercifully, he did not live to realize this, however, but died peacefully at home on 22 June 1527.
Renaissance man strove to achieve immortality through his deeds. While Machiavelli's political career was much more extensive than that of the great majority of political theorists, it was not in such an exalted position as to achieve for him the fame he sought. His books, however, far transcend in value the purpose for which they were created and have earned for him even more renown as an epochal political theorists than he could have possibly hoped. Indeed, he is frequently considered to be the first modern political theorist.

The military side of Machiavelli's career is less well known. It is clear that he dealt largely with military affairs while in office. He had, in fact, more practical experience with military matters than many military theorists.
While considerable attention has been focused on Machiavelli as a political theorists, especially in recent times, those portions of his writing concerning military theory have also been relatively less studied by modern critics. The few who have dealt with this aspect of Machiavelli's work differ widely in their evaluations. J. H. Whitfield puts The Art of War aside as a mere echo of Vegetius. Frederick Taylor, however, notes that Machiavelli has an important place in the history of military theory and comments that "Machiavelli is the first secular writer to attempt to allot to the practice of arms its place among the collective activities of mankind, to define its aims, and to regard it as a means to an end." Earle included Machiavelli in his Makers of Modern Strategy. Probably the most thorough analysis of the interrelationship between military and political theory in Machiavelli's thought was made by Neal Wood in his introduction to The Art of War. In any case, it is clear that The Art of War is the first full scale modern attempt to revive classical military thought.
In addition to being the first modern political and military theorist, Machiavelli is a superb prose stylist. his writing has been praised by Macauley, and T. S. Eliot. His play, Mandragola, is considered the finest play in the Italian language. His essay, On Language, is one of the first to contain the principles of the science of semantics. Recently management theorists have become increasingly aware that Machiavelli anticipated them also in developing precepts for action applicable to the problems confronting business executives.
Machiavelli's Discourses on the First Ten Books of Titus Livy contains the fundamental modern treatise on political expansion. It is a n indispensable work for the interpretation of subsequent theories of expansion advanced by Hobbes and Burke. It is often assumed that Hobbes was Machiavelli's disciple and that Burke opposed Machiavelli's teachings. ON the contrary, Burke and Machiavelli stand together as patriotic, liberal, and "imperialist" philosophers against the anti-imperialist Hobbes, who, despairing of the unpredictable forces of liberty and patriotism, left his Leviathan virtually defenseless and incapable of expansion. The study of imperialism considered as a political phenomenon should be based on the theories of Machiavelli and Burke. They agree that the conquering force and the imperial capacity of any state is determined primarily by its constitutional arrangements: further, that a liberal constitution is an excellent foundation for an empire, as well as the least impractical domestic system. As the supreme object of empire is lasting fame, a liberal state is well constituted to seek such gratitude in return for extending its own system. Aware of the dangers inherent in imperial rule, Machiavelli and Burke both warn against arrogance, avarice, and rule by terror. Go to top

Sources:

Machiavelli drew on two sources for his theories the military history and practice of contemporary Europe, especially Italy; and the military history and practice of ancient world, especially the Roman Republic.
The Italian condotierri had long since established schools of warfare in which they sought to study and develop both strategy and tactics. The international character of armies aided the dissemination of information about the latest developments in warfare during this revolutionary period. As an avid student of the art, Machiavelli no doubt questioned every leader he met and engaged in constant discussion of military affairs. One of the scenes of his discussions was the Rucelli Gardens, where the Orti Oricellari met and in which locale The Art of War is laid. he uses the distinguished condoterri, Fabrizio Colonna, as his mouthpiece in this work. In the Orti Oricellari group he came in contact with several leaders who were interested in military affairs, among them Francesco Vettori, Luigi Alamonni, Zanobi Buondelmonti, Donato Giannetti, and Benedetto Varchi.
At the siege of Pisa, Machiavelli had contact with Paolo and Vitellozzo Vitelli, tow noted condoterri captains, and with the Florentines, Giovani Batista Ridolfi, Luca Degli Albizzi, and Antonio Giacomini, all of whom were interested in military affairs. Problems of a military nature were clearly of primary importance at this time. The question of militia versus condoterri was especially pressing. The use of militia involved becoming expert in the rest of the art of war. It is not possible to determine how much or what Machiavelli learned from these contacts, but he must have been influenced to some degree. On the other hand, his books are polemical and much of his attention is devoted to refuting arguments presumably held by his contemporaries, so that perhaps their influence was mostly negative.
If Machiavelli's debt to Florentine writers and specific military leaders of his acquaintance is unclear, his literary debts to the ancient Romans are quite apparent. He obtained his knowledge of Roman military practice from his extensive reading of the classical authors. He grew up and was educated in a city noted as a center of the revival of learning and had available a wide selection of contemporary editions of the classics. Father Walker, in his notes to the Discourses, has given a thorough discussion of the sources and possible sources of this work. The list reads like a catalog of classical historical literature. In particular, Machiavelli relied on Livy, Xenophon, Vegetius, Tacitus, Thucydides, Polybius, Cicero, Frontinus, Aelian, Sallust, Diodorus Siculus, and Plutarch.Go to top

Method:

Machiavelli, in Prince Chapt 15 claims to depart from the method of other writers, who have created imaginary republics. His argument is that:

  1. he is concerned with the discovery of truth and not the construction of ideal states:
  2. that he is not concerned with what the moralists say ought to be done, but with what is really done

In the Discourses, Preface, Book I, he repeats his claim and says his method is different from that of any other writer, as new as the discovery of America.
To see if his claim is valid, let us consider the main features of his method. his most important work is the Discourses. The main content of this book is comment on material taken from the first ten books of Titus Livy's History of Rome. These books discuss Roman history from Rome's foundation in 753BC to 293BC. Thus Livy covers the period during which Rome's constitution, institutions, and empire were formed.
Rome is Machiavelli's favorite example because it established the greatest and most lasting empire due to the "Virtu" of its citizens. Machiavelli notes three reasons for this success:

  1. The Roman Constitution;
  2. Roman military organization
  3. the "virtu" of Rome's outstanding men.

Therefore, the Discourses is divided into three books, one corresponding in subject matter to each of these topics. Since most of the outstanding men were generals and the most important aspect of the constitution for Machiavelli was its ability to generate military power, military affairs dominate the book. Some 45 chapters being devoted to this topic. Machiavelli's method in each book is to go through Livy in chronological order, selecting important events relating to the topic. He uses these incidents as the basis for one or more theorems. Many of these theorems are themselves quotations from Livy's own comments on the events he is narrating. In fact, Machiavelli's whole philosophy and outlook is almost identical with that of the Roman historian. The Discourses reveal the influence of another Roman (Greek) historian, Polybius. A comparison of Book VI of Polybius' History with the first 15 chapters of Book I, Discourses, shows an almost point by point similarity in their discussions of the Roman constitution.
Machiavelli himself urges the student to study history for its practical value. But what is it that gives a practical value to history? He sees history as a laboratory for the study of human psychology. His basic propositions are that history is a record of individual human activity. Political activity is activity of individual leaders or groups of individuals. People act because of motivations. Motives are the causes for the effects one sees in history. His works are filled with such words as ambition, avarice, virtue, envious, blame, praise, approbation, wisdom, imitated, weakness, indolence, necessity, vicious, ingrate, just, courage, disgust, revenge, cupidity, ambition and the like.
What he seeks are laws of cause and effect of universal validity. He is therefore especially interested in proving the universality of his theorems. To do this he adds to the original citation from Livy, other examples drawn from his memory of other historical literature and from current events.
The method used in the Prince is similar except in two respects;

  1. There is no basic incident from Livy's History.
  2. In the Discourses most of the chapter titles are themselves the theorems (100 out of 142), while in the Prince only chapter 19 is headed by a theorem.

In structure The Prince comes in four parts. Chapters 1 to 11 are a discussion of the types of states (principalities) classified by the manner in which they were created, organized and governed. There is evidence that this was the original work and was titled "On Principalities". Chapters 12 to 14 are a discussion of military affairs, in particular the militia. This can be considered a special plea for Machiavelli's favorite organization. Chapters 15 through 19 are a catalog of the real virtues needed by a prince. These are the chapters that stand in such sharp contrast to the humanist literature, not to mention the medieval literature, which preceded Machiavelli. Chapters 20 to 25 are further comments on psychological factors. Finally, Chapter 26 is a patriotic exhortation, which some commentators believe was added as an afterthought.
The use of ancient and modern examples is the same and each chapter develops one or more theorems. The Prince is actually one of a very extensive type of literature, the book of advice to a monarch, called "mirror of princes" literature. This literature was widespread during the middle ages and was developed by the humanist writers of the early Renaissance. To the abstract theories of the medieval writers they added historical examples. They attempted to provide new justifications for the legitimacy of rulers by focusing on the ethical problems facing rulers. Machiavelli consciously sought to refute the humanists while copying their literary form. Even the dedication to the Medici is a copy of Isocrates address to Nicocles, a standard stylistic formula of the period.
In writing the Art of War, Machiavelli followed tradition even more carefully in respect to format. In fact, he copied the organization paragraph by paragraph (and much of the opinion also) from the most influential military work of the Western world, The De Re Militari of Vegetius. However, Machiavelli adds his comparative method to the Roman's format, this time by comparing Greek and Roman military technique with contemporary Swiss, French, Italian and Spanish techniques. He combines all these to develop his plan for the ideal military organization. Further, he includes a detailed example of a hypothetical battle not found in De Re Militari but similar to a description in Xenophon's Cyropaedia. Also included are a description of an encampment from Polybius, stratagems from Frontinus, and drill orders from Aelian Tacticus. The book is written in dialogue form, a common Renaissance genre. The introduction contains a discussion of the connection between civil and military affairs. The Topic of Book I is the recruitment of militia; Book II is on arming, organizing and training the army; Book III describes an ideal battle; in Book IV are found tactics, planning, stratagems, and generalship; Book V is on the march; Book VI on encampment, provisioning and troop welfare; and Book Vii is on defense and attack of towns and fortifications.
The formulation of generalizations and maxims is an important part of Machiavelli's method. These maxims express or imply a relation between cause and effect and imply an end (purpose) for the action involved, namely success. The generalization can be converted into a maxim by reference to an end. His generalizations therefore lead to different maxims for different people having different ends. Thus he advises at the same time republicans and princes, those in and out of power, those sup porting and attempting to overthrow governments. He does not give advice to tyrants because he likes tyranny, but advises everyone because his maxims are universally applicable. Go to top
According to Father Leslie Walker, who presents his detailed analysis of Machiavelli's work in the edition of the Discourses he edited, M's method involves several propositions.

  1. He looks to history for an incident likely to recur and observes its consequences; or having noted a consequence, he looks for the cause.
  2. He inquires further, whether there are any other similar instances in history, especially in modern times.
  3. He formulates a generalization of, A often or always or sometimes follows B.
  4. He looks for negative instances, i.e. B but no A.
  5. He observes whether the result in question was beneficial to the party concerned and then states the maxim that the course of action should be followed or avoided.
  6. He judges the precepts of moralists as to their results in like manner and accepts or rejects them depending on their consequences.

Father Walker notes that this is the inductive method. It can be found in the works of no previous writer. It was Machiavelli, not Francis Bacon, who invented this method. Bacon was actually a careful student of Machiavelli and the first to apply Machiavelli's method to the realm of natural science. Thus Machiavelli's contention is valid. Go to top

Axioms:

Machiavelli was not a philosopher or logician. Many of his main generalizations are mentioned in passing while discussing other topics. Some of the most important axioms are as follows:

  1. Both physical bodies and political bodies are ever in process of transformation, analogous one to the other. Hence it is possible to formulate laws descriptive of processes in each area.
  2. Similar causes give rise to similar effects
  3. There exist similar causes and similar effects.
  4. Similar causes in dissimilar circumstances may not give rise to similar effects.
  5. Similar effects may be due to dissimilar or even contrary causes.
  6. Dissimilar effects are not due to the same cause.
  7. A given effect may be due to a plurality of causes, such that, if any one is lacking the effect will not ensue.
  8. In certain cases, the causes are so complex that it is impossible to determine which effect will result; but the most one can do is calculate probabilities.


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Influence:

An exposition of the influence of Machiavelli on the development of military theory and practice is an essay in itself. The best and actually only such essay is Neal Wood's introduction to The Art of War. The development of the modern army by Maurice and Gustavus Adolphus was based on Machiavelli as was the development of the first regiments in the French Army. The Art of War was his first work published in English, whereby it was influential in Elizabethan England. Montecuculi, Frederick the Great, Saxe, Guibert, Napoleon I, Clausewitz, Marx and Engles are a few among those who studied and were influenced by Machiavelli. That he is relatively unknown to contemporary American military leaders is due to their general neglect of philosophy, history and things theoretical. In the Soviet Union, however, The Art of War was published by the state military department publishing house in 1939 with an introduction which urged that all officers of the Red Army should read Machiavelli to learn essentials of the theory of war.Go to top

Content of Military Theory:

In this essay we can discuss only a small part of Machiavelli's thoughts; Machiavelli's general view of human nature and the causes of war. Then I will summarize his views of the model commander and finally his description of the model army.Go to top

Human Nature - The Fundamental Cause of War:

For Machiavelli, man is dominated by his passions. He is acquisitive, shortsighted and imitative. His desires are unlimited and bear little relation to his abilities. Not only is the supply of possessions limited, but man's short-sighted, restless nature makes him constantly tire of what he has and desire new and more interesting things. This selfishness leads to conflict between those who desire to dominate and those who desire to be free from domination. Domination is itself the most powerful of emotional desires. The conflict is conducted both on the civil level between men and on the international level between groups of men.
Since conflict stems from the fundamentals of human nature, it is at least latent in all human societies and therefore inevitable. One of the fundamental concerns of politics then is the control and application of conflict in the interests of society. War and politics form an organic whole; while war is a political instrument, politics itself is a warlike activity. You are all familiar with the famous dictum of Clausewitz that war is politics conducted by other, more violent means. This idea has also been adapted by Leninists. But with a different concept of what politics is about. The Leninists actually come closer to the original view of Machiavelli, which is that it is politics that is war conducted by other, less violent means. Go to top

Specific causes of war:

Among the specific causes of particular wars Machiavelli mentions lack of food, ambition of princes, internal security, avoidance of punishment, miscalculation, and necessity. While these may be the immediate objects for which a city goes to war "There are but two motives for making war against a republic, one, the desire to subjugate her, the other, the apprehension of being subjugated by her. Go to top

Kinds of war:

The various causes give rise to two different kinds of war, one caused by the ambition of princes or republics and the other caused when an entire people desire to overthrow the society of another people. Thus there is a qualitative difference between wars waged for limited and unlimited objectives. The limited political objectives involve the seizure of some territory and or domination of another group or the unseating of a particular ruler. In total war the objective is the complete destruction of the opposing social and political order and if possible the extermination of the population itself. Moreover, the intensity of war - the means and methods employed - is greater when the objective is total. The unlimited character of the military operation stems from the unlimited character of the political objective sought by at least one of the belligerent. Go to top

The Model Commander:

For Machiavelli, strong and able leadership is an essential ingredient in successful government, both political and military. His books are in effect treatises on the requirements and methods of good leadership. He devotes considerable space to what a good leader should know, how he should act, and what his characteristics are, and how a city can secure and use good leadership. And whole books have been written on this topic.
The ideal leader is the classical virtuous hero as exemplified by Romulus, Theseus, Solon, Cyrus and Alexander. He is a statesman, ideally a founder of a state or religion, or the organizer of an army. Leadership is a creative quality. It is because of its creative nature that the military profession qualifies as one of the highest. The virtue of a leader is not synonymous with success, although success is an essential ingredient. Nor is mere technical ability sufficient to make the leader virtuous. The pursuit of glory rather than material goods is the highest aim of man. True glory is achieved in the doing of something which will not only be remembered but cherished by mankind. The leader therefore must exercise self-control and moderation. He must live a Spartan daily life. He must be devoted to the common good, but so desirous of glory as to prefer the short glorious life to the long mediocre one.
Leadership involves not only creative effort but also a constant struggle with fortuna an idea derived from classical ideas of fate. The world is in a constant state of change. Fortuna represents the incalculable in the nature of events.
It is impossible for man to foresee everything in order to dominate fortuna. Yet through the use of reason and dynamic leadership the commander should be able to channel events to further his own designs. Of prime importance in keeping ahead of fortuna is the ability to stay flexible enough always to anticipate changing conditions and change with the times. The inability of most men to change their habits and modus operandi constitutes one of their major weaknesses.
The importance of good leadership for Machiavelli stems from his ideas on imitation and his belief in the creative powers needed by the founders of both cities and armies. The faults of people spring from the faults of their leaders.
Conducting warfare is one of the principal duties of the leader, hence it must be the subject of careful study. "A prince should therefore have no other aim or thought, nor take up any other thing for his study, but war and its organization and discipline, for that is the only art that is necessary to one who commands." This admonition is not meant to imply that war in the usual sense is the only activity of a ruler, but that the procedures associated with war have application to all phases of the ruler's activities. Go to top

Psychological Warfare:

Machiavelli applies his theory of human nature to military problems and develops major roles for religion, appearances and necessity. He believes that man's desires to acquire money, power, and glory are not sufficient in themselves to overcome an even stronger desire to stay alive. Fear dominates men's minds when they are faced with danger, and their desires cannot be counted on to make them risk death in battle. The commander must have recourse to other means to persuade his men to fight. Among these are music, oratory, and rewards. Three additional means are religion, appearances and necessity. Go to top

The role of money in war:

Machiavelli discusses this at length because he disagrees with the common opinion that "money is the sinews of war". He notes that gold will not buy trustworthy soldiers, but good soldiers will always find gold. The small stipend given soldiers in not enough to make them die for their leader. Riches along with natural geographic strength and the favorable disposition of the people is one of the many secondary requirements for success, but the primary one is a strong army. Go to top

Religion:

Machiavelli emphasizes the importance of religion. He stresses its utility as a means for instilling a willingness to fight. In this he is writing about ideology in general. It served four military purposes for the Romans. Predicting a favorable outcome increased confidence. The oath threatened punishment from the gods for cowardice. Religion educated the troops in the concepts of love of country and exalted the heroic individual devoted to public service. Machiavelli does not mention religion as an ideological belief to be fought for, for itself. Go to top

Appearances:

Since men are shortsighted and prone to believe what they want to believe, the general should use every means possible to make his army appear strongest and best. Appearances is also the foundation for use of stratagems and deceits. Machiavelli mentions many of the stratagems employed by ancient armies. Go to top

Necessity:

Necessity plays a determining role in military strategy. It is necessity which causes many wars. Necessity will make one or the other side fight harder. The able general takes necessity into account and actively uses it. Go to top

Generalship:

Besides evidencing leadership traits and knowing how to use psychological techniques, the commander must be thoroughly familiar with the tools of his trade. Of fundamental importance is the appreciation of the necessity for careful, detailed planning. Of equal importance is the recognition that there are certain general principles which should not be violated. Machiavelli is one of the first military theorists to point out that the scientific study of war requires an understanding of the principles on which it is based. Go to top

Estimate of the situation:

Proper planning and a careful estimate of the situation are important before beginning a war. Machiavelli lists all the ingredients found in modern estimates including enemy, own forces, terrain, weather, etc. Go to top

Principles of War:

Machiavelli's list of principles in The Art of War is a mixture of general principles and specific tactical maneuvers. For a more interesting approach I have taken the modern US list of principles of war and attempted to collect all that Machiavelli wrote on each. Go to top

Objective:

Machiavelli sees conquering and keeping territory at a profit as the political objective. The defeat of the enemy army is the strategic and tactical objective. While victory in battle is the objective of all armies, the general should never come to a general engagement unless forced to do so. It is more advantageous to defeat the enemy by destroying his will to resist through the use of psychological warfare and "peace campaigns". It is always possible to find allies within the opposing society who will act as a "fifth column". Even so, the use of all these other methods ultimately rests on having the undoubted ability to wage violent war in the open and to make war "short and sharp". Since war is caused by a "thirst for domination", it is foolish to try to appease an aggressor. It is almost always better to allow something to be taken by force than to yield it to the apprehension of force, because to yield from fear for the purpose of avoiding war merely encourages the enemy to try for more. Go to top

Offensive:

The offensive is the cardinal principle, because it enables the leader to keep ahead of his enemies and fortuna. By keeping the initiative the ruler can channel the course of history. The principle of the offensive must be applied flexibly. When external and internal evils arise at the same time temporizing may be necessary in order to be able to build up strength while one or the other dies out. Machiavelli discusses in some detail the relevant considerations one must take into account when deciding on taking the strategic offensive or defensive.Go to top

Mass and economy of force:

Machiavelli discusses Mass several times and urges the commander to never risk his whole fortune on only a part of his forces. He does not discuss the modern concept of economy of force explicitly. Go to top

Unity of command:

This is one of Machiavelli's important principles. He discusses both the necessity for unity of political and military leadership and the narrower question of unity of command within the command element of a field army. Go to top

Surprise and Security:

Machiavelli emphasizes the value of surprise and the consequent need for security. Secrecy of plans is one of the most important aspects of all operations. These principles rely on the use of deceit and the doctrine of appearances. Machiavelli incorporated a large part of Frontinus' Strategmata into his The Art of War. Go to top

Maneuver:

Machiavelli has little to say on this subject directly. However it is implicit in his advice not to rely on position defenses such as fortifications. Of course he devotes much attention to maneuvering in the political sense, but does not include much attention to it in his description of a set- piece battle. Go to top

Simplicity:

He does not mention this principle directly. He does note the requirement for simple orders and the likelihood of misunderstanding and confusion in battle. Go to top

Summary:

Machiavelli thus seems well aware of objective, offensive, mass, unity of command, surprise and security. He gives less attention to economy of force, maneuver and simplicity. These three principles are relatively new and were not stressed by the classical authorities upon whom Machiavelli relied. Go to top

The Model Army:

Machiavelli devotes much attention to the proper composition of the army. He denounces mercenaries and insists on the recruitment of a militia composed of native citizens. These should be conscripted, not volunteers, but the citizen's education should stress the necessity for military service as a civic duty. He also does not approve of professional soldiers, even citizens, but wants military service to be a temporary activity of citizens having other means of livelihood. Machiavelli gives political as well as military reasons for his views. In fact it is the political considerations which are paramount. These extend also into the specific details of how the militia is to be recruited, paid and commanded.
Machiavelli connected a militia with republican government and despotic rule and corruption in society with control of the army by an individual or group. He hoped that a corrupt society could be helped toward reform by the institution of a militia. Go to top

Recruiting:

The proposal to draw the citizen militia from an armed populace does not mean to arm everyone. Machiavelli considers an armed mob to be dangerous and worthless. Only selected, trustworthy individuals having specific character traits and skills should be considered. Go to top

Discipline and Training:

The need for strict discipline cannot be stressed too often. It is necessary for the internal security of a country because it makes the soldiers less likely to violate the laws, even though they have the weapons. Rigorous training in peacetime to include participation in sham battles is essential, both to develop specific skills and to develop discipline. Go to top

Logistics:

Machiavelli finds contemporary armies greatly lacking in proper logistic procedures and recommends a return to the exemplary Roman routine. He especially mentions food supply and medical practice as important areas for the commander' s attention. Go to top

Encampments:

He describes the proper siting and layout of a camp in great detail. Again, his model is the Roman practice. Go to top

Arms and Armor:

The roles that various weapons have played in the success or failure of ancient and contemporary armies bear analysis. Machiavelli discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the pike, sword, and firearms. He proposes to organize his model regiment of 6000 men with 3000 armed with sword and shield, 2000 with pike and 1000 with arquebus . He mentions cavalry only briefly because contemporary cavalry is already better than infantry, but it is the infantry that is the key element in the army. Go to top

Organization:

The army is to be formed of two native and two allied regiments of 6000 men each. The regiment is composed of ten battalions of 400 heavy infantry and 50 light infantry each plus an extra unit of 1000 pikemen and 500 extra light infantry. Each battalion is commanded by a Lt Col assisted by 5 captains and 45 corporals. The extra pikemen are also commanded by 3 Lt Co l's and the extra light infantry by two Lt Co l's. A colonel commands the entire regiment.
Each battalion has 36 horsemen and the regiment has a unit of 150 heavy cavalry and one of 150 light cavalry.
Promotion is up through the ranks and by merit. The senior Lt. Col commands the first battalion and the junior the 10th, so that each promotion brings a corresponding shift in position within the regiment. The officer corps is also rotated between regiments to prevent anyone from acquiring a personal following.
Machiavelli gives a very detailed account of the basic formations to be used. There are three basic combat formations for the battalion, the oblong rectangle, the square with horns, and the hollow square. Go to top

Order of Battle:

Machiavelli draws his army up on the battlefield in Roman fashion, in three lines in which the battalions are disposed in checkerboard fashion. He gives a full description of a set-piece battle to illustrate the formation and proper interaction of each subunit. He also goes into considerable detail to explain the proper formation and procedure for conducting a march, both in one's own country and in the face of the enemy. The relative value of infantry and cavalry was one of the current issues of the day to which Machiavelli addressed himself. He clearly favors infantry. The role and value of artillery also merits his attention. He disagrees with many contemporaries who said that artillery would eliminate both the opportunity for individual valor and close combat. In this he was correct, but at the same time he went too far the other way and did not recognize the valuable role artillery would soon play. Go to top

Fortifications and Siege Warfare:

Machiavelli was primarily concerned with the political and strategic use of fortifications and their attack and defense. That he was aware also of the technical aspects of fortification design is evidenced by his supervision of the strengthening of the city walls of Florence. He was also called upon to make a detailed technical report recommending new fortifications. He lived in an era which saw rapid changes in the design of fortifications. He realized that a city could just as easily fall due to some minor technical flaw in its fortifications as to errors in its grand strategy. Go to top

Summary and Conclusions:

Machiavelli's philosophy is based on his pessimistic view of human nature. He has been called a "pagan Augustinian". Aristotle and Plato also called attention to the imperfect nature of man, but Machiavelli rejected their approach. He follows Xenophon more closely. It was Xenophon who took a rational organization, the army, and applied the lessons learned in its construction and operation to the problems of society in general. Machiavelli follows his lead in linking military and civil societies. He goes a step beyond Xenophon when he applies the lessons of military practice to the internal affairs of his civic body. For all his recognition of the failings of human nature, Xenophon could not free himself from the Greek distinction between friend and foe. For him coercion was to be applied to the enemy, and both the army and the polis were to be based on friendship. Machiavelli does not recognize this distinction. To him everyone is a potential enemy, hence the civic rulers must employ the same measures employed by the general to defeat his enemies. This is the reason Machiavelli makes no distinction between the statesman and military commander and why his approach to politics is a military one.
Just as the unchanging character of human nature is the stable ingredient which makes the study of history important for the statesman, the presence of man himself at the controls in all human organizations makes the study of his character the basic activity for the successful leader. Machiavelli's state and army are not abstract entities endowed with human characteristics or desires. All decisions are made by men and all evoke reactions in other men. Machiavelli's insistence on this principle is seen in each of the diverse topics included in this study. For him the proper decision to such questions as whether to form alliances or not, when to invade the enemy territory, when to use money, how to acquire and control colonies, how to use "peace" offensives, how to organize a community and whether to appease an aggressor or not are all based on an evaluation of the probable reaction of those humans affected by the decision. Likewise, his criteria for the selection of a leader and his precepts to guide the leader's actions in command of an army are based on principles of psychology. The reaction of the army is itself governed by an evaluation of the human material available to the leader. Such considerations as the proper type of soldier, the discipline to be developed, the training program to be followed, the most useful armament, the correct logistical procedures, and the proper role of infantry, cavalry and artillery are all made under the assumption that man has been, is, and always will be the central and essential weapon in war.

Based on this assumption, some of Machiavelli's major points are as follows:
(1) War between men is inherent and inevitable.
(2) War will be total or limited depending on the political objectives involved.
(3) Uncontrolled and unprepared for, war is destructive; but properly channeled and prepared for, it can serve socially useful purposes.
(4) The proper way to conduct a war is to carry it to the enemy; keep the initiative; maintain exclusive decision-making power; do not try to buy friends; do not remain neutral or passive when danger threatens, however remotely; always present your side as peace loving and leave your opponent every opportunity to retreat or surrender; use subversive agents inside the other society to pave the way; govern acquired territories through local intermediaries; do not risk total victory or defeat with less than all your forces; be prepared to adapt to the times-- to retreat if necessary to await another day.
(5) Leadership is a creative activity. It is the highest aspiration of man. It is the essential element in victory. The leader can and should use every means at his disposal to insure victory, including all manner of psychological tricks and ruses. The leader should educate himself by studying the example of virtuous heros of the past, especially Roman.
(6) The hold which fear and appearances have on the minds of men require the leader to employ techniques designed to take advantage of these human characteristics. In this connection money, religion, stratagems, and necessity all have important roles.
(7) The leader must be able to analyze a situation objectively and base his decisions on a careful estimate of the situation. He must not lose sight of his major objective in war, which is the destruction of the enemy's will and/or ability to resist.
(8) The army should be a citizen militia, highly trained and well disciplined, organized in small flexible units, armed with weapons for close combat, composed primarily of infantry. Quality is to be preferred to quantity.

Machiavelli's lasting importance is due to the way in which his theoretical structure is firmly grounded in a realistic appreciation of human nature. His uncritical acceptance of his sources led to some errors in his specific examples. The polemical nature of his writing led to some overstatement of position. He failed to appreciate the role of missile weapons in history. He was perhaps over-optimistic in is expectation that an essentially amateur militia would be able to defeat the professional armies of his day. Nevertheless, much of what he wrote is still valid today. He understood the importance of military factors in the achievement of political objectives, both in foreign and domestic policy. He recognized the close interrelationship between military organization and the social-political structure of a society. He saw that warfare was no longer going to be the exclusive affair of a specialized class of warrior who fought over largely private interests, but the central activity of the then developing state and hence the concern of its rulers and indeed off all is inhabitants. He warned that unless the people understood and participated in military affairs they could not control the army and if they did not control it, it would control them. He emphasized that the creation of an army cannot await the existence of an emergency, but is the result of long and careful planning. He believed that the discipline and other virtues acquired in a properly functioning military organization had great value to the civic life of a community. His appreciation of the importance of psychological factors as being frequently decisive in any confrontation of man by man requires continual renewal in this technological age. He outlines an effective strategy for conquest which has modern imitators. A citizen militia is still important in a modern army as a reserve element, but no major power could achieve its policies today without at least part of its army being professional. Discipline and training are as essential today as they ever were. Weapons are different now, but the principles governing their use are the same.
Since Machiavelli equates political and military affairs so directly, it is not surprising that his guides to action in the military field are so strikingly similar to his pronouncements on political questions. An interesting question then is which came first, the political theory or the military theory. In other words did Machiavelli derive his military doctrines from political doctrine or the reverse. To attempt to answer this question I have compared his three major books (The Prince, The Discourses and The Art of War).
Machiavelli himself states that he differs from most authors on the subject of rules and methods for a prince. His reference to imaginary republics is a clear attack on political philosophers such as Plato and Dante. The comments on making a profession of goodness refer to the mirror of princes literature in general. He attacks ancient writers while praising ancient statesmen and soldiers. It has been pointed out that The Prince does conform in style to this tradition of mirror of princes literature, but that in content it is radically different. Machiavelli can be taken at his word, that he does not recommend the precepts of the classical or medieval political theorists generally held in high regard in his time.
In his opinion the past is generally overrated by critics of contemporary affairs. Men's appetites change, hence they judge differently when they are old than they did when young and they tend to glorify the past. In spite of this he constantly urges his readers to imitate the ancients.
Machiavelli begins the introduction to Book One of The Discourses with the claim to have opened a new route, to have discovered new principles and systems; to what end he does not say. Antiquity is held in great esteem and imitated by artists; ancient virtue, however, is more admired than imitated. He proposes that we imitate also ancient military and political systems. His route leads to a revival of virtue. The Discourses also represents a departure from anything previously written.

In the introduction to The Art of War Machiavelli discusses the relation between civil and military affairs more explicitly. Men entering the army transform themselves and appear quite different from civilians, but on a closer look at civil and military institutions a close relation can be seen. Once again, in this book as in the others, Machiavelli is quite specific in denouncing the contemporary military practice and in recommending the ancient practice, subject to certain modifications of his own design. This book contains less political theory and more military details than the other two, but all three repeat the same arguments. The style and content, however, are noticeably different. Far from having no previous models, this book is copied almost word for word from specific Roman military textbooks. While Machiavelli does not mention who the writers are, he is careful to state his reasons whenever he deviates from them, even in the order in which he treats the subjects.
Machiavelli writes that he does not agree with most political theory, ancient or modern, nor with contemporary Italian military practice. What he does admire is ancient (Roman) political and military practice, and ancient military theory. The ancient political and military practices were in conformity and were expressed more adequately in the military texts and histories than in the political theory books. Contemporary political and military practice is inadequate and is also not expressed adequately in contemporary literature.
In two books then Machiavelli expressly breaks with one tradition and establish new precepts, while in the third he consciously stays as close to another tradition as possible; yet the theories in all three books are almost identical. It would seem unlikely that he would have devised the new precepts in the first books from strictly political considerations and then found that they corresponded exactly to the traditional ones followed in the third book. Evidently he considered military theory applicable to political problems before he wrote The Prince. This is further shown by reference to his correspondence written while still in office, and especially in his activities on behalf of the militia. Machiavelli's political theory then is an extension of his military theory, and the whole is based on classical military doctrines. His major contribution then to political theory is the view of the civic body as a proper field for the employment of precepts derived from military practice. Go to top