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CHRONOLOGY - 14th CENT

 
 

MICHA JELISAVCIC
JOHN SLOAN

 
   

Return to 13th century.

 
 

1300 AD

Swedes built Landskrona fortress on the Neva river.

 
 

1300-05 AD

Wenceslas I, King of Poland.

 
 

1300-40 AD

Strong Russian unts are maintained in north China and from 1330 as special guards for the Mongol Emperor. These were volunteer recruits, conscripts, and captured prisoners. For instance thousands of Tverians were sent to China after the abortive rebellion in Tver in 1327.

 
 

1301 AD

Kaidu tries again to capture Karakorum and dies. Great Khan Timur succeeds in reunited Mongols in that all again recognize his supremacy and agree to negociate their individual differences. With internal unity in the Kypchak Horde and enforced agreement between the Kypchak and Il-Khans the Mongol pressure on Russia increases and the Russians can't get away with rebellions. The Russian princes continue to fight each other.

 
 

1301 AD

Daniil Aleksandrovich, of Moscow captures Kolomna from Riazan even though Riazan has support from local Mongol garrison troops.

 
 

1303 AD

Daniil takes Mozhaisk from prince of Smolensk and Peryeyaslavl from officers of Andrii Aleksandrovich. Daniel's success starts the trend for Moscow continued by his descendents. Andrii goes to complain to Tokhta who orders a new meeting of Russian princes under his control.

 

1303-19 AD

Mikhail II Yaroslavich, prince of Tver,

1303-1325 AD

On death of Daniil Aleksandrovich, Yurii III Danilovich, Prince of Moscow, (1305 - 25) then of Vladimir from 1317 or 1319.

 

1304 AD

Russian princes attend meeting at Peryeyaslavl under Mongol supervision and are forced to swear allegiance and stop fighting.

 
 

1304 AD

Il-khan Gazan dies and his brother, Oljaitu, is proclaimed the new ruler.

 
 

1304 AD

Ottomans take Ephesus.

 
 

1304 AD

Crusaders from Rhineland assist the Teutonic Order against Lithuania.

 
 

1305 AD

Death of Metropolitan Maksim, Mikhail II Yaroslavich of Tver wants abbot Gerontius to be next Metropolitan, but Abbot Peter is called from south Russia as next Metropolitan. (1308) He is supported by Yurii III of Moscow and in return moves his see from Vladimir to Moscow. This brings major power to Moscow.

 
 

1305 AD

Mikhail II Yaroslavich of Tver attacks Moscow unsuccessfully. He also fails to aquire part of Novgorodian lands. His efforts to gain control of Novgorod unappreciated by locals.

 
 

1305 AD

On death of Andrii Aleksandrovich in 1304 both Mikhail of Tver and Yurii Daniilovich of Moscow seek the yarlik for Vladimir from Tokhta. He gives it to Mikhail. The struggle between Moscow and Tver intensifies.

 
 

1305-19 AD

Mikhail II Yaroslavich, now Grand Prince of Vladimir.

 

1307 AD

Khan Tokhta arrests Genoese at Sarai .

 

1307 AD

Great Khan Timur dies with no male descendents. Throne in China passes to a succession of eight emperors in following final twenty-six years of Mongol rule.

 

1308 AD

Khan Tokhta besieges Kaffa and Sudak.

 

1308 AD

Mikhail II Yaroslavich of Tver again attacks Moscow but fails.

 
 

1308 AD

Peter becomes new Metropolitan.

 
 

1308 AD

Teutonic Order occupies Danzig.

 
 

1309 AD

Headquarters of Teutonic Order moves from Venice to Marienburg in Prussia.

 
 

1311 AD

Yurii Daniilovich of Moscow campaigns against Nishnigorod to expand Moscow to Oka, with support from Metropolitan Peter.

 

1311 AD

Roman Catholic Archbishop of Bosporus, Franciscas de Camarino has 5 bishops including Chersonesus.

 

1312 AD

Mikhail II Yaroslavich of Tver recalls his namestnik from Novgorod and institutes blockade of grain supply. Novgorod already suffering from major fire and needing food, sues for peace. But Novgorodians seek support from Moscow.

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1313-41 AD

After Tokhta dies on way to visit Russia in 1312, Osbeg (Uzbek), nephew of Tokhta, is elected Khan of Kypchak Horde. Horde becomes Muslim. He institutes new policy of ordering the Russian princes themselves to collect the taxes instead of the former Mongol baskak. Novgorod seeks to use opportunity of new Khan to weaken Tver. Mikhail II Yaroslavich goes to Sarai to obtain new yarlik as grand prince. Osbeg confirms Mikhail.

1314 AD

Genoese trading at Chersonesus - Novgorod throws Tver namestnik out and burns Tver suburb on Volga and asks for help from Yurii Danilovich of Moscow.

 

1315 AD

Mikhail returns to Tver with yarlik as grand prince of Vladimir. He quickly sets out on campaign against Novgorod. In decisive battle at Torzhok the town is burned and Novgorod looses. Mikhail assesses tribute of 12000 silver grivna on Novgorod.

 
 

1315 AD

Yuri III Danilovich of Moscow ordered to Sarai. He takes a large amount of money from Novgorod as a present. He remains 2 years and marries Osbeg's sister Konchaka (Agrafa).

 

1316 AD

Genoese decree establishes relationship between Kaffa and Sudak for trade and customs duties. Sudak losing its preeminence in favor of Kaffa, which is Genoese main base on Black Sea.

 

1316 AD

Gedymin becomes Grand Duke of Lithuania and starts building a major power. especially over the western Russian principalities.

 
 

1316 AD

Mikhail again campaigns against Novgorod after people stage uprising.

 

1317 AD

Metropolitans of Gothia and Sudak "Sugdai" in bitter controversy over control of some villages - Patriarch decides outcome.

 

1317 AD

Yurii III Danilovich marries Agaf'yei, sister of Khan Ozbek, and receives Yarlik from his Tatar brother-in-law and campaigns against Tver with support from Novgorod. Mikhail II first defeats Novgordians at Torshok and concludes peace with them, Then he defeats Yurii at Bortenovo (40 versts below Tver on Volga) on 22 December, Agafa is captured and dies at Tver. Yurii Danilovich has Tatar detachment of Kavgadi with him. Yurii flees to Sarai and accuses Mikhail of defying Ozbeg. Mikhail must go to Sarai.

 
 

1318 AD

Grand Prince Mikhail II Yaroslavich executed on 22 November by Khan Osbeg, Yurii III Danilovich again receives yarlik for Vladimir. Dmitri Mikhailovich (Grozniye Ochi) , becomes prince of Tver, and the principality is divided into udels (appanages) for brothers, Aleksandr Mikhailovich, Konstantin Mikhailovich and Vasilii. They all have roles to play in future.

 
 

1318 AD

Novgorodians raid Finland and burn Abo cathedral.

 

1319-25 AD

Yurii III Danilovich, of Moscow, Grand prince of Vladimir.

 

1320 AD

Having lost out to Moscow in the favor of the Kypchak Khan, Tver turns to Lithuania for support. Already Tver has trade relations with Lithuania. Dmitri Mikhailovich marries daughter of Grand Duke Gedemin of Lithuania to seal alliance.

 
 

1320-22 AD

Anti-Tatar uprising in Rostov.

 

1320 AD

Franciscan monastery at Balaklava - Roman Catholic diocese at Kaffa including territory from Sarai to Varna

 

1321 AD

Battle of the Irpen' River. Gedemin defeats a coalition of Russian princes and captures Kyiv, leaving a vassal prince as governor. It is not clear if this was Ivan Volodimir Ivanovich, Prince Andrei of Ovruch, or perhaps someone else. Prince Stanislav of Kyiv also is mentioned.

 
 

1321 AD

Having collected the Tribute for the Tatars, Yurii Danilovich makes the mistake of stopping in Novgorod. This enables Dmitri Mikhailovich of Tver to get to Sarai ahead of him and convince Khan Ozbeg that Yurii is untrustworthy.

 
 

1321 AD

Tatar official Tayanchar goes from Sarai to Tver to assess huge indemnity from Kashin region. Moscow detachments descend on Kashin but Tver lacks strength to help Kashin.

 

1321 AD

Mention of Kerkri (Chufut- Kale).

1322 AD

Khan Ozbeg attacks Kaffa, sacks Sudak, allows Venetians back to Tana.

1322-25 AD

Dmitri Mikhailovich goes to Sarai to receive yarlik for Tver, with big present (bribe). Khan Ozbeg decides that Tver is now sufficiently weakened and punished so he takes yarlik from Yurii Danilovich and gives it to Dmitri, Prince of Tver who becomes also Grand Prince of Vladimir by Tatar Yarlik

 

1323 AD

Pope John XXII (Avignon) sends message to Khan Ozbeg asking for return of stolen church bell at Sudak.

 
 

1323 AD

Treaty of Noteborg ends Swedish-Novgorodian war. Peace of Vilnius between Teutonic Order and Duke Gedemin.

 
 

1324 AD

Gedemin annexes all Chornaya Rus (Ukraine) and Podlyakhia into his Lithuanian domains.

 
 

1325 AD

Dmitri Mikhailovich kills Yurii Danilovich of Moscow at Sarai, Ivan Danilovich (Kalita) becomes udelni prince of Moscow. (grand prince from 1328 - 1340)

 
 

1326 -48 AD

Pskov is fearful on the one hand of the Teutonic Order's expansion and on the other of the successful campaigns of Lithuania against Novgorod, which have laid bare the latter's inability not only to defend Pskov but itself as well from Lithuanian threats. Pskov seeks military-political dependancy on Lithuania. This brings about rising tensions between Novgorod and Pskov and eventually an independent Pskov Republic.

 

1326-28 AD

Khan Ozbeg orders execution of Dmitri Mikhailovich for murder of Yurii Daniilovich. Aleksandr Mikhailovich, of Tver, Dmitri's brother, receives yarlik by Osbeg as Grand Prince of Vladimir.

 

1327 AD

Tatars attack Kaffa and Sudak.

 
 

1327 AD

Tatar ambassador Shevkal, brother of Osbeg, arrives at Tver to collect tribute and faces Anti-Tatar uprising on 15 August. Tatar detachment all killed. In the fall Ivan I Daniilovich Kalitka of Moscow obtains huge Tatar army to attack Tver. They burn the city and also Kashin and Novo-Torshok and entire region.

 
 

1327 AD

Lithuania begins war against Teutonic Order and concludes treaty with the Kypchak Horde.

 

1328 AD

Aleksandr Mikhailovich removed as Grand Prince, due to uprising in Tver. He flees with his family to Novgorod and then to Pskov. Then his brother, Konstantin, becomes prince of Tver. To avoid more dangers he becomes ally of Ivan Kalitka.

1328 AD

Feognost becomes Metropolitan of Rus.

1328-41 AD

Andronicus III, Byzantine emperor

1328-41 AD

Ivan I Danilovich, Kalita, of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir.

 

1329 AD

King John of Bohemia Crusade. Prussia at war with Poles and Lithuanians. English knights are serving as temporary help to Teutonic Order in Lithuania from 1329 to 1408.

 

1330's AD

Many Armenians move to Kaffa, they are largest group next to Tatars, build many churches and a monastery near Sudak.

 

1332 AD

Peace between Prussia and Poland.

 

1333 AD

Pope John XXII makes Chersonesus a city subject to Bosporus, orders cathedral of St Clement built, Richard Anglico Bishop of Chersonesus - Grand Prince Ivan I, Metropolitan Feognost and Ibn-Battutu visit Sarai.

1333-34 AD

Arab traveler, Ibn - Battutu visits Sudak and Kaffa, mentions that Kaffa is mostly Genoese and large town.

 

1337 AD

Aleksandr Mikhailovich of Tver agrees to submit to Khan and returns to Tver. But Ivan considers this very dangerous.

 
 

1337 AD

Holy Roman Emperor Lewis IV authorises the Teutonic grand-master to conquer Eastern Europe.

 

1338 AD

Another Tatar attack on Sudak.

 

1339 AD

Ivan I pressures Alexandr Mikhailovich to subordinate himself along with his son, Feodor, more to Khan. The bell of the Tver cathedral of Spaso Preobrashenski is taken to Moscow. Ivan I and Khan Ozbeg lead combined forces in attempt to take Smolensk.

 

1339 AD

Khan Ozbeg renews treaty with Genoa. They rebuild Kaffa walls.

1340 AD

Khan Ozbeg fighting Genoese in Crimea and then confirms Genoese charter.

 

1340 AD

Grand Prince Ivan I Daniilovich visits Sarai for 4th or 5th time, Prince Simyeon (his son) also visits along with all Rus princes called to gather there. Ivan I Daniilovich gets Khan Ozbeg to approve the conditions of his will ahead of time.

 

1341-53 AD

On death of Ivan I Daniilovich , Simyeon Ivanovich Gordii, Grand Prince of Vladimir, ruler of Moscow.

 

1341 AD

Konstantin Vasil'yevich (2nd son of Vasilii Andryevich), prince of Suzdal, wants to dispute Vladimir with Simyeon. He captures Gorodets and Nizhni-Novgorod and creates principality of Nizhnigorod.

 

1341-77 AD

Grand Prince Olgerd rules Lithuania.

1341-42 AD

Tinibeg, Khan of Golden Horde.

1341-47 AD

John V, Byzantine emperor.

1342-57 AD

Jannibeg, Khan of Golden Horde, Grand Prince Simyeon and Metropolitan Feognost both visit Sarai to swear allegiance.

1343 AD

Riot at Tana between Italians and Muslims causes Khan Jannibeg to drive both Venice and Genoa out.

1343-45 AD

Khan Jannibeg continues to Crimea to besiege Kaffa.

 

1343 AD

Battle of the Little Borka River. A two-year long rebellion in Estonia precipitates a war between Pskov and the Livonian Order. Near Neigauzen the Pskovites are victorious, but no formal treaty results.

 

1344 AD

Pope Clement VI calls for crusade to defend Kaffa from the Tatars.

1346 AD

Plague from Asia strikes Tatars, then Tana, then Italians fleeing Tana bring to Kaffa, Tatars besiege city and perhaps throw bodies into town, (or maybe it was carried on fur skins being shipped) Genoese ships carry to Europe as "Black Death". 80,000 die in Crimea.

 

1346 AD

Danish King Valdemar IV sells Estonia including Narva fortress to the Teutonic Order.

 

1347 AD

Khan Jannibek cuts Venetians at Tana.

1347-54 AD

John VI, Byzantine emperor.

 

1347 AD

Konstantin Mikhailovich again prince of Tver, dies in 1346 or 7. After his death throne goes to Vasilii, youngest son of Mikhail Yaroslavich who rules for 20 years. But there is struggle within the ruling family of Tver and Vasilii obtains support from Moscow while his cousin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich, appanage prince of Mikulin, gets help from Lithuania. The struggle weakens Tver. Mikhail also ruled Kashin. But the sons of Aleksandr Mikhailovich (Lev, Fyedor, Mikhail, Vsyevolod, Andrei, and Vladimir) ruled Kholm, Mikulin, Staritsa and Zubtsov. They will be heard from later. And the udels of the sons of Konstantin were around Klin.

 

1347 AD

Metropolitans of Gothia (Theodoro - Mangup) and Sugdaia (Sudak) attend council in Constantinople.

1347-55

War between Genoa and Venice throughout Italy, Mediteranian and Black Seas

 

1347 AD

Following Semyon Ivanovich's extended stay in Novgorod he weds Princess Marfa (maria) Aleksandrovna of Tver, his third marriage. Meanwhile King Magnus of Sweden is attempting to convert the Novgorodians to Catholicism either by words or the sword.

 
 

1348 AD

Pskov declares independence from Novgorod.

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1348 AD

King Magnus of Sweden invades Russia. Prussians defeat the Lithuanians at Strawe.

 

1350 AD

Treaty, Byzantine Emperor Andronicus grants Chersonesus to Genoese and prescribes that their ships will carry all goods.

 

1352 AD

Simeon campaigns with Muscovite army against Smolensk and forces an agreement recognizing his suzerainty. Simeon takes Torzhok from Novgorod. the Novgorodian army chooses not to contest this.

 

1353-54 AD

Venice renews war on Genoa over trade in Black Sea. Venice soundly defeated at Sapienza, loses entire fleet.

1353 AD

Simeon and his sons die from plague that reaches Moscow from Novgorod -- Metropolitan Feognost dies. Plague repeats in 1364-5, and every decade until 1425. Russia looses 1/3 of population.

 

1353-59 AD

Ivan II Ivanovich, Krasnii, younger brother of Simeon, Grand Prince of Vladimir (and Moscow)

 
 

1354 AD

All Rus princes assemble at Sarai, Khanum Taydula gives Aleksei (to be appointed Metropolitan) yarlik for visit to Constantinople.

 

1355-76 AD

John V, restored as Byzantine emperor.

1355 AD

Emperor John V, gives Venice Tenedos island that controls Dardanelles. War between Venice and Genoa again, Admiral Luciano Doria of Genoa defeated by Vettor Pisani at Pola on Istria coast.

1356 AD

Khan Jannibeg makes treaty with Venice.

 

1356 AD

Olgered (Algirdas) grand duke of Lithuania, attacks Smolensk and Briansk and also captures Rzhev and Belaia. Prince Oleg Ivanovich of Ryazan takes Lopasnia area along the Oka from Moscow.

 

1356 AD

Russian chronicle mentions arrival of Tatar ambassador accompanied by merchant "Surozhane". Surozhe - Sudak becomes name for merchants trading to south having special privileges.

 

1357 AD

Metropolitan Aleksei cures Khanum Taydula at Sarai, Jannibeg dies. Aleksei receives Tatar owned area within Kremlin for the Chudov Monastery.

 

1357-59 AD

Berdibek, Khan of Golden Horde, he issues yarlik to Aleksei.

1357 AD

Kaffa city walls rebuilt. Genoese also capture Chembalo (Balaklava).

 

1358 AD

Ivan II recaptures Rzhev.

 
 

1359 AD

First mention of Belii.

 
 

1359 AD

Khan Berdibek is murdered, beginning of difficult internal struggle in Kypchak Horde.

 

1359-63 AD

On death of Ivan II, Dmitrii Konstantinovich, of Suzdal Nishegorod given yarlik as Grand Prince of Vladimir.

1359-89 AD

On death of Ivan II, 9-year-old Dmitrii Ivanovich, Donskoi becomes Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince from 1363.

 

1360's-70's

Olgerd is concentrating on expanding Lithuanian control deep into Ukraine, he takes Chernigiv region.

 
 

1360's AD

Mikhail Aleksandrovich, appanage prince of Mikulin is gaining power by uniting large parts of Tver principality. He has support of his brother-in-law, Olgerd of Lithuania. Tver has been split into appanages of various brothers and nephews. Moscow sees danger of unification, especially to its ally, Vasilii of Kashin.

 

1360-62 AD

Khaidar, succedes Qulpa (1359-60) as Khan of Kypchak Horde, but there is civil war during next few years over throne of Kypchak Horde.

1361 AD

Emir Mamai effectively in control of western half of Golden Horde.

1362-63 AD

Battle of the River Sinivody at the Southern Bug (left bank tributary of the Bug). This battle has been mistakenly called the Blue water failing to indicate the precise location. Grand Prince Olgerd of Lithuania is victorious over Kadlubak, (Kachibei, Demetrius) - Tatar chieftans from Crimea (Mangup?) Meanwhile the Teutonic Order with German and French knights besieges Kovno. Olgerd and Keistut bring Russian-Lithuanian army but decide against battle and the fortress falls.

1362-64 AD

Murad, Khan of Golden Horde - civil war and multiple khans following him. He gives yarlik to Dmitrii Konstantinovich of Nizhnigorod.

 

1362 AD

Prussian knights capture Kaunas.

 

1363-89 AD

Dmitrii Ivanovich (Donskoi) given yarlik as Grand Prince of Vladimir by Khan Murad, but Khan changes his mind because Mamai favors Dmitrii and returns yarlik to Dmitrii Konstantinovich. But faced with lack of internal support Dmitrii Konstantinovich gives up and agrees in 1366 to marriage of his daughter with Dmitrii Ivanovich.

 

1364 AD

Rostov and other appanages begin payment of tribute to Moscow.

 
 

1364 AD

Pope Urban V issues Bull promoting more crusading war in Lithuania.

 
 

1365 AD

Riazan defeats Tatar troops.

 

1365 AD

In July taking advantage of local conflicts among population groups, Genoa seizes Sudak and 18 local villages and administers the area as a consulship under Kaffa. Villages are located not only along the coast but into the interior.

1365 AD

Under Mamai, Tatars attempt to reconquer lost territory from Genoese.

1365 AD

Genoese retake Sudak second time.

 

1367 AD

Dmitrii Ivanovich rebuilds Moscow kremlin walls from wood to stone, more appanage princes begin payment of tribute to Moscow.

 
 

1367 AD

Moscow helps Vasilii Mikhailovich of Kashin (currently grank prince of Tver) in attack on Mikhail Aleksandrovich of Mikulin (both parts of Tver). Mikhail goes to get aid from Lithuania. Olgerd is already married to Mikhail's sister. Metropolitan Alexis supports Moscow by supporting the junior princes in Tver.

 
 

1368 AD

On death of prince Vasilii Mikhailovich of Kashin, Mikhail Aleksandrovich occupies the throne of Tver. Seeking to weaken his power and influence, Dmitrii Ivanovich of Moscow seeks support of the head of the church, Metropolitan Aleksei. Dmitrii succeeds in capturing and imprisoning Mikhail until the Khan orders his release. At the end of the summer Dmitrii begins campaign against Tver. Mikhail calls for help from Lithuania. In October Olgerd (Algirdas) Grand Duke of Lithuania counterattacks and then besieges Moscow, with detachment also from Tver, but they are unsuccessful. They burn the surrounding area and withdraw. On 21 November at the Battle of Lake Trostenskoye, 10 km south of Rumyantsevo the Muscovite polki are practically destroyed. To fight Moscow Mikhail also seeks aid of Kypchak Horde. Mikhail obtains yarlik but Dmitri does not accept that.

 

1370 AD

Dmitrii Konstantinovich sends his brother, Boris, and son, Vasilii, against Volga Bulgar with approval of Tatar Khan and Mamai.

 

1370 AD

Dmitri Ivanovich again invades Tver and Mikhail again gets help from Lithuania and from Horde. Ol'gerd besieges Moscow second time, unsuccessfully. Mikhail obtains a yarlik from Mamai's puppet khan.

 
 

1371 AD

Mikhail again goes and obtains yarlik from Mamai, while Dmitrii obtains yarlik from Khan at Sarai. Vladimir Andreyevich (Khrabrii) udel prince of Serpukhov, Dmitri's cousin, marries Ol'gerd's daughter.

 
 

1372-5 AD

Renewal of all out war between Tver and Moscow, Tver also attacks Torzhok, one of Novgorod's main towns. Ol'gerd's brother, Keistut, and his sons, Vitovt and Andrei, with vassal prince Dmitrii Drutskii lead Lithuanian troops in bloody raid against Torzhok. Kashin and Pereyaslavl-Zaleskii. In June Ol'gerd joins the Tverians near Kaluga and on 12 July they approach Moscow. Dmitrii's avant-gard troops conclude peace with Lithuanians at Rzhyov. The Lithuanian forces include those of Prince Boris Konstantinovich of Gorodets, Andrei Ivanovich of Tver, and Yuri Vladimirovich of Pinsk.

 
 

1372 AD

Kremlin in Nizhni-Novgorod built in stone.

 
 

1373 AD

Mamai in revenge sacks Riazan.

 
 

1374 AD

Mamai's ambassadors and troops are killed at Nizhegorod by order of Archbishop Dionisii, who is attempting to instigate hostilities between Mamai and Dmitri.

 
 

1374 AD

Urus Khan of Kypchak Khanate.

 
 

1375 AD

Cyprian becomes Metropolitan of all Rus, (or 1381 ? ) attempts policy of unifying church in all Rus lands.

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1375 AD

Nekomat (Surozh merchant) and Ivan Vel'yaminov dealing with Tver against Moscow. Dmitrii launches campaign against Tver with aid from Suzdal, Nishegorod, Rostov, and Yaroslavl. Unable to take the fortress by a coup de main, Dmitrii besieges Tver for a month. Dmitrii gains control over Ryazan and Starodub. Ol'gered does not come to help Tver.

 

1375 AD

Tatars sack Nizhegorod - Dmitrii of Moscow and Mikhail of Tver sign truce unfavorable to Mikhail. Mikhail declares himself 'younger brother' of Dmitrii, and Tver agrees to help Moscow against Tatars.

 

1376 AD

Muhammed Saltan, ruler of Bolgar and Kazan.

1376-79 AD

Andronicus IV, Byzantine emperor.

 

1376 AD

Dmitrii Ivanovich besieges and gets tribute from Kazan - Toqtaqya and then Temur Kelik are Khans of the Kypchak Horde.

 

1377 AD

14 Jan -20 March - Rus campaign against Tatar vassal, Volga Bolgar, against Tatar wishes.

1377 AD

Mamai unites under himself all power over the western part of the Kypchak Horde from Volga ulus except Astrakhan ulus of Khadzi Cherkesa, but he is not legal ruler, who is Khan Tulyak. Mamai's troops attack Nizhnigorod and again in 1378.

 

1377 AD

Grand Duke Olgerd dies, succeeded by Jagiello as ruler of Lithuania.

 

1376-91 AD

Toqtamish, Khan of White horde, claims Kypchak Horde also.

1378 AD

Toqtamish captures Sarai - leaving Mamai with control only over Kypchak in western regions. Dmitrii defeats Mamai's troops led by Beglich, on Vozha River, Tatars burn Nizhegorod, Metropolitan Aleksei dies.

1379 AD

Genoa and Venice at war, each supporting one side of Byzantine civil war between John V and Andronikus IV, Genoese blockade Golden Horn.

1379 AD

29 Sept. Naval battle in Straits between Genoese and Venetian navies.

1379-91 AD

John V, restored as Byzantine emperor again.

1379 AD

Mamai preparing for offensive coming from east by Toqtamish. He obtains promise of support from Oleg of Ryazan and Jagiello of Lithuania.- Pimen becomes Metropolitan of Rus in Moscow.

1379 AD

Mitya journey to Kaffa via Solkhat. He meets Mamai in steppe of north Crimea on way to Constantinople - receives yarlik from Khan Tulyak for metropolitan of Moscow, arrives Constantinople at time of Genoese blockade and dies on shipboard.

1379 AD

30 Aug. 1.5 months after Mitya left Moscow, Ivan Vel'yaminov executed for treason.

1380-86 AD

Metropolitans of Chersonesus and Gothia in conflict over villages.

1380 AD

Genoese - Venetian war continues with Genoese fleet blockading Venice and then blockaded itself at Chioggia in Venician outer harbor area. In June Genoese best fleet surrenders. This is decisive victory for Venice.

1380 AD

September 8, Battle of Kulikovo Pole, Dmitri Ivanovich (Donskoi) defeats Mamai. Dmitri has 10 "Surozhane" - merchant traders with Crimea - as guides for campaign across the steppe.

1380 AD

28 November, treaty between Genoese and Mamai, Jarkass, Governor of Solkhat signs in name of khan, Consul of Kaffa is Giannone del Bosco.

1380 AD

Mangup fortifications rebuilt (under agreement with Toqtamish?).

 

1381 AD

Teutonic Order uses cannon on Nieman river.

 

1381 AD

Toqtamish defeats Mamai who is killed in Kaffa, - 23 February, renewed treaty between Genoese and Tatars, Elias, son of Kotolbega, now Governor of Solkhat signs for Tatars, Toqtamish now khan.

1381 AD

Peace of Turin, ended another war between Genoa and Venice, Venice forbidden to sail to Tana for 2 years.

 

1381 AD

Ciprian becomes Metropolitan, visits Sarai in 1385.

 
 

1381 AD

Keistut takes power in Lithuania from his nephew, Vitold, with some assistance from Moscow and concludes peace treaty. Jaigallo murders his uncle, Keistut, and imprisons his cousin, Vitold.

 

1382 AD

Toqtamish campaign against Moscow, approaches unsuspecting city on 12 August, uses ruse to gain entrance to city, then sacks it. Boris of Nizhnigorod is Toqtamish ally. Michael of Tver supports Tatars in hopes of getting yarlik, but is disappointed.

 

1382 AD

Teutonic Order captures Vilnius and Trakai.

 

1383 AD

Nekomat Surozan executed.

 

1384 AD

Oleg of Ryazan invades Moscow again, but then signs peace agreement.

 

1386 AD

Venice back sailing to Tana, renewed war between Genoa and Tatars.

 

1386 AD

Novgorod tries to use Tatar victory over Moscow to gain more independence. Dmitrii Ivanovich brings army and extracts promise of Tatar tribute from Novgorod the Great. Jagiello marries Jadwiga bringing Lithuania and Poland into dynastic union. He is baptised and made King of Poland.

 

1387 AD

12 August, new treaty between Genoa and Tatars, Governor of Solkhat signs in name of Toqtamysh, for Genoa - Giannone del Bosco and Gentile dei Grimaldi

 

1387 AD

Beginning of conflict between Toqtamysh and Timur (Tamerlane).

 

1389 AD

Pimen reaches Azov via Don in 40 days travel.

1389 - 1425 AD

On death of Dmitrii Ivanovich Donskoi, Vasilii I Dimitriyevich, Grand Prince of Vladimir.

 

1391 AD

Timur renews war against Toqtamish. He drives Kypchak army north along Volga and defeats Toqtamish on Kondurcha River (or Sakmara) on 18 June. Vasilii Dimitriyevich is called to support Toqtamish but manages to keep his army north of the Ik River. Skirting Suzdal and Ryazan territories he crosses the steppe beyond the Don. But once there he is compelled to marry Sofia, daughter of Vitvot of Lithuania. He brings his bride back to Moscow.

 

1391-1425 AD

Manuel II, Byzantine emperor .

 

1392 AD

Vitvot, son of Keistut, turns away from the Teutonic Order and by Treaty of Ostrow receives the Duchy of Trokai and part of Volhynia with its castle at Lusk.

 
 

1392 AD

Vasilii I IDmitriyevich takes advantage of Tatar weakness to sieze Nizhni-Novgorod.

 
 

1392 AD

Teutonic Order captures Polish duchy of Dobrzyn.

 
 

1393- 1430 AD

Vitvot (Vytautus) grand duke of Lithuania.

 

1394 AD

Tetrak, ruler of Bolgar and Kazan.

 

1395 AD

Vitvot captures Smolensk while Vasilii remains neutral.

 

1395 AD

Tamerlane campaigns against Toqtamish, wins decisive battle on 14 April on Terek River, sacks Sarai, destroys Tana on 14 September, destroys much of Crimea, his army rampages to Dniper, but he refrains from marching on Moscow due to danger from Kypchaks on his flanks. His supporter in Crimea is Tash Timur, Toqtamish flees to Lithuania.

1396-97 AD

Toqtamish returns, attacks Kaffa successfully defended by Genoese. His army is attacked in rear by troops of Khan Timur Qutlugh.

 

1397 AD

Vitvot and Vasilii I conduct joint campaign against Novgorod.

 
 

1397-98 AD

Vitvot begins campaigns deep into steppe as far as Black Sea allied with Toqtamish's Tatars. They have army now equipped with pischali (hand guns) and cannon and depart Kyiv for Crimea. On 8 September 1397 they are victorious over small forces of Timur Qutlugh and Yedigei near Kaffa. During the 1397 campaign Vitvot takes Kariate families from Chufu-Kale to settle at Trakai. Then in 1398 Timur Qutlugh defeats Toqtamish and forces his return to Lithuania. Toqtamish agrees to treaty with Vitvot giving the latter the ulus of Moscow in exchange for further help in war against Timur Qutlugh

 

1397-99 AD

Yedigei in Crimea ruling for Khan in civil war, in process Tatars attack and burn Chersonesus, virtual end of the city.

 

1397-8 AD

Vasilii I Dmitriyevich campaigns to north and takes North Dvinia land from Novgorod, but Novgorod recaptures the area the following year.

 
 

1398 AD

Teutonic Order takes Gotland and is given Samogitia by Vitvot.

 

1399 AD

Khan Timur Qutlugh defeats Toqtamish and Grand Duke Vitvot (Vytautus) at Vorskla River on 12 August. Many Lithuanian princes are killed. This is decisive blow to Lithuanian efforts on Black Sea coast. Prince Yurii Svyatoslavich regains his city at Smolensk, but loses it again in 1403-4.

 

1399 AD

Mikhail Aleksandrovich of Tver wills almost all his lands to his oldest son, Ivan, thus greatly strengthening the principality by avoiding the usual breakup into separate udels.

 
 

Go to 15th century.

 

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