Please put your cursor
over each individual to find which are linked to brief biographical
descriptions. All the biographies of individuals are linked to fathers
and sons. Thus one can trace the whole family from Rurik to Fedor Ivanovich.
The first written mention of Tver in the chronicles dates from 1209. But the
town undoubtedly existed long before that year. Its neighbor trading city,
Torshsk, was mentioned first in 1139. But there were occupied sites at both
places well before that also. What later was designated as the Tver land was in
the domain of the Rus principality from the first part of the 10th century.
However an independent principality with capital at Tver began only with the
Mongol-Tatar invasion and the breakup of Vladimir-Suzdal-Rostov into competing
domains under the various related Russian princes. Tver principality, then,
existed from 1247 to 1485. The ruling house during that period sprang from
Grand Prince Yaroslav III Yaroslavich, brother of
Alexander Nevski and Andrei II, Yaroslavich. They
were the sons of Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich, who
took over (with Mongol agreement) after the death of his elder brother,
Yuri II Vsyevolodich in battle against the Mongols at
Siti River. The main line of the princes of Tver traces from Yaroslav to
Michael II to Alexander I, to Mikhail III to Ivan to Aleksandr II to Boris to
the last prince, Mikhail Borisovich, that is for 8 generations in a little over
200 years. As was typical in the other regions the princes of Tver divided the
grand principality into udels-appanages for their sons. The most important
included Kashin, Mikulin, and Zubstov. If an incumbent died without heirs the
udel reverted to the grand prince. Nevertheless while the domain was thusly
divided it could be weakened if the Muscovite prince, for instance, played one
appanage prince off against the grand prince of Tver. Tver remained the
principal rival of Moscow until it was taken by Ivan
III of Moscow, who married Maria, Borisovna, princess of Tver. The princes of
Tver vied with those of Moscow for the favor of the Kypchak Khan at Sarai in
hopes of receiving his yarlik as the Grand Prince of Vladimir.
1139 - first chronicle mention of Torzhok
1209 - first chronicle mention of Tver
1216 - first chronicle mention of Rzhev and Zubtsov
1238 - first chronicle mention of Kashin
1238 - 4 March, defeat of Yuri Vsyevolodovich by Mongols at Siti river in Tver
1247 - 1485 - Tver principality (Grand Principality from 1340)
1271 - organization of Tver bishopric
1271 - 1318 - life of Mikhail Yaroslavich Tverskii
1297 - first chronicle mention of Starits.
1317 - 22 December - victory of Mikhail Yaroslavich over prince Yuri Danilovich
of Moscow and Tatar detachment of Kavgadia at battle of Bortenovo.
1327 - 15 August - major uprising by population of Tver against Tatars,
suppressed with great loss to Tver.
1359 - first chronicle mention of Belia
1434 - foundation of Klyazin Troitski Makar'yev Monasteri at Kalyazin.
1466 - 1472 - Tver merchant Afanasii Nikitin travels to India and back
The geneological structure shown here is taken from V. M. Kogan's Istoriya
Doma Rurikovichei, St Petersburg 1993. The historical information about
Tver and the leading princes is mostly from Valeri Kudashkin's Istoriya
Tverskogo Kraya, Tver, 1996.