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The information in this report was derived from instructional material of the Voroshilov General Staff Academy in MOSCOW. This specific and consists of sub-blocks on signal; rear services; hospital bases; front air army; air defense; engineers; rocket troops/artillery; and radio- electronic warfare (EW). The signal sub-block, includes missions, roles and capabilities and data on the R-137/R-140 radio sets. The rear services sub-block, includes the missions, capabilities and organization of its major units; basic material supply requirements; and communications routes. The front air army sub-block, covers missions, capabilities and organizations; coordination; and command and control elements. The air defense sub-block, covers organization for naval assault operations, long distance troop movements and river crossings. The engineers sub-block, discusses support of army offensive/defensive operations, front offensive operations, assault river crossings and includes data on the organic high-speed trencher and pontoon bridging equipment. The rocket troops/artillery sub-block, covers employment during its various roles; determination of artillery requiements and subsequent allocations of artillery groups; and specific discussion of th rocket (SSM0 battalion organic to the motorized rifle/tank division and the front anti-tank reserve. The EW sub-block, discusses organization and roles of various special purpose radio units and includes data on the R-325M radio jamming sets.
COMMENTS: This is one in a series of reports forwarding translations of class notes Cource wrote while attending the General Staff Officers course at Voroshilov General Staff Academy. The original test was written in Russian and Dari and was translated into English . Because of this, the very large volume of material and the desire to expedite dissemination of information, this text has received only initial editing and contains grammatical errors and stilted constructions.

The combination of different radio sets ensures reliability, large capacity (range) of communcation and the secrecy of communication. If one of the sets becomes inoperable, the other sets will contine to maintain the signal communication. For the purpose of secrecy, the short wave (SW radio set is used in transmissions. When SW radio is not operable, the ultra shortwave (microwave) radio is employed.



1. R-137
Type: ultra shortwave radio (microwave radio);
Frequency range: 20-60 megahertz;
Performance (communication range):
Standing positions: 150 km; In movement: 75 km.

It is an ultra short (micro) wave radio, used at front, army and division levels.
- Method of communication: telephone-telegraphic;
- Time to prepare for operation: 5 minutes 45 seconds;
- Power of transmission: 1 kilowatt.

2. R-137
A shortwave radio used at front, army and division levels.
- Frequency range: 1.5-30 MHZ;
- Method of communication: telephone-telegraphic;
- Performance (communications) range:
Standing: 2000 km;
On move: up to 300 km;
- Time to prepare for operation: 1 minute 40 seconds;
- Mounted on truck ZIL - 157;
- Power of transmission: 1 kilowatt.



- Who communicates, and from where?
- With whom?
- By which method?
- By what means?




Army's rear services comprise a total of 7000 men 2500 vehicles.

- Army mobile rocket technical base (PRTB): For technical support of rocket forces;
- Army's mobile base: Is assigned to conduct material support and supplies. It has a motor transportation regiment;
- Independent traffic control battalion: Two battalions in combined arms army, and one battalion in tank army;
- Independent bridge construction company: One in each army;
- Independent technical evacuation battalion: For
technical support;
- Indpendent motor and tractors evacuation company: For technical support;
- Independent engineer repair and evacuation company: For technical support. (Medical support of the army);
- Independent medical group (detachment): There are 10-12 of such detachments in combined armes army and 6 in tank army;
- Independent medical ambulance company;
- Anti-epidemic medical detachment;
- Independent army's medical reinforcement detachment; - Veterinary support detachment.

In addition postal service unit, shopping center (magazine), a branch of state bank, logistics signal communications battalion and separate chemical decontamination battalion are organic to army's rear services. The army may be enforced by front logistical units and installations such as: tank repair battalion, separate automobile repair battalion and etc.

Army's Mobile Base: Is appointed to maintain stores and supply reserves and to deliver them to the units.

- Army's mobile base headquartes and its signal platoon: This element can detach a separate detachment (division) (army's mobile base detachment (division); it communications are provided by a base signal platoon;
- Motor transport regiment: with a total transportation capacity of 5,030 tons (of which 690 tons POL) in combined arms army and 3,390 in tank army;
- Army logistic stores depots:
a - artillery stores depot: 2,000 tons;
b - POL stores depot: 3,000 cubic meters;
c - Foodstuff depot: 400 tons;
d - armored depot: 1,000 tons;
e - motor and tractor depot: 150 tons;
f - engineer stores depot: 250 tons;
g - signals stores depot: 80 tons;
h - chemical stores depot: 300 tons;
i - commercial goods depot: 40 tons;
j - medical stores depot: 60 tons;
k - quartering stores depot: 25 tons;

TOTAL about 7,000 tons
- Independent service company: can handle 2,500 tons daily;
- Independent logistic engineer company: can perform 6,000 cubic meters of engineer work (digging) daily;
- Independent logistic chemical protection company: consists of six platoon and can accomplish the following in 24 hours:
a - decontamination of personnel: 6,000 men;
b - decontamination of vehicles: 400 vehicles;
c - decontamination of routes: 25 km;
d - decontamination of clothing: more than 1,000 pairs of clothing;
- Field mechnical bakery: can bake 18 tons of bread in 24 hours;
- Commercial goods base (T35): can store 40 tons of goods.

The chief of depot is subordinate to the chief of army's mobile base. He is also subordinate to the army's support arms and services chief in accounting matters of the relative stores.



The front rear services (logistic base) deploy and operate at the rear of front forces. Its limits are specified by the directives of the commander in chief, in rear services matters. In the offensive assembly area (concentration area), the depth of front rear services area is 400 km, and in course of offensive operation it will be 1,000 km or more.

The front rear services deploy on the main axes of combat operations and are echeloned in depth. Front rear services can be divided into first and second echelon. Its first echelon consists of ront forward base, rocket technical units, rocket fuel depot, front forward hospital base and other necessary units and installations.
- Front forward base deploys in area 80-100 kilometers from the main front line;
- Front mobile rocket technical base deploys in area 30-40 km from rocket positions;
- Front forward hospital base deploys 50-70 km from the main front line.

Second Echelon of Front Rear Services:
- Front rear base ( ): Deploys on a railhead;
- Detachment of front rear base: Deploys in area 150 km from the front line;
- Front rear hospital base ( ): Deploys in an area 70-300 km form the front line. Hospital bases which arrive in course of the operation are deployed forward in the railhead.

Movement Front Rear Services: The first echelon of the fronts rear services is kept 150 km distant from the army's rear services base (half of daily marching range by the army's organic vehicles). The distance between them should not exceed this norm. Front forward base should not be further than 150 km from first echelon armies. Front mobile rocket technical base relocates after each 120-150 km and is positioned 30-40 km from rocket positions. Front forward hospital base is deployed 40-50 km from the front line in areas expected to receive more casulaties.

Capabilities of Front Rear Hospital Base: Hospitals base should deploy in such a way that transportation (traveling) distance of casualties during evacuation does not exceed 120- 150 km i.e. 5-6 hours of traveling.

Front Forward Hospital Base: Comprises 6500 beds. There are four to six such bases in the front with a total capacity of up to 39,000 beds. It can detach two divisions (detachments). It consists of 13 hospitals: three internal, two psychiatric, two diagnostis, one epidemic, one light diseases and other hospitals. Front rear hospital base has a total capacity of 20,000 beds. There are two to three such bases in the front and each can detach two divisions. There are 14,100 beds in mobile hospitals. Since the front may comprise two to three rear hospital bases, its total capacity may reach up to 60,000 beds grouped into 48 hospitals, including five diagnostic, nine surgery (200 beds each), three internal (200 beds each). Independent evacuation company, etc.



The following table shows the amount of stores required by the army for offensive operation.
- By biological weapons 1.5 - 2%
- Casualties caused by illness 1.5 - 2%

More casualties are received during initial nuclear strikes which comprise up to 30% of the total amount of casulties received during the entire period of Front's operation. In operation without the employment of nuclear weapons the total medical casualties handled by medical elements will be 12 - 13.5% (an average of 0.8 - 0.9 in a day); with the employment of nuclear weapons it will be 4% in a day.

Considering the above mentioned medical casualties, a total number of 120 - 150,000 hospital beds would be required of which 40 - 50,000 will be required at the beginning of operation. The Front does not have such a quantity of beds, therefore two beds are added to each existing bed to meet the requirements of possible causalties. The wounded are evacuated, by army and front medical transportation vehicles (ambulances), or sometimes by air transportation means, from separate medical groups (detachment) and division medical battalion to the front hospital base. The rear services echelons should deploy in such a way to be prepared for constant supply of units and large units.



Medical support comprises organization of medical treatment and evacuation and anti-epidemic measures and actions. The basic principle of medical support is placing the medical support installations as close as possible to the area of mass personnel casualties. It means that medical treatment should be carried out on the spot. When organizing and planning the medical support, the probable are of possible casualties must be assessed and anticipated. 35-40% of personnel may become casualties by the employment of nuclear weapons (an average of 2 - 2.6% in a day). Such casualties can be classified, in terms of different types of weapons, as follows:
- Casualties by nuclear weapons 16 - 18%
- By conventional arms 6 - 7%
- By chemical weapons 5 - 6% Norms of stores reserves and their wartime echelonment in the army. In such context, the main effort of fighter air force units is concentrated to cover front striking groupings, SSM units, airfields and the most vital targets in front rear services area.

The analysis of enemy air force capabilities in West European theater of war indicate that a very high sustainability and vigorousness of use will be required from front fighter aircraft, because in that theater 600- 800 enemy tactical and naval aircraft might be oprating in the front operational zone. If our initial airstrikes on the enemy's airfields are launched effectively, their capabilities may doubtlessly decrease.

According to the experience of NATO field exercises and maneuvers, the enemy may launch its air attacks by a large number of aircraft, in small groups, deployed in a vast front, and echeloned in depth and at different altitudes. Therefore, considering this fact, as well as the capabilities of the command and control system to direct the fighter airforce units of the friendly air army, the repelling of enemy air sorties will have to be conducted by an operational formation of fighter aircraft, consisting of a number of echelons (lines). Two to three echelons (lines) in a such a formation will be allocated for operation at low altitude and tow echelon (lines) to operate at high altitude).

The first echelon fighter aircraft are committed into air combat on distant approaches to the front. The search for and destruction of the enemy aircraft can be conducted independtly in the areas not confined (limited) for fighter aircraft. It means that such tasks can be conducted by first echelon fighter aircraft on enemy territory, until the enemy aircraft reach the effective range of friendly air defense rockets (SAMs).

The second echelon fighter aircraft are committed into air combat in areas within close contact of the front line, or on the front line. In this phase, the fighters intercept the enemy aircraft while patrolling. In such cases the fighter aircraft must closely cooperate with army and front air defense units who may have the best capability to destroy enemy air targets within their operational ranges. The operation of this echelon is further developed by the commitment of those fighter aircraft into air combat, which are placed in the state of on-call (stand-by) duty at the airfields. Command and control of figher aircraft is carried out by the combat command center of air army's fighter force which is jointly located with the front air defense command post.

To repel the attacks of small groups of enemy aircraft or individual aircraft, the fighter divisions are assigned sectors (areas of responsibility) for combat actions. The destruction of enemy aircraft in such sectors is accomplished by not flying no more thant 1/3 of the fighter divisional combat forces simultaneously, in accordance with the decision of the division commander. Based on their combat capabilities, especially their maneuverability in combat actions, fighters are one of the major means of covering the units against enemy air attacks.

Organization of Cooperation Between Air Army and Combined Arms (Tanks) Army in Offensive Operations:

(Cooperation of air army with: army's SSM and artillery units, with army's air defense means, with armys electronic units, with motorized and tank divisions; methods of action in case of the employment of nuclear weapons or conventional weapons by the enemy; how the combined arms army and tank army neutralize enemy air defenses to facilitate the operations of air army.).

The cooperation (interaction) is organized on the basis of the front commander's decision to properly allocate the actions of air army and combined arms (tank) armies in terms of missions, time and space. The army commanders and staffs coordinate and adjust combined actions of the aircraft, SSM and artillery units, motorized infantry and tank divisions, air defense forces, and electronic suppression (neutralizing) units. The methods and sequence of coordinated actions are illustrated in commanders' decisions.

The main areas of coordinating the operations of air army with other elements are the following:
a. With SSM and artillery units:
1. Targets and timings of delivering nuclear strikes;
2. Neutralization and destruction of targets in enemy air defense system in favor of friendly aircraft flights;
3. Conducting of air reconnaissance in favor of SSM and artillery units;
4. Ensuring friendly aircraft flight security in the area of SSM and artillery firings;
5. Mutual identification and target designation to each other.
b. With motorized infantry and tank divisions:
1. Allocation of specified ari sorties (flights) to the missions of combined arms and tank armies;
2. The method of calling in air support by army forces;
3. Assault airborne landing missions and supporting of assault airborne landing units combat actions;
4. Reconnaissance mission and passing reconnaissance information;
5. The method of seizure of enemy airfields by army units and providing assistance to restore and to defend them;
6. Ensuring the movement of air amry logistic units following the attacking forces;
7. Mutual identification, target indication (designation) to each other and the signals.

c. With Army's Air Defense Troops:
l. Method of warning about out situation;
2. The areas of combat action of SAM units, antiaircraft artillery units, and air army's fighter aircraft;
3. Patrolling zone of fighter aircraft and areas of intercepting enemy aircraft by them;
4. Combined actions of fighters, SAM and antiaircraft units in a single area;
5. Location of deployment and method of movement and relocation of target guidance center and command post of SAM units;
6. Ensuring flight security of friendly aircraft within the firing zones of SAM and antiaircraft artillery units;
7. Coordination and mutual identification signals.
d. With electronic suppression (neutralizing) units:
l. Specification of enemy targets to be electronically suppressed (neutralized) and jammed by combined arms and tank armies and air army's electronic warfare means;
2. Coordinating the timing of the employment of electronic warfare means of combined arms army and air army;
3. Coordinating the measures taken to prevent jamming of friendly command and control means by their mutual interference, as well as by enemy's jamming actions.

Composition (content) of air army's combat command and control system: The following ccommand posts are included in combat command and control system of air army:

Air Army command post: Deploys l0-l5 km apart from the front command post air army's forward command post: Deploys in the area of front forward command post. Air army rear command post: Deploys in area 5 - l0 km from an army command post. Combat control center of air army's fighter force: Deploys at the air defense command post of the front. Air army's supplementary air command post: Deploys in the vicinity of airfield and at the helicopter pads. Combat control center of air army: Is established in each first echelon combined arms (tank) army of the front. Each combat control center has in its composition two to three navigation and target indications posts and combat command group (_______) for each army's first echelon division. Moreover, in the front's zone, radio navigation posts can be deployed to guide the aircraft.

In motorized infantry and tank divisions air observation posts can be established to observe the air situation.

Contents of Air Army Commander's Decision to Support Front Offensive Operations:
1. The estimate of the situation: army, air, nuclear and air defense forces;
2. Concept of the operation: Allocation of air army's actions and the sequence of accomplishment of the missions (during the initial nuclear strikes, during the air operation, air reconnaissance, etc.);
3. Missions of air force divisions and regiments: Each division and regiment is assigned a mission for one day and the general direction for the next day;
4. Instructions about air army's bases;
5. Instructions on coordination (interaction);
6. Command and control instructions;
7. Planning instructions;
8. Combat support instructions.

The decision is illustrated graphically on the map, supplemented with written details, as well as with necessary tables, diagrams and graphics.

Combat Composition and Flight Resources of Air Army in Front's Offensive Operations:

Combat composition of air army is specified by military supreme command and depends on the objective of front operation; the conditions of air force deployment; composition, capabilities and character of opposing enemy actions. In the West European theater of war, the composition of the air army can be as follows:
l. Up to two fighter air force divisions;
2. One to two fighter-bomber air force divisions;
3. One bomber division;
4. Up to two reconnaissance air force regiments;
5. Up to one electronic jamming air force regiment (electronic warfare);
6. Two to three helicopter regiments (transport and gunship helicopters).

Depending on the mission assigned to the front, the air army is allocated flight resource for the front operation, which is normally one and a half flights for all aircraft of the air army during each day of operation. The commander of the front allocates the authorized flight resources to the different missions assigned to the front, to the mssions assigned to combined arms (tank) armies and retains a part of it in reserve.

In the West European theater of war, 2/3 of authorized flight resources are allocated to the immediate mission of the front and l/3 to the subsequent mission of the front. One to two full air army flights are retained in reserve. Up to three air force regiment flights are allocated each day to the armies operating in the direction of main attack, and up to 2 air force regiment flights each day to the armies operating in the direction of supporting attack.

Missions of Military Transport Air Force and the Nature of Their Accomplishment:

Military transport air force is assigned to airlift and land assault airborne landing troops, air transporting of army troops, vehicles, equipment and stores, as well as to conduct evacuation operations.

Tasks Carried Out by Military Transport Air Force Are the Following:
1. Airlift and landing of large airborne units at the rear of the enemy and transporting of material stores to ensure their combat actions;
2. Transporting ammunition and other stores to the troops to facilitate their maneuver actions;
3. Air transportation in support of combat operation alogn axes of attack;
4. Evacuation of wounded and sick to the rear. Basic conditions for combat operation of military transport air force:
l. Penetration of strong enemy air defense systems in the front operational zone is required;
2. Continuous flight along with continuous actions against enemy's air defense means;
3. Close coordination with front air army, front and country's air defense system;
l Supporting the movement and deployment of army troops to initiate the attack and to pass through the enemy security zone;
2 Supporting the process of penetration through the enemy defense (breakthrough) and the development of offensive operations of first echelon divisions along with crossing obstacles, barriers and destructed areas;
3 Supporting the movement (approach) and deployment of army's second echelon large units (divisions) into combat;
4 Supporting assault river crossings;
5 Supporting combat actions of SSM and SAM units.

c. All of these tasks are carried out by army's engineer units, as well as by motorized infantry units and large units (regiments and divisions). Engineer support of army offensive operations is organized on the basis of the army commander's decisions and his instructions about the organization of engineer support, as well as in accordance with instructions of higher echelon's chief of engineers. Army's chief of engineers works out the engineer support plan of offensive operation on the basis of the army commanders decision, his concept of operation and his instructions on engineer support, as well as on the basis of the instructions of higher echelon chief of engineers. The engineer support plan is worked out on the map with written details.
4. Centralized command and control;
5. Vigorousness in action;
6. Possibilities of flying in case large areas of terrain are contaminated with radiation;



l. Organization of Command Control of Front Air Defense Troops and Means in Offensive Operation:
a. Command and control of air defense troops and capabilities in front offensive operation is organized to provide continuous command and control of air defense untis actions and to direct their efforts toward the execution of their assigned air defense missions in offensive operation.
b. To command and control the combat actions of front air defense troops and resources, a mobile air defense command post is estalbished, which is jointly deployed with the front main command post and is a part of front command post.

Air defense command post includes the following elements: combat control center; reconnaissance and information center which collects and organizes the information about enemy air force and warning of the troops about enemy's air force actions; signal communication center which establishes signal communication with air defense and fighter air force units, as well as with cooperating (interacting) large units (division). The components of signal communication center include radio transmission center and radio reception center.

Once the air defense command post is deployed, 24-hour tours of duty are established either by relieving duty officers in turns or by continuous duty (manning) of full organizational strength as the situation requires. To provide further for action of air defense command and control, a number of staff officers and signal communication resources are detached from the main air defense command post to establish forward air defense command post. To provide and ensure the command control of fighter aircraft, organic to front air army, and to ensure coordination in air defense command post the following controlling elements are deployed:
l. Combat control center of air army's fighter air force units;
2. Operational formations and large units air defense operational groups (teams) which deploy in front operation zone. (In maritime directions: naval air defense operational group (team));
3. In air defense command post of combined arms (tank) army: combat control center of air army as part of combat control center of air army;
4. In motorized infantry (tank) division command post: Air combat control group or team;
5. In SAM regiments command post: Navigation and target indication post.

Command and control of front air defense troops and resources is exercised by front commander. He personally works out the concept of operation of air defense units, specifies the allocation of air defense troops and resources to defend specified targets (objectives) and groupings of forces, assigns missions to them and specifies the method of coordination (interaction). Direct command and control of combat actions of air defense troops and resources, while repelling the enemy's air attacks, is conducted by chief of front's air defense forces.

2. Organization of naval assault landings, air defense, while maneuvering at sea and during their landing:
a. Air defense while maneuvering at sea:

l) Air defense is organized to cover the sea assault landing force against enemy air attacks, by employing ship air defense means, sea assault landing units' air defense troops and means in cooperation with specified front fighter aircraft and (allied or bloc) country air defense means. Seaborne task forces are very vulnerable to air attacks and constitute major targets for enemy air force. Air defense of sea assault landing forces is organized by direct air defense system of each group or task force, as well as by area (regional) air defense for the entire marching formation of sea assault landing forces.

Area (regional) air defense is established in both forms (methods) of mobile air defense system of a single area, and permanent air defense system of a single area. The former is mobile in ships and the latter provides air defense during embarkation, at sea and during the landing of seaborne assault units. While deployed at sea, reconnaissance of enemy aircraft is conducted by radar and air surveillance means of assault landing crafts, ships, radar reconnaissance aircraft and helicopters. Radar equipped ships are deployed on axes of likely actions of enemy aircraft. Three to four such ships are deployed in a sector of l80 degrees wide. When enemy aircraft conduct low and very low flights, radar-equipped ships operate l00 l50 kilometers apart from the task force. When radar equipped helicopters are employed in one group, they operate 50 - l00 kilometers from the task force.

The main air defense means in this case include: ship's air defense means; sea assault landing unit's air defense means such as 57 mm anti-aircraft guns, ZSU-23-4 guns, Strela-2 weapons systems, and antiaircraft machineguns. Fighter aircraft are employed to attack enemy aircraft on the approaches of combat action areas. They accomplish their mission from continuous patrol duty in the air. The areas of such patrols are selected on the axes of likely attacks by enemy aircraft.

b. Air Defense of Seaborne Units During Their Combat Landing:
Air defense of seaborne units during their assault landing is provided by united action of all air defense resources allocated for the operation. This is one of the most difficult and decisive phases of air defense operations, since the enemy will attempt to prevent the landing of seaborne forces by employing all of its available means and air force units.

In the seaborne landing phase, air defense is conducted by a unified permanent area air defense system. For this purpose, maneuver areas are specified for the actions of ships, equipped with air defense means to cover the sea assault landing troops from such areas against the enemy air attacks. Moreover ships with air defense capabilities are positioned to the flanks of landing areas, and thus area air defense system against enemy air attacks is established. During the landing, air defense means of all ships should be in full combat readiness. When the seaborne untis are landed on the coast (beaches) specified air defense ships take up positions, close to the beach, and continue to support the assualt landing forces in their combat actions ashore.

Fighter aircraft patrollign the air intercept enemy aircraft before they lancuh their attacks. Their patrol zone is selected on the directions of likely actions of enemy aircraft. Once the enemy air defense capabilities are neutralized, the friendly fighter aircraft begin patrollign over the landed units. In addition, independent searching and hunting is conducted by fighter aircraft to destroy enemy's aircraft.

Observation and scanning (surveillance) of enemy aircraft is conducted by aircraft, helicopter and radar-equipped ships along threatened directions. When the assault landing force is established ashore, its attached and organic air defense resources land on the beaches, take up positions and continue to support the assault landing units. The fighter aircraft are moved and based on the airfields seized from the enemy. Initially the air defense of landing zones, and later on the air defense of all important objectives (targets) and all around air defense, is established. Air defense of landed forces on the beach head is provided by organized and attached air defense means, fighter aircraft and ships air defense means. A unified air defense system of SAM and antiaircraft artillery is estalished and is expanded as the beach head expands. Reconnaissance is conducted by organic and attached radar units.

3. Organization of Combined Army Air Defense During Long Distance Movements:
Air defense is a main component in preparations of army for the march and consists of a series of measures, the most important of which are the following:
- Determinining (specification) of air defense missions and tasks;
- Air defense planning;
- Issuing of missions to the troops about air defense;
- Establishing of groupings of air defense forces;
- Organization of command and control of coordination.

Air defense is organized and established on the basis of general staff instructions (when army is subordinated to the front).

(1) Organization of Army's Air Defense During Long-Distance March: The evaluation and assessment of technical and tactical capabilities of enemy aircraft indicate that the enemy air force can attack the marching army in areas within up to 1,000 km from its airfields by tactical aircraft, and beyond that distance by strategic aircraft. Enemy air strikes may be brought to bear on unit marching columns, railroads, bridges and other targets by enemy aircraft groups of four to six or 12-16 or even 20 aircraft, and sometimes by larger groups of aircraft.

Enemy aircraft will deliver their strikes from low, medium and high altitude, under the cover fo fighter aircraft and while friendly radio electronic means are neutralized (suppressed) by enemy countermeasures. therefore when army forces are moving from the interior of the country to the theater war, their air defense cover and protection must be organized during the entire phase of movement and along the entire depth of marching formation.

(2). The army may move in the following forms:
a. March, employing organic vehicles;
b. By railroad;
c. Combined method.

a. When marching, army's air defense is organized in the following phases:
- In rallying areas occupied by combat alert and in assembly areas;
- When marching columns are crossing rivers (water obstacles), mountain passes, defiles, large built-up areas, and roads junctions;
- In halts, daily (nightly) resting areas.

b. When moving by railroads:
- In embarkation, debarkation and reembarkation areas;
- When traveling in trains;
- In railroad junctions (centers), bridges, defiles and tunnels.

c. When moving in combined method:
- In rallying areas occupied by combat alert;
- In embarkation, debarkation and reembarkation areas;
- Covering of marching columns and trains during their movement;
- In small and large (long) halts;

- When the troops are crossing bridges, in large road junctions, when crossing mountain passes, defiles and tunnels.

(3) The army's air defense, during the march (movement), is established (provided) by army's air defense units (organic troops) in cooperation with PVOS units and the air defense units of military districts, in areas where army's marching routes pass through their territories (areas of operation); and sometimes in cooperation with naval air defense means.

(4) Air defense is organized and planned on the basis of general staff instructions (when army is directly subordinate to supreme command) and on the basis of military district commander isntructions (when army is directly attached to military district).

The general staff (commander of military district) specifies the followings in its instructions on air defense system:
- What air defense large units of hte PVOS system, and what air defense resources of military districts have been deployed in army's marching zone, and what missions have been assigned to them;
- Method of coordination (interaction) of army air defense units with the above-mentioned PVOS and military district air defense means;
- Method of reconnoitering the enemy air activities and warning of the army troops about enemy aircraft;

(5) The army commander evaluates the following during the process of making the decision for march.
- The status and capabilities of army's air defense units and resources;
- The groupings of PVOS and military district air defense troops, deployed in army's marching zone;
- Groupings, capabilities and character of operation of enemy air force. On the basis of deductions derived from such evaluations, the army commander specifies the following to the army's chief of air defense;
- Which groupings of army forces and which targets should be covered in which phases;
- How and in what method the coordination between army's air defense units and PVOS air defense system and military districts (fronts) air defense troops and means should be established;
- Method of reconnaissance of enemy aircraft, warning of the troops, and the method of command and control of air defense troops during the movement.

To conduct continuous searching and destruction of enemy nuclear delivery means, fighter-bomber aircraft divisions are assigned combat operation sectors (areas of responsibility). The bomber aircraft conduct such missions in the entire sectors and in the front operation zone, normally beyond the operational range of fighter-bomber aircraft. As the experiences of field exercises indicate, during first two to three days of operations, 50-70% of air sortie resources during these days are re-employed to deal with enemy's nuclear delivery means and its aircraft on the airfields.

The efforts to destroy enemy's nuclear delivery means must be continued throughout the entire course of operation, since such means pose threats of the employment of nuclear weapons at any time and any phase of the operation.

Covering of Units and Front Rear Services Objectives (targets) Against Enemy Air Attacks and Air Reconnaissance:

Covering of the units and front rear services against enemy airforce is a constant mission of the front air army. The air army accomplishes this mission in coordination with maneuver units' air defense units and country and front air defense system, and in naval (maritime) directions, in close cooperation with naval air defense units, in all situations, with or without the employment of nuclear weapons.



Communication system is one of the vital pre-requisite in front offensive operations. In such operations wide use should be made of all routes and communications lines (railroads, water and air routes, motor routes and pipelines).

Railroads: two to three frontal railroads and two to three lateral railroads (parallel to front line) are required at the rear services area of the front with a total capacity of 70 pairs of trains in 24-hours. In course of conducting the operation, one to two railroad directions, with a capacity of 30 pairs of trains in 24-hours, must be established (restored). The rate of restoring railroads, by employing two railroad consturction brigades, is 40-45 km in 24-hours (in case of partial destruction). In case of massive destruction this rate is decreased by half, i.e. 20-22 km in 24-hours.

Each army is allotted two to three distribution stations (P/C) and one to two alternate (reserve) distribution stations. Each army is also allotted debarkation (unloading) stations (B/C) on the basis of one station to each organic division and tow to three stations to army mobile (forward) base. One to two temporary debarkation (unloading) stations are established at the front level.

Water Ways (routes): A distribution port (P/M) to the front and a debarkation (unloading) station to the army are allocated. Front Military Motor Routes : Connect the front bases withtheir departments (___________) and with armies' mobile (forward) bases. One military motor route is prepared at the rear of each army. Each front military motor route has the traffic capacity of l0,000 vehicles per 24- hours.

Major Field Pipeline: Transports POL from permanent and front depots to the forces (the front main grouping of forces), meaning that it is stretched to the direction of main attack.

Air Communication Routes: Are established by airfield supporting elements (AMO). Seven to eight air communication routes are established at the front level. It is important that use of all available transport means should be made in the front. For this purpose a unified system of communication lines is established and its cover is organized.

Road Construction and Traffic Control Brigade: This brigade is employed to prepare, restore and maintain front military motor routes and to conduct traffic control on the routes. The brigade is capable:
l - To maintain 900 km of road;
2 - Deploy three complete of service centers;
3 - Establish l60 traffic control posts.

The brigade can accomplish the following tasks in 24-hours:
l - Construction of under water bridge - ll0 meters in length (60 ton capacity);
2 - Construction of pontoon bridge - 400 meters in length (l6 tons capacity);
3 - Digging works (excavation) - 4500 cubic meters;
4 - Road repair - up to 90 km;
5 - Repair of pavement - up to ten km.


V. SEARCHING FOR AND DESTORYING THE ENEMY NUCLEAR DELIVERY CAPABILITY IN THE COURSE OF FRONT OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS: Searching for and destorying the enemy nuclear missiles in the course of operation means the destruction of missile units, bases and nuclear depots. This task is carried out by maximum effort of the forces, from the beginning of combat actions, regardless of the nature of actions conducted, with or without the employment of nuclear weapons. In accomplishment of this mission, the air army closely and directly cooperates with front SSM (rocket) and artillery units, assault airborne landing units, and naval forces; and also coordinate its actions with strategic rocket forces and long range aircraft. The enemy's Pershing and Sergeant missile launching pads and its tactical aircraft are enemy's basic nuclear delivery means and constitute prime targets for air army operations.

Therefore the front air force carries out missions to destroy enemy aircraft, primarily enemy nuclear-armed aircraft on the airfields, as well as in the air, and at the same time continues to search, hunt and destroy enemy missile units while they are moving or when they are located in assembly (waiting) areas and launching positions; it also destroys nuclear bases and nuclear depots, and command posts of nuclear delivery means.

(6). On the basis of the army commander's decision and the instruction of higher headquarters, the army's chief of air defense works out the army's air defense plan (on the map with written details, covering the entire length of march). This plan illustrates the following:
- Conclusions of the estimate of situation of enemy air force;
- The sectors and march routes of army units, indicating the timing and locations of embarkation, debarkation, assembly areas, daily (nightly) resting areas, crossing of mountain passes, major bridges, defiles etc.;
- Groupings of country's air defense system and military district (front) air defense troops and in army's marching zone;
- Organization of air defense cover;
- Organization of fighter aircraft cover;
- Organization of reconnaissance of enemy aircraft;
- Organization of troops warning system;
- Coordination of army's air defense units with country's air defense system and military districts air defense troops and resources.

Army's air defense plan is signed by the chief of staff and chief of army's air defense and is approved by the army commander. Prior to the commencement of march and during the movement, this plan is coordinated with country's air defense army commander and military districts (fronts) air defense chiefs.

(7) Missions to the units, on air defense matters, are assigned through combat instructions on air defense, which are signed by army's chief of staff and air defense chief.

4. Organization of Air Defense in River Crossing In The Course of the Conduct of Offensive Operations:
(1) The decision, regarding the air defense protection of army troops during crossing wide rivers (warter obstacles) is made at the beginning of offensive operation and is further adjusted as the troops are approaching the river (water obstacle).
(2) The main efforts of air defense units to protect the army elements are directed to the following:
a. Covering and protection of forward detachments and advance guards when they are seizing bridges and areas at the far bank of the river;
b. Covering of army's main forces and crossing resources during their movement to the rivver, during river crossing, as well as during combat actions at the far bank.
(3) SAM regiment and antiaircraft artillery regiment are following the advance guards or forward detachments, or they move at the head of the main forces column. They deploy into combat formation in such a way as to be able to cover the army's main forces as they approach the assault crossing areas.
(4) The launching (starting) positions of forward SAM battalions are selected at such a distance from the river to make them able to destroy low flying enemy aricraft short of their first combat missions line; such distance for S-75 SAMs will be 10-11 km fromthe near bank and for S-125 SAMs - about 6 km from the near bank of the river.

Firing positions of forward small calibre antiaircraft artillery batteries should be selected as close as possible to the river bank, i.e. about 500 meters from bridges and assault crossing sites. Their mission is to cover the troops against the attacks of enemy aircraft flying at low altitudes an to fight against enemy aircraft diving attacks on bridges and crossing sites. Strela-2M portable SAM weapons systems are moved to the river with their compainies and cross the river simultaneously with them, while being constantly prepared to open fire.

(5) Crossing of air defense units to the far bank is conducted in following method:
a. SAM regiment in battalions by constructed bridges or rafts;
b. Anti-aircraft artillery regiment, on order of army's air defense chief by bridges or rafts.

In some cases SAM and antiaircraft artillery regimetns can remain in their positions to cover and protect bridges (crossing sites), until they are relieved by the army and front's other air defense units.




1. Engineer support of army's offensive operation is organized to created favorable and necessary conditions for initiating the attack by the troops and for the development of the offensive at high speed and also to protect personnel and combat equipment against the effects of weapons employed in modern combat.
2. Such aim is achieved through accomplishment of a number of engineer support missions during the preparation, as well as in course of conduct of, the offensive operation. The basic engineer support tasks are the following:
a. During preparation for the operation:
- Engineer fortifications of first-echelon divisions (starting positions for the attack);
- Engineer fortifications at the area of second echelon units and reserves deployment;
- Engineer fortifications in SSM, SAM and artillery deployment areas for attack;
- Construction and further improvement of roads for the deployment of army units;
- Engineer support in case of repelling enemy's possible aggression;
- Concealment measures.
b. In course of conduct of the operation:
c. The following are illustrated on the engineer support plan of the offensive operation:
- The basic task of engineer support;
- Timing and locations of accomplishing each task;
- The units employed to execute engineer support tasks;
- Method of movement (relocation) of engineer troops in course of the conduct of operation;
- Organization for supplying the units with engineer equipment and material;
d. In the written part of the plan, detailed information and calculations are illustrated:
e. In order to accomplish engineer support tasks, the grouping of engineer troops is established in the army which includes the following elements:
- Engineer troops attached to first-echelon divisions; - Engineer troops direcctly under army control and employed to execute centralized engineer tasks;
- Mobile obstacles detachment;
- Engineer reserve.
f. On the basis fo engineer support plan missions are designed to the subordinate units. Engineer missions are assigned to motorized infantry (tank) regiments and divisions through combat instructions.



1. Engineer support of defensive operation is organized to create favorable and necessary conditions for ensuring the strength of the defenses, to protect personnel and ccombat equipment from the effects of firing weapons, as well as to enhance the effectiveness of the employment of combat vehicles, equipment and weapons.
2. Engineer support in preparing army's defensive operation is dependent on the method of taking up the defensive action (passing into defense) by the army. Thus when army is taking up the defense in the course of offensive operations, engineer support of defensive operations begins with taking measures to support the regrouping of the troops for defense and covering of exposed and dangerous flanks by antitank weapons and means.

When the army is assuming a deliberate (planned) defense, in abence of close contact with the enemy, engineer support of army's defensive operation will start by taking measures to support the movement of troops and occupation of specified defensive areas by them.
a. Basic engineeer support tasks during preparation of the defense:
l) Engineeer construction in defensive areas of first echelon divisions;
2) Construction of army's defensive belts, alternative positions, reserves and army troops deployment (positioning) areas;
3) Engineer construction of SSM and SAM units positions;
4) Construction of obstacles and destruction systems;
5) Preparing of maneuver routes;
6) Engineer works of army's command posts;
7) Concealment measures.
b. Engineer fortifications of defensive belts and defensive positions, positions of rocket and artillery units are prepared by army's large units (divisions) and units (regiments, brigades) themselves. For the purpose of the speedy and full accomplishment of engineer constructing works, the army large units (divisions) defending on the axis of enemy's main attack, as well as rocket (missile) units are reinforced with trench-digging units from trench-digging battalion of army's combat engineer regiment.

3. The Obstacle System Includes the Following:
a. Obstacles and barriers created in front of/and in the main defensive belt; obstacles and barriers constructed in depth of army's defensive zone; obstacles and barriers, established in course of the operations by mobile obstacles detachment and engineer reserves.
b. The obstacles on the main defensive belt are constructed to be in the first state of readiness, while the obstacles in the rear of the army's defensive zone are constructed to be in the state of second readiness (the limits of such obstacles are marked to indicate the area of their location).

4. Road system indefense includes frontal supply and evacuation routes, constructed on the basis of one or more routes to each division, lateral communication lines (routes) and maneuver routes for the movement of second- echelon forces to their lines of deployment for launching counterattacks, constructed on the basis fo one to two routes to each regiment.

5. Tactical and technical characteristics of fast-moving trench-digging vehicles:
a. This vehicle is employed to carry out mechanized digging of trenches and communication trenches. They are organic to divisional engineer battalions and the trench-digging (fortification) battalion of the army's combat engineer regiment.
b. The vehicle can dig 300-400m long trench in one hour:
1) Weight: 27 tons;
2) Speed: 35 km/h;
3) Range (on the basis of one refill): 500 km;
4) Range (on the basis of track life): 3500 km.
c. It is mounted on an artillery towing vehicles (ATT).



1. Engineer support during the conduct of front offensive operation is conducted to provide favorable conditions for the developmetn of offensive at a high rate fo speed and for the protection of personnel against the impacts of modern weapons.

2. The basic tasks:
a. Supporting the passage through enemy's security zone, breaking through the enemy defense and development of attacks of first-echelon armies;
b. Supporting the movement and deployment of front's second-echelon forces into combat;
c. Supporting the river crossing operations;
d. Supporting the actions of SSM and SAM units;
e. supporting the consolidations and fortifying of seized objectives (lines);
f. supporting the landing and combat operation of assault air landing forces;
g. Supporting combat operations of front air force.
h. Taking measures to eliminate the effects of the employment of nuclear weapons and restoring the combat capabilities of front forces;
i. Organization of supplying the troops with engineer equipment, stores and materiel.

3. To provide engineer support in the front's operations, the following engineer troops are included in its dispositon:
a. Road construction and bridging engineer brigade: 1
b. Combat engineer regiment: 1
c. Pontoon bridging engineer regiment: 1
d. Assault river crossing engineer battalion: 1-2
e. Engineer obstacle battalion: 1
f. Engineer obstacle clearing battalion: 1-2
g. Command post construction engineer battalion: 1
h. Engineer concealment battalion: 1
i. Engineer repair battalion: 2-3
j. Engineer plant apparatus repair battalion: 1-2
k. Rear services engineer company: 2-3

5. Depending on the organization (composition of the front, theater of war and missions assigned to the front), it can be further reinforced by the following units:
a. Engineer bridge construction brigade;
b. Combat engineer brigade;
c. pontoon, river crossing, fortification and obstacle clearing units.



1. Depending ont he nature of theater of war, the army elements will be forced, in the course of conducting offensive operations, to cross the large rivers where the enemy defends and attempts todelay the attack of friendly froces. Therefore, in order to prevent the enemy from establishing organized defenses on the rivers, the basic form of river crossing is assault crossing from the march. Engineer support in assault river crossing is organized for the following purposes:
a. To provide favorable conditions for the destruction of enemy units and movement (approach) to the river (water obstacle);
b. To support units in assault river crossing;
c. To develop the attack at the far bank.

2. The above mentioned purposed can be achieved by the accomplishment of the following engineer support tasks:
a. Engineer reconnaissance of the enemy and water obstacle (river);
b. Construction of routes leading to the river and crossing sites;
c. Construction of installations and establishment of crossings (crossing sites);
d. Organization of traffic control and provost service on the crossing sites;
e. Protection of crossing sites against the enemy destructive actions.

3. The first-echelon divisions are reinforced by sufficient crossing assets and troops to ensure their crossing operation without decreasing their speed of attack (advance).

4. The norms of crossing time for different elements are as follows:
a. Forward detachment crosses the river in one to one-and-a-half hours;
b. Division's main body (forces) accomplish their assault river crossing in four to five hours;
c. The army accomplishes river crossing in l0-l5 hours.

5. The forward detachment, on arrival to the river line, initiates crossing by assault crossing vehicles, as well as by rafts and by means of its active actions at the far bank, supports the river crossing operations of division's main forces.

6. To conduct crossing operation of the division's main forces, assault river crossing sites, raft crossings, bridges and underwater tank crossing sites are established. For each first-echelon division, four to six assault crossing sites, four to six raft crossing sites, one to two bridge crossing sites and two to five underwater tank crossings are established.

7. The army, employing its organic river crossing means, can accomplish river crossing at the above-mentioned speed when the river is 200 meters wide. To support crossing operations over wider rivers, or to support crossing operations over a second river, the army is required to be reinforced by more assault crossing means, rafts and bridging equipment.

8. The first echelon large units (divisions and crops) are normally reinforced by river crossing assets at the time when missions to conduct assault river crossing are assigned to them.

9. Engineer reserve is established to the extent as to be able to construct one bridge for the division.

l0. Tactical and Technical Characteristics of Pontoon Bridging Park:
a. Pontoon bridging park is employed to construct rafts and bridge crossing sites (crossings). Such parks are organic to division engineer batalion (1/2 park) and army's and front pontoon bridging regiments (2 parks in each regiment). One pontoon bridging park can construct the following combination of rafts and bridges in a specific period of time:
1) A bridge 227m long with a capacity of 60 tons in 30 minutes;
2) or, a bridge 382 meters long with a clearance of 20 tons in 50 minutes.
b. One pontoon and bridging park (complete) can form rafts in these combinations:
1) Sixteen 40 ton rafts in eight minutes;
2) Ten 60 ton rafts in ten minutes;
3) Eight 80 ton rafts in 12 minutes.



1. The front is reinforced by 1-2 artillery divisions in offensive operation.

2. Combat composition of front rocket troops:
a. One to two front SSM brigades:
12-24 pieces; 2 rounds each;
b. Three to four armys' SSM brigades:
27-36 pieces; 2 rounds each;
c. Divisions SSM battalions: 88-100 pieces;
d. The total of a-c above is 127-160 launching pads with 3 (sic) rounds each. The total number of rockets which can be employed in the operation: 342- 450 (sic) rounds (rockets).

3. The basic principles of the employment of rocket troops are the following:
a. Mass employment;
b. Surprise employment;
c. Employment on the targets, clearly discovered, and accurately disclosed by reconnaissance;
d. Employment of SSMs in support of accomplishment of important tasks (destruction of enemy's nuclear delivery means and its main grouping of forces);
e. Employment in close coordinaiton with other services of armed forces, weapons and combat arms.

4. Methods of accomplishment of missions (tasks):
a. Massive strike (initial nuclear strike);
b. Group strike (employment of nuclear rounds on one target, for example 2 rounds on a battalion-size unit and 12-16 rounds on a division);
c. Individual nuclear strike.



1. The number of artillery units and pieces required for front offensive operations is determined by the number and size of tasks to be accomplished by artillery and/or by the requirements to constitute the best artillery groupings in support of the operation. Two methods are known to determine fronts requirements for artillery:
a. By the asessment fo the size (amount) of artillery tasks (missions) to be carried out. Considering the fact that a large number of tasks are to be carried out by artillery during the breakthrough and penetration of the enemy prepared defenses, the requirements for artillery in this phase is assessed in two ways:
1) On the basis of the numbers (amount) of artillery missions in a specific situation (assessed by reconnaissance information or b y combat strength, organization and reinforcements of the enemy). Three groups of enemy targets are taken into consideration for such an assessment.
a) Artillery, mortars and antiaircraft artillery batteries;
b) The number and size of weapons and troops in enemy brigades' reserrves;
c) The number of platoon-size resistance points (defensive positions) in enemy first echelon battalions on the FEBA: the numbers of antitank weapons; command posts and radars.

2) On the basis fo enemy organization, to deploy 110-120 pieces of artillery against him in one km of front. That means the number of artillery pieces to be deployed against the enemy is determined on the basis of different enemy nations' organization of divisions and their operaitonal concentration of destructivemeans in defensive positions.

2. On the basis of constituting artillery groups:
a. The requirement for artillery is determined by taking into consideration the establishment (constitution) of following artillery groups:
1) Regimental artillery groups: Three to four artillery battalions in each;
2) Divisional artillery groups: Four to six artillery battalions in each;
3) Army artillery groups: Eight to ten artillery battalions in each, depending on the number of first-echelon divisions on the direction of main attack.
b. Considering the organic artillery units and the above-mentioned requirements, one to three artillery divisions may be attached to the front in offensive operation.



1. The objectives of counter-artillery preparation are the following:
a. To defeat enemy offense (attack);
b. To weaken enemy striking grouping;
c. To gain time for completeing of defense and to delay enemy attack.

2. Artillery's Tasks: Artillery carries out the following tasks in coordination with air forces and other means of destruction:
a. Destruction of enemy nuclear-delivery means;
b. Neutralization of enemy artillery, mortars and antiaircraft artillery;
c. Destruction of enemy command and control system (command posts, control and communications means);
d. Inflicting damages (casualties) on enemy's main grouping of forces, particularly on enemy tanks.

3. Methods of planning counter-artillery preparation: Counter-artillery preparation is planned in close consideration of the following:
a. When there is close contact with the enemy, the main strikes are delivered on enemy tank troops and artillery;
b. When there is no close contact with the enemy and the enemy is to approach from the rear and has to advance to attack, meaning it is out of friendly artillery range, in this case the friendly artillery destroys enemy artillery and command posts and the air force deals with the enemy main grouping of forces located in depth (in assembly for attack).

4. As many artillery units as possible are called for counter-artillery preparation, i.e. first echelon division artillery, army's artillery and artillery of second echelon forces (second echelon divisions).

5. Counter-artillery preparation is conducted from temporary gun positions. For the preparations of counter-artillery preparatory fires, 4-6 hours are required (including maneuver of artillery units).

6. Counter-artillery preparation is a front-level measure and is conducted on order of front commader. In some cases it can be conducted in army's zone. The immediate preparations to conduct counter-artillery preparation are conducted the armies' zones. Other characteristics of counter-artillery preparation are as follows:
a. Duration: 20-3- minutes;
b. Method (contents): two to three fire strikes;
c. Depth: As far as artillery range may allow, principally on first-echelon forces of enemy divisions. The air forces deliver strikes further in depth;
d. Artillery concentration (density): 30-40 artillery pieces in one km of front.



1. Tasks:
a. Destruction of enemy's nuclear delivery means;
b. Inflicting sufficient damage on enemy artillery, mortars, antitank weapons and air defense batteries;
c. Neutralization of enemy personnel in their defensive positions;
d. Destruction of enemy command and control system.

2. All of the above-mentioned tasks are carried out during artillery preparatory fire. Artillery preparatory fire is concentrated on the penetration zone and on areas, one km further in both flanks of the penetration zone for the purpose of destroying enemy antitank weaponslocated at the flanks of the penetration zone.

3. Depending o the target damage criteria, the duration of artillery preparatory fires is 30-40 minutes at average, if the troops are advancing to attack from the rear this norm remains the same.


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