SOVIET COMBAT SUPPORT/SERVICE UNITS AT FRONT LEVEL
The information in this report was derived from instructional material
of the Voroshilov General Staff Academy in MOSCOW. This specific and consists
of sub-blocks on signal; rear services; hospital bases; front air army; air
defense; engineers; rocket troops/artillery; and radio- electronic warfare
(EW). The signal sub-block, includes missions, roles and capabilities and data
on the R-137/R-140 radio sets. The rear services sub-block, includes the
missions, capabilities and organization of its major units; basic material
supply requirements; and communications routes. The front air army sub-block,
covers missions, capabilities and organizations; coordination; and command and
control elements. The air defense sub-block, covers organization for naval
assault operations, long distance troop movements and river crossings. The
engineers sub-block, discusses support of army offensive/defensive operations,
front offensive operations, assault river crossings and includes data on the
organic high-speed trencher and pontoon bridging equipment. The rocket
troops/artillery sub-block, covers employment during its various roles;
determination of artillery requiements and subsequent allocations of artillery
groups; and specific discussion of th rocket (SSM0 battalion organic to the
motorized rifle/tank division and the front anti-tank reserve. The EW
sub-block, discusses organization and roles of various special purpose radio
units and includes data on the R-325M radio jamming sets.
COMMENTS: This is one in a series of reports forwarding translations of class
notes Cource wrote while attending the General Staff Officers course at
Voroshilov General Staff Academy. The original test was written in Russian and
Dari and was translated into English . Because of this, the very large volume
of material and the desire to expedite dissemination of information, this text
has received only initial editing and contains grammatical errors and stilted
The combination of different radio sets ensures reliability, large capacity
(range) of communcation and the secrecy of communication. If one of the sets
becomes inoperable, the other sets will contine to maintain the signal
communication. For the purpose of secrecy, the short wave (SW radio set is used
in transmissions. When SW radio is not operable, the ultra shortwave
(microwave) radio is employed.
TACTICAL AND TECHNICAL DATA (CHARACTERISTICS) OF R-137 AND R-140 RADIO
Type: ultra shortwave radio (microwave radio);
Frequency range: 20-60 megahertz;
Performance (communication range):
Standing positions: 150 km; In movement: 75 km.
It is an ultra short (micro) wave radio, used at front, army and division
- Method of communication: telephone-telegraphic;
- Time to prepare for operation: 5 minutes 45 seconds;
- Power of transmission: 1 kilowatt.
A shortwave radio used at front, army and division levels.
- Frequency range: 1.5-30 MHZ;
- Method of communication: telephone-telegraphic;
- Performance (communications) range:
Standing: 2000 km;
On move: up to 300 km;
- Time to prepare for operation: 1 minute 40 seconds;
- Mounted on truck ZIL - 157;
- Power of transmission: 1 kilowatt.
IV. RADIO COMMUNICATION OF THE ARMY'S ARTILLERY AND ROCKET FORCES CHIEF
WITH ARMY SSM BRIGADE AND DIVISIONS' SSM BATTALIONS IN OFFENSIVE OPERATION:
- Who communicates, and from where?
- With whom?
- By which method?
- By what means?
I. COMPOSITION OF ARMY'S REAR SERVICES; ORGANIZATION, STRUCTURE AND
CAPABILITIES OF ARMY'S MOBILE BASE:
Army's rear services comprise a total of 7000 men 2500 vehicles.
- Army mobile rocket technical base (PRTB): For technical support of rocket
- Army's mobile base: Is assigned to conduct material support and supplies. It
has a motor transportation regiment;
- Independent traffic control battalion: Two battalions in combined arms army,
and one battalion in tank army;
- Independent bridge construction company: One in each army;
- Independent technical evacuation battalion: For
- Indpendent motor and tractors evacuation company: For technical support;
- Independent engineer repair and evacuation company: For technical support.
(Medical support of the army);
- Independent medical group (detachment): There are 10-12 of such detachments
in combined armes army and 6 in tank army;
- Independent medical ambulance company;
- Anti-epidemic medical detachment;
- Independent army's medical reinforcement detachment; - Veterinary support
In addition postal service unit, shopping center (magazine), a branch of state
bank, logistics signal communications battalion and separate chemical
decontamination battalion are organic to army's rear services. The army may be
enforced by front logistical units and installations such as: tank repair
battalion, separate automobile repair battalion and etc.
Army's Mobile Base: Is appointed to maintain stores and supply reserves and to
deliver them to the units.
- Army's mobile base headquartes and its signal platoon: This element can
detach a separate detachment (division) (army's mobile base detachment
(division); it communications are provided by a base signal platoon;
- Motor transport regiment: with a total transportation capacity of 5,030 tons
(of which 690 tons POL) in combined arms army and 3,390 in tank army;
- Army logistic stores depots:
a - artillery stores depot: 2,000 tons;
b - POL stores depot: 3,000 cubic meters;
c - Foodstuff depot: 400 tons;
d - armored depot: 1,000 tons;
e - motor and tractor depot: 150 tons;
f - engineer stores depot: 250 tons;
g - signals stores depot: 80 tons;
h - chemical stores depot: 300 tons;
i - commercial goods depot: 40 tons;
j - medical stores depot: 60 tons;
k - quartering stores depot: 25 tons;
TOTAL about 7,000 tons
- Independent service company: can handle 2,500 tons daily;
- Independent logistic engineer company: can perform 6,000 cubic meters of
engineer work (digging) daily;
- Independent logistic chemical protection company: consists of six platoon and
can accomplish the following in 24 hours:
a - decontamination of personnel: 6,000 men;
b - decontamination of vehicles: 400 vehicles;
c - decontamination of routes: 25 km;
d - decontamination of clothing: more than 1,000 pairs of clothing;
- Field mechnical bakery: can bake 18 tons of bread in 24 hours;
- Commercial goods base (T35): can store 40 tons of goods.
The chief of depot is subordinate to the chief of army's mobile base. He is
also subordinate to the army's support arms and services chief in accounting
matters of the relative stores.
II:DISPOSITION AND MOVEMENT (RELOCATION) OF FROMT REAR (LOGISTIC BASE)
IN FRONT OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS:
The front rear services (logistic base) deploy and operate at the rear of front
forces. Its limits are specified by the directives of the commander in chief,
in rear services matters. In the offensive assembly area (concentration area),
the depth of front rear services area is 400 km, and in course of offensive
operation it will be 1,000 km or more.
The front rear services deploy on the main axes of combat operations and are
echeloned in depth. Front rear services can be divided into first and second
echelon. Its first echelon consists of ront forward base, rocket technical
units, rocket fuel depot, front forward hospital base and other necessary units
- Front forward base deploys in area 80-100 kilometers from the main front
- Front mobile rocket technical base deploys in area 30-40 km from rocket
- Front forward hospital base deploys 50-70 km from the main front line.
Second Echelon of Front Rear Services:
- Front rear base ( ): Deploys on a railhead;
- Detachment of front rear base: Deploys in area 150 km from the front line;
- Front rear hospital base ( ): Deploys in an area 70-300 km form the front
line. Hospital bases which arrive in course of the operation are deployed
forward in the railhead.
Movement Front Rear Services: The first echelon of the fronts rear services is
kept 150 km distant from the army's rear services base (half of daily marching
range by the army's organic vehicles). The distance between them should not
exceed this norm. Front forward base should not be further than 150 km from
first echelon armies. Front mobile rocket technical base relocates after each
120-150 km and is positioned 30-40 km from rocket positions. Front forward
hospital base is deployed 40-50 km from the front line in areas expected to
receive more casulaties.
Capabilities of Front Rear Hospital Base: Hospitals base should deploy in such
a way that transportation (traveling) distance of casualties during evacuation
does not exceed 120- 150 km i.e. 5-6 hours of traveling.
Front Forward Hospital Base: Comprises 6500 beds. There are four to six such
bases in the front with a total capacity of up to 39,000 beds. It can detach
two divisions (detachments). It consists of 13 hospitals: three internal, two
psychiatric, two diagnostis, one epidemic, one light diseases and other
hospitals. Front rear hospital base has a total capacity of 20,000 beds. There
are two to three such bases in the front and each can detach two divisions.
There are 14,100 beds in mobile hospitals. Since the front may comprise two to
three rear hospital bases, its total capacity may reach up to 60,000 beds
grouped into 48 hospitals, including five diagnostic, nine surgery (200 beds
each), three internal (200 beds each). Independent evacuation company, etc.
III. ARMY'S REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BASIC MATERIAL SUPPLIES (STORES) IN
The following table shows the amount of stores required by the army for
- By biological weapons 1.5 - 2%
- Casualties caused by illness 1.5 - 2%
More casualties are received during initial nuclear strikes which comprise up
to 30% of the total amount of casulties received during the entire period of
Front's operation. In operation without the employment of nuclear weapons the
total medical casualties handled by medical elements will be 12 - 13.5% (an
average of 0.8 - 0.9 in a day); with the employment of nuclear weapons it will
be 4% in a day.
Considering the above mentioned medical casualties, a total number of 120 -
150,000 hospital beds would be required of which 40 - 50,000 will be required
at the beginning of operation. The Front does not have such a quantity of beds,
therefore two beds are added to each existing bed to meet the requirements of
possible causalties. The wounded are evacuated, by army and front medical
transportation vehicles (ambulances), or sometimes by air transportation means,
from separate medical groups (detachment) and division medical battalion to the
front hospital base. The rear services echelons should deploy in such a way to
be prepared for constant supply of units and large units.
IV. ORGANIZATION OF MEDICAL SUPPORT IN OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS OF THE
FRONT; MISSIONS AND CAPABILITIES OF FRONT FORWARD AND REAR HOSPITAL BASES:
Medical support comprises organization of medical treatment and evacuation and
anti-epidemic measures and actions. The basic principle of medical support is
placing the medical support installations as close as possible to the area of
mass personnel casualties. It means that medical treatment should be carried
out on the spot. When organizing and planning the medical support, the probable
are of possible casualties must be assessed and anticipated. 35-40% of
personnel may become casualties by the employment of nuclear weapons (an
average of 2 - 2.6% in a day). Such casualties can be classified, in terms of
different types of weapons, as follows:
- Casualties by nuclear weapons 16 - 18%
- By conventional arms 6 - 7%
- By chemical weapons 5 - 6% Norms of stores reserves and their wartime
echelonment in the army. In such context, the main effort of fighter air force
units is concentrated to cover front striking groupings, SSM units, airfields
and the most vital targets in front rear services area.
The analysis of enemy air force capabilities in West European theater of war
indicate that a very high sustainability and vigorousness of use will be
required from front fighter aircraft, because in that theater 600- 800 enemy
tactical and naval aircraft might be oprating in the front operational zone. If
our initial airstrikes on the enemy's airfields are launched effectively, their
capabilities may doubtlessly decrease.
According to the experience of NATO field exercises and maneuvers, the enemy
may launch its air attacks by a large number of aircraft, in small groups,
deployed in a vast front, and echeloned in depth and at different altitudes.
Therefore, considering this fact, as well as the capabilities of the command
and control system to direct the fighter airforce units of the friendly air
army, the repelling of enemy air sorties will have to be conducted by an
operational formation of fighter aircraft, consisting of a number of echelons
(lines). Two to three echelons (lines) in a such a formation will be allocated
for operation at low altitude and tow echelon (lines) to operate at high
The first echelon fighter aircraft are committed into air combat on distant
approaches to the front. The search for and destruction of the enemy aircraft
can be conducted independtly in the areas not confined (limited) for fighter
aircraft. It means that such tasks can be conducted by first echelon fighter
aircraft on enemy territory, until the enemy aircraft reach the effective range
of friendly air defense rockets (SAMs).
The second echelon fighter aircraft are committed into air combat in areas
within close contact of the front line, or on the front line. In this phase,
the fighters intercept the enemy aircraft while patrolling. In such cases the
fighter aircraft must closely cooperate with army and front air defense units
who may have the best capability to destroy enemy air targets within their
operational ranges. The operation of this echelon is further developed by the
commitment of those fighter aircraft into air combat, which are placed in the
state of on-call (stand-by) duty at the airfields. Command and control of
figher aircraft is carried out by the combat command center of air army's
fighter force which is jointly located with the front air defense command post.
To repel the attacks of small groups of enemy aircraft or individual aircraft,
the fighter divisions are assigned sectors (areas of responsibility) for combat
actions. The destruction of enemy aircraft in such sectors is accomplished by
not flying no more thant 1/3 of the fighter divisional combat forces
simultaneously, in accordance with the decision of the division commander.
Based on their combat capabilities, especially their maneuverability in combat
actions, fighters are one of the major means of covering the units against
enemy air attacks.
Organization of Cooperation Between Air Army and Combined Arms (Tanks) Army in
(Cooperation of air army with: army's SSM and artillery units, with army's air
defense means, with armys electronic units, with motorized and tank divisions;
methods of action in case of the employment of nuclear weapons or conventional
weapons by the enemy; how the combined arms army and tank army neutralize enemy
air defenses to facilitate the operations of air army.).
The cooperation (interaction) is organized on the basis of the front
commander's decision to properly allocate the actions of air army and combined
arms (tank) armies in terms of missions, time and space. The army commanders
and staffs coordinate and adjust combined actions of the aircraft, SSM and
artillery units, motorized infantry and tank divisions, air defense forces, and
electronic suppression (neutralizing) units. The methods and sequence of
coordinated actions are illustrated in commanders' decisions.
The main areas of coordinating the operations of air army with other elements
are the following:
a. With SSM and artillery units:
1. Targets and timings of delivering nuclear strikes;
2. Neutralization and destruction of targets in enemy air defense system in
favor of friendly aircraft flights;
3. Conducting of air reconnaissance in favor of SSM and artillery units;
4. Ensuring friendly aircraft flight security in the area of SSM and artillery
5. Mutual identification and target designation to each other.
b. With motorized infantry and tank divisions:
1. Allocation of specified ari sorties (flights) to the missions of combined
arms and tank armies;
2. The method of calling in air support by army forces;
3. Assault airborne landing missions and supporting of assault airborne landing
units combat actions;
4. Reconnaissance mission and passing reconnaissance information;
5. The method of seizure of enemy airfields by army units and providing
assistance to restore and to defend them;
6. Ensuring the movement of air amry logistic units following the attacking
7. Mutual identification, target indication (designation) to each other and the
c. With Army's Air Defense Troops:
l. Method of warning about out situation;
2. The areas of combat action of SAM units, antiaircraft artillery units, and
air army's fighter aircraft;
3. Patrolling zone of fighter aircraft and areas of intercepting enemy aircraft
4. Combined actions of fighters, SAM and antiaircraft units in a single area;
5. Location of deployment and method of movement and relocation of target
guidance center and command post of SAM units;
6. Ensuring flight security of friendly aircraft within the firing zones of SAM
and antiaircraft artillery units;
7. Coordination and mutual identification signals.
d. With electronic suppression (neutralizing) units:
l. Specification of enemy targets to be electronically suppressed (neutralized)
and jammed by combined arms and tank armies and air army's electronic warfare
2. Coordinating the timing of the employment of electronic warfare means of
combined arms army and air army;
3. Coordinating the measures taken to prevent jamming of friendly command and
control means by their mutual interference, as well as by enemy's jamming
Composition (content) of air army's combat command and control system: The
following ccommand posts are included in combat command and control system of
Air Army command post: Deploys l0-l5 km apart from the front command post air
army's forward command post: Deploys in the area of front forward command post.
Air army rear command post: Deploys in area 5 - l0 km from an army command
post. Combat control center of air army's fighter force: Deploys at the air
defense command post of the front. Air army's supplementary air command post:
Deploys in the vicinity of airfield and at the helicopter pads. Combat control
center of air army: Is established in each first echelon combined arms (tank)
army of the front. Each combat control center has in its composition two to
three navigation and target indications posts and combat command group
(_______) for each army's first echelon division. Moreover, in the front's
zone, radio navigation posts can be deployed to guide the aircraft.
In motorized infantry and tank divisions air observation posts can be
established to observe the air situation.
Contents of Air Army Commander's Decision to Support Front Offensive
1. The estimate of the situation: army, air, nuclear and air defense forces;
2. Concept of the operation: Allocation of air army's actions and the sequence
of accomplishment of the missions (during the initial nuclear strikes, during
the air operation, air reconnaissance, etc.);
3. Missions of air force divisions and regiments: Each division and regiment is
assigned a mission for one day and the general direction for the next day;
4. Instructions about air army's bases;
5. Instructions on coordination (interaction);
6. Command and control instructions;
7. Planning instructions;
8. Combat support instructions.
The decision is illustrated graphically on the map, supplemented with written
details, as well as with necessary tables, diagrams and graphics.
Combat Composition and Flight Resources of Air Army in Front's Offensive
Combat composition of air army is specified by military supreme command and
depends on the objective of front operation; the conditions of air force
deployment; composition, capabilities and character of opposing enemy actions.
In the West European theater of war, the composition of the air army can be as
l. Up to two fighter air force divisions;
2. One to two fighter-bomber air force divisions;
3. One bomber division;
4. Up to two reconnaissance air force regiments;
5. Up to one electronic jamming air force regiment (electronic warfare);
6. Two to three helicopter regiments (transport and gunship helicopters).
Depending on the mission assigned to the front, the air army is allocated
flight resource for the front operation, which is normally one and a half
flights for all aircraft of the air army during each day of operation. The
commander of the front allocates the authorized flight resources to the
different missions assigned to the front, to the mssions assigned to combined
arms (tank) armies and retains a part of it in reserve.
In the West European theater of war, 2/3 of authorized flight resources are
allocated to the immediate mission of the front and l/3 to the subsequent
mission of the front. One to two full air army flights are retained in reserve.
Up to three air force regiment flights are allocated each day to the armies
operating in the direction of main attack, and up to 2 air force regiment
flights each day to the armies operating in the direction of supporting attack.
Missions of Military Transport Air Force and the Nature of Their
Military transport air force is assigned to airlift and land assault airborne
landing troops, air transporting of army troops, vehicles, equipment and
stores, as well as to conduct evacuation operations.
Tasks Carried Out by Military Transport Air Force Are the Following:
1. Airlift and landing of large airborne units at the rear of the enemy and
transporting of material stores to ensure their combat actions;
2. Transporting ammunition and other stores to the troops to facilitate their
3. Air transportation in support of combat operation alogn axes of attack;
4. Evacuation of wounded and sick to the rear. Basic conditions for combat
operation of military transport air force:
l. Penetration of strong enemy air defense systems in the front operational
zone is required;
2. Continuous flight along with continuous actions against enemy's air defense
3. Close coordination with front air army, front and country's air defense
l Supporting the movement and deployment of army troops to initiate the attack
and to pass through the enemy security zone;
2 Supporting the process of penetration through the enemy defense
(breakthrough) and the development of offensive operations of first echelon
divisions along with crossing obstacles, barriers and destructed areas;
3 Supporting the movement (approach) and deployment of army's second echelon
large units (divisions) into combat;
4 Supporting assault river crossings;
5 Supporting combat actions of SSM and SAM units.
c. All of these tasks are carried out by army's engineer units, as well as by
motorized infantry units and large units (regiments and divisions). Engineer
support of army offensive operations is organized on the basis of the army
commander's decisions and his instructions about the organization of engineer
support, as well as in accordance with instructions of higher echelon's chief
of engineers. Army's chief of engineers works out the engineer support plan of
offensive operation on the basis of the army commanders decision, his concept
of operation and his instructions on engineer support, as well as on the basis
of the instructions of higher echelon chief of engineers. The engineer support
plan is worked out on the map with written details.
4. Centralized command and control;
5. Vigorousness in action;
6. Possibilities of flying in case large areas of terrain are contaminated with
IV. AIR DEFENSE:
l. Organization of Command Control of Front Air Defense Troops and Means in
a. Command and control of air defense troops and capabilities in front
offensive operation is organized to provide continuous command and control of
air defense untis actions and to direct their efforts toward the execution of
their assigned air defense missions in offensive operation.
b. To command and control the combat actions of front air defense troops and
resources, a mobile air defense command post is estalbished, which is jointly
deployed with the front main command post and is a part of front command post.
Air defense command post includes the following elements: combat control
center; reconnaissance and information center which collects and organizes the
information about enemy air force and warning of the troops about enemy's air
force actions; signal communication center which establishes signal
communication with air defense and fighter air force units, as well as with
cooperating (interacting) large units (division). The components of signal
communication center include radio transmission center and radio reception
Once the air defense command post is deployed, 24-hour tours of duty are
established either by relieving duty officers in turns or by continuous duty
(manning) of full organizational strength as the situation requires. To provide
further for action of air defense command and control, a number of staff
officers and signal communication resources are detached from the main air
defense command post to establish forward air defense command post. To provide
and ensure the command control of fighter aircraft, organic to front air army,
and to ensure coordination in air defense command post the following
controlling elements are deployed:
l. Combat control center of air army's fighter air force units;
2. Operational formations and large units air defense operational groups
(teams) which deploy in front operation zone. (In maritime directions: naval
air defense operational group (team));
3. In air defense command post of combined arms (tank) army: combat control
center of air army as part of combat control center of air army;
4. In motorized infantry (tank) division command post: Air combat control group
5. In SAM regiments command post: Navigation and target indication post.
Command and control of front air defense troops and resources is exercised by
front commander. He personally works out the concept of operation of air
defense units, specifies the allocation of air defense troops and resources to
defend specified targets (objectives) and groupings of forces, assigns missions
to them and specifies the method of coordination (interaction). Direct command
and control of combat actions of air defense troops and resources, while
repelling the enemy's air attacks, is conducted by chief of front's air defense
2. Organization of naval assault landings, air defense, while maneuvering at
sea and during their landing:
a. Air defense while maneuvering at sea:
l) Air defense is organized to cover the sea assault landing force against
enemy air attacks, by employing ship air defense means, sea assault landing
units' air defense troops and means in cooperation with specified front fighter
aircraft and (allied or bloc) country air defense means. Seaborne task forces
are very vulnerable to air attacks and constitute major targets for enemy air
force. Air defense of sea assault landing forces is organized by direct air
defense system of each group or task force, as well as by area (regional) air
defense for the entire marching formation of sea assault landing forces.
Area (regional) air defense is established in both forms (methods) of mobile
air defense system of a single area, and permanent air defense system of a
single area. The former is mobile in ships and the latter provides air defense
during embarkation, at sea and during the landing of seaborne assault units.
While deployed at sea, reconnaissance of enemy aircraft is conducted by radar
and air surveillance means of assault landing crafts, ships, radar
reconnaissance aircraft and helicopters. Radar equipped ships are deployed on
axes of likely actions of enemy aircraft. Three to four such ships are deployed
in a sector of l80 degrees wide. When enemy aircraft conduct low and very low
flights, radar-equipped ships operate l00 l50 kilometers apart from the task
force. When radar equipped helicopters are employed in one group, they operate
50 - l00 kilometers from the task force.
The main air defense means in this case include: ship's air defense means; sea
assault landing unit's air defense means such as 57 mm anti-aircraft guns,
ZSU-23-4 guns, Strela-2 weapons systems, and antiaircraft machineguns. Fighter
aircraft are employed to attack enemy aircraft on the approaches of combat
action areas. They accomplish their mission from continuous patrol duty in the
air. The areas of such patrols are selected on the axes of likely attacks by
b. Air Defense of Seaborne Units During Their Combat Landing:
Air defense of seaborne units during their assault landing is provided by
united action of all air defense resources allocated for the operation. This is
one of the most difficult and decisive phases of air defense operations, since
the enemy will attempt to prevent the landing of seaborne forces by employing
all of its available means and air force units.
In the seaborne landing phase, air defense is conducted by a unified permanent
area air defense system. For this purpose, maneuver areas are specified for the
actions of ships, equipped with air defense means to cover the sea assault
landing troops from such areas against the enemy air attacks. Moreover ships
with air defense capabilities are positioned to the flanks of landing areas,
and thus area air defense system against enemy air attacks is established.
During the landing, air defense means of all ships should be in full combat
readiness. When the seaborne untis are landed on the coast (beaches) specified
air defense ships take up positions, close to the beach, and continue to
support the assualt landing forces in their combat actions ashore.
Fighter aircraft patrollign the air intercept enemy aircraft before they lancuh
their attacks. Their patrol zone is selected on the directions of likely
actions of enemy aircraft. Once the enemy air defense capabilities are
neutralized, the friendly fighter aircraft begin patrollign over the landed
units. In addition, independent searching and hunting is conducted by fighter
aircraft to destroy enemy's aircraft.
Observation and scanning (surveillance) of enemy aircraft is conducted by
aircraft, helicopter and radar-equipped ships along threatened directions. When
the assault landing force is established ashore, its attached and organic air
defense resources land on the beaches, take up positions and continue to
support the assault landing units. The fighter aircraft are moved and based on
the airfields seized from the enemy. Initially the air defense of landing
zones, and later on the air defense of all important objectives (targets) and
all around air defense, is established. Air defense of landed forces on the
beach head is provided by organized and attached air defense means, fighter
aircraft and ships air defense means. A unified air defense system of SAM and
antiaircraft artillery is estalished and is expanded as the beach head expands.
Reconnaissance is conducted by organic and attached radar units.
3. Organization of Combined Army Air Defense During Long Distance Movements:
Air defense is a main component in preparations of army for the march and
consists of a series of measures, the most important of which are the
- Determinining (specification) of air defense missions and tasks;
- Air defense planning;
- Issuing of missions to the troops about air defense;
- Establishing of groupings of air defense forces;
- Organization of command and control of coordination.
Air defense is organized and established on the basis of general staff
instructions (when army is subordinated to the front).
(1) Organization of Army's Air Defense During Long-Distance March: The
evaluation and assessment of technical and tactical capabilities of enemy
aircraft indicate that the enemy air force can attack the marching army in
areas within up to 1,000 km from its airfields by tactical aircraft, and beyond
that distance by strategic aircraft. Enemy air strikes may be brought to bear
on unit marching columns, railroads, bridges and other targets by enemy
aircraft groups of four to six or 12-16 or even 20 aircraft, and sometimes by
larger groups of aircraft.
Enemy aircraft will deliver their strikes from low, medium and high altitude,
under the cover fo fighter aircraft and while friendly radio electronic means
are neutralized (suppressed) by enemy countermeasures. therefore when army
forces are moving from the interior of the country to the theater war, their
air defense cover and protection must be organized during the entire phase of
movement and along the entire depth of marching formation.
(2). The army may move in the following forms:
a. March, employing organic vehicles;
b. By railroad;
c. Combined method.
a. When marching, army's air defense is organized in the following phases:
- In rallying areas occupied by combat alert and in assembly areas;
- When marching columns are crossing rivers (water obstacles), mountain passes,
defiles, large built-up areas, and roads junctions;
- In halts, daily (nightly) resting areas.
b. When moving by railroads:
- In embarkation, debarkation and reembarkation areas;
- When traveling in trains;
- In railroad junctions (centers), bridges, defiles and tunnels.
c. When moving in combined method:
- In rallying areas occupied by combat alert;
- In embarkation, debarkation and reembarkation areas;
- Covering of marching columns and trains during their movement;
- In small and large (long) halts;
- When the troops are crossing bridges, in large road junctions, when crossing
mountain passes, defiles and tunnels.
(3) The army's air defense, during the march (movement), is established
(provided) by army's air defense units (organic troops) in cooperation with
PVOS units and the air defense units of military districts, in areas where
army's marching routes pass through their territories (areas of operation); and
sometimes in cooperation with naval air defense means.
(4) Air defense is organized and planned on the basis of general staff
instructions (when army is directly subordinate to supreme command) and on the
basis of military district commander isntructions (when army is directly
attached to military district).
The general staff (commander of military district) specifies the followings in
its instructions on air defense system:
- What air defense large units of hte PVOS system, and what air defense
resources of military districts have been deployed in army's marching zone, and
what missions have been assigned to them;
- Method of coordination (interaction) of army air defense units with the
above-mentioned PVOS and military district air defense means;
- Method of reconnoitering the enemy air activities and warning of the army
troops about enemy aircraft;
(5) The army commander evaluates the following during the process of making the
decision for march.
- The status and capabilities of army's air defense units and resources;
- The groupings of PVOS and military district air defense troops, deployed in
army's marching zone;
- Groupings, capabilities and character of operation of enemy air force. On the
basis of deductions derived from such evaluations, the army commander specifies
the following to the army's chief of air defense;
- Which groupings of army forces and which targets should be covered in which
- How and in what method the coordination between army's air defense units and
PVOS air defense system and military districts (fronts) air defense troops and
means should be established;
- Method of reconnaissance of enemy aircraft, warning of the troops, and the
method of command and control of air defense troops during the movement.
To conduct continuous searching and destruction of enemy nuclear delivery
means, fighter-bomber aircraft divisions are assigned combat operation sectors
(areas of responsibility). The bomber aircraft conduct such missions in the
entire sectors and in the front operation zone, normally beyond the operational
range of fighter-bomber aircraft. As the experiences of field exercises
indicate, during first two to three days of operations, 50-70% of air sortie
resources during these days are re-employed to deal with enemy's nuclear
delivery means and its aircraft on the airfields.
The efforts to destroy enemy's nuclear delivery means must be continued
throughout the entire course of operation, since such means pose threats of the
employment of nuclear weapons at any time and any phase of the operation.
Covering of Units and Front Rear Services Objectives (targets) Against Enemy
Air Attacks and Air Reconnaissance:
Covering of the units and front rear services against enemy airforce is a
constant mission of the front air army. The air army accomplishes this mission
in coordination with maneuver units' air defense units and country and front
air defense system, and in naval (maritime) directions, in close cooperation
with naval air defense units, in all situations, with or without the employment
of nuclear weapons.
V. PREPARATION, CONTENTS AND EMPLOYMENT OF COMMUNICATION ROUTES IN
FRONT OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS, MISSION AND CAPABILITIES OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION AND
TRAFFIC CONTROL BRIGADE:
Communication system is one of the vital pre-requisite in front offensive
operations. In such operations wide use should be made of all routes and
communications lines (railroads, water and air routes, motor routes and
Railroads: two to three frontal railroads and two to three lateral railroads
(parallel to front line) are required at the rear services area of the front
with a total capacity of 70 pairs of trains in 24-hours. In course of
conducting the operation, one to two railroad directions, with a capacity of 30
pairs of trains in 24-hours, must be established (restored). The rate of
restoring railroads, by employing two railroad consturction brigades, is 40-45
km in 24-hours (in case of partial destruction). In case of massive destruction
this rate is decreased by half, i.e. 20-22 km in 24-hours.
Each army is allotted two to three distribution stations (P/C) and one to two
alternate (reserve) distribution stations. Each army is also allotted
debarkation (unloading) stations (B/C) on the basis of one station to each
organic division and tow to three stations to army mobile (forward) base. One
to two temporary debarkation (unloading) stations are established at the front
Water Ways (routes): A distribution port (P/M) to the front and a debarkation
(unloading) station to the army are allocated. Front Military Motor Routes :
Connect the front bases withtheir departments (___________) and with armies'
mobile (forward) bases. One military motor route is prepared at the rear of
each army. Each front military motor route has the traffic capacity of l0,000
vehicles per 24- hours.
Major Field Pipeline: Transports POL from permanent and front depots to the
forces (the front main grouping of forces), meaning that it is stretched to the
direction of main attack.
Air Communication Routes: Are established by airfield supporting elements
(AMO). Seven to eight air communication routes are established at the front
level. It is important that use of all available transport means should be made
in the front. For this purpose a unified system of communication lines is
established and its cover is organized.
Road Construction and Traffic Control Brigade: This brigade is employed to
prepare, restore and maintain front military motor routes and to conduct
traffic control on the routes. The brigade is capable:
l - To maintain 900 km of road;
2 - Deploy three complete of service centers;
3 - Establish l60 traffic control posts.
The brigade can accomplish the following tasks in 24-hours:
l - Construction of under water bridge - ll0 meters in length (60 ton
2 - Construction of pontoon bridge - 400 meters in length (l6 tons capacity);
3 - Digging works (excavation) - 4500 cubic meters;
4 - Road repair - up to 90 km;
5 - Repair of pavement - up to ten km.
V. SEARCHING FOR AND DESTORYING THE ENEMY NUCLEAR DELIVERY CAPABILITY
IN THE COURSE OF FRONT OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS: Searching for and destorying the
enemy nuclear missiles in the course of operation means the destruction of
missile units, bases and nuclear depots. This task is carried out by maximum
effort of the forces, from the beginning of combat actions, regardless of the
nature of actions conducted, with or without the employment of nuclear weapons.
In accomplishment of this mission, the air army closely and directly cooperates
with front SSM (rocket) and artillery units, assault airborne landing units,
and naval forces; and also coordinate its actions with strategic rocket forces
and long range aircraft. The enemy's Pershing and Sergeant missile launching
pads and its tactical aircraft are enemy's basic nuclear delivery means and
constitute prime targets for air army operations.
Therefore the front air force carries out missions to destroy enemy aircraft,
primarily enemy nuclear-armed aircraft on the airfields, as well as in the air,
and at the same time continues to search, hunt and destroy enemy missile units
while they are moving or when they are located in assembly (waiting) areas and
launching positions; it also destroys nuclear bases and nuclear depots, and
command posts of nuclear delivery means.
(6). On the basis of the army commander's decision and the instruction of
higher headquarters, the army's chief of air defense works out the army's air
defense plan (on the map with written details, covering the entire length of
march). This plan illustrates the following:
- Conclusions of the estimate of situation of enemy air force;
- The sectors and march routes of army units, indicating the timing and
locations of embarkation, debarkation, assembly areas, daily (nightly) resting
areas, crossing of mountain passes, major bridges, defiles etc.;
- Groupings of country's air defense system and military district (front) air
defense troops and in army's marching zone;
- Organization of air defense cover;
- Organization of fighter aircraft cover;
- Organization of reconnaissance of enemy aircraft;
- Organization of troops warning system;
- Coordination of army's air defense units with country's air defense system
and military districts air defense troops and resources.
Army's air defense plan is signed by the chief of staff and chief of army's air
defense and is approved by the army commander. Prior to the commencement of
march and during the movement, this plan is coordinated with country's air
defense army commander and military districts (fronts) air defense chiefs.
(7) Missions to the units, on air defense matters, are assigned through combat
instructions on air defense, which are signed by army's chief of staff and air
4. Organization of Air Defense in River Crossing In The Course of the Conduct
of Offensive Operations:
(1) The decision, regarding the air defense protection of army troops during
crossing wide rivers (warter obstacles) is made at the beginning of offensive
operation and is further adjusted as the troops are approaching the river
(2) The main efforts of air defense units to protect the army elements are
directed to the following:
a. Covering and protection of forward detachments and advance guards when they
are seizing bridges and areas at the far bank of the river;
b. Covering of army's main forces and crossing resources during their movement
to the rivver, during river crossing, as well as during combat actions at the
(3) SAM regiment and antiaircraft artillery regiment are following the advance
guards or forward detachments, or they move at the head of the main forces
column. They deploy into combat formation in such a way as to be able to cover
the army's main forces as they approach the assault crossing areas.
(4) The launching (starting) positions of forward SAM battalions are selected
at such a distance from the river to make them able to destroy low flying enemy
aricraft short of their first combat missions line; such distance for S-75 SAMs
will be 10-11 km fromthe near bank and for S-125 SAMs - about 6 km from the
near bank of the river.
Firing positions of forward small calibre antiaircraft artillery batteries
should be selected as close as possible to the river bank, i.e. about 500
meters from bridges and assault crossing sites. Their mission is to cover the
troops against the attacks of enemy aircraft flying at low altitudes an to
fight against enemy aircraft diving attacks on bridges and crossing sites.
Strela-2M portable SAM weapons systems are moved to the river with their
compainies and cross the river simultaneously with them, while being constantly
prepared to open fire.
(5) Crossing of air defense units to the far bank is conducted in following
a. SAM regiment in battalions by constructed bridges or rafts;
b. Anti-aircraft artillery regiment, on order of army's air defense chief by
bridges or rafts.
In some cases SAM and antiaircraft artillery regimetns can remain in their
positions to cover and protect bridges (crossing sites), until they are
relieved by the army and front's other air defense units.
VI. ENGINEER TROOPS
I. MISSIONS OF ENGINEER SUPPORT IN ARMY'S OFFENSIVE OPERATION AND ORGANIZATION
OF THEIR ACCOMPLISHMENT:
1. Engineer support of army's offensive operation is organized to created
favorable and necessary conditions for initiating the attack by the troops and
for the development of the offensive at high speed and also to protect
personnel and combat equipment against the effects of weapons employed in
2. Such aim is achieved through accomplishment of a number of engineer support
missions during the preparation, as well as in course of conduct of, the
offensive operation. The basic engineer support tasks are the following:
a. During preparation for the operation:
- Engineer fortifications of first-echelon divisions (starting positions for
- Engineer fortifications at the area of second echelon units and reserves
- Engineer fortifications in SSM, SAM and artillery deployment areas for
- Construction and further improvement of roads for the deployment of army
- Engineer support in case of repelling enemy's possible aggression;
- Concealment measures.
b. In course of conduct of the operation:
c. The following are illustrated on the engineer support plan of the offensive
- The basic task of engineer support;
- Timing and locations of accomplishing each task;
- The units employed to execute engineer support tasks;
- Method of movement (relocation) of engineer troops in course of the conduct
- Organization for supplying the units with engineer equipment and material;
d. In the written part of the plan, detailed information and calculations are
e. In order to accomplish engineer support tasks, the grouping of engineer
troops is established in the army which includes the following elements:
- Engineer troops attached to first-echelon divisions; - Engineer troops
direcctly under army control and employed to execute centralized engineer
- Mobile obstacles detachment;
- Engineer reserve.
f. On the basis fo engineer support plan missions are designed to the
subordinate units. Engineer missions are assigned to motorized infantry (tank)
regiments and divisions through combat instructions.
II. ENGINEER SUPPORT IN PREPARING ARMY'S DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS,
TACTICAL AND TECHNICAL CAPABILITIES OF FAST-MOVING TRENCH-DIGGING VEHICLE:
1. Engineer support of defensive operation is organized to create favorable and
necessary conditions for ensuring the strength of the defenses, to protect
personnel and ccombat equipment from the effects of firing weapons, as well as
to enhance the effectiveness of the employment of combat vehicles, equipment
2. Engineer support in preparing army's defensive operation is dependent on the
method of taking up the defensive action (passing into defense) by the army.
Thus when army is taking up the defense in the course of offensive operations,
engineer support of defensive operations begins with taking measures to support
the regrouping of the troops for defense and covering of exposed and dangerous
flanks by antitank weapons and means.
When the army is assuming a deliberate (planned) defense, in abence of close
contact with the enemy, engineer support of army's defensive operation will
start by taking measures to support the movement of troops and occupation of
specified defensive areas by them.
a. Basic engineeer support tasks during preparation of the defense:
l) Engineeer construction in defensive areas of first echelon divisions;
2) Construction of army's defensive belts, alternative positions, reserves and
army troops deployment (positioning) areas;
3) Engineer construction of SSM and SAM units positions;
4) Construction of obstacles and destruction systems;
5) Preparing of maneuver routes;
6) Engineer works of army's command posts;
7) Concealment measures.
b. Engineer fortifications of defensive belts and defensive positions,
positions of rocket and artillery units are prepared by army's large units
(divisions) and units (regiments, brigades) themselves. For the purpose of the
speedy and full accomplishment of engineer constructing works, the army large
units (divisions) defending on the axis of enemy's main attack, as well as
rocket (missile) units are reinforced with trench-digging units from
trench-digging battalion of army's combat engineer regiment.
3. The Obstacle System Includes the Following:
a. Obstacles and barriers created in front of/and in the main defensive belt;
obstacles and barriers constructed in depth of army's defensive zone; obstacles
and barriers, established in course of the operations by mobile obstacles
detachment and engineer reserves.
b. The obstacles on the main defensive belt are constructed to be in the first
state of readiness, while the obstacles in the rear of the army's defensive
zone are constructed to be in the state of second readiness (the limits of such
obstacles are marked to indicate the area of their location).
4. Road system indefense includes frontal supply and evacuation routes,
constructed on the basis of one or more routes to each division, lateral
communication lines (routes) and maneuver routes for the movement of second-
echelon forces to their lines of deployment for launching counterattacks,
constructed on the basis fo one to two routes to each regiment.
5. Tactical and technical characteristics of fast-moving trench-digging
a. This vehicle is employed to carry out mechanized digging of trenches and
communication trenches. They are organic to divisional engineer battalions and
the trench-digging (fortification) battalion of the army's combat engineer
b. The vehicle can dig 300-400m long trench in one hour:
1) Weight: 27 tons;
2) Speed: 35 km/h;
3) Range (on the basis of one refill): 500 km;
4) Range (on the basis of track life): 3500 km.
c. It is mounted on an artillery towing vehicles (ATT).
III. ENGINEER SUPPORT DURING THE CONDUCT OF FRONT OFFENSIVE OPERATION,
COMPOSITION OF FRONT ENGINEER TROOPS:
1. Engineer support during the conduct of front offensive operation is
conducted to provide favorable conditions for the developmetn of offensive at a
high rate fo speed and for the protection of personnel against the impacts of
2. The basic tasks:
a. Supporting the passage through enemy's security zone, breaking through the
enemy defense and development of attacks of first-echelon armies;
b. Supporting the movement and deployment of front's second-echelon forces into
c. Supporting the river crossing operations;
d. Supporting the actions of SSM and SAM units;
e. supporting the consolidations and fortifying of seized objectives (lines);
f. supporting the landing and combat operation of assault air landing forces;
g. Supporting combat operations of front air force.
h. Taking measures to eliminate the effects of the employment of nuclear
weapons and restoring the combat capabilities of front forces;
i. Organization of supplying the troops with engineer equipment, stores and
3. To provide engineer support in the front's operations, the following
engineer troops are included in its dispositon:
a. Road construction and bridging engineer brigade: 1
b. Combat engineer regiment: 1
c. Pontoon bridging engineer regiment: 1
d. Assault river crossing engineer battalion: 1-2
e. Engineer obstacle battalion: 1
f. Engineer obstacle clearing battalion: 1-2
g. Command post construction engineer battalion: 1
h. Engineer concealment battalion: 1
i. Engineer repair battalion: 2-3
j. Engineer plant apparatus repair battalion: 1-2
k. Rear services engineer company: 2-3
5. Depending on the organization (composition of the front, theater of war and
missions assigned to the front), it can be further reinforced by the following
a. Engineer bridge construction brigade;
b. Combat engineer brigade;
c. pontoon, river crossing, fortification and obstacle clearing units.
IV. ENGINEER SUPPORT IN ASSAULT RIVER CROSSING BY ARMY FORCES; TACTICAL
AND TECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS ON PONTOON BRIDGING PARK:
1. Depending ont he nature of theater of war, the army elements will be forced,
in the course of conducting offensive operations, to cross the large rivers
where the enemy defends and attempts todelay the attack of friendly froces.
Therefore, in order to prevent the enemy from establishing organized defenses
on the rivers, the basic form of river crossing is assault crossing from the
march. Engineer support in assault river crossing is organized for the
a. To provide favorable conditions for the destruction of enemy units and
movement (approach) to the river (water obstacle);
b. To support units in assault river crossing;
c. To develop the attack at the far bank.
2. The above mentioned purposed can be achieved by the accomplishment of the
following engineer support tasks:
a. Engineer reconnaissance of the enemy and water obstacle (river);
b. Construction of routes leading to the river and crossing sites;
c. Construction of installations and establishment of crossings (crossing
d. Organization of traffic control and provost service on the crossing sites;
e. Protection of crossing sites against the enemy destructive actions.
3. The first-echelon divisions are reinforced by sufficient crossing assets and
troops to ensure their crossing operation without decreasing their speed of
4. The norms of crossing time for different elements are as follows:
a. Forward detachment crosses the river in one to one-and-a-half hours;
b. Division's main body (forces) accomplish their assault river crossing in
four to five hours;
c. The army accomplishes river crossing in l0-l5 hours.
5. The forward detachment, on arrival to the river line, initiates crossing by
assault crossing vehicles, as well as by rafts and by means of its active
actions at the far bank, supports the river crossing operations of division's
6. To conduct crossing operation of the division's main forces, assault river
crossing sites, raft crossings, bridges and underwater tank crossing sites are
established. For each first-echelon division, four to six assault crossing
sites, four to six raft crossing sites, one to two bridge crossing sites and
two to five underwater tank crossings are established.
7. The army, employing its organic river crossing means, can accomplish river
crossing at the above-mentioned speed when the river is 200 meters wide. To
support crossing operations over wider rivers, or to support crossing
operations over a second river, the army is required to be reinforced by more
assault crossing means, rafts and bridging equipment.
8. The first echelon large units (divisions and crops) are normally reinforced
by river crossing assets at the time when missions to conduct assault river
crossing are assigned to them.
9. Engineer reserve is established to the extent as to be able to construct one
bridge for the division.
l0. Tactical and Technical Characteristics of Pontoon Bridging Park:
a. Pontoon bridging park is employed to construct rafts and bridge crossing
sites (crossings). Such parks are organic to division engineer batalion (1/2
park) and army's and front pontoon bridging regiments (2 parks in each
regiment). One pontoon bridging park can construct the following combination of
rafts and bridges in a specific period of time:
1) A bridge 227m long with a capacity of 60 tons in 30 minutes;
2) or, a bridge 382 meters long with a clearance of 20 tons in 50 minutes.
b. One pontoon and bridging park (complete) can form rafts in these
1) Sixteen 40 ton rafts in eight minutes;
2) Ten 60 ton rafts in ten minutes;
3) Eight 80 ton rafts in 12 minutes.
VII. ROCKET TROOPS AND ARTILLERY
I. COMPOSITION AND PRINCIPLES OF COMBAT EMPLOYMENT OF ROCKET TROOPS (SSM) IN
FRONT OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS; METHODS OF ACCOMPLISHMENT OF MISSIONS:
1. The front is reinforced by 1-2 artillery divisions in offensive operation.
2. Combat composition of front rocket troops:
a. One to two front SSM brigades:
12-24 pieces; 2 rounds each;
b. Three to four armys' SSM brigades:
27-36 pieces; 2 rounds each;
c. Divisions SSM battalions: 88-100 pieces;
d. The total of a-c above is 127-160 launching pads with 3 (sic) rounds each.
The total number of rockets which can be employed in the operation: 342- 450
(sic) rounds (rockets).
3. The basic principles of the employment of rocket troops are the following:
a. Mass employment;
b. Surprise employment;
c. Employment on the targets, clearly discovered, and accurately disclosed by
d. Employment of SSMs in support of accomplishment of important tasks
(destruction of enemy's nuclear delivery means and its main grouping of
e. Employment in close coordinaiton with other services of armed forces,
weapons and combat arms.
4. Methods of accomplishment of missions (tasks):
a. Massive strike (initial nuclear strike);
b. Group strike (employment of nuclear rounds on one target, for example 2
rounds on a battalion-size unit and 12-16 rounds on a division);
c. Individual nuclear strike.
II. DETERMINING REQUIREMENTS FOR ARTILLERY IN FRONT OFFENSIVE
OPERATIONS; DISTRIBUTION (ALLOCATION) AND ESTABLISHMENT OF ARTILLERY GROUPS:
1. The number of artillery units and pieces required for front offensive
operations is determined by the number and size of tasks to be accomplished by
artillery and/or by the requirements to constitute the best artillery groupings
in support of the operation. Two methods are known to determine fronts
requirements for artillery:
a. By the asessment fo the size (amount) of artillery tasks (missions) to be
carried out. Considering the fact that a large number of tasks are to be
carried out by artillery during the breakthrough and penetration of the enemy
prepared defenses, the requirements for artillery in this phase is assessed in
1) On the basis of the numbers (amount) of artillery missions in a specific
situation (assessed by reconnaissance information or b y combat strength,
organization and reinforcements of the enemy). Three groups of enemy targets
are taken into consideration for such an assessment.
a) Artillery, mortars and antiaircraft artillery batteries;
b) The number and size of weapons and troops in enemy brigades' reserrves;
c) The number of platoon-size resistance points (defensive positions) in enemy
first echelon battalions on the FEBA: the numbers of antitank weapons; command
posts and radars.
2) On the basis fo enemy organization, to deploy 110-120 pieces of artillery
against him in one km of front. That means the number of artillery pieces to be
deployed against the enemy is determined on the basis of different enemy
nations' organization of divisions and their operaitonal concentration of
destructivemeans in defensive positions.
2. On the basis of constituting artillery groups:
a. The requirement for artillery is determined by taking into consideration the
establishment (constitution) of following artillery groups:
1) Regimental artillery groups: Three to four artillery battalions in each;
2) Divisional artillery groups: Four to six artillery battalions in each;
3) Army artillery groups: Eight to ten artillery battalions in each, depending
on the number of first-echelon divisions on the direction of main attack.
b. Considering the organic artillery units and the above-mentioned
requirements, one to three artillery divisions may be attached to the front in
III. COMBAT EMPLOYMENT OF ARTILLERY TO CONDUCT COUNTER-ARTILLERY
1. The objectives of counter-artillery preparation are the following:
a. To defeat enemy offense (attack);
b. To weaken enemy striking grouping;
c. To gain time for completeing of defense and to delay enemy attack.
2. Artillery's Tasks: Artillery carries out the following tasks in coordination
with air forces and other means of destruction:
a. Destruction of enemy nuclear-delivery means;
b. Neutralization of enemy artillery, mortars and antiaircraft artillery;
c. Destruction of enemy command and control system (command posts, control and
d. Inflicting damages (casualties) on enemy's main grouping of forces,
particularly on enemy tanks.
3. Methods of planning counter-artillery preparation: Counter-artillery
preparation is planned in close consideration of the following:
a. When there is close contact with the enemy, the main strikes are delivered
on enemy tank troops and artillery;
b. When there is no close contact with the enemy and the enemy is to approach
from the rear and has to advance to attack, meaning it is out of friendly
artillery range, in this case the friendly artillery destroys enemy artillery
and command posts and the air force deals with the enemy main grouping of
forces located in depth (in assembly for attack).
4. As many artillery units as possible are called for counter-artillery
preparation, i.e. first echelon division artillery, army's artillery and
artillery of second echelon forces (second echelon divisions).
5. Counter-artillery preparation is conducted from temporary gun positions. For
the preparations of counter-artillery preparatory fires, 4-6 hours are required
(including maneuver of artillery units).
6. Counter-artillery preparation is a front-level measure and is conducted on
order of front commader. In some cases it can be conducted in army's zone. The
immediate preparations to conduct counter-artillery preparation are conducted
the armies' zones. Other characteristics of counter-artillery preparation are
a. Duration: 20-3- minutes;
b. Method (contents): two to three fire strikes;
c. Depth: As far as artillery range may allow, principally on first-echelon
forces of enemy divisions. The air forces deliver strikes further in depth;
d. Artillery concentration (density): 30-40 artillery pieces in one km of
IV. ORGANIZATION OF COMBAT ACTIONS OF ARMY ARTILLERY IN BREAK THROUGH
OF ENEMY'S PREPARED DEFENSE:
a. Destruction of enemy's nuclear delivery means;
b. Inflicting sufficient damage on enemy artillery, mortars, antitank weapons
and air defense batteries;
c. Neutralization of enemy personnel in their defensive positions;
d. Destruction of enemy command and control system.
2. All of the above-mentioned tasks are carried out during artillery
preparatory fire. Artillery preparatory fire is concentrated on the penetration
zone and on areas, one km further in both flanks of the penetration zone for
the purpose of destroying enemy antitank weaponslocated at the flanks of the
3. Depending o the target damage criteria, the duration of artillery
preparatory fires is 30-40 minutes at average, if the troops are advancing to
attack from the rear this norm remains the same.