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AUREL STEIN - PERSONS

 
 

Here are many of the photos Stein included as illustrations in his reports and memoirs. Some of the same photo appears in several books - I have included some of these as the quality varies. These include his working team, major Chinese officials whose assistance was indespensible, and some of the groups he met along the way.

 
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Biography of Aurel Stein

 
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Formal portrait of Sir Aurel Stein KCIE

 
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Biography of Lal Singh

 
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Serindia 320 - Group of my party taken at Ulugh-mazar - From left to right: Ibrahim Beg (significant local minor official who provided much assistance); Chaing-Ssu-yeh (the Chinese interpreter, secretary and extremely valuable assistant from the consulate at Kashgar); Stein with the second of his dogs; Jasvant Singh (personal cook for Lal Singh); Rai Bahadur Lal Singh (indispensable professional military surveyor from the Survey of India who accomplished much of the survey - Rai and Bahadur are high honorifics bestowed for his years of accomplishments); Naik Ram Singh (Naik is corporal, he was accomplished engineer from the Indian army)

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 296 - My companions and myself at Ulug-mazar, in the desert north of Chira - From the left to right, sitting: Chiang-ssu-yeh (Chinese secretary interpreter) , myself with "Dash" (one of several successive "Dash" s), Rai Bahadur Lal Singh ( experienced senior surveyor from the Survey of India). Standing: Ibrahim Beg (local official), Jasvant Singh (Lal Singh's personal cook), Naik Ram Singh (corporal in Indian army - engineer). This photo also is in Stein's other reports.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 101 - Trunks of dead trees enclosing ancient tank, Niya site - The group shows sitting on left Rai Ram Singh and Ibrahim Beg, on right Naik Ram Singh and Ibrahim 'the miller', in middle author with "Dash'. Stein means on his left and right. The others, standing, are laborers hired from Niya.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 11 - My companions of the second expedition and myself in the desert north of Chira - Left to right, siting: Chiang Ssu-yeh (Chinese secretary - interpreter)- myself with "Dash II', Rai Bahadur Lal Singh, (expert senior surveyor of the Survey of India who replaced Ram Singh), Standing: Ibrahim Beg (important local leader who assisted Stein greatly), Jasvant Singh (Rajput cook and assistant for Lal Singh), Naik Ram Singh (corporal in Indian army engineers whose carpentry expertise enabled Stein to build crates for artifacts and who went blind from diabetes during the expedition.

 
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Innermostasia 332 - Group of my party at Idikut-shahri, Turfan - from left to right, Ibrahim Beg - R.B. Lal Singh - self with Dash III - Musa Akhun - Afraz-gul Khan - Jasvant Singh - Ruin of "khitai-madrash; in background - These were Stein's 'core' team members - Ibrahim Beg was excellent and reliable Central Asian assistant - Rai Bahadur Lal Singh was expert surveyor from the Survey of India - Musa Akhun was Stein's personal assistant (cook too) - Afraz-gul Khan was younger surveyor assigned by the Survey of India who went on to a distinguished career - and Jasvant Singh was Lal Singh's personal cook (essential for dietary requirements)

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 39 - My servants from Kashgar and Yarkand. Stein found that his cook from Kashmir could not cope with the hardships in Turkestan so had to hire other personal servants of less than sterling quality. A very poor photo that I could not improve

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 131 - Ram Singh and Jasvant Singh, with "Yolchi beg,' in Mr. Macartney's garden, Kashgar - Ram Singh was the professional surveyor assigned to assist Stein by the Survey of India on the first expedition - he became ill during the second expedition and was replaced by Lal Singh. Jasvant Singh was a Rajput brought along by Ram and Lal as cook since dietary rules prevented them from eating with the Moslems or Stein. "Yolchi beg' was the nickname given to Stein's ever present terrier.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 20 - Chiang Ssu-yeh, my Chinese secretary on the Second Expedition - Stein had three different secretaries for the 3 expeditions but Chiang was the only individual Stein considered to be excellent - He was not only secretary and interpreter but also diplomat and translator of ancient Chinese texts. Stein was profuse in his appreciation for everything that Chiang did to assist with the work. And he was especially superior to the interpreters Stein had to employ during the first and third expeditions

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 39 - Chiang-ssu-yeh, Chinese secretary and helpmate during second expedition - The Chinese secretary - interpreter whom Stein hired at Kashgar for the first expedition was entirely unsatisfactory. Stein became good friends with the gentleman pictured here who was assigned at Kashgar for the second expedition. He was not only the secretary and interpreter but also a highly educated Chinese scholar whose familiarity with ancient orthography greatly assisted in understanding the ancient Han dynasty texts they uncovered. He was also an astute diplomat who was instrumental in the purchase of the thousands of manuscripts from the T'aost monk at Tun-huang.

 
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Innermostasia 355 - Ch'iang Ssu'yeh bidding farewell - He was Stein's best Chinese interpreter and general assistant. He came from the Indian consulate in Kashgar for Stein's second expedition and was instrumental in so many successes, especially in obtaining the manuscripts from Tun-huang "cave of the 1000 Buddhas' but was in too poor health to participate in the third expedition.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 308 - Chiang-ssu-yeh at work on ancient Chinese records, in Nar-bagh - This photograph shows my devoted secretary just recovered from a short attack of illness. Stein could not have found a better associate - not only secretary and interpreter but also well educated in ancient Chinese orthography and history. Stein missed him greatly during the third expedition.

 
     
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 52 - Pan-darin, Amban of Khotan, with personal attendants whom Stein met at Khotan during the first expedition - this photo also appears in several of Stein's reports, as well as other photos of Pan-darin. This Amban rendered the most assistance to Stein during his three expeditions. By the second Pan-darin had been promoted to Ak-su and by the third to Urumchi. Stein gained immediate friendship by showing Pan-darin the texts of medieval Buddhist pilgrims that he was following. Stein called Hsuan-tang his 'patron saint' whose memoir opened many doors for Stein.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 19 - P'an Ta-jen, Tao-t'ai of Aksu, my old patron and friend. This photo taken during the second expedition, when Stein made a special trip across the Taklamakan to visit P'an Ta-jen who had been promoted to Aksu - During the first expedition Stein met him as Amban of Khotan where he provided very significant assistance to Stein in obtaining guides, laborers, animals and much logistic support. By the third expedition P'an Ta-jen had been promoted again and was at Urumchi. They shared knowledge and love of the medieval Chinese Buddhist pilgrim memoirs of travel between Xi-an and India. Note the differences in titles, not personal name.

 
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Innermostasia 298 - P'an Ta-jen with his two sons at Urumchi - This scholarly mandrin was Stein's main official help at Khotan during the first expedition, then had been elevated to magistrate at Ak-su during the second and now was at the capital at Urumchi during Stein's third expedition. He was instrumental in providing Stein with official support.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 301 - Pan Ta-jen, Tao t'ai of Ak-su, my old patron and friend - from Khotan during the first expedition.

 
   
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 81 - Huang-daloi, Amban of Keriya - another Chinese official who greatly assisted Stein in obtaining workers and logistic support. He was the Amban of Keriya, posing in his full official robes with attendants who no doubt are wondering skeptically what Stein is doing and why they are required to be there. Well he was using the glass-plate photography available in 1900. Stein wrote quite a bit about Huang-Daloi and the energetic manner in which as Amban he ordered his minions to provide all necessary resources for Stein's expeditions in the desert. .

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 49 - T'ang Ta-jen, military Amban of Khotan, with his children and attendants - Stein always devoted diplomatic attention to the local ambans whose support was vital for securing labor and logistic support. However, he felt that the numerous 'dastarkan's - banquets - simply took precious time from his work.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 109 - Liao, Ta-lao-ye, Chinese magistrate of Charklik

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 209 - Wang Ta-lao-ye, Magistrate of Tun-huang, with his wife and mother

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 47 - Liu-Darin, Amban of Yarkand - who greatly assisted Stein by directing that all necessary transport, laborers, and supplies by provided by Begs in the various settlements. This photo appears in several of Stein's reports - Liu-darin was the first of the several Chinese local officials whom Stein met and enlisted in his quest to follow the footsteps of medieval Chinese Buddhist pilgrims between Chang-an (Xi'an) and India.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 71 - Ch'e Ta-jen, Amban of Khotan, with local begs - on extreme right is Islam Beg, Beg of Kayash

 
     
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 38 - Hassan Akhun, head camel-man on several expeditions - Hassan Akhun was one of the most important members of Stein's expeditions. He was hired for the first expedition for his expert knowledge of camels and also travel throughout the desert. Stein valued his experience so much that he sent word ahead asking him to join the second expedition and Hassan Akhun valued his association with Stein so much that he rushed to meet him at Kashgar. In addition, he had marvelous camels.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 217 - Hassan Akhun packing camel at Su-chi-ch'uan spring. - Hassan Akhun was the expert camel man whom Stein hired for his first expedition. When word came of the second expedition Akhun rushed to join Stein, an example of the loyalty Stein received from those worked with him.

 
     
 
 
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Ancient Khotan - 5 - Wakhis settled at Khaibar, Hunza - Stein noted the porous frontiers and the numbers of Afghans who had crossed into India. He made a special effort to photograph ethnic samples along the route.

 
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Innermostasia 10 - Men of escort sent by Raja Pakhtun Wali - on extreme left is Shahid of Tangir, the commander - Stein commented that these guys were only recently changed from being bandits - the Raja deemed it essential to provide Stein with a strong security detachment for safety and also to insure the Stein didn't stray off the designated route agreed to for his third expedition. The semi-independent rulers of these remote valleys were still striving to maintain their authority even in opposition to the British - Government of India.

 
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Innermostasia 25 - Raja Pakhtun Wali's castle at Jaglot, Tangir - India - with Mehtarjao Shah 'Alam seated in foreground plus attendants and Stein's dog. Stein not only received very special permission to visit Tangir, but also was asssigned a well armed pose of the Pakhtun Wali's guards commanded by Shan 'Alam - the valley was off limits to Europeans and the local tribes were used to fighting each other. Here Stein has crossed the Shardai pass into Tangir, Jaglot is toward the southern end of this region, which is west of Darel.

 
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Innermostasia 27 - The Raja Pakhtun Wali with two of his sons - he was an enlightened ruler who was attempting to bring his domain into the modern world but was murdered by clan enemies.

 
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Innermostasia 26 - Dareli headmen in attendance at Gumare-kot - notice the bare feet

 
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Innermostasia 39 - Group of Tangiris at Jaglot - India - don't mess with these guys on a dark night or even in the daytime.

 
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Innermostasia 42 - Group of Khushwaqts and Burish at Hondur, Yasin - Raja of hondur (Khushwaqt) with two relatives, seated; behind, Burish cultivators - The ruling clan seated and workers standing

 
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Innermostasia 76 - Wakhi settlers in Chapursan, Hunza - These gentlemen are Afghans who have moved east into the northwest valleys of India - Stein noted that the official international borders were not much respected by the local tribes

 
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Innermostasia 77 - Khirghiz camp at Merki-chat, below the Burmasal Pass - Sarikol - another example of nomads who moved back and forth across the official borders

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 9 - Hunza coolies, before start from Aliabad - Stein arranged ahead of time (through the British residents) for teams of laborers with or without pack mules, ponies, or yaks to be ready on each side of a high pass - one team to carry his equipment up and the other to meet at the top and carry it down the other side. Each side was a different tribal area with different ethnic inhabitants.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 12 -Wakhi villager, Ghulmit -Gulmit is north-east of Aliabad (still within Hunza) - The Wakhi were used to ignoring the Indian-Afghan border

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 25 - Wakhis and Kirghiz at Dafdar - Dafdar is well into the Sarikol region of Chinese Turkestan on the Tash-kurgan river some miles south of the capital at Tash-kurgan. See lower area of {short description of image}

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 6 - Pathan and Gujar carriers collected at Kolandi, above Dir; Dir levies on flanks - The local carriers were recruited in each valley to carry Stein's gear to the top of the next pass where the next carriers would take over - the levies were part of the armed guard Stein was assigned for protection during is time in Dir. Dir is now very close to the border with Afghanistan, separated by one narrow mountain range. From there going north one crosses the Lowarai pass into Chitral, which is a long valley trending north-east just south of the Wakhan Corridor.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 18 - Kanjuti hillmen, discharged at Misgar - note the fortification in the background - Misgar is in the last valley leading up to the pass and border with China. Note these are mostly young men, but experienced in traversing the mountains.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 17 -Kanjutis carrying merchandise - Stein met these intrepid traders along one of the narrow mountain trails

 
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Ancient Khotan6 - Kanjutis at Misgar - another small mountain tribal ethnic group. The picture is also in Sand Buried Ruins of Khotan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 15 - Bashgali Kafirs, anthropometrically examined at Chitral Agency

 
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Serindia 8 - Bashgol Kafirs, anthropometrically examined at Chitral- These people were lower class laborers

 
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Serindia 9 - Bashgol Kafirs, anthropometrically examined at Chitral Agency

 
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Serindia 10 - Bashgol Kafirs, before Bazar-masjid, Chitral

 
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Serindia 21 - Badakhshi immigrants in Chitral - Chitral is south-west of Mastuj and Yasin - it is both a narrow border region and its capital city. The border with Afghanistan is along the mountain tops a short distance west. These Badakhshi are from Badakshan, Afghanistan, just the other side of the mountain, but they don't pay attention to borders.

 
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Serindia 7 - Chitralis and Mastujis, anthropometrically examined - I much doubt if these local tribesmen had any idea of what Stein was doing.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 12 - Chitrali villagers collected for anthropometrical examination - Stein used every opportunity to collect scientific information for other experts to use - such as linguistic and physical measurements that could be used to sort out the genological trees of the many different ethnic groups he met. The appendices of his major reports are full of tables of these measurements.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 15 - Bashgali Kafirs, anthropometrically examined at Chitral Agency

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 17 - Villagers of Buni, Mastuj, with Khan Sahib Pir Bakhsh and Kurban on extreme right - Mastuj is toward the north-eastern end of the Chitral valley and is now on the border between the Pakistan North-west Frontier Province and the Gilgit part of the Northern Areas separated from them by another range but also not far from the Afghan border.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 18 - Bahadur Khan - Governor of Mastuj, seated in center with his two sons, Khan Sahib Pir Bakhsh on his right and Mastuji attendants.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 19 - Obaidullah Khan, with his sons and villagers, Miragram

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 25 - Kirghiz shifting felt tent at Gumbaz-otek. Simple enough, when you want to move just pick of and go. In Stein's day of early 1900's the Kirghiz continued their nomadic ways clear across the Pamirs and into the Hindu Kush and Karakorum ranges. They didn't pay much attention to niceties of international borders.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 26 - Afghan escort with baggage preparing to cross Baharak Stream - Colonel Shirin-dil Khan ( of Royal Afghan Army) on extreme right. The Baharak is tributary of the Oxus in the Wakhan Corridor. Stein was delighted to receive the exceptional privlege of entering Afghan territory during this expedition but not the other two. He was efusive in praise and thanks to Colonel Shirin-dil Khan who had waited for a month near Sarhad while Stein tarried in the high mountains and who then insisted on personally supervising Stein's baggage train up to the Wakhjir pass into Sarikol, China.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 24 - Kirghiz "ak-uis' at Tigharman-su - The Kirghiz were still nomadic and traveled throughout the Pamirs and even into parts of India. - Here they are in the westernmost corner of Chinese Turkestan.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 28 - Chinese garrison of Subashi - Stein thought these fellows did not have much to do. But they turned out to welcome him.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 28 - In the felt tent of Muhammad Isa, Kirghiz head-man of Afghan Pamirs - A, B Afghan officers - C Muhammad Isa - Stein was welcomed everywhere and had a remarkable ability to deal with and even be befriended by everyone of whatever ethnic group.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 30 - Wakhi Head-men and carriers at Kok-torok - Mubarak Shah - Karaul Beg - Talmiksh and Dash in foreground

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 33 -Hunza Dak runners (on left) and Sarikoli frontier guards, with their children, at Mintaka Karaul - The remarkable Hunza Dak runners carried mail and priority items on foot between India and Central Asia over the Minataka and Karakorum passes

 
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Serindia 22 - Sarikolis and Kirghiz at Payik post, Taghdumbash - Now we are across the last mountains and the India border into Chinese Sarikol.

 
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Serindia 24 -Sarikolis, anthropometrically examined at Tash-kurgan - back west in Sarikol - the capital was Tash-kurgan near the then Russian and Afghan borders.

 
     
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 37 -Kirghiz headmen and followers in front of felt tent, Tohle-bulan - Remanents of the nomadic Kirghiz are still present in the Wakhan area far from the Kirghiz republic to the north, on the other side of Tajikistan.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 42 - Reception by Hindu traders at Bigil, near Yarkand - Pandin Butha Mal fourth in front from left - Stein was always greeted with great respect and protocol. He noted too that as an official of the Indian government - the government of these traders upon which they depended for support - they had a strong interest in treating him royally. Many of these gentlemen were usurious money exchangers.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 44 - Surveyor Rai Ram Singh with Jasvant Singh starting from Kok-yar - Rai Ram Singh was the professional surveyor assigned to Stein from the Survey of India. His caste dietary rules prevented him from eating with the English or Moslems, hence he had his own cook, Jasvant Singh ( a Rajput noble). Midway through the second expedition Ram Singh became too ill to continue and was replaced by Lal Singh, with Jasvant Singh remaining as his personal assistant

 
     
     
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Ancient Khotan 15a - Mecca pilgrims from Kashgar - Stein never missed a chance to photograph locals.

 
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Ancient Khotan22 - Tawakkel labourers brought to Dandan-uiliq - Tawakkel was oasis in desert north of Khotan from which with the support of the Chinese Amban Stein hired laborers to strike further into the desert to Dandan-uiliq, one of his first major excavation sites.

 
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Ancient Khotan23 - Taghliks and exiled Khotan criminals at Karanghu-tagh - Karanghu-tagh was the furtherest south village that Stein reached in his effort to penetrate the Kun-lun - there the locals refused to go further. The very difficult living there was considered appropriate punishment for local minor criminals.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 54 - Taghliks and exiled criminals at Karanghu-tagh - Taghliks were local tribal hillsmen. Minor criminals were exiled from Khotan into the mountains to work. Karanghu-tagh was the last village south on the Yurung-kash river. Stein managed to penetrate a short distance further south before being stopped by impenetrable gorges and refusal of the locals to guide him further. See the southern part of map .{short description of image}

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 21 - Exiled malefactors from Khotan and Taghlik herdsmen, Karanghu-tragh - The village was near the furtherest part of the Yurung-kash River that Stein managed to reach by traveling south from Khotan. He was blocked by impassable gorges and the refusal of these locals to continue south over the high passes. He complained to P'an Ta-jen on his return to Khotan but the Amban replied that these individuals were already being punished and there was not much more he could do.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 62 - Exiles malefactors from Khotan and Taghlik herdsmen at Khushlash-langar, Karanghu-tagh - These gentlemen were tasked by the Chinese Amban to lead Stein and help carry his baggage. But they rebelled when the going became very difficult in glaciers, claming that there was not passage. Stein believed they knew of routes but refused to admit it for fear that the opening of a new route through the mountains would result in more such required labor from them. When Stein reported the 'mutiny' to the Amban he simply replied that there was nothing he could do since these folks were already being punished to the extent possible.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 64 - Taghlik family from Karanghu-tagh, at felt tent in Busat Valley - Karanghu-tagh was the last - furtherest south - village along the Yurung-kash river route into the Kun-lun ranges

 
     
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 59 - Turdi, "Treasure seeker" - This gentleman had spent his lifetime exploring the desert north of Khotan searching for 'treasure' - that is artifacts salable to European collectors. Badruddin Kahn (Aksal of Khotan) immediately thought of Turdi as the ideal guide for Stein and was very right. Turdi knew all the locations of ruins and had an unerring sense of dead reckoning to lead Stein to them. Stein was quite emotionally over whelmed when they parted. The same photo is # 70 in Ancient Khotan

 
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Ancient Khotan 70 - Turdi Khwaja, of Tawakkel, treasure seeker - Stein was introduced to this expert on the desert when Stein first arrived in Khotan. Turdi had spent years in the desert searching at ruins for meager 'treasures' but was able to guide Stein to sites with real treasures far beyond his imagination. a key individual who Stein met and hired - This man and his father before him spent their lives (at least all spare time) out in the Taklamakan searching for ruins from which they might find 'treasures' - that is anything they could sell to Europeans. He showed Stein many sites of ruins that contained thousands of artifacts that Stein considered 'treasures' but which Turdi and the others would never have considered such.And from Tawakkel he was able to recruit teams of laborers to excavate these ruins. Turdi was delighted to rejoin Stein for futher exploits for on the second expedition.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 72 - Roze Akhun's band of Khotan 'treasure-seekers' - Roze Akhun is on extreme right - These fellows have their 'ketmans' handy for work

 
     
     
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Ancient Khotan 71 - Islam Akhun, forger of antiques - The full story of this clever scam artist is too long to recount here - read Stein's report - but he had caused quite a sensation in scholarly European circles for years, which Stein very much doubted. Stein sought him out and extracted a confession. This is also Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 127

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 45 - Pakhpo Hillmen anthropometrically examined at Kok-yar - The village was Stein's resting place while waiting for the season, but he was always busy, editing and prof reading Serindiaand conducting anthropometric examinations - the Pakhirs were a small tribe living high in the Kun-lun whom Stein believed to be an eastern branch of the 'Alpine' ethnic type from the Pamirs to the west.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 22 - Pakhpo Hillmen anthropometrically examined at Kok-yar -Stein exerted extra effort to get these reluctant hill people to come out of their mountains to be photographed. He was determined to find out if the same ethnic group (he called Alpine) who lived in the Pamirs (today's Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) also had migrated in ancient times so far east.

 
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Serindia 23 - Pakhpo hillmen, anthropometrically examined at Kok-yar - again far out of sequence - Kok-yar is in mountains south of Yarkand but Stein was trying to link these issolated tribesmen with the Altai mountain type ethnic groups much further west. They were very reluctant to have anything to do with Stein or the Chinese.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 167 - Village shrine at Nan-hu, with school room on right - Chiang-ssu-yeh in front of shrine

 
 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 299 - My camp in the Beg's garden at Ak-su. In foreground Haji Abid, the Beg's son. - the familiar tent again. Stein made a special trip back across the Taklamakan to visit his friend, Pan Ta-jen, who had been promoted from Khotan to Ak-su. He generally prefered to set his tent wuen possible in a shaded garden and use it instead of accomodations inside a residence.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 287 - My tent at first camp after reaching the Keriya river end. Ibrahim Beg in foreground. There is that characteristic tent again. Ibrahim Beg was a local Turki who rendered much assistance to Stein. Unfortnately Stein's photography frequently puts the subject's face into shadow.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 133 - Stein's tent at Shah-tokhtaning-koli, by Charchan river, On left Ibrahim Beg of Keriya, on right a Loplik with cyclometer - Note that cyclometer exactly like one used by Alexander the Great and many other ancient geographers or explorers. Note we have here a good view of Stein's personal tent used not only during expeditions but also while living on a hill in Kashmir.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 288 - By the new bed of the dying Keriya river. - On right is Ibrahim Beg and a labourer with cyclometer. The cyclometer is identical to those used by Alexander the Great to measure the distances he traveled across Persia and beyond.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 241 - View to east from above left bank of Su-lo Ho - The snowy peaks in distance belong to the Alexander III range. Rai Ram Singh at work on the plane-table - The results of the surveying were published in the map set in Serindia and in the large map at the back of this book. Ram Singh became to ill later in the expedition and was replaced by Lal Singh., both experienced professionals of the Survey of India.

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 52 - "Haji" Akhun Beg, Stein's host at Khotan - "Haji' meant that Akun Beg had completed the pilgrimage all the way to Mecca and back, no small feat. As 'host' he graciously enabled Stein to set up his tent and team in his spacious housing area.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 50 - Badruddin Khan "Ak-sakal' of Indian and Afghan traders at Khotan - the 'Ak-sakal' was the leader, semi-official head man of the foreign trader - merchant - money changer - community in Khotan and therefor along the entire southern side of the Taklamakan. He knew everyone and everything about securing logistics and 'treasure seekers' who would guide Stein to buried ruins in the desert.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 129 - Badruddin Khan and Afghan trader, Khotan - Badruddin Khan was the Ak-sal of the foreign merchant trader community and very influential. He greatly assisted Stein in finding expert guides to the desert and logistic support - other photos appear in Stein's other reports.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 309 - Badruddin Khan, Indian ak-sakal at Khotan, with his sons and a trusted servant. As ak-sakal, Badruddin Khan was the chief of the Indian commercial community in Khotan and throughout the oases south of the Taklamakan. He arranged all sorts of logistics and personnel work for Stein.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 310 - Khuda-berdi (Yuz-bashi) and cultivators of Yotkan - Khuda berdi sits on extreme left; the figures stuck in his belt serve for easy reference in anthropometrical list. Yotkan was the western suburb of Khotan and the site of the buried medieval capital. Stein found the locals were busy excavating parts of the old city in hopes of recovering flakes of gold leaf. He never ceased to photograph representative local groups for experts back in England.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 51 - Ahman Ishan (Andijani 'Ak-sakal') and Abdullah Khan (Afghan trader) at Keriya - another pair of influential local leaders

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 150 - Convoy of antiques starting from Abdal for Kashgar. On left is Karim Akhun, one of the 'veterans'; in the middle Turdi, the Dak-man. Stein periodically dispatched caravans of camels loaded with the current 'finds' to Kashgar for safe keeping while he moved on to the next objective - in this case Tun-huang. Turdi, was a remarkable individual - Dak man means a mail carrier across the deserts and mountains - he managed to find Stein in the most out of the way places. By 'veteran' Stein means Karim Akhun was one of the original associated hired for the first expedition who promptly sought to join the second.
Abdal was the nearest settlement north of Miran and a very small one at that. Note how the precious 'antiques' have been carefully packed in study wooden crates made on the spot from dead trees. Stein had very loyal and trustworthy associates and never lost a single crate during their thousands of miles of transport across desert - the Kunlun montains to Kashmir and then by sea to London.

 
 
 
 
 
 
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Innermostasia 86 - Kasim Akun, Aziz Fawan, and Tokhta Akhun with Stein's dog

 
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Innermostasia 105 - Men at work on new barrage across flood bed above Tulkuch-tarim - Stein paid special attention to current efforts at irrigation and developments in agriculture between his several visits. He related all he learned to possible similar conditions at the time of the medieval ruins he was excavating. Frequent new dams and canals were made necessary by the changes in the course of the small rivers flowing from the Kun-lun into the Taklamakan. As this photo indicates and Stein noted sometimes it was a lack of manpower that prevented construction of new irrigation facilities.

 
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Innermostasia 106 - Men of Vash-shahri guarding the route from Charchan - While Stein was enroute from Charchan on his third expedition a gang of 'rebels' (bandits) captured Chicklik and killed the Chinese mandrin - The gang was then killed. Meanwhile a local self-defense group set themselves up to prevent any more such bandits arriving. Fortunately for Stein the leader of this group happened to be one of his local friends from the 2nd expedition so he was welcomed. The leader then guided him to the ruins at Vash-shahri.

 
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Innermostasia 110 - Men removing fresco panels from wall of shrine M v at Miran site. This was delicate work - the frescos were thin and required Stein to make special backing material to replace the support from the walls. He managed to remove some frescos during his 2nd expedition - here his team is working on others discovered during the 3rd expedition - but for many the photographs made during the 2nd expedition and published in Serindia are the only record because they were destroyed by other explorers between Stein's two visits.

 
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Innermostasia 121 - Sher 'Ali Khan, Bajauri trader, and two of his travel companions

 
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Innermostasia 126 - Nur Muhammad, headman of Miran, with son, in front of his house. Stein always established excellent relations with the local headmen in these very hierarchal societies, who could find and command local labor teams.

 
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Innermostasia 189 - Tokhta Akhun (master camel man), Niaz (helper), Muhammad Shah of Charchan (local supervisor), and Turdi (Dak man) (that is the intrepid mail man) all returning from Kum-kuduk. Stein lavished praise on all the locals who were worthy of it (all of the above) and opprobrium on those who were not.

 
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Innermostasia 203 - Photo of Abdurrahim, hunter and guide on his return from Tun-huang - Stein met a wide variety of local residents of the deserts, mountains and towns and so impressed them that they volunteered repeatedly to assist him.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 41 - Begs and Aksakal of Beshkarim - Stein met and was feted by the begs (local Moslem Turki leaders) and the Aksakal (chief of the Indian- Afghan trader merchant community) in each of the towns he passed through.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 43 - Hindu moneylenders - Stein was very caustic in his negative appraisal of these 'loan sharks'. They were members of a almost hereditary tribe of Indians who used their skill to fleece the locals and send the proceeds back to families in India.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 46 - Badakhshani trader, Yarkand - Badakhshan is the north-east region of Afghanistan along the Indian and Russian (now Pakistani and Tajikistani) borders and the chief trading route from Chinese Turkestan to Iran.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 60 - Khotanese waiting for medicines - Stein quickly became something of a western medicine man in local lore and was besieged by people asking for medicine. He wisely brought along a supply and took some time from his work for charitable as well as public relations reasons.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 61 - Jade pit with diggers, near debouchure of Yurung-kash - Khotan from early medieval times to today has been famous as the source of precious jade - so highly prizedby Chinese - The fortress, custom's post on the Chinese frontier north of Tun-huang was called the "Jade Gate" - It is found, but rarely, in the Yurung-kash river bed like gold in Californian and Yukon rivers. Rarity makes it all the more worth while to scrounge around in the rocks in hopes of finding a small piece.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 65 - Old Villagers of Somiya - Stein was again following the Buddhist monk's memoirs to find medieval shrines south-west of Khotan. He interrogated the oldest inhabitants he could find and sometimes did get something useful out of the folklore.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 67 -Ahmad Mergen and Kasim Akhun, of Tawakkel - these fellows claimed to know the way to Dandan but soon became lost so Turdi, who had been quiet so as not to embarrass them, then took over and quickly led to the right place.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 68 - Tawakkel labourers taken to Dandan-uiliq - Stein paid well - these fellows who lived in an oasis in the desert were not reluctant to sign on - as many of the mountain men were, and also the Chinese whom Stein encountered later around Su-chou. For location see {short description of image}

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan82 - Village boys at Niya - Niya was another oasis on the edge of the Taklamakan. A local young man showed Stein some documents he had found north of the oasis far into the desert. This set Stein off on one of his most significant discoveries.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 115 - Boys and girls at Keriya, in holiday dress

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 116 - Village children, Keriya

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 111 - Loplik fishermen at reed hit, Abdal -On extreme left standing is young hunter who accompanied Turdi into the desert - The Lopliks were semi-nomadic original inhabitants of the eastern Talkamakan who were more recently settled as fishermen and small time agriculturalists. They were very reluctant to follow Stein into the freezing December desert to Lou-lan

 
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Serindia 90 - Lopliks and immigrants anthropometrically examined at Charkhlik - The Lopliks were indigenous fisherman - the 'immigrants were mostly Han Chinese being sent into the Tarim basin - Stein managed to hire 50 or so reluctant Lopliks as laborers in mid winter to go to the unknown site in the desert - Lou-lan

 
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Serindia 91 - Lopliks anthropometrically examined at Abdal - Tokhta Akhun and Mullah are third and fourth from left in front row - These two intrepid desert hunters from Abdal were instrumental in convincing the Lopliks to brave the unknown desert in winter - Abdal is a tiny village on the Tarim river on the south western edge of the Lop salt sea.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 85 - Wang Tao-shih, Taoist priest at the 'Caves of the Thousand Buddhas' - this gentleman is the individual from whom Stein purchased a large collection of ancient manuscripts during the second and third expeditions - but there were hundreds more available for other visitors. The photo is in several of Stein's reports.

 
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Serindia 198 - Wang Tao-shih, Taoist priest at the 'caves of the thousand Buddhas' - the hard working self-appointed guardian of the art, not even a Buddhist himself, supplied Stein with thousands of manuscripts and paintings in exchange for 'contribution' that he carefully used for restoration work. Now the site is a World Heritage location and the town, Dunhuang, even has an airport for tourists.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 187 - Wang Tao-chih, (Wang Yuan lu) Taoist priest at 'Thousand Buddhas' site, Tun-huang. This wandering Taoist priest took it upon himself to protect and attempt to restore the Buddhist shrines he found at Tun-huang. He discovered the hidden room filled with tens of thousands of manuscripts and finally agreed with Stein's diplomatic negociations to sell a great horde to Stein. As soon as the word was out he was swamped with other requests and demands by French, Japanese and American collectors and by official orders from Peking to deliver the documents, but he carefully with held the items he valued most.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 190 - Tibetan monk in loggia of Wang Tao-shih's temple 'Thousand Buddhas' site.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 307 - Turdi, my dak-man from Khotan - The saddle-bag across Turdi's shoulder served to carry small mails. The 'dak-men' carried the mail on ponies or on foot throughout Central Asia from Kashmir to China. This remarkable, intrepid Turki version of a pony express man managed to find Stein regularly when he had no fixed address and was moving through the high mountains in summer or the coldest part of thedeserts in winter. Thus he managed to keep Stein in amazing contact with India, England, Hungary and other places througout the expeditions.

 
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Serindia 342 - Villagers of Kelpin, anthropometrically examined - Kelpin was in a relatively issolated narrow valley on the south side of the T'ien-shan range

 
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Serindia 333 - Group of Kirghiz, anthropometrically examined at Uch-turfan

 
 
 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 132 - Habdal laborers from Charklik - at south-east corner of the desert

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 317 - Pasa, of Keriya, hunter of wild yaks, and our guide. Actually Stein came across Pasa high in the mountains. After reluctantly showing Stein the way for several days he suddenly disappeared over night.

 
 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 303 - Kirghiz from grazing-grounds of Uch-turfan in foothills of the T'ien-shan north of Takla makan desert

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 302 - Kirghiz with felt tent belonging to Mangush Beg, at Ilachu

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 300 - Crowd in bazar street at Ak-su

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 298 - Digging up ancient documents from refuse layers below ruined fort of Mazar-tagh - Stein considered this and the other Tibetan fort, at Miran, to be the worst, disgusting, refuse dumps but they nevertheless revealed important documents and other relics.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 293 - Mendicant pilgrim or 'diwana' at Burhanuddin's desert shrine, Keriya river. - Stein was always interested in recording by photography the varied local populations.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 292 - Pullat Mullah and Ibrahim of Khotan - 'Treasure-seekers' - two of the locals whose years of intrepid individual exploration of the desert had given them both knowledge of the places they had seen and an unerring feel for direction and distance that brought Stein right to the recommended locations.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 286 - Shahyar labourers slaking their thirst after reaching ice of Keriya river end. These fellows were well paid but nevertheless impressed by their local head-men into service for which they were not merely reluctant but terrified of being lost in the desert. They wanted to turn back repeatedly (which would for sure been their end) so Stein set an armed rear guard of his Indian associates to keep them in line.When they were discharged at Keriya they still had to wend their way back around the western end of the Taklamakan to reach Shahyar.

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 49 - Buddhist monk from China

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 50- Mendicant, or 'diwana' - Stein met these travelers at many stops along his routes.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 81 - My diggers from Niya in jungle near Endere River. Ibrahim, 'the miller', second from left, standing; next to him on right, Mullah, the carpenter; Rustam, third from right, squatting. Stein hired a group of local farmers at Niya for the excavation of the ruin there, and then another team to take across the desert to Endere.

 
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280 - Musa Haji between two other hunters from Korla - seekers for the fabled sand-buried 'old town' Musa Haji led Stein on wild goose chase along the Terim river desert with claim he had seen a 'town' years before, but it was never found.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 278 - Bakir, player of Rabab, on desert march

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 277 - Tahir Beg and Ahmad Yuz-bashi, of Korla - local head-men who assisted Stein in rounding up laborers.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 247 - My Chinese pony-men safely restored to the plains. On extreme right our aged 'Ya-i' pointing with stick to the chief mutineer. And here we have the reluctant locals. They were hired (practically forced by local Chinese officials) only as 'pony-men' to care for the transport. No excavation work was involved. Yet they mutinied several times while in the very high mountains and were only controled by the detachment of Chinese military assigned to Stein.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 246 - Head of Alpine valley at camp CCXXI, north-east of Shen-ling-tzu pass. Turdi (A) and Sahid Bai (B) our Turki pony-men in foreground. Stein's Turki assistants followed him everywhere (along of course with his Indian associates) but the local Chinese were very reluctant to brave either mountains or weather ( not to mention being fearful of Tibetans and Mongols).

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 234 - Tungan gold miners from Hsi-ning - The lure of gold is everywhere, these folks eaked out a living panning for meager results.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 319 - Group of Zailik miners who served as carriers. Amazingly, Stein came across these fellows who were barely making a livelihood finding bits of gold in the rocks. At that time Stein's ponies were done with so these fellows earned much more from helping Stein over a high pass then they could from finding gold.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 79 - Wooden column with mouldings excavated in room near main shrine, Khadalik - Chiang-ssu-yeh and Ibrahim Beg in background supervising diggers - Roze Akhun on right

 
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Photo Stein made of his personal servants during his first expedition - hired at Kashgar and Yarkand - these would be a cook and pony man.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 231 - Chinese villagers at Chin-fo-ssu watching my tent. Even when he was established in a Chinese villa or temple Stein generally prefered to sleep in his tent - of course that is what he did most of the time when living on a hill top in Kashmir.

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 304 - In canyon of Korum-boguz river north of Kelpin - Mangush Beg, with pony, in foreground - Kelpin was in a narrow valley

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 302 - Kirghiz with felt tent belonging to Mangush Beg, at Ilachu

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 303 - Kirghiz from grazing-grounds of Uch-turfan

 
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Ruins of Desert Cathay 252 - Mongol head-men near grazing grounds of Lao-t'u-kou. These folks were met as Stein was exiting the mountains back to Kan-chou.

 
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Innermostasia 239 - Torgut Mongols at Tawun-tora, in Etsin gol delta

 
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Innermostasia 227 - Chief of the Etsin-gol Torguts (Mongols)with his headmen - Stein found their semipermanent encampment far north of Mao-mei on the Etsin-gol river close to Mongolia - they supplied laborers for his excavation of Khara-khoto - With his usual careful prior planning Stein found a Mongol speaker far in advance of the trip to bring with him.

 
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Innermostasia 238 - Stein standing by his camp tent at Borgasu in Etsin-gol delta - Stein found a clan of Mongol semi-nomads in this area from whom he recruited reluctant laborers to excavate at Khara khoto

 
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Innermostasia 293 - Kazak nomads on route west of Barkul - on north side of T'ien-shan

 
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Innermostasia 297 - Mr. Li Shu-jung, district magistrate of Barkul

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 130 - Kirghiz anthropometrically examined at Kara-chim - Although Stein could not excavate nor survey while in Russian territory, he persisted in obtaining anthropometric measurements and photos of the local tribal groups he met en route.

 
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Innermostasia 365 - Kirghiz anthrometrically examined at Kara-chim - Of course once into Russian territory Stein could not survey nor excavate. But that did not stop him from conducting his examinations of each local group - collecting the kind of data on physical features that were so popular at the time. One has to wonder what these 'subjects' thought of the proceedings.

 
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Innermostasia 366 - Roshani headmen at Saunab - One of the isolated tribal groups in the Pamirs - Stein considered them pure Altai stock. notice the great difference from the Kirghiz.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 131 - Roshani village headmen at Saunab - Roshan is located on the northern side of the Oxus where it bends sharply from flowing north to west - the border between Afghanistan to the south and Tajikistan to the north - it is north of Shughan which adjoins it to the south. Stein traveled across the Pamirs to reach the Oxus further east at the Wakhan corridor and then cut through both Shughan and Roshan over very high passes in order to see the inhabitants as well as the terrain.

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 137 - Kokan Beg, headman of Kirghiz about Great Kara-kol - very impressive gentleman

 
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On Central Asian Tracks 145 - Group of Roshani family, Kala-i-wamar - note these Moslem women are not veiled.

 
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Innermostasia 356 - Kokan Beg, headman of the Kirghiz about Great Kara-kul

 
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Innermostasia 364aas - close up of Afraz-gul Kahn in the Pamirs - Stein sent Lal Singh with all the precious artifacts from Kashgar across the Karakorum back to India. He took only Afraz-gul Khan and his cook then through Russian central Asia and then into Iran

 
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Innermostasia 426 - Group of Roshani family, Kala-i-wamar

 
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Innermostasia 439 - Kirghiz anthropometrically examined at Bash-gumbaz, Alichur Pamir

 
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Innermostasia 440 - Wakhis anthropometrically examined at Warang, Wakan

 
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Innermostasia 441 - Ishkashmis anthropometrically examined at Nut

 
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Innermostasia 442 - Shughnis anthropometrically examined at Kharuk

 
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Innermostasia 443 - Roshanis anthropometrically examined at Paghu

 
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Innermostasia 444 - Roshanis anthropometrically examined at Kala-i-wamar

 
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Innermostasia 445 - Yazgulamis anthropometrically examined at Rokhar

 
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Innermostasia 446 - Darwazsis, from Wanj valley, anthropometrically examined at Rokhar

 
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Innermostasia 454 - Group of Sayad fishermen anthropometrically examined near Naizar

 
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Innermostasia 469 - Mir Muhammad, Tekke Turkoman, at Fariman - Impressive warrior type

 
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Sand Buried Ruin of Khotan 134 - Kirghiz family on the march - Stein could have taken this photo at most any place along his route between Kashgar and Samarkand.

 

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