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  schematic map of Mangup Kale  

This drawing shows the four fingers of the Mangup Kale plateau and the location of the citadel and defensive walls. Note that there were short sections of wall along the perimeter where the cliff seemed inadequate. Also there were major walls across the two ravines because they sloped more gently and provided access routes. And there was a city wall across the waist of the plateau. Due to the porous limestone formation the inhabitants were able to dig deep wells and tap natural underground water sources. The fortress existed for eight or more centuries but finally fell to Ottoman Turkish artillery and Janissary assault after a prolonged siege in 1475.


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