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ALEXANDER - BATTLES - STRENGTHS AND LOSSES

Battle

Author

Greeks - Macedonians

Opponents

Granicus

Arrian

5,000 cavalry - 30,000 infantry
Losses - 85 cavalry - 30 infantry

20,000 cavalry - slightly less than 20,000 Greek mercenaries

Granicus

Curtius

The first two books of Curtius’ history are lost - the Penguin editor substituted Diodorus

These books describe the campaigns prior to Asia and the Granicus battle

Granicus

Delbruck

Arrian - 5,100 cavalry - 32,000 infantry cross Hellespont - but 25,000 infantry in battle -

Arrian - 20,000 cavalry - 20,000 Greeks - Diodorus - 10,000 cavalry - 100,000 infantry - but total must be less than Greeks - 6,000

Granicus

de Souza

Diodorus - 40,000 - 32,000 infantry, 4.500 cavalry

no numbers - Greek infantry

Granicus

Head

5-6000 cavalry - 43,000 foot |
losses - 85 cav - 30 foot

20,000 cavalry - 20,000 foot
losses - 1-2500 cav - 18,000 foot

Granicus

Sheppard

5,000 cavalry - 12,000 infantry
losses - cavalry 25-120 infantry 9 - 30

10,000 cavalry - 5,000 infantry
Losses cavalry -10-20% infantry 3,000

Granicus

Tsouras

19,000 total

20,000 cavalry - 5,000 Greek infantry - 15,000 poor infantry

Granicus

Griffith

Cross Helespont with 4,500 cavalry, 30,000 infantry - of which 3,600 cavalry and 19,000 infantry are Macedonians or Greek allies; 11,000 mercenaries of which 5,000 Greeks, 5,000 Balkans, 1000 Cretan archers and Agrainians - plus 900 Thracian and Paeonian light horse plus possibly 10,000 from Parmenion

He does not provide any numbers for Persian forces - he is only interested in the number of mercenaries Alexander received.

Granicus

Barker

35,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry at crossing Hellespont

20,000 cavalry, 18,000 Greek infantry

Granicus

Marsden

Crossing Hellespont - 32,000 foot - 5,100 cavalry Alex never had more than 50,000 on way to Gaugamela

Only discusses Macedonian army

Granicus

Green

43,000 infantry - 6,000 cavalry; Losses - 9 - 30 infantry - 120 cavalry

15-16,000 cavalry - 14-15,000 infantry - Losses 2,550 cavalry - 3-4000 mercenary + Persian infantry

Granicus

Fuller

30,000 infantry, 5,000 cavalry

Arrian - 20,000 cavalry, 20,000 Greek mercenaries - Diodrous - 10,000 cavalry, 100,000 infantry - but more likely 10,000 cavalry, 5,000 infantry

Granicus

Dodge

5,200 cavalry, 30,000 infantry - plus engineers and artillery -plus slaves and grooms - he gives exact numbers for each sub-unit - Losed 85 cavalry, 30 infanry

20,000 cavalry, 20,000 Greek mercenaries

Losses - 1,000 cavalry, most of the Greeks

Granicus

Tarn

5,000 cavalry, 30,000+ infantry

not 20,000 Greeks - not 20,000 cavalry

Granicus

Cartledge

6,000 horse, 43,000 foot

Granicus

Warry

5,000 cavalry, 35,000 infantry

13-17,000 cavalry, 6-10,000 Greek mercenaries - 5-8,000 local militia infantry

Granicus

Hackett

Total: 7,000 cavalry, 40,000 infantry - but in battle without Greeks it was 5,100 cavalry, 18,100 infantry. Losses: 85 cavalry, 30 infantry

10,000 cavalry, 4-5,000 Greek mercenaries Losses, 1,000 cavalry, 2-3,000 Greeks plus 2,000 Greek prisoners

Granicus

Lane Fox

6,000 cavalry -43,000 infantry

Losses - 25 cavalry

35,000 total - 20,000 Greek mercenaries - Losses 15,000 infantry -

Granicus Engels 6,100 cavalry, 42,000 infantry
Losses - 120 cavalry - 9 infantry
not listed
Granicus Hammond    
Granicus      

Issus

Arrian

presumably same as at Granicus

up to 600,000 total - 30,000 cavalry - 20,000 light infantry - 30,000 Greek mercenaries - 60,000 Kardakes -20,000 on ridge - Losses - over 100,000

Issus

Curtius

strength not totaled - Losses 152 cavalry - 32 infantry and 504 wounded.

He describes in detail Darius’ assembly and parade of his army in Babylon prior to the campaign - he lists strengths by units. - over 50,000 cavalry and 250,000 infantry plus additional units. Later he adds more Greeks returned from the fleet. At Issus he specifies 30,000 Greeks plus 60-70,000 more infantry - cavalry not totaled - Losses 100,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry

Issus

Delbruck

Arrian - 7,000 cavalry - 40,000 infantry - really less than 30,000 - Greeks were back at base - Losses 150 cavalry - 300 infantry

smaller than the Greek sources indicate - probably 25,000

Issus

de Souza

Total 312,000 to 600,000 - including 30,000 Greeks - 60,000 Kardakes - Losses - 100,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry killed or captured -

Issue

Head

25-42,000 foot 5,000 cavalry

loss - 450 dead

250000 - 600,000 total

30,000 cav - 20,000 lt inf - 30,000 Greeks - 60,000 Kardakes

losses - 100,000

Issus

Sheppard

300.000 total - 30,000 Greek infantry

Issus

Tsouris

14,000 foot - 5,000 cavalry

80,000 total - 12,000 Greek infantry - 10,000 Persian infantry - 24,000 cavalry

Issus

Barker

35,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry

possibly 140,000 out of 600,000 including noncombatants - - 30,000 cavalry and 20,000 light infantry - 30,000 Greek mercenaries - 30,000 Kardakes

Losses - 100,000 infantry - 10,000 cavalry

Issus

Marsden

40,000 infantry - 5,000 cavalry

40-50,000 total

Issus

Green

30,000 Greek mercenaries - 2,000 Persian roya guard - ?? Kardaces - armored cavalry -

Issus

Fuller

20,000 to 40,000

Losses - Curtius - 450 invantry and cavalry dead - 4,500 wounded

Guess - Arrian - 600,000 including 30,000 Greeks and 60,000 kardaces - Polybius - 30,000 cavalry - 30,000 Greeks - Curtius 30,000 Greeks

Losses - 10,000 cavalry, 100,000 infantry

Issus

Dodge

Losses 450 + many wounded (1.5%) Curtius 180 - Justin 2,80 killed - Dodge estimated total casualties at 17 percent including 5,000 wounded

30,000 Greek mercenaries, total including camp followers 600,000 - effective fighters 200,000 - Losses 100,000

Issus

Tarn

5,000 cavalry, 20-25,000 infantry

perhaps larger or smaller than Alexander - not 600,000 -only household troops - over10,000 Greeks

Issus

Cartledge

7,000 cavalry, 40,000 infantry

30,000 cavalry, 30,000 Greek mercenaries, 60,000 Kardakes, plus more contingents -

Issus

Warry

5,150 cavalry, 33,000 infantry

11-13,000 cavalry, 8-10,000 Greek mercenaries, 12-15,000 Kardaces, 12-15,000 levy tribesmen

Issus

Hackett

5,000 cavalry, over 12,000 infantry, Losses 302 infantry, 150 cavalry, 4,500 wounded

Losses, about 15,000

Issus

Lane Fox

25,000 - Losses 302 - 4,000 wounded

He repeats the story about Darius counting his men in batches of 10,000 for a total of 400,000 - Losses - 110,000;

Issus Engels Losses - 200 cavalry, 1,000 infantry not listed
Issus Hammond    
Issus      

Gaugamela

Arrian

7,000 cavalry - 40,000 infantry - unarmed men in camp - Losses - 100 -

40,000 cavalry - 1,000,000 infantry, 200 chariots, some elephants - Loses - 300,000 dead and double number prisoners

Gaugamela

Curtius

Losses under 300

Again order of battle including unit strengths - totals 45,000 cavalry, 200,000 infantry - but half again as large as at Issus. Losses - 40,000

Gaugamela

Delbruck

47,000 total - Arrian - 7,000 cavalry Losses - Diodorus claims 500

12,000 cavalry -small number of infantry

Gaugamela

DeSouza

no numbers

no numbers - but text credits to many

Gaugamela

Head

7,000 cavalry - 43,000 iufantry

100 -500 dead

40,000 cavalry -

losses - 40000-300000

Gaugamela

Tssouras

7,000 cavalry, 28,000 Infantry

34,000 cavalry, 50,000 infantry, 200 chariots

Gaugamela

Sheppard

not given - presumably same as Issus

300,000 - 600000 -not credible

Gaugamela

Marsden

Front line - 12,000 Macedonian heavy infantry - 7,000 Greek infantry - 2nd line - 7,000 Greek allies - 2,000 Macedonian infantry - 3,000 mercenaries - right wing 6,700 mercenaries - 7,000 Balkan infantry - 3,000 more light infantry -

Total infantry - 43,700

2,000 Companion cavalry - 2,020 Thessalian cavalry - 700 Allied Greek cavalry - 1,200 Thracian light cavalry - 1,000 mercenary cavalry - Total cavalry - 7,055

Curtius estimate 45,000 cavalry, 200,000 infantry - other authors - 1 million total -

2,000 Greek mercenaries - 2,000 subject infantry - rest of infantry worthless

- 20,000 cavalry in main line+ 6,000 in two wings - Total - 34,000 cavalry

Gaugamela

Barker

7,000 cavalry - 40,000 infantry

250,000 total - again mostly poor or non- combatants - 5,000 heavy cavalry - 3,000 extra heavy cavalry - 2,000 Scythian horse archers - 4,000 light cavalry - 1,000 horse guard and 1,000 foot guard in center. 2,000 Greek mercenaries - 1,000 Indian cavalry - 1,000 Karian javelin men, 1000 Mardian archers.21,000 more mixed cavalry on left plus chariots and elephants

Gaugamela

Lane Fox

47,000 total - 7,000 cavalry - 10,000 sarissa infantry - 3,000 Shield bearers - 2,000 archers and Agrianians - 20,000 Greek mercenaries - ?plus more units

1,000,000 including 4,000 Greek mercenaries - 30,000 cavalry - but agrees too large number

Gaugamela

Green

40,000 infantry - 7,250 cavalry Losses - up to 1,000 infantry - 200 cavalry

34,000 mostly armored cavalry - 2,000 Greek mercenaries - ?? Worthless infantry - Losses - 53,000

Gaugamela

Cartledge

7,000 cavalry - 40,000 infantry

30,000 cavalry - 6,000 Greek mercenaries - 200 chariots 15 elephants - possibly 250,000 total

Gaugamela

Warry

7,050 cavalry, 40,000 infantry

35,000 cavalry, 2,000 Greek mercenaries, 3,000 infantry + 50,000 peasants,

Gaugamela

Hackett

7,000 cavalry, 40,000 infantry - Losses at least 500

some individual cavalry units listed with sizees

Gaugamela

Dodge

7,000 cavalry, 40,000 infantry - Losses 500 killed plus wounded means total 12%

45,000 to 100,000 cavalry, 200,000 to 1 million infantry. 200 chariots , 15 elephants; Losses - Curtius 40,000; Diodorus 90,000

Gaugamela

Tarn

7,000 cavalry, 40,000 infantry

2,000 Greeks, unreliable Persian infanry, unknown cavalrl but included armored Saca

Gaugamela

Fuller

7,000 cavalry, 40,000 infantry

,Losses - Arrian 100 dead - Curtuis 300 dead - Diodorus - 500 dead

Arrian 40,000 cavalry, million infanry - diororus 200,000 cavalrly, 800,000 infantry - Crtius 45,000 cavalry, 200,000 infantry (plus chariots) Losses - Arrian 300,000 dead Diodorus 90,000 dead - Curtius 40,000 dead

Gaugamela Engels 6,580 cavalry, 42,864 infantry Losses 500 infantry not listed
Gaugamela Hammond    
Gaugamela      

Entering India

Arrian

120,000 total - including thousands of non- combatants

Entering India

Curtius

120,000 total - including thousands of non- combatants

Entering India

Fuller

Alexander receives 23,000 reinforcements in Bactria - leads 27,000 - 30,000 for invasion of India

Hydaspes

Arrian

8,000 infantry, horse archers, 5,000 Indians in camp-

Losses 80 infantry - 230 cavalry

4,000 cavalry - 300 chariots, 200 elephants, 30,000 best infantry Loses 20,000 infantry - 3,000 cavalry - all chariots - most elephants

Hydaspes

Curtius

at least 86 elephants not used in battle

30,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry, 300 chariots, 85 elephants

Hydaspes

Delbruck

5,000 cavalry - 6,000 infantry in battle plus 9,000 or more in camp - Losses 230 cavalry - 80 infantry - Diodorus 280 cavalry, 700 infantry

Arrian - 4,000 cavalry, 300 chariots, 200 elephants - Diodrorus 3,000 cavalry, 50,000 infantry 1,000 chariors, 200 elephants - Plutarch - 20,000 foom, 2,000 cavalrly

Hydaspes

de Souza

confused description

no discussion

Hydaspes

Head

40,000 infantry - 7,000 cavalry - 5,000 Indian allies

losses - 230-280 cavalry, 80 -700 infanry

20-50000 infantry - 2500-4500 cavalry - 85-200 elephants - 400, 1000 chariots + more inferior infantry

losses - 12-23000

Hydaspes

Sheppard

40,000 total

20-50000 infantry - 2000-4000 cavalry - 85-200 elephants - 300-1000 chariots

Losses - 2,000 cavalry - 20,000 infantry - all elephants and chariots

Hydaspes

Tsouras

now has Scythian horse archers

4,000 cavalry - 30,000 infantry - 180 chariots, 85 elephants

Hydaspes

Montague

23,000 infantry, 8,500 cavalry, Losses 80 infantry, 220 cavalry

30,000 infantry, 3,600 cavalry, 180 chariots, 200 elephants Losses - 20,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry

Hydaspes

Cartledge

Losses: 200 cavalry, 700 infantry

Losses: 12,000 dead, 9,000 prisoners

Hydaspes

Warry

32-34,000 infantry, 7,300 - 2,000 cavalry and 9,000 infantry left in camp

30,000 infantry, 4,000 cavalry, 300 chariots, 80- 100 elephants

Hydaspes

Hackett

23,000 infantry, 8,900 cavalry, (minus camp there were 10,500 infantry, 4,000 light infantry, 3,000 cavalry engaged) Losses 230 cavalry, 700 infantry

20,000 infantry, 2,000 cavalry, 85 elephants, 240 chariots Losses 12,000 killed, 9,000 prisoners

Hydaspes

Barker

reorganized army - 1,000 Scythian horse archers - 4,000 heavy cavalry - 1,000 other light cavalry - 4,000 light infantry - ?? Heavy infantry

Losses - 200+ cavalry - 80 infantry plus wounded for 5% casualty - 3 times loss at Granicus

Initial strength - 5,000 cavalry - 30,000 infantry - 285 elephants - 420 chariots - + more ineffective infantry minus losses at crossing - 4,000 cavalry, 300 chariots - 200 elephants - 30,000 good infantry\Losses - 3,000 cavalry - 20,000 infantry - all chariots and elephants

Hydaspes

Lane Fox

5,000 cavalry, 6,000 infantry

5,000 ? cavalry, 30,000 infantry, 200 elephants

Hydaspes

Dodge

5,000 cavalry, 6,000 heavy infantry, 3-4,000 light infantry; (not counting Kraterus’ force in camp)

Losses - 230 cavalry, 700 infantry (6 ½ %) plus typical wounded would be 73% - a huge number

Harpalus sent 6,000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry that arrived after the battle

4,000 cavalry, 30,000 infantry, 300 chariots, 200 elephants - Porus losses - 20,000 infantry and 3.000 cavalry; but Diodorus writes 12,000 killed and 9,000 captured.

Hydaspes

Greek

5,000 cavalry - 10,000 infanry with Alexander - (in camp - 20,000? 5,000 Indian infantry - 30 elephants )

Losses 280 cavalry - 700 infantry - actually total about 4,000

Initial total - 3-4000 cavalry - 50,000 infantry - 200 elephants - 300 chariots

- in battle 2,000 cavalry - 20,000 infantry - 130 elephants - 180 chariots=Losses 12-23,000

Hydaspes

Fuller

With Alexander - 5,000 + cavalry - 10,000 infantry plus Scythians, Bactrians and Sogdianas With Meleager - 500 cavalry, 5,000 infantry (In camp 3,000 cavalry, 8,000 infantry, 5,000 Indians)

Losses - Arrian 230 cavalry - 80 infantry, Diodorus 280 cavalry 700 infantry

Arrian - 4,000 cavalry, 30,000 infanry, 300 chariots, 200 elephants
Diodorus - 3,000 cavalry, 5,000 infantry, 1,000 chariots, 130 elephants
Curtius - 30,000 infantry, 300 chariots, 85 elephants minus son’s lost unit - 3,600 cavalry, 30,000 infantry, 180 chariots, 200 elephants Losses - Arrian - 20,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry Diodorus - 12,000 killed, 9000 captured

Hydaspes Hammond    
Afer Hydaspes for return Hammond    
After Hydaspes - for return march Engels total 120,000 combatants - For march through Gedrosia - 87,000 infantry, 18,000 cavalry - 52,000 noncombatants - minus 20,500 for navy

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