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The Battle of Aegospotami was a naval confrontation that took place in 405 and was the last major battle of the Peloponnesian War. In the battle, a Spartan fleet under Lysander destroyed the Athenian navy. This effectively ended the war, since Athens could not import grain or communicate with its empire without control of the sea.

Opponents: Sparta, Corinth and Peloponnesian League versus Athens and the Delian League
Commanders and leaders:
Spartans - Lysander, Aracus and Cleomedes of Samos
Athenians - Philocles, Adeimantus, son of Leucolophides and Conon
Spartans - 170 ships
Athenians - 180 ships
Casualties and losses:
Spartans - Minimal
Athenians - 160 ships, 3,000 sailors executed

Lysander's campaigns In 405 , following the severe Spartan defeat at the Battle of Arginusae, Lysander, the commander who had been responsible for the first Spartan naval successes, was reinstated in command. Since the Spartan constitution prohibited any commander from holding the office of navarch more than once, he was appointed as a vice-admiral instead, with the clear understanding that this was a mere legal fiction. One of Lysander's advantages as a commander was his close relationship with the Persian prince Cyrus. Using this connection, he quickly raised the money to begin rebuilding the Spartan fleet. When Cyrus was recalled to Susa by his father Darius, he gave Lysander the revenues from all of his cities of Asia Minor. With the resources of this entire wealthy Persian province at his disposal, Lysander was able to quickly reconstitute his fleet. He then set off on a series of campaigns throughout the Aegean. He seized several Athenian-held cities, and attacked numerous islands. He was unable to move north to the Hellespont, however, because of the threat from the Athenian fleet at Samos. To divert the Athenians, Lysander struck westward. Approaching quite near to Athens itself, he attacked Aegina and Salamis, and even landed in Attica. The Athenian fleet set out in pursuit, but Lysander sailed around them, reached the Hellespont, and established a base at Abydos. From there, he seized the strategically important town of Lampsacus. From here, the way was open to enter the Bosporus and close down the trade routes from which Athens received the majority of her grain. If the Athenians were to avoid starvation, Lysander had to be contained immediately.

Athenian response:
The Athenian fleet of 180 ships caught up with Lysander shortly after he had taken Lampsacus, and established a base at Sestos. However, perhaps because of the need to keep a close watch on Lysander, they set up camp on a beach much nearer to Lampsacus. The location was less than ideal because of the lack of a harbor and the difficulty of supplying the fleet, but proximity seems to have been the primary concern in the minds of the Athenian generals. Every day, the fleet sailed out to Lampsacus in battle formation, and waited outside the harbor; when Lysander refused to emerge, they returned home.

Alcibiades's involvement:
At this time, the exiled Athenian leader Alcibiades was living in his ship's castle near the Athenian camp. Coming down to the beach where the ships were gathered, he made several suggestions to the generals. First, he proposed relocating the fleet to the more secure base at Sestos. Second, he claimed that several Thracian kings had offered to provide him with an army. If the generals would offer him a share of the command, he claimed, he would use this army to assist the Athenians. The generals, however, declined this offer and rejected his advice. Spurned, Alcibiades returned to his home.

The battle:
Two accounts of the battle of Aegospotami exist. Diodorus Siculus relates that the Athenian general in command on the fifth day at Sestos, Philocles, sailed out with thirty ships, ordering the rest to follow him. Donald Kagan has argued that the Athenian strategy, if this account is accurate, must have been to draw the Peloponnesians into an attack on the small force so that the larger force following could surprise them. In the event, the small force was immediately defeated, and the remainder of the fleet was caught unprepared on the beach. Xenophon, in contrast, relates that the entire Athenian fleet came out as usual on the day of the battle, and Lysander remained in the harbor. When the Athenians returned to their camp, the sailors scattered to forage for food; Lysander's fleet then sailed across from Abydos and captured most of the ships on the beach, with no sea fighting at all.

Whichever account of the battle itself is accurate, the result is clear. The Athenian fleet was obliterated; only nine ships escaped, led by the general Conon. Lysander captured nearly all of the remainder, along with some three or four thousand Athenian sailors. One of the escaped ships, the messenger ship Paralus, was dispatched to inform Athens of the disaster. The rest, with Conon, sought refuge with Evagoras, a friendly ruler in Cyprus. Some historians, ancient and modern, suspect that the battle was lost as the result of treachery, perhaps on the part of Adeimantus, who was the only Athenian commander the Spartans captured during the battle who was not put to death, and perhaps with the treasonous connivance of the oligarchical faction at Athens, who may have wanted their city defeated in order to overthrow the democracy. But this all remains speculative.

Lysander and his victorious fleet sailed back to Lampsacus. Citing a previous Athenian atrocity when the captured sailors of two ships were thrown overboard, Lysander and his allies slaughtered Philocles and 3,000 Athenian prisoners, sparing other Greek captives. Lysander's fleet then began moving slowly towards Athens, capturing cities along the way. The Athenians, with no fleet, were powerless to oppose him. Only at Samos did Lysander meet resistance; the democratic government there, fiercely loyal to Athens, refused to give in, and Lysander left a besieging force behind him. Xenophon reports that when the news of the defeat reached Athens, ...a sound of wailing ran from Piraeus through the long walls to the city, one man passing on the news to another; and during that night no one slept, all mourning, not for the lost alone, but far more for their own selves.
Fearing the retribution that the victorious Spartans might take on them, the Athenians resolved to hold out from the siege, but their cause was hopeless. Without a fleet to import grain from the Black Sea, and with the Spartan occupation of Deceleia cutting off land transportation, the Athenians were beginning to starve, and with people dying of hunger in the streets, the city surrendered in March 404 . The walls of the city were demolished, and a pro-Spartan oligarchic government was established (the so-called Thirty Tyrants' regime). The Spartan victory at Aegospotami marked the end of 27 years of war, placing Sparta in a position of complete dominance throughout the Greek world and establishing a political order that would last for more than thirty years.


Battle of Aegospotami - 405 BC


Rickard, J (31 August 2011), Battle of Aegospotami, 405 BC , http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_aegospotami.html


The battle of Aegospotami in 405 was a crushing Athenian defeat that effectively ended the Great Peloponnesian War, leaving the city vulnerable to a siege and naval blockade. The previous year had ended with a major Athenian victory at the battle of the Arginusae Islands, but in the aftermath of this battle six of the eight Athenian generals had been executed for failing to rescue the survivors from twenty-five ships sunk during the battle, and the remaining two had gone into exile. They were replaced by Conon, Adeimantus and Philocles. The Spartans also needed a new commander, Callicratidas, the admiral for 406, having been killed during the battle of the Arginusae Islands. At this time it was against Spartan custom to appoint someone to the same post twice, so Lysander, the popular commander of 405, was officially appointed as second in command to Aracus, but in reality it was Lysander who commanded the fleet. The two sides spent part of the year improving the quality of their fleets, but eventually Lysander decided to move into the Hellespont, partly to try and regain control of a number of cities lost in recent years and partly to try and block the Athenian food supply from the Black Sea. His first success came at Lampsacus, on the Asian shore, which was taken by storm. When the Athenians discovered that Lysander had moved to the Hellespont, they followed with a fleet of 180 ships. They sailed up the Hellespont, and took up a position at Aegospotami, opposite Lampsacus. On the next morning the Athenians put out to sea and formed up in line of battle outside Lampsacus. Lysander refused to come out and fight, and after some time the Athenians returned to their base on the beach at Aegospotami. Lysander sent some of his fastest ships to follow the Athenians and discover their routine. The same pattern was repeated on the next three days. This worried Alcibiades, an Athenian commander in exile for the second time, and he attempted to convince the current Athenian generals to move up the coast to the city of Sestos, where they would have a more secure position. On the fifth day Lysander made his move. Our two sources disagree on the start of the disaster. In Diodorus Siculus the Athenian commander for the day, Philocles, put to sea with thirty triremes, and ordered the rest of his fleet to follow. Some deserters told Lysander, and he decided to take advantage of the split Athenian fleet. The entire Peloponnesian fleet put to sea, defeated Philocles and then attacked the unprepared Athenian fleet. While Lysander was attempting to capture Athenian ships by dragging them out to sea, a Peloponnesian army was landed on the European shore and captured the Athenian fleet. In Xenophon Lysander took advantage of Athenian complacency. The Athenians were forced to travel some way to find food, and had got into the habit of dispersing from their ships at the end of each day's sailing. On this day Lysander sent out his fast ships as normal, but this time prepared the entire fleet for battle. When the scouts saw that the Athenians were beginning to disperse they raised a shield as a symbol. Lysander crossed the Hellespont and fell on the disorganised Athenians. At this point our sources come back together. Conon and nine ships managed to escape from the disaster, but the remaining 170 Athenian ships were all captured. Conon realised that he had lost the war, and sailed into exile on Cyprus. In the aftermath of this disaster the Athenian position crumbled. Byzantium and Chalcedon were the first of a series of Athenian-held cities to surrender to Lysander, and in each case he allowed the garrisons to return to Athens. News of the defeat was carried to Athens on the state trireme 'Paralus'. With their last fleet gone, the Athenians realised that they were about to be besieged by land and sea, and that they might not expect much mercy if they surrendered. The city was soon surrounded by two Peloponnesian armies and blockaded by Lysander's fleet, and the siege of Athens, the final act of the Great Peloponnesian War, began.


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