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Tom L. McKnight


Subtitle: A Landscape Appreciation, 4th ed. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1993, 626 pgs., index, illustrations, maps, glossary, taxonomy,


Reviewer comment:
The reference book is an importance source for students of geopolitics. The contents includes climate, topography, weather, vegetation, soils, atmosphere, water, understanding maps, solar energy. All these topics are the fundamentals that not only influence but determine how humans react - make decisions - throughout their lives.


Table of Contents


1 Introduction to the Earth
The Unique Landscape of the Earth
The Environmental "Spheres"
The Earth as a Planet
Earth and Sun Relations
Chapter Summary

2. Potrayal of the Earth
Depiction of the Landscape
The Nature of Maps
The Mater of Scale
The Role of Globes
Map Projections
Remote Sensing
Chapter Summary

3 Introduction to the Atmosphere
Constituents of the Atmosphere
Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere
Human-Induced Atmospheric Change
Weather and Climate
The Study of Climate
Chapter Summary

4 Insolation and Temperature
The Impact of Temperature on the Landscape
Solar Energy
Basic Processes in Heating and Cooling the Atmosphere
The Heating of the Atmosphere
Spatial and Seasonal Variations in Heating
Temperature: Expression of Heat
Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Vertical Temperature Patterns
Global Temperature Patterns
Chapter Summary

5 Atmospheric Pressure and Wind
The Impact of Pressure and Wind on the Landscape
The Nature of Air Pressure
The Nature of Wind
Vertical Variations in Pressure and Wind
The General Circulation of the Atmosphere
Modifications of the General Circulation
Localized Wind Systems
Chapter Summary

6 Atmospheric Pressure
The Impact of Atmospheric Moisture on the Landscape
Water Vapor and the Hydrologic Cycle
Measures of Humidity
The Buoyance of Air
Global Distribution of Precipitation
Chapter Summary

7 Transient Atmospheric Flows and Disturbances
The Impact of Storms on the Landscape
Air Masses
Atmospheric Disturbances
Major Midlatitude Disturbances
Hurricanes: Major Tropical Disturbances
MinorAtmospheric Disturbances
Chapter Summary

8 Climatic Regions
Climatic Classification
World Distribution of Major Climatic Types
The Global Pattern Idealized
Chaper Summary

9 The Hydrosphere
The Nature of Water: Commonplace but Unique
The Hydrologic Cycle
The Oceans
"Permanent" Ice
Surface Waters
Underground Water
Zone of Confined Water
Chapter Summary

10 Cycles and Patterns in the Biosphere
The Impact of Plants and Animals on the Landscape
The Geographic Approach to the Study of Organisms
Biogeochemical Cycles
Food Chains
The Search for Meaningful Classification
Seeking Pertinent Patterns
Ecosystems and Biomes
Environmental Relationships
Chapter Summary

11 Terrestial Flora and Fauna
The Consideration of Natural Distributions
Terrestrial Flora
Terrestrial Fauna
The Major Biomes
Biomes and Climate
Human Modification of Natural Distribution Patterns
Distributional Summation: Some Patterns Examined
Chapter Summary

12 Soils
Soil and Regolith
Soil-Forming Factors
Soil Components
Soil Properties
Soil Chemistry
Soil Profiles
Pedogenic Regimes
Soil Classification
Global Disribution of Major Soils
Distribution of Soils in the United States
Chapter Summary

13 Introduction to Landform Study
Our Massive Earth
Composition of the Crust
Some Critical Concepts
The Front Range - Episode One: TheDevelopment of Terrain: A Continued Story
The Study of Landforms
Internal and External Geomorphic Processes
The Question of Scale
The Pursuit of Pattern
Chapter Sumary

14 The Internal Processes
The Impact of Internal Processes on the Landscape
Massive Crustal Rearangement
The Front Range - Episode Two
Batholitic Intrusion and Uplift
The Complezities of Crustal Configuration
Chapter Summary

15 Preliminaries to Erosion: Weathering and Mass Wasting
The Impact of Weathering and Mass Wasting on the Landscape
Mass Wasting
Chapter Summary

16 The Fluvial Process
The Impact of the Fluvial Process on the Landscape
Some Fundamental Concepts
Stream Channels
Stream Systems
The Shaping and Reshaping of Valleys
Deposition in Valleys
Theories of Landform Development
Stream Rejuvenation
Fluvially ProducedTopography
The Front Range - Episode Three: Erosion and More Erosion
Chapter Summary

17 Topographic Development in Arid Lands
Specialized Environmental Characteristics
Unique Landscape Types of the Desert
Running Water in Waterless Regions
The Work of the Wind
Some Characteristic Desert Landform Assemblages
Chapter Summary

18 Coastal Processes and Terrain
The Impact of Waves aned Currents on the Landscape
Coastal Provesses and Forms
Chapter Summary

19 Solution Processes and Karst Topograply
The Impact of Solution Processes on the Landscape
The Actions Involved: Solution and Precipitation
Caverns and Related Features
Karsk Topography
Hydrothermal Features
Chapter Summary

20 Glacial Modification of Terrain
The Impact of Glaciation on the Landscape
Glaciations Past and Present
Regimen of Glaciers
Continental Ice Sheets
Glaciation in Mountainous Areas
Erosion by Mountain Glaciers
The Front Range - Episode Four: Pleistocene Glaciation
Are We Still in an Ice Age
The Front Range Episode Five: Resumed Fluvial Acton
Chapter Summary



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