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  bell tower  

Bell Tower of Ivan III and church of St. John Climacus "under the bells". In 1329 Grand Prince Ivan I, Kalita, built the church in honor of his heavenly patron St John Climacus with the first bell tower in Moscow. Then in 1505 this was reconstructed at the same time as the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael and two bell towers were added by Marco Bono. The central section dates from 1532-43. Then in 1600 Boris Gudunov added three more making this the tallest building in Russia prior to the 1917 revolution.


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