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View of the Grotto in the Middle Arsenal Tower of the Kremlin wall in the Aleksandrovski Garden. The park was created in 1820-23 by the architect, Osip Bove between the Corner Arsenal and Borovitski towers along the outside of the Kremlin wall. It is about 10 hectares in area. The Neglinna river was put into an underground conduit in 1816-20 and the earthen bastions built by order of Peter I in 1707-08 to defend against the expected invasion of King Charles XII were leveled. There had been three; Upper, from Revolution square to the Trinity tower, Middle, from thre to the Borovitski tower, and Lower, from there to the Moscow river. The architect conceived of this park as a romantic place complete with pseudo-ruin and a grotto, shown here.


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