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40,000 BC

Neolithic occupants at Balka

20,000 BC

End of the last major ice age enlarges river flow into Black Sea making fresh water lake

15,000 BC

Shift of glacier runoff from south to west into Baltic results in Black Sea drying up and falling greatly.

12,500 BC

Younger Dryas period new ice age dry climate reduces Black Sea further, cold weather induces more population to move to the shore line and start permanent villages.

11,400 BC

End Younger Dryas, return of warm and wet weather, population around Black Sea increases


10,000 BC

Paleolithic inhabitants throughout Russia as far north as Volga valley in Tver region


6,200 BC

Mini ice age again causes temperature and rainfall to drop, population retreats to shore of Black Sea lake

6000 BC

Neolithic culture occupants on Mangup and in mountains near Sudak

5800 BC

Rising temperature and rainfall raise ocean levels

5600 BC

Rising water in Mediterranian Sea breaks through Bosporus and floods Black Sea lake basis rapidly raising water level to current depth.

5000-3000 BC

Neolithic culture in Valdai hills and northern Russia


2000 - 1000 BC

Bronze Age culture spreads into central Russia


Pre 8th Cent BC

Scythians live in Altai region, Cimmerians control Pontic steppe

8th Cent BC

Scythians migrate into Ukraine steppe


7th Century BC

Early Iron age culture in central Russia, construction of gorodishchi, (earthen fortifications


7th Cent BC

Panticapaeum, Olbia, Tiritaka, Mirmekia, Nimphea, Theodosia, Tanais and other cities founded by Milesian colonists.

647 BC

Olbia founded on Black Sea shore north west of Crimea

6th Cent BC

Chersonesus region occupied by Scythians and Taurs

540 BC

Phanagoria founded as colony of Teos

512 BC

Darius, Persian campaign against Scythians across the Danube and north of Crimea

480 BC

Foundation of Bospor kingdom with capital at Panticapaeum, Arachaenactidae dynasty

438-431 BC

Spartocus, king of Bospor

434 BC

Bospor- Athenian Treaty

431-387 BC

Satyrus, ruler of Bospor, besieges Theodosia, extends domain on both sides of Kerch strait

422-21 BC

Chersonesus founded by colonists from Heraclea Pontus, population end century about 3000.

End IVth c. first half IIIrd cen.

Artifacts point to deification of Hercules at Chersonesus

387-347 BC

Leucon, ruler of Bospor, captures Theodosia, domain reaches Chersonesus

347-342 BC

Spartocus II, joint ruler of Bospor with Paerisades

342-310 BC

Paerisades, ruler of Bospor

339 BC

Philip II of Macedon defeats Ateos, Scythian ruler

330 BC

Olbia besieged by Scythians

310-303 BC

Civil war, then Eumelus ruler of Bospor

303-283 BC

Spartocus III, ruler of Bospor

284 BC

Celts throughout Ukraine

circa, 200 BC

Arrival of Sarmatians

134 BC

Arrian travels around Black Sea coast and writes important guide "Perepl" describing conditions in towns and trading posts.

132-63 BC

Mithradates VI the Great, king of Pontus

108 BC

Greeks at Chersonesus and Bospor call for assistance against Scythians. Mithradates VI sends army under Diophantes that defeats Scythians and their Sarmatian overlords, but both Greek areas are incorporated into Mithradates' kingdom

106 BC

Chersonesus incorporated into Bospor kingdom

64 BC

Mithradates finally defeated by Romans in Asia minor, retreats to Panticapaeum, when troops revolt, he is commits suicide in 62.

63-47 BC

Pharnaces, son of Mithradates, king of Pontus, and Bospor under Roman overlord, Pompey

50 BC

Getae sack Olbia

47-16 BC

Asander, ruler of Bospor

24 BC

Chersonesus receives Roman charter of 'freedom'

14-8 BC

Polemon, ruler of Bospor, set up by Romans


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