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AMERICAN HISTORY SUBJECTS

 

Since many of the entries in this list pertain to wars or commanders, we show here four remarkable web sites that provide details including maps, chronologies, leaders, force strengths and losses, color illustrations and much more. We are also preparing a reference list focused on presidental elections here. {short description of image}and another focused on wars in North America prior to 1865 here {short description of image}

 
 

Wikipedia list of wars and conflicts in British America - that is prior to United States

 
 

Wikipedia list of wars and conflicts in the United States - with links, and it extends into 20th century

 
 

Wikipedia a list of conflicts in North America - This is a remarkable, detailed, list, with links, to all sorts of small and large conflicts including in Canada and Mexico

 
 

Britishbattles - Another terrific web site is a huge detailed compendium of British battles - actually those involving Britain before there was England or Great Britian -profusely illustrated and the lengthy index page his the links to individual battles in chronological order by wars. For purposes of American history the battles in the French and Indian War and American Revolution are excellent

 
 

Another outstanding web reference is that of the U.S. Army Center of Military History that has its book Soldiers and Statesmen of the Constitution by Robert Wright and Morris MacGregor is online. In addition to biographies of many military and civilian statesmen and leaders it has many original documents.

 
 

The Civil War Trust has many maps and annimated maps and photos and text about Civil War battles.

 
 

{short description of image}Proprietary Colony - Excellent description of the way this kind of colony was governed in contrast to a Crown colony

 
 

{short description of image} Crown Colony - or Royal Colony - Article describing the government structure of a crown colony - a term in use until 1991.

 
 

{short description of image} Article describing the Colonial History of the United States including French, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Russian and English settlement

 
 

{short description of image}Connecticut Colony - Article describing the several separate colonies originally established and then merged to form Connecticut

 
 

{short description of image} History of Connecticut - Article expanding on the history up to the 19th century

 
 

{short description of image}New Sweden - Article describing the Swedish effort to establish a colony along the Delaware River

 
 

{short description of image} Delaware Colony - Article describing the development of Delaware including the Swedisn ahd Dutch efforts

 
 

{short description of image} History of Delaware - Article expanding on the role of Dutch, Swedes and English up to the American Revolution

 
 

{short description of image} Province of Georgia - Article describing the early history of the last colony created of the original 13.

 
 

{short description of image} History of Georgia - Article desribing the history of Georgia through the Civil War

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of Georgia

 
 

{short description of image} Province of Maine - Article describing its founding and early history

 
 

{short description of image} History of Maine - Article describing the state history

 
 

{short description of image} History of Maryland - Article providing general history of Maryland

 
 

{short description of image} Province of Maryland - Article describing the early colonial period

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of Maryland

 
 

{short description of image} Plymouth Colony - Article describing the founding and development of the first settlement in Massachusetts

 
 

{short description of image} Province of Massachusetts Bay -Article describing the development of the colony

 
 

{short description of image} Massachusetts Bay Colony - Article describing the founding and development of the colony

 
 

{short description of image} History of Massachusetts - Article describing the development of the State of Massachusetts

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of Massachusetts

 
 

{short description of image} Province of New Hampshire - Article describing the development of New Hampshire out of the other colonies

 
 

{short description of image} History of New Hampshire - Article describing the origin and development of State of New Hampshire

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of New Hampshire

 
 

{short description of image} Province of New Jersey - Article describing the founding and development of the colony

 
 

{short description of image} Colonial History of New Jersey - Article describing development of the colony until statehood

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of New Jersey

 
 

{short description of image} New Netherland - Article describing the Dutch settlement that became New York

 
 

{short description of image} Province of New York - Article describing the English occupation of New York from 1664 - to 1776

 
 

{short description of image} History of New York state - Article describing the history of the state _not the city.

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of New York

 
 

{short description of image} Province of Carolina - Article describing the original province prior to its being divided into North and South Carolina

 
 

{short description of image} Province of North Carolina - Article describing the province after the split into North and South

 
 

{short description of image} History of North Carolina - Article describing the history to the 19th century

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of North Carolina

 
 

{short description of image} Province of Pennsylvania - Article describing the early period in the founding and development of the colony

 
 

{short description of image} History of Pennsylvania - Article describing pre-Colombian era, the early colony and period to 19th century

 
 

{short description of image} Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations - Article describing the founding and early development of the separate colonies.

 
 

{short description of image} History of Rhode Island - Article that describes the colonies that created the State of Rhode Island

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of Rhode Island

 
 

{short description of image} Province of South Carolina - Article describing the colony after it split with North Carolina

 
 

{short description of image} History of South Carolina - Article describing the state to the Civil War

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of South Carolina

 
 

{short description of image} History of Vermont - Article describing the creation of Vermont from other colonies

 
 

{short description of image} Colony of Virginia -Article describing the development of Virginia from 1609

 
 

{short description of image} History of Virginia

 
 

{short description of image} List of colonial governors of Virginia

 

Subject

Date

Links

Significance

Comment

 
  Abercrombie, James 1706 -1781 {short description of image}

James Abercrombie was a professional British solder who served throughout the 18th Century and rose to be appointed Commander in Chief of British forces in Northern America in 1757 during the French and Indian War after the departure of his predecessor, John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun. He was recalled after his defeat at Fort Carillon but didn't retire until 1792.

Unfortunately, despite a generally very successful career, Abercrombie is most remembered for the disasterous defeat he suffered at the Battle of Fort Carillonin July 1758 which was blamed on his stubborn use of European tactics to launch a frontal attack on a significant fortification without artillery support. The 42nd Foot (Black Watch) {short description of image}suffered very high losses during their heroic storm of the palisade.

 
  Abolitionists 1730's-1865 {short description of image}

Individuals and groups who aggitated and became politically active demanding the abolition of slavery.

   
  Adams, Charles F. 1807 - 1886 {short description of image}

He was the grandson of John Adams and son of John Quincy Adams

His son, Charles Adams Jr. was a Civil War general

 
  Adams, Henry 1838-1918 {short description of image}

He was the son of Charles Francis Adams. During the Civil War he was secretary to his father who was Lincoln's Ambassador to the Court of St. James.

He was a well respected historian whose History of the United States is considered one of the very best.

 
  Adams, John 1755 - 1826 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts to a middle class family, his father was a minister. He gradated Harvard in 1755. He was a cousin of Sam Adams, although a leader of the independence - minded colonists, he defended the British soldiers who had killed or wounded members of the mob in the 'Boston Massacre'. He was a delegate to both the First and SecondContinental Congresses. In June 1775 he nominated George Washington to be the comander-in-chief of the Continental Army. He continued to be one of the leaders throughout the revolutionary period. The Wikipedia article is very extensive in describing his lengthy and important influence. There is a huge list of places and other memorials named for John Adams.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Massachusetts. His biography is listed with the Signers. He was the second President of the United States, having been the first Vice President. He is among the Founding Fathers of the United States. His supporters became known as the 'Federalist" party in competition with Thomas Jefferson.

 
  Adams, John Q. 1767 - 1848 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts and graduated from Harvard as a lawyer. His father was John Adams.

He was sixth President of the United States. He had a distinguished career as a diplomat from secretary to the Minister to Russia in 1781 and as Secretary of State for President Monroe 1817 -1825. After being president he was a representative in Congress, where he died from a stroke.

 
  Adams, Samuel 1722 -1803 {short description of image}

He was born in Boston to a prosperous and politically active family, educated at Harvard, and went into his father's brewery business. His greatest fame was won as a patriot leader up to the time of the War for Independence. He helped to organize the Sons of Liberty, started the Committeeof Correspondence, and probably joined with John Hancock in organizing the BostonTea Party. He worked to arouse opposition to the Sugar, Stamp, and Townshend Acts, served in the Massachustts House of Representatives, the ContinentalCongress (both the First and Second). He helped write the Articles of Confederation. After the war he was governor of Massachusetts.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Massachusetts. He is listed among the Declaration signers. {short description of image}He is depected -seated in the first row next to Richard Henry Lee in Trunbull's painting of the Signing of the Declaration. The Wikipedia article is very extensive and has many scholarly footnotes. And a google search finds numerous other references.

 
  Adams-OnisTreaty 1819 {short description of image}

This treaty with Spain resuled in the annexation of Florida.

   
  Administration of Justice Act 1774 {short description of image}

This was one of the "Intolerable Acts" - also called the "Coercive acts" - the others were the Boston Port Act, the Quebec Act, The Masachusetes Government-Act.

{short description of image} and {short description of image}  
  Admiralty, the   {short description of image}

The department of British government in charge of naval affairs. During the colonial period it was much involved in regulating colonial trade and protecting it at sea.

When colonial juries and courts refused to find smugglers guilty, the British government moved trials to Admiralty Courts.

 
  Agrarian   {short description of image}

The term refers to land and agriculture and connotes a belief both in the importance of the cultivation of the soil and of farming as a way of life. In this sense, Jefferson was an agrarian, but he believed in free trade and free enterprise, not that government should susidize farming or direct its development.

   
  Alamo, Battle Feb- March 1836 {short description of image}

The Mexican general - ruler - Santa Anna - defeated the Texan rebels, but the public relations result generated intense demand for Texas independence.

The Alamo is still an historical monument in San Antonio, Texas.

 
  Albany Plan 1754 {short description of image}

The recommendation of a committee of delegates from all 13 colonies who met in Albany N.Y. and led by Benjamin Franklin. They advocated increased unity of colonial action in the face of the major threats during the French and Indian War.

The recommendations were not adopted.

 
  Albemarle Sound 1586 {short description of image}

Originally visited in 1586 but not permanently until a hundred years later or so - it was named for one of the 8 English propriators granted Carolina by King Charles II - George Munck, 1st Duke of Albemarle.

   
  Algonquian Indians   {short description of image} 

A very large number of the American Indian tribes all spoke a variant of the Algonquian language. They occupied an area comprising almost all of the north-east quadrant of colonial area from Quebec to the Carolinas and west to the Mississippi in places. Among the tribes were the Abenaki,=Powhatan, - Lenape, - Pequot, - Shawnee, - Chippewa, and even the Cheyenee.

   
  Alien and Sedition laws 1789 -1801 {short description of image}

Passed by the Federalist party and opposed by Jefferson and Republican party.

It became a major political issue and was mostly, but not completely, repealed by Jefferson.

 
  Allen, Ethan 1738 - 1789 {short description of image}

Revolutionary war patriot - he captured Fort Ticonderoga, from which later General Knox was able to bring its cannon to Washington's siege of Boston.

   
  American Anti-Slavery Society 1833 - 1870 {short description of image}

Founded by William Garrison and others

   
  American Civil War 1861-65 {short description of image}

This is an excellent entry describing the origins, issues, events and results of the war. There are many illustrations and many links to more detailed entries on specific topics.

   
  American Coloniztion Society 1816- 1964 {short description of image}

This organization was established by Robert Finley of New Jersey with the mission of enabling African-American's to return to Africa. For the purpose an area to be called Liberia was developed in 1821-22. The members were mostly evangelicals and Quakers. Presidents Jefferson, Monroe and Madison supported the society.

Liberia was declared an independent state in 1847. By 1867 13,000 Africans had returned. The society ended active efforts in 1919 and was disolved in 1964. The plantation main building of Liberia plantation remains as an historical monument in Manssass, VA. It was used by both Confederate and Union forces as a hospital during the Civil War

 
  Ameerican Duties Act 1764 {short description of image}

This is another name for the Sugar Act and the Revenue Act. The Molassas Act was passed in 1733 at the demand of British plantation owners in the West Indies because sugar from French and Spanish colonies was priced lower than theirs and they needed lumber and other goods imported from the northern colonies. The British merchants obtained more wealth from the West Indies than from the northern colonies. But merchants there were smuggling. But the Molassas Act expired in 1764 and Parliament needed much greater income due both to the debt generated during the French and Indian War and to pay for the increased troop garrison needed due to Pontiac's Rebellion. . .

This revenue Act generated huge opposition in the colonies and was repealed in 1766.

 
  American Fur Co. 1808 {short description of image}

The company was founded by John JacobAstor to organize and create a monopoly in the trade in beaver and other fur from the Rocky Mounains and western plains. At one point Astor was considered the wealthiest individual in the World. He competed with the British NorthwestFur Company and the Hudson's Bay Company for the North Americanfur trade. He created the port of Fort Astoria in the Oregon area because the furs were to be exported to China in exchange for cheap Chinese manufactures to be sold in Europe and America. He also entered into cooperation with the Russian fur traders in North America (Alaska to California). And he established another center around St. Louis to compete with the French family trappers bringing fur east from the Rocky Mtns.
In the mid 1830's the fashion of English gentlemen for fur hats suddenly declined greatly reducing the profits from beaver fur. That was the time astute traders such as Charles and William Bent switched to trade in buffalo hides.

Note this early use of Chinese goods in a world wide trading system. Astor made his fortune not only on beaver fur but also on tea and silk from China.

 
  American Indian Wars 1609 to 1924 {short description of image}

This entry discusses the multiple conflicts between the Native peoples of the United States and Canada and the European settlers. See also the entry - List of AmericanIndian Wars.

The list is divided into chronoligical sections beginning with 'colonial wars' and each 'war' (including brief conflicts) has its link to the relevant entry.

 
  American Party   {short description of image}

There have been many political parties that incorporated "American" in their names. But the main one in pre-Civil War times was also called the Tolleration Party organized in Conn. to oppose the Federalists. Later was known as the "Know Nothings' and still later as its issues became of less interest many members joined the Whig Party.

   
  American Philosophical Society 1743 {short description of image}

This organization was founded in Philidelphia and soon became internationally known as a promoter of science. It published a journal and opened a museu. Ben Franklin was a president and George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton were early members.

The society's building still exists in Phillidelphia and is now a National Landmark.

 
  American Society for Promotion of Temperance 1826 {short description of image}

This organization was founded in Boston and soon had thousands or local chapters throughout the country and over a million members. it developed into a broad reformist movement and championed women's sufferage and rights and also abolition of slavery.

   
  Ames, Fisher 1758 - 1808 {short description of image}

Federalist Party Congressman

   
  Amhurst, Jeffrey 1717 - 1797 {short description of image}

Jeffrey Amhurst, Field Marshal and 1st Baron Amhurst, was a professinal British soldier who served throughout the 18th Century in many battles in Europe and then the American colonies. He became an Ensign in the Grenadier Guards in 1725, fought in the War of the Austrian Succession and then was sent to America. He captured Louisbourgin 1758 and Fort Ticonderoga(which under previous name, Carillon, Abercrombie had failed to do). He was appointed Crown Governor of Virginia 1759-1768 and Governor of Quebec Province 1760 - 1763.

He was appointed commander in chief of the 60th Foot. He captured Montreal in 1760. He supervised as C-in-C the British capture of Dominica in 1761 and Martinique and Cuba in 1762. In 1758 he was British C-in-C supervising Gen Forbes' campaign to take Fort Duquense. And also the relief of Fort Pitt by Forbes and Bouquet in 1763. He was attacked in Parliament for Pontiac'sRebellion but made a peer and Baron in 1776 and in 1778 made General Commander in Chief of British Forces. In 1780 he supervised the elimination of Gordon's Riot in London and made Field Marshal in 1796.

 
  Amisted Affair 1839 - 1841 {short description of image}
see also
{short description of image}

The revolt of African Slaves on board this ship led to international diplomatic and judicial contests. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled that since slavery was illegal by international law the Africans were not slaves and were well within their rights to rebel.

   
  Amnesty Act 1872 {short description of image}

This legislation removed the many restrictions on Confederate officials and was part of the political compromises of 1872 that ended Reconstruction

   
  Andros, Edmund 1637 - 1714 {short description of image}

He had a changing appointment in the English Colonies. He was Governor of New York - sometimes also of New Jersey (but Philip Carteret disputed that after Sir George Carteret died in 1680) (1674 - 1681). Andros was recalled to England in 1681. But in 1688 he was sent as the Goverrnor of the new Dominion of New England into which the northern colonies were merged. But Lt. Governor Fancis Nicholson actually did the most governing.

   
  Annapolis Convention 1786 {short description of image}

This convention in Annapolis in 1786 decided that the Articles of Confederationrequired revision and recommended a new convention - This lead to the new Philidelphia Convention which drafted the U.S. Constitution.

The name also refers to the Maryland government that met in 1774-1776.

 
  Annexation   {short description of image}

To attach something to another body, usually a larger one. Thus, those who sought to bring Texas into the Union favored the 'annexation' of that independent state.

   
  Annexation of Texas 1845 {short description of image}

Texas was an independent state and in 1845 was admitted to the Union as the 28th state, without having previously been a territory.

   
  Anthony, Susan B. 1820 - 1906 {short description of image}

She was an early, leading social reformer who stressed the demand for women's sufferage. She was also against-slavery.

She was a good friend of Elizabeth Cady Stanton

 
  Anti-Masonic party 1828 - 1838 {short description of image}

This was the first 'third party' in American politics. It was based on opposition to Free-Masonry. But when Masonry declined opposition to it also became less strong. Many members then joined the Whig Party. But prior to that this group organized the first political nominating conventions and party platforms in American politics.

   
  Antietam, Battle of Sept. 1862 {short description of image}

This battle took place when George McClellan (slowly) brought the Union army into western Maryland to block Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army invasion before he could reach Penn. It is known as the 'bloodiest' single day battle in America with 22,717 dead in one afternoon.

It is also known as the Battle of Sharpsburg as southerners frequently name battles for local towns while northerners name them for landmarks such as streams.

 
  Antislavery   {short description of image}

The Wikipedia entry describes a wide range of political movements that opposed slavery.

   
  Apache Indians 1541 {short description of image}

Groups of related but atonomous tribes who lived in eastern Arizona, northern Mexico, New Mexico and western Texas They were met first by Spanish explorers led by Fransico Coronado while exploring north. The generic name stems from the Spanish name. Their languages relate to those spoken as far north as Alaska. The Spanish settlers created villages and from then on interacted with the Apache with trade and also raiding. The relations changed a bit after Mexico became independent in 1821. The Americans began more direct contacts during the Mexican War, in which some Apache agreed to act as guides and helpers. The Governemnt signed treaties allocating large areas for Apache reserves. But with the rapidly increasing numbers of settlers encroaching on their hunting lands many Apache began a 'war' that lasted for several generations. In 1875 the U.S. Army forced many to move to reservations. In 1886 Geronimo with his remaining band was among the last to be forced onto a reservation.

This Wikipedia entry provides much detailed information about all aspects of the culture of the various independent Apache tribes.

 
  Arapaho Indians   {short description of image}

This Native American tribe lived on the plains of Colorado and Wyoming. They were close allies of the Cheyenne,and some were loosly associated with the Lakota. In the 1850's with increasing pressure across the plains from white settlers they split into a Northern and Southern Arapaho groups, just as the Cheyenne did also. Prior to the European arrival (French) they lived in Canada where they were farmers. They were pushed west and south by Indians further east as these were pushed west by the white arrival. Initially, from the French they aquired guns and from the Spanish horses. They became formidable plains buffalo hunters along with the Cheyenne. They controled the huge area from Montana to western Oklahoma and Colorado. But with the expansion from the south of Mexicans and American settlers in Texas the Comanche living there were pushed north. Extensive warfare took place between the Comanche and the Arapaho- Cheyenne alliance. William Bent was instrumental in establishing a convenient border - the Arkansas river at which the tribes agreed to abide - but of course there were raids. Comanche and Kiowa were to live to the south. They were welcome traders bringing buffalo hides to Fort Bent. The Arapaho main enemy north of the river were the Pawnee to their east. There were some Arapaho with the Cheyenne at their peaceful camp on the Sand Creek in 1864 when Chivington led some Colorado militia into a surprise massacre. This generated several decades of fighting all across the plains. Many Arapaho and Cheyenne moved into Wyoming from where they continued to participate in war against the white miners and the cavalry protection..

Now the Northern Arapaho live in a reservation in Wyoming and the Southern Arapaho live in Oklahoma.

 
  Arikara War 1823 {short description of image}

This was the first 'war' between U.S. government troops and Indians west of the Mississippi and the only 'war' with the Arikara. In this the U.S, had some allies from the Sioux or Dakota tribes. The war was started over an Arikara attack on fur trappers, considered the worst such attack. The Sioux were already at frequent wars with the Arikara. The U.S. Army attack was led by Lt. Col. Henry Leavenworth from Fort Atkinson. The combined Sioux and army attack was unsuccessful. The Arikara signed a peace treaty with the government but the Sioux continued wars slowly driving the Arikara north. Eventually many melded into the Mandan communities. But years later Arikara warriors served as scouts for the army in the Indian Wars. .

This brief 'war' has been depicted in the movie - The Revanant.

 
  Armijo, Manuel 1793 - 1853 {short description of image}

He was born in New Mexico and was both soldier and statesman - 3 times governor of New Mexico. He suppressed the Revoltof 1837. In 1841 he successfully repelled the Texan Santa Fe Expedition. He favored granting land to American settlers and in 1841 granted 9,700,000 acres east of the Sangre de Christo mountains to Charles Beaubien, Charles Bent and others. When Beaubien died his will gave his part to his son-in-law, Lucien Maxwell. This was for a time the largest private land holding in America and is the origin of several famous ownerships today such as the Boy Scout summer camp. When General Stephen Kearny arrived in the Mexican War, Armijo realized he did not have the forces to fight, despite the desire of some subordinates. So Santa Fe was taken without a shot fired.

He has been depicted in several movies about the period.

 
  Army of the West 1846 {short description of image}

This is the designation of the U.S. Army force lead by Stephen Kearny from Fort Leavenworth to San Diego via Santa Fe, New Mexico, during the Mexican War.

There have been several other armies with this designation - for instance in France and in the American Confederacy.

 
  Arnold, Benedict 1741 - 1801 {short description of image}

He was a merchant who operated his own ships prior to the American Revolution. As a captain he became known for his action at the capture of Ft. Ticonderoga. He then commanded forces at the Battle of Saratoga.

He was hyper-ambitious and considered himself slighted when not promoted. At this he betrayed the American fortress at West Point, New York to the British, but General Washington was alerted and prevented this. But Arnold escaped and was made a general in the British Army to conduct operations in Virginia.

 
  Aroostook War 1838-39 {short description of image}

This is also termed 'pork and beans' war. It was the confrontation between Great Britian and the United States over the boundary between New Brunswick, Canada, and Maine. Of course the Maine settlers wanted a boundary further north while the Canadians wanted it further south. The compromise was settled in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty. While militias were mobilized no actual fighting took place. In addition to the boundary the treaty established a British 'right of way' to transit Maine to the sea coast which is still in effect.

   
  Articles of Confederation. 1781 - 1789 {short description of image}

The Articles were prepared by the Second Continental Congress and ratified by all 13 colonies. They were soon recognized as being inadequate due to lack of authority for the central government. They were replaced by the U. S. Constitution in 1789.

   
  Astor, John J. 1763 - 1848 {short description of image}

He began his fortune as an organizer of the fur trade in western U.S. and invested in New York and other real estate. He has been declared the richest man in the world of his time.

   
  Atchinson, David 1807 - 1886 {short description of image}

He was a Democrat Senator from MO. and was President pro tempore of the Senate for 6 years. Perhaps his most famous (but disputed) role was that he might have been the President of the United States for one day in 1849.

   
  Attainder, Bill of   {short description of image}

An act of a legislature prescribing the punishment of a particular person. For example, a person might be declared by a legislature to be an outlaw, his property and rights taken from him and a punislment set for him when he should be captured if he were a fugitive. Such bills were frequently used in 16th and 17th century England. They are prohibited in the United States Constitution and in those of most states. The great importance of the prohibition is that it helps to ensure due process before a person is convicted.

   
  Austin, Stephen F. 1793 - 1836 {short description of image}

He obtained permission from the Mexican Government to bring settlers into Texas. Eventually they overwhelmed the Mexicans and Austin was the leader along with Sam Houston in obtaining independence for Texas.

   
  Bache, Benjamin 1769 - 1798 {short description of image}

He was an influential journalist.

   
  Bacon, Francis 1561 - 1626 {short description of image}

He was the 1st Vicount St. Alban.

   
  Bacon, Nathaniel 1617 - 1676 {short description of image}

He instigated and led Virginia settlers in revolt against the governor who was attempting to create friendship between the colonists and Indians - they advocated and practiced harsh attacks on the Indians.

   
  Bacon, Roger 1219 - 1292 {short description of image}

He was called "Doctor Mirabilis" He was a Franscian friar

   
  Bacon's Rebellion 1676 {short description of image}

Revolt by Virginia colonists who fought local Indians despite official government policy to seek peace. This in turn caused conflict with the governor.

   
  Bailey, Gmalial 1807 - 1859 {short description of image}

He was a strong abolitionist publisher who was active in the Underground Railroad effort in Ohio

   
  Baldwin, Abraham 1754 - 1807 {short description of image}

He graduated from Yale in 1772 and initially was a minister and during the Revolution a chaplain of Conn, militia. He changed to study law and education. He moved to Georgia to help found the University - the first public institution of higher education of which he was the first president. He served 5 terms in the U.S. House and then in the Senate from 1799 till his death in 1807.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Georgia and is considered a FoundingFather of the United States

 
  Baldwin, Robert Sherman 1804 - 1859 {short description of image}

He was a Canadian Premier involved in he rebellion of 1837

   
  Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 1830 {short description of image}

This was the first railroad in the United States. It was the major Northern railroad with a line west through the mountains of northern West Virginia - western Maryland. This was frequently raided by the Confederate units as it was a major link for moving Union forces between east and west.

Remarkably it opened only 5 years after the first British railroad, the Stockton and Darlington.By the time of the Civil War American railroads exceeded the mileage of the British, French and German railroads combined. Of course the distances and areas that required rail also exceded those.

 
  Bank of North America 1781-4 {short description of image}

Robert Morris persuaded Congress to charter this bank to handle the new government's financing. In effect this was the first central bank for the U.S. Government. Two other banks were chartered that year - Hamilon's Bank of New York and the Massachusetts Bank.

These banks were created as a system of financial intermediation peculiar to the nation's needs and laws. Prior to 1838, state chartered banks were special corporations whose owners engged in obvious rent-seeking behavior and mobilized capital by issuing their own bank notes.

 
  Bank of Pennsylvania 1780-1 {short description of image}

This private bank was established by Robert Morris and friends to finance the Revolution.

   
  Bank of U.S., First 1791 - 1811 {short description of image}

Established by Alexander Hamilton (on the model of the Bank of England) to secure the credit and supply of money for the new United States. This was opposed by Jefferson and agricultural interests.

This national level bank may be considered to provide the functions of a 'central bank'. Hamilton set it up with the U.S. Government owning 1/5 th of the stock and private persons the other 4/5th. His goal was to encourage the wealthy citizens to be involved in the financial success of the country. But stock was also sold to foreigners.

 
  Bank of U. S., Second 1816 - 1836 {short description of image}

At one time this was considered the largest monied corporation in the world - a reflection on the rapid prosperity of the new United States. But it was still opposed by agricultural and anti-big-business interests. It was closed by President Andrew Jackson who prevented it from being reauthorized.

   
  Bank War, Bank Veto 1833 {short description of image}

This refers to the conflict between President Jackson and Francis Biddle, president of the Second Bank over its reauthorization and its conduct.

   
  Baptists 1638 {short description of image}

This Protestant religious group began in the Netherlands and spread to England, where it was not approved by the establishment Anglican Church. It was brought to the American colonies by Roger Williams. It was active participant in both the First and Second Awakening.

   
  Barbary Pirates 1801-1805, 1815 - 1816 {short description of image}and {short description of image}

The several naval expeditions and attacks on Muslim cities in North Africa that for years captured European (and American) merchant ships to take prisoners for slavery.

   
  Barclay, Robert   {short description of image}

Robert Barclay, a famous Quaker preacher, was appointed Governor of East New Jersey in 1682 for life. He attracted more Quakers from England and Scotland and from the New England colony, but he died in 1690.

   
  "Barnburners" 1848 {short description of image}

This nickname - Barnburners - and Hunkers - refers to New York State politics over anti-slavery demands and policies. The 'barnburners' led to the creation of the Free SoilParty.

   
  Barre, Isaac 1726 - 1802 {short description of image}

He served as a British soldier in America during the French and Indian War. He later entered Parliament and supported a pro-colonist policy. He coined the term 'Sons of Liberty"

   
  Barry, William T. 1784 - 1735 {short description of image}

He was Postmaster General during administration of Andrew Jackson.

   
  Bartlett, Josiah 1729 - 1795 {short description of image}

He was born in the colony of Massassachutes Bay. As a very young man he became a doctor and practiced medicine for the following 45 years. But in addition he became active in the American Revolution. He was elected to the local colonial assembly in 1765 and actively opposed the British governor. He was elected from New Hampshire to the Continental Congress in 1775-76 and served on all the committees. He participated as a doctor in General John Stark's battle at Bennington. He was again in Congress in 1778 and helped draft the Articles of Confederation.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from New Hampshire. His biography is with the Declaration signers. {short description of image}After the war he was governor of New Hampshire 1791-94. His 1774 home in Kinsgston is a National historic landmark.

 
  Basic Land Ordinance 1785 {short description of image}

This was the fundamental legislation passed by the Confederation that established the process and desired result on how to administer the new lands - Northwest territories - that is land north of the Ohio and east of the Mississippi obained after the Revolutionary War.

The ordinance prescribed the method for survey and how the sections and townships would be laid out, resulting in the regular pattern we see today.

 
  Basse, Jermiah d. 1725 {short description of image}

The Board of Trade nominated him to replace Andrew Hamilton in 1698 , but the administration of the colony suffered so he was recalled in 1699. But he returned to New Jersey in 1703 and served as secretary for Lord Cornbury and Lord Lovelace until convicted for perjury.

   
  Bassett, Richard 1745 - 1815 {short description of image}

He was a lawyer. He inherited great wealth from his great- great-grand father and was admitted to the bar in 1770. He was a Federalist and became active in local politics in 1776. He drafted the Delaware Constitution of 1776. His main activity during the Revolution was to muster the 1st Delaware Regiment - its 800 men was the largest battalion in the Continental Army. He organized several other units. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He was the most senior Senator in the First U.S. Senate and then Governor of Deleware. President Adams appointed him as a circuit court judge in 1801 - one of the 'midnight judges' under the new judicial law, but Jefferson promptly had Congress abolish the law and the judgeships.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Delaware. He is considered a Founding Father of the United States. His biogrtaphy is at the Army Center of military history. {short description of image}

 
  Bayard. James Jr. 1799 1880 {short description of image}

He was a politician in Maryland.

His father lived 1767 - 1815 and was a politician in Delaware.

 
 
Battle of Adobe Walls
25 Nov., 1864 {short description of image}

One of the largest battles of the Indian Wars. The U.S. Army force led by Colonel (later Brig. Gen) Kit Carson was sent to punish Comanche and Kiowa tribes that had been raiding the trading convoys on the Santa Fe Trail. They met near Wiliam Bent's abandoned trading post (Fort Adobe). Carson had about 330 cavalry and two howitzers with him and 75 infantry behind guarding his supply train. He attacked a Kiowa encampment and drove the warriors off, but he was then surprised to find upward of 1300 Comanche and Kiowa cavalry attacking him repeatedly. Thanks to skillful use of the howitzers he managed to hold the Indians off until night fall. Running out of ammunition he retreated back to New Mexico. This was a major Comanche victory and enabled them to hold their homeland in northwest Texas.

Kit Carson knew his Indians and the terrain, He had been to Adobe Walls for years working with William Bent. He knew to take howitzers which saved his dismounted cavalry men from the finest light cavalry anywhere. If Custer has been as wise he would have taken his Gattling guns to Little Big Horn.

 
  Battler of Beecher Island Sept. 1868 {short description of image}

This event is also known as the Battle of Arikaree Fork - and the River then was known as North Fork of the Republican River. It is in Colorado. The battle was named after Lt. Beecher who died in the battle. The battle occured when a body of civilian scouts working with the U.S. Cavalry was attacked by Sioux and Cheyenne at their camp on a sand bar in the river. They were surrounded and fought for 3 days until finally rescued by cavalry from Fort Wallace.

Beecher Island battle site is located on the far eastern border of Colorado with Kansas, near Vernon on the Arikaree River. The site is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

 
  Second Battle of Adobe Walls 27 June, 1874 {short description of image}

This was a much smaller 'battle' but had a more lasting result. Twenth eight bison hunters and store keepers were camped at Adobe Walls when atacked by 300 or more Comanche, Kiowa and Cheyenne led by Quanah Parker. By this time buffalo hunters and business men had built a 'town' at the old ruin. A dawn initial attack brought the Indians riding fast right up to the buildings where a close quarters battle took place. The Indians were not able to break in so withdrew. They remained around the buildings for 2 more days exchanging rifle fire. On the Third day Billy Dixon used a long range hunting rifle and with a lucky shot killed an Indian on horseback at a great distance (later estimated at 1500 yards).. This discouraged the Indians who then withdrew. By then more and more hunters and a relief column from Dodge City increased the number of defenders. But when the Americans withdrew the Indians came back and burned to buildings. The Indians could claim a vicory of sorts but actually they were very discouraged by the result and soon surrendered.

There is a marker at the spot, which has been ceeded to become a historical site. The battle is significant because it led to the Red River War which settled the Indians who were then moved to reservation in Oklahoma.

 
  Battle of Almance 1771 {short description of image}

This was the concluding battle in the War of Regulation a confrontation between settlers in western North Carolina and the colonial government over taxation and represention. It was a prelude to the Revolutionay War. The Royal Governor, William Tryon, led 1000 government loyalists west to confront about 2000 rebels who thought they had strength in numbers. But they lacked leadership and were disorganized while the government troops were better. The 'battle' soon went against the 'regulators'.

   
  Battle of Bemis Heights October 7, 1777

{short description of image}

One of the engagements that comprise the total Battle of Saratoga. This was the second engagement, after the Battle of Freeman's Farm

A full description is in a link to this Wikipedia entry on Saratoga. And at{short description of image}

 
  Battle of Bennington 16 Aug, 1777 {short description of image}

The battle was an important part of the Saratoga campaign. the 2000 Americans, commanded by General John Stark defeated a detachment of Burgoyne's army that was searching for supplies and horses. The Americans consisted mostly of New Hampshire and Massachusets militia. The British (mostly Hessians) lost 1000 men and failed to obtain the critical supplies.

   
  Battle of Brandywine Sept 11, 1777 {short description of image}

General George Washington commanded the Americans and General Sir William Howe the British. Rather than recross New Jersey from New York city the British used their powerful navy to transport some 17,000 troops up Chesapeake Bay to Head of Elk, disembark, and march on Philidelphia from the south. General Washingtron deployed his forces behind Brandywine Creek in an effort to block the British advance. The Americans lost 1,300 out of 14,600. The British lost 587 out of 15,300

More troops fought in this battle than in any other in the Revolutionary War, it was also the longest battle at 11 hours. Also see {short description of image}

 
  Battle of Brooklyn Aug. 27,1776 {short description of image}

This was the first major battle of the war after 4 July, 1776. General Washington shifted his troops from Boston in an effort to defend New York City. General William Howe landed 32,000 troops on Staten Island. He then landed troops across the harbor at Gravesend Bay and attacked the American outlying positions on Long Island. The Americans paniced and had heavy loses. Over night Washington evaculated the remaining troops to Manhattan.

This is also called 'the Battle of Long Island' as the Wikipedia article indicates. The New York historical Society has colorful paintings at{short description of image}

 
  Battle of Buena Vista 1847 {short description of image}

The battle is considered the 'bloodiest' of the Mexican War.

   
  Battle of Bunker Hill   {short description of image}

The initial attempt of the American colonists to besige Boston was countered by the first major British military engagement after Lexington and Concord

The colonis{short description of image}ts entrenched actually on Breed'shill. There is an excellent -annimated - map on line for this and Lexington in a Revolutionary war web site. There is an excellent article with illustrations including a portrait of General Howe here.{short description of image}

 
  Battle of Bushy Run 1763 {short description of image}

The victory of the British campaign led by Henry Bouquetto relieve the American Indian Siege of Ft. Pitt during Pontiac's Rebellion or War. He led slightly fewer that 400 professional troops, mostly from the 42nd Foot (Black Watch){short description of image} and the 77th Foot (Mongomerie Highlanders) plus some of his own regiment - the 60th foot, RAR - Royal American Regiment - plus civilian teamsters and ranger scouts. {short description of image}
see also {short description of image}

This was the decisive battle that led to the end of Pontiac's Rebellon. While British losses were extensive, those of the Indians were relatively much greater, resulting in Indian recognition that they were fighting at a loss. The following year, Colonel Bouquet led a larger force deep into Ohio and forced the Indians to a treaty and to release several hundred white captives.

 
  Battle of Camden 16 Aug. 1780

{short description of image}

This was an important British victory. General Charles Cornwallis defeated General Horatio Gates. Gates has gained prestige from his victory at Saratoga so was sent south to counter the British strategy of detaching the southern colonies. His army outnumbered the British but was routed. Gates did not command in the field after this.

General Johann, Baron de Kalb was killed, another major loss from the battle. The Wikipedia entry has extensive detail on the background, conduct of and results from the battle.

 
  Battle at Fort Carillon 8 July 1758 {short description of image}

Also know as the 1758 Battle of Ticonderoga since it was fought in the fortification in front ot the fort later renamed Ticonderoga. It was a serious British defeat of the larger force led by General James Abercrombie against the French commanded by General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm. Abercrombie ignored advice and committed many tactical errors while Montcalm, having concern about the strength of his fort, decided to build a field fortification some distance in front of it and then conducted his defense with great skill and courage.

   
  Battle of Chateauguay 26 Oct. 1813 {short description of image}

The British commander, Charles de Salaberry had 1,630 Regulars plus militia and Mohawk Indians to repell Major General Wade Hampton I with 4,000, regulars in the American effort to invade Canada. The British lost 2 killed in action and the Americans lost 23..

   
  Battle of Chickamauga 18-20 Sept. 1863 {short description of image}

It was the first major battle fought in Georgia, a Union defeat, and the battle with greatest casualties next to Gettysburg. The Union Army of the Cumberland commanded by William Rosecransfought the army of Tennesseecommanded by Braxton Bragg.

   
  Battle of Cowpens 17 Jan., 1781 {short description of image}

This was an important American victory of the forces (2000) commanded by General Daniel Morgan against the British force (1100) commanded by Sir Banastre Tarleton. This victory coupled with that at Kings Mountain forced the British out of western South Carolina and back to the coast.

   
  Battle of Chursbusio   {short description of image}

In the Mexican War

   
  Battle of Contresas   {short description of image}

In the Mexican War

   
  Battles at Fort Duquesne - 1758 - 1777 {short description of image}

The British attack on this French Fort in 1758 was defeated with heavy losses. This was part of General Forbes' major campaign through Pennsylvania. Major James Grant led a forward party of the 1st Highland Regiment thinking he could outwit the French, but he was himself ambushed outside the fort and taken prisoner. Henry Bouquet and George Washington commanded units in Forbes' main party so missed this debacle. But after it the French blew up the fort and retired toward the Great Lakes. The British built a new fort named Fort Pitt.

   
  Battle of Eutaw Springs 8 Sept. 1781 {short description of image}

This was the last major battle during the American Revolution in the Carolinas. Both sides claimed victory but strategically it resulted in the British abandoning their campaign to control western North and South arolina. The Americans, commanded by Nathanael Greeneattacked a British camp commanded by Alexander Stewart. Both sides had about 2000 effectives.

   
  Battle of Germantown 4 Oct., 1777 {short description of image}

This was a major battle in the Pennsylvania Campaign in which the British captured Philadelphia. The British were commanded by General William Howe with 9,000 from his garrison in Philadelphia and the Americans ( 11,000) by General George Washington. Washington planned a very complex tactical attack in which there was much confusion. Americans lost 152 dead and 522 wounded - the British lost 71 dead, 441 wounded.

   
  Battle of Guilford Court House 15 March, 1781 {short description of image}

The battle took place near Greensboro, North Carolina. In it Liewutenant General Charles Cornwallis with 2,100 men defeated General Nathanael Greene with 4,500 men. But the British had such large losses it was a strategic defeat for them. Cornwallis was forced to withdraw from western North Carolina and eventually to move into Virginia and to Yorktown.

Greensboro is named for General Greene. There is now Guilford Court House National Military Park.

 
  Battle of Gully Hole Creek 18 July 1742 {short description of image}

The battle took place in the Province of Georgia in which the British defeated a Spanish invasion. This was a part of the War of Jenkins Ear over claims to St. Simon's Island.

   
  Battle of Harlem Heights 17 Sept. 1776 {short description of image}

The battle took place on the northern tip of Manhattan Island, where Harlem is, during Washington's retreating defense of New York from the British General Henry Clinton. Washington had about 9,000 men to Clinton's 5,000. Washington's defense was successful but eventually he was forced to withdraw into New Jersey.

As with other Wikipedia articles, this one has excellent maps of the battle at tactical and operational levels.

 
  Battle of Julesburg 7 Jan., 1865 {short description of image}

The battle took place when about 1,000 Cheyenne, Lakota and Arapaho attacked villlages defended by abut 60 soldiers and 50 civilians. The soldiers and civilians fled into Fort Rankin. The Indians went on to destroy settlements along the South Platte River. The Indians were seeking revenge for the Massacre at Sand Creek. After this they moved north.

   
  Battle of Jumonville Glen 28 May, 1754 {short description of image}

This small engagement in Pennsylvania was the opening battle of the French and Indian War. A company of Virginia colonial militia commanded by George Washington with some Mingo Indians ambushed a force of French Canadians. The Mingo chief Tanacharisonmay have killed the French commander, Jumonville. At any rate at Ft. Necessity the French managed to get Washington to sign a surrender document in French stating that Jumonville had been assassinated.

   
  Battle of King's Mountain 7 October, 1780 {short description of image}

The battle was within South Carolina. The Patriot militia defeated the Loyalist militia. It has been called the largest battle between the American patriots and loyalists during the war. But there were also British regulars present. It was a small engagement in terms of numbers of participants, but very important strategically as it pushed the British back toward the coast.

   
  Battle of Lookout Mountain 24 Nov., 1863 {short description of image}

The Union Army of General Joseph Hooker defeated the Confederate Army of General Carter L. Stephenson durimg the Chattanooga Campaign. The following day Hooker defeated the Confederates at the Battle of Missionary Ridge

   
  Battle of Long Island 27 August, 1776 {short description of image}

This is also called the Battle of Brooklyn or Brooklyn Heights. It was the first major battle of the Revolutionary War and a British victory as they had just landed to capture New York after being driven out of Boston. George Washington was the American commander, with many well known unit commander and 10,000 troops. William Howe was the British commander, also with several famous subordinates and 20,000 troops.

   
  Battle of Fort Ligonier 12 Oct. 1758 {short description of image}

The article here has an excellent plan diagram showing the European design of the fortification. The French comander, Francois-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery, sent out the entire garrison from Ft. Duquesne - 440 troupes de la marine and 150 Delaware Indians - commanded by Charles Philip Aubrey. The fort was held by Colonel James Burd with about 2,000 American state militia. Colonel Burd sent Maryland and then Pennsylvania militia outside the fort to confront the French, but they were driven back inside. The French attempted to attack the fort but were repulsed by artillery fire.

This is the link to the article on the fort itself.{short description of image}The article has photos of the reconstructed fort that show how strong it was - built on professional engineering designs with use of local (logs) rather than stone, but still defendable against anything but cannon

 
  Battle of New Orleans Jan. 1815 {short description of image}

Andrew Jackson's greatest victory propelled him into the White House.

Andrew Jackson's successful defense of New Orleans from British attack, actually took place after the treaty ending the War of 1812 had been signed.

 
  Battle of La Mesa   {short description of image}

In the Mexican War

   
  Battle of Missionary Ridge 25 Nov. 1863 {short description of image}

General Grant with his Union Army defeated General Braxton Bragg's Confederate Army of Tennesee forcing him to retreat into Georgia. The Union lost 5,153 killed and the Confederates had 6,663 killed.

   
  Battle of Monmouth Courthouse 28 June, 1778  {short description of image}

George Washington with units of the Continental Army attacked the rear of a retiring British force commanded by Sir Henry Clinton. As the battle initially was going against the Americans, Washington personally led a reserve in rallying and attacking.

Also{short description of image} the excellent article at britishbattles.com site. There is a famous painting of the battle.

 
  Battle of Momgahela 8 July, 1755 {short description of image}

This was the battle in Pennsylvania between French and Indian forces and General Braddock's British regulars and American militia units who were sent to push the French out of Fort Dusquense. The British reglars were used to fighting in Europe and were ambushed by the French and especially the Indians.

The battle and campaign is also described in entry on Braddock's Expedition and entry on his biography below.

 
  Battle of Nashville 15-16 Dec. 1864 {short description of image}

This battle at Nashville, Tennessee was part of the Franklin-Nashville Campaign. The Confederate Army of Tennessee commanded by John Bell Hood against the Union forces of General George H. Thomas. It was a decisive victory for Thomas and Hood's army was practically destroyed.

   
  Battle of Fort Necessity 3 July, 1754 {short description of image}

George Washington built this small 'fort' due to his expectation of French advance from Ft. Dusquense. It was not in a very suitable location for defense. The battle was fought in a rain storm and ended quickly when the French forced Washington to surrender and withdraw.

The battlefield is preserved along with a reconstruction of the 'fort'.

 
  Battle of Fort Niagara July 1759 {short description of image}

This was the British siege of the French fort during the French and Indian War.

See also the entry in Britishbattles.com

 
  Battle of Oriskany 6 August, 1777

{short description of image}

This battle took place near Fort Stanwix (near Rome New York) when a relief force of colonial militia and Oneida Indians, commanded by General Nicholas Herkimer, was ambushed by Tories and Mohawk and Seneca Indians. It was one of the bloodiest battles of the war. The Colonial militia suffered more casualties, but the Ft. Stanwix garrison raided the Tory camp forcing the British to withdraw. General Herkimer was wounded at the outset and died of the wound later. The battle was also significant in that it began a 'civil war' between the Iroqouis tribes.

The battlefield in a New York State and National Historic monument.

See also the entry in Britishbattles.com

 
  Battle of Fort Oswego August 1756 {short description of image}

This was the French under Moncalm capture of the British frontier fort during the French and Indian War. Montcalm took 1700 prisoners and 121 cannon. The subsequent Indian attempt to massacre the British should have alerted Moncalm that he must take strong measures to protect his prisoners when he captured Fort William Henry.

See also the entry in Britishbattles.com

 
  Battle of Fort Oswego 6 May, 1814 {short description of image}

This was a partially successful British raid on Fort Ontario near Oswego during the War of 1812.

   
  Battle of Point Pleasant 10 Oct. 1774 {short description of image}

The battle took place near modern Point Pleasant West Virginia, where the Kanawah River meets the Ohio River. when the Shawnee Indians lead by Cornstock attacked the Virginia militia camp. Lord Dunmore brought up a second militia unit and drove the Indians back. He then forced Cornstalk to sign a new treaty.

   
  Battle of Princeton 3 Jan. 1777 {short description of image}

This battle of the Revolutionary War took place after the victory at Trenton. General Washington had returned to Philidelpia but then decided to recross the Delaware and suprise a small British force at Princeton. The battle became famous because in the beginning the American militia was defeated and was retreating when Washington personally led reenforcements into action and won. From there he moved into winter quarters while the British evaculated southern New Jersey.

See also the entry in Britishbattles.com.

"The Death of General Mercer at Princeton" is a famous painting by John Trunbull. The equestrian statue of George Washington in Washington D.C. depicts him at the Battle of Princeton.

 
  Battle of Rio San Gabriel   {short description of image}

In the Mexican War

   
  Battle of San Jacinto   {short description of image}

In the Mexican War

   
  Battle of San_Pasquel   {short description of image}

In the Mexican War

   
  Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales 16 March, 1848 {short description of image}

The battle took place after the Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo had ended the Mexican War. American General Stirling Price - governor of captured New Mexico attacked the city despite being told the war had ended. He was then told to return all property and retire into the United States. He later commanded in battle for the Confederate States.

   
  Battles of Saratoga 19 Sept. & 7 Oct. 1777 {short description of image}

These battles were engagements linked in one operational - strategic campaign in which the British commanded by General Burgoyne were moving south from Canada toward New York to sever the New England colonies from the south and west along the Hudson River corridor. The British defeat not only was a critical victory for the Americans within the colonies but also and critical, it encouraged the French to become very active supporters, sending both land and naval forces to reenforce the Americans.

There were separate but linked battles at Freeman's Farm and Bemis Heights. The Wikipedia entry has extensive details on all aspects of the campaign.

 
  Battle (Capture) of Savannah 29 Dec. 1778 {short description of image}

There are four battles listed at Savannah, two in the Revolutionary and two in the Civil War. This is about the British successful capture by Lt. Col Archibald Campbell with 3,100 men against an inadequate patriot defense of 850 men.

See also the entry in Britishbattles.com

 
  Siege of Savannah 16 Sept. to Oct. 1779 {short description of image}

This was the patriot effort to recapture Savannah from the British occupying force. The effort failed. The battle is significant because there was a significant French military force from Haiti consisting of 5000 troops and 42 ships. This was one of the most important French battlefield contributions of the Revolutionary War. And also important is that Count Pulaski was killed.

The fort built much later to defend Savannah from the sea was named for Pulaski.

 
  Battle of Second Bull Run 28 - 30 August, 1862 {short description of image}

The battle was between General Robert E Lee's Army of Northern Virginia and Major General John Pope's Army of Virginia. The Confederates won.

   
  Battle of Seven Pines 31 May - 1 June, 1862 {short description of image}

The Battle took place during the Union PenninsulaCampaign. This was General George McClellan's effort to attack Richmond Virginia from the southeast from Fort Monroe. The Confederate defenders were commanded by General Joseph E. Johnston

   
  Battle of Summit Springs 11 July, 1869 {short description of image}

The battle took place south of Sterling, Colorado. Colonel Eugene Carr had 244 U.S. Soldiers and 50 Pawnee scouts. They attacked the Cheyenee village by surprise and the Pawnee (hereditary enemies of the Cheyenne) killed all they could including women and children.

Summit Springs is located in north-eastern Colorado, east of I-76 and south of the South Platte River.

 
  Battle of Fort Ticonderoga 8 July, 1758 {short description of image}

This battle is listed as Battle of Carillon because it was the British attack on the French defenders who had formed in front of their main field fortifications and the Britsh lost heavily in a frontal attack without artillery. The fort was renamed Ticonderoga after this battle

See also the entry in Britishbattles.com

 
  Battle of Fort Ticonderoga 26 July, 1759 {short description of image}

This was another British attack at Carillon, in the French and Indian War. This time British General Jeffrey Amherst brought 11,000 troops and occupied high ground outside Carillon with artillery. The French Garrison was compelled to abandon the fort and blow the power magazine. But the fort walls remained and Amherst occupied it and renamed it Ticonderoga.

See also the entry in Britishbattles.com

 
  Battle of Fort Ticonderoga 10 May, 1775 {short description of image}

This was the capture of the fort during the American Revolution by EthenAllen and his Green Mountain Boys. And Benedict Arnold. It was important because they then took the captured artillery to Boston to force the British withdrawal. And holding Ticonderoga enabled a Continental army advance toward Quebec. Arnold and Allen also captured Fort CrownPoint and removed its cannon.

   
  Battle of Fort Ticonderoga 2-6 July, 1777 {short description of image}

This took place when General Burgoyne was marching south toward Saratogaand invested the fort from high ground, just as the British had in 1759. American general Arthur St. Clair was forced to abandon the fort. This created a political storm. St. Clair was subjected to court martial but acquitted. But, it did cost him his career.

   
  Battle of Tippicanoe 17 Nov. 1811 {short description of image}

This battle took place in Indiana between the forces of Governor William Henry Harrison and the Shawnee Indians led by Tecumseh. Harrison was advancing to attack the Indian settlement when he was attacked by a larger force of Shawnee and others. The Americans stood on defense successfully while the Indians ran out of ammunition and had to withdraw. Harrison then burned their village and proclaimed himself the victor. The general situation in which the Americans accused the British of supplying Indians with ammunition and other goods increased tension leading to the War of 1812.

Meanwhile one of the related results was the Harrison received the nickname of 'Tippicanoe' which proved very helpful in his successful political campaign to become President.

 
  Battle of Trenton 26 Dec., 1776 {short description of image}

This was the surprise attack General Washington delivered after crossing the Delaware River from Philadelphia in dead of winter to rout and capture the Hessian garrison in Trenton. The small 'battle' was a critical victory.

See also the entry in Britishbattles.com

 
  Battle of Waxhaws 29 May, 1780 {short description of image}

The battle took place near Lancaster, South Carolina. it was between rebel Continental Army force led by Abraham Buford and loyalist units led by Banastre Tarleton. The battle was a confused affair with a truce but led to a massacre of the Continental troops.

   
  Battle of Wilson's Creek 10 Aug, 1861 {short description of image}

The battle was the first major one of the Civil War west of the Mississippi in Misouri. It was another battle in which General Sterling Price participated, this time as one of the Confederate commanders. The battle was generally inconclusive but the Confederates forced the Union army to retreat.

   
  Battle of White Plains 18 October, 1776 {short description of image}

This was a battle north of New York that resulted from General Washington retreating north from Manhattan while being pursued by the British under General Howe. The British won again but did not manage to prevent Washington from escaping across the Hudson into New Jersey and on to Philadelphia.

See also the entry in Britishbattles.com

 
  Battle of Yellow Tavern 11 May, 1864 {short description of image}

In this battle, part of the Overland Campaign. Union General Philip Sheridan with his cavalry engaged Confederate cavalry led by J. E. B. Stuart. Stuart was killed. Sheridan had 12,000 to Stuart's 5,000 to conduct his raid behind the Confederate lines toward Richmond. Sheridan won.

   
  Beauregard, P. G. T. 1818 - 1893 {short description of image}

He was born in Louisiana of French descent. He became a Confederate General - was the one who initiated the war by firing on Ft. Sumpter and then commanded Confederate forces at Manassas prior to First Bull Run battle. Later he commanded Confederate forces in the Western Theater.

   
  Beckley, John 1757 - 1807 {short description of image}

He was the manager of the first actual political party election campaign, that of Jefferson. He became a government clerk and was then rewarded with the designation as First Librarian of Congress

   
  Beckworth, James P 1798 - 1866 {short description of image}

He was a mulatto born in slavery in Virginiaan released by his owner. He moved far west into the Rocky Mountains and became a 'mountain man', fur trapper, explorer and legendary figure. He lived for years with the Crow Indians and found (among other things) Beckworth Pass through the Sierra Nevada mountains south west of Reno. He also fought in the Second Seminole War and was with Chivington at the Sand Creek Massacre in 1864. He also fought in Red Cloud's War. Actually he was everwhere. He worked for Charles Bent from 1840 and built trading posts. And helped suppress the Taos Revolt. He also was involved in the development of Pueblo, Colorado. In 1848 during the Gold Rush he was at Sonoma and then Sacramento, California. He died in Denver and is burried at Crow Indian place in Larimie, Wyoming.

He dictated a biography that was published in English and French in 1856. Amazing, he had yet 10 more years of adventure. But this book itself became an historical reference for the lives of 'mountain men'.

 
  Bedford, Gunning Jr. 1747 - 1812 {short description of image}

He was a leading lawyer in Delaware. There are 9 others with the same name. He graduated from College of New Jersey with classmate, James Madison. During the Revolution he was appointed Muster-master-general with the New York region. He served 4 terms in the Delaware General Assembly. In the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia he was a strong champion for the small states and then participated in the final compromise on the structure of the House and Senate.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Delaware.

 
  Beecher, Henry Ward 1813 - 1887 {short description of image}

He was a Congregational Miniser and abolitionist. He was the brother of Harriet Beecher Stowe

   
  Beecher, Lyman 1775 - 1863 {short description of image}

He was a Presbyterian Minister who lead in the Temperance movement

   
  Beekman, Gerardus 1653 - 1723 {short description of image}

He was acting govenor of New York in 1709 -1710.

   
  Belcher, Jonathan 1681 - 1757 {short description of image}

He was governor of New Jersey from 1747 to 1757. He aided the College of New Jersey. He fortified the upper Delaware River in defense in the French and Indian War. Thomas Pownall was appointed as his Lt. Governor (1755 - 1757) the first since Ingoldesby and last until the state recreated the office in 2010. Belcher died in office on 31 August 1757.

   
  Bell, John 1796 - 1869 {short description of image}

He was a well liked Tennessee, Whig politician who served in both U.S. House and Senate. He was briefly Secretary of War. He was the candidate for U.S. President of the Constitutional Union Party in 1860 as he sought to preserve the Union.

But after the attack on Ft. Sumpter, Bell joined the Confederate cause and tried to get Tennessee to join, but failed in that, after which he retired from politics.

 
  Benson, Egbert 1746 - 1833 {short description of image}

He was born in New York City, the son of Robert Benson in a family that descended from Dirck Benson who arrived in New Amsterdam in 1649. He graduated Kings College (Columbia) in 1765. He had many relatives who were officers in Army or Navy during the Revolution. He served as a leader in the New York legislature and in executive offices. He was delegate to the ContinentalCongress in 1784 and the AnnapolisConvention in 1786. He was elected to the House in the First and Second U.S. Congresses. He was appointed to the New York Court and then the U.S. Circuit Court.

He is listed among the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was the author of many books relating to the Revolution. He founded the New York Historical Society.

 
  Bent, Charles 1799 - 1847 {short description of image}

He was born in Charleston West Virginia. He moved with his parent's family to St. Louis. From there he established a remarkable frontier trading business with his brothers and Ceran St. Vrain. He traveled all over the plains from Texas and New Mexico to St. Louis and Wyoming. They built Bent's Fort on the Arkansas River. He and Kit Carson married local sisters in Taos, Ignacia and Josefa. With his brother, William, operating the business from their fort, Charles had his home in Taos and an office in Santa Fe. When General Kearny used the fort as an intermediate supply point he and Charles did much business. Then, after Kearny had taken Santa Fe and New Mexico without a fight he appointed Charles as Civil Governor of New Mexico while he continued on to California. Unfortunately the Army did not leave sufficient troops to suppress any rebels. In 1847 Mexican ring-leaders organized a revolt in which they obtained manpower assistance from the Pueblo Indians near Taos. The rebels attacked Americans over a wide area. Charles decided to go without military escort from Santa Fe to his home and family in Taos. There he was murdered by the Indians. (See Taos Revolt) His second in command, Sterling Price, soon brought artillery against the Pueblo town and suppressed the revolt. Besides those killed in the battle, the leaders were executed.

The Wikipedia entry is very short especially for such a renowned individual who played an important role in opening the west. Great detail about him is in David Lavender's book "Bent's Fort'.

 
  Bent, Charles 1847 - 1868

He was William Bent's son by Owl Woman, who died in childbirth and raised by his second wife, Yellow Woman, a Cheyenne princess. Rather than spend more time as a child with the white side he lived with his mother as a Cheyenne. He was present in the camp at Sand Creekwhen the massacre commanded by Chivington took place and as a result joined the Cheyenne 'dog soldiers' in relentless warfare on the U.S. Army and travelers. He was the leader of the attack on Julesburg.

He was wounded in a battle with Pawnees at Summit Springs and died of malaria in an Indian camp.

 
  Bent, Geoge (William's brother) 1814 -1847

He was raised in St. Louis and joined Charles and William at the fort in 1832.

   
  Bent, George (William's son) 1843- 1918 {short description of image}

He was born at his father's base, Bent's Fort, Colorado. He was raised by his mother, Owl Woman (daughter of the Cheyenee chief), with her relatives, but he also attended boarding school in St. Louis. His mother died about 1847. In the Civil War he was a member of the Missouri state guard in the Confederate Army and fought at the Battle of Wilson's Creek, the First Battle of Lexington and the Battle of Pea Ridge. He left the army and returned to St. Louis and then to his mother's family in the Cheyenee village. He and his brothers were in Black Kettle's camp at Sand Creek when Chivington conducted the massacre. From then on he and his brothers joined the Dog Soldiers and fought with the Cheyenne as they attacked white settlers throughout Colorado Nebraska, Wyoming and beyond. They fought at the Battle of Julesburg and other battles and raids. Charles was killed in 1867 at the Battle of Summit Springs. In 1867 George quit fighting and became a valuable interpreter for the U.S. Army. He spent the remainder of his life on the Cheyenne reservation in Oklahoma. He was interviewed by anthropoligists and authors and is cited as an important source for information about Cheyenne culture.. .

   
  Bent, Robert (Charles' and William's brother) d. 1841  

He was escorting a wagon train when he was attacked by Comanches and killed.

 
  Bent Robert (William's son) 1840

He was forced at gun point by Chivington to lead the Colorado militia group to the Cheyenne camp on Sand Creek and see the massacre. He testified at the investigation held at Denver.

   
  Bent, William 1809 - 1869 {short description of image}

He with his brothers Charles and George and Ceran St. Vrain established a remarkable trading business across the plains between St. Louis and Santa Fe (and Taos) Mexico centered on the adobe fort they built on the north bank of the Arkansas River in what is now South east Colorado. He married into the Cheyenne Nation with Owl Woman and became a sub-chief. They had two sons and two daughters. He was responsible for many negociations between the Cheyenne and Comanche and between the Indians and U.S. government. The Wikipedia entry on Owl Woman provides much more detail on life at Bent's Fort. After Owl Woman died in childbirth in 1847 William married her younger sister, Yellow Woman with whom he had two sons, Charles and George.

He is the central personality about which David Lavender weaves a very complex yet clearly deseribed story of the life and events in the opening southwest north of Texas between the 1820's and 1870. He continually exerted every effort to establish lasting peace between the competing Indian tribes and each other and between all of them and the U.S. government with little success..

 
  Bent, St. Vrain & Co. 1830 - 1849 {short description of image}

This originated as a fur trading company collecting the furs trapped by 'mountain men' and then shifted into general trading between St. Louis and Santa Fe and with the Plains Indians for buffalo hides. They were second only to the American Fur Company in income across the plains. The partners were Charles and William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain.

   
  Benton, Thomas H. 1782 - 1858 {short description of image}

He was a powerful politician (Senator) from Missouri who championed western expansion.

   
  Bent's Old Fort 1833 - 1852 {short description of image}

The fort was built in south eastern Colorado on the Arkansas River, then the border between the U.S. and Mexico as a trading post and supply depot for the fur trappers ranging through the Rocky Mountains and the Indians trading in Buffalo hides. It was built by Charles and William Bent and Ceran St. Vrain. The Wilipedia entry on Owl Womanprovides more detail about life at the fort.

It has been restored and opened as a National Historic Landmark. There are excellent books describing the fort's role in the fur trade and commerce on the Santa Fe Trail. In addition to being a base for trappers it was a main transit post for the company shipping business between St. Louis and Santa Fe.

 
  Bent's New Fort 1852 - 1857 {short description of image}

William Bent burned his old fort and built a new one of stone a few miles down the Arkansas River at a better location and near the Cheyenne camping grounds at Big Timbers.

The whole account of the Bent family, their fort and business and much more is told in David Lavender's excellent book - Bent'sFort. The fort is also included in Jolie Gallagher's book - "Colorado Forts"

 
  Berkeley family 17th - 18th Centuries {short description of image}

The barons were prominent Royalist supporters before, during and after the English Revolution. They were favorites of Kings Charles I and II.

   
  Berkeley, Lord John 1602 - 1678 {short description of image}

He was the 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton and he was Lord Propriator of Carolina and for a time also held partnership in New Jersey with George Carteret. He was a Royalist supporter of King Charles I and fled into exile. After the Restoration he was a favorite of King Charles II.

He was the eldest son of Sir Maurite Berkeley and Elizabeth Killigrew - they were both stockholders in the Virginia Company of London. There was also a John Berkeley 1560 - 1622 who was a member of the Virginia governor's council

 
  Berkeley, Lord John 1663 - 1697 {short description of image}

He was the 3rd Baron Berkeley of Straton, succeeding his elder brother, Charles, who was 2nd Baron. Their father was John, 1st Baron.

   
  Berkeley, William 1605 - 1677 {short description of image}

He was governor of Virginia (1641 - 1652) after the Restoration again (1660 - 1677), and Lord Propriator of Carolina as a favorite of King Charles II. He attempted to promote friendship with the Indians, which was opposed by many frontier colonists. This led to Bacon's Rebellion, which he suppressed with so much violence that he was recalled by King Charles..

He parents were Sir Maurice Berkeley and Elizabeth Killigrew. He was the younger brother of John Berkeley, who became 1st Baron of Stratton. He attempted to grow silk worms and many other crops in Virginia to expand the economy beyond tobacco.

 
  Beverley, Robert 1667 - 1722 {short description of image}

He was a Virginia planter, whose plantation consisted of at least 37,000 acres. He was educated in England, married the sister of William Byrd II. He was active in politics and served in the Virginia House of Burgesses, representing Jamestown. He wrote an early history of Virginia.

   
  Biddle, Charles 1745 - 1821 {short description of image}

He was a Pennsylvania politician and the father of Nicholas Biddle.

   
  Biddle, Nicholas 1786 - 1844 {short description of image}

He was the President of the Second Bank of the United States and adversary of President Andrew Jackson.

   
  Big Timbers  

This is the location William Bent chose to build his second fort, a stone structure, because it was a favorite place for the Cheyenne to camp since it had an unusual amount of trees as well as water.

Big Timbers is located on the eastern border of Colorado with Kansas, on theArkansas River. There is a museum there.

 
  Bills of Credit   {short description of image}

A commercial document - these are, in effect unredeemable paper money. They are used by government to borrow money by increasing the money supply. The result of issuing such bills is to reduce the value of the money in circulation. The States are prohibited by the Constitution to issue such bills, and the United States government is not authorized to issue them.

Such bills were issued by the Colonial governments with the results indicated. This is why they are prohibited by the Constitution. However, now, the Federal Reserve creates credit with a similar result through the banking system.

 
  Bill of Rights 1787 - 88 {short description of image}

This is the popular name for the first 10 Amendments to the U. S, Constitution. The battle in the colonies over ratification of the Constitution proceeded with the colonial legislatures demanding various additional 'rights' for the people and states.

James Madison proposed that the demands of the state legislatures be met by inserting clauses Inside the Constitution as appropriate. He submitted 12 such amendments. But the Congress changed the idea to adding these as individual amendments. Of the 12, clauses 3 to 12 were ratified by the states as Amendments 1 through 10.

 
  Birney, James G. 1792 - 1851 {short description of image}

He was born in Kentucky and moved to Alabama, then Ohio and finally Michigan. Initially, from youth, he was a slave-holder but then became a strong abolitionist. He was a politician, publisher, lawyer, real estate developer and civic philanthropist. For a time he was active in the American Colonization Society advocating movement of Blacks to Africa, but then switched to demanding full abolition.

He was presidential candidate of the Liberty Party in 1840 and 1844

 
  Birney, James, M. 1817 - 1888 {short description of image}

He was son of James G. He was also a lawyer, newspaper publisher, politician and developer. He was born in Kentucky, then moved with his father eventually to Michigan. He was Republican state senator, Lt. Governor, court judge and active in national politics.

   
  Bishop, Abraham 1763 - 1844 {short description of image}

He was a prolific author and orator from Conn. and strong supporter of Thomas Jefferson.

   
  Black Codes 1865 - and subsequetly {short description of image}

These were laws adopted by the white governments in the former Confederate states to suppress the rights of African-American former slaves. They were modeled on the pre-war 'slave codes' and limited the former slaves in many ways. But a general result was passage of 'vagrancy laws' whereby the Blacks could be charged and tried for most any kind of 'offense'. Then once becoming convicted criminals they could be forced into low paying work - thus avoiding the prohibitions of the Constitutional amendments.

   
  Blackfoot Indians   {short description of image}

The confederacy is comprised of four bands, three in Canada and one in Montana. In the 18th and 19th centuries, after they obtained horses and firearms, the Blackfoot expanded their territory at the expense of other tribes. They mainly fished and hunted buffalo. In the winter they sheltered in villages in the forests and in summer they moved onto the plains to hunt. After about 1730 they rapidly acquired horses which became the prized possession. Raiding other Indians was considered a valient activity. Their main enemies were the Crow, Cheyenne and Lakota to the east and Nez Perce and Shoshone to the west. Early contact with the Hudson's Bay Company resulted in extensive trade for beaver pelts. They chose to remain out of the Indian Wars and refused to help when the Lakota asked for it. But later the U.S. cavalry massacred they anyway, When the buffalo were nearly wiped out by white intruders the Blackfoot had to accept Canadian and U.S. Government reservations and learn farming.

The Wikipedia article provides a detailed discussion of the languages and geneology of the tribes and the members.

 
  Black Hawk War 1832 {short description of image}

Black Hawk was a Sauk tribal leader whose rebellion was short lived but had significant consequences. The 'war' began when Black Hawk moved his tribe from Iowa territory into Illinois (probably peacefull intent) but was fired on by settlers. He then retaliated by defeating the whites at Battle of Stillman's Run. But the Indians were driven into Wisconsin where they were defeated and then virtually destroyed at Battle of WisconsinHeights and Battle of Bad Axe . Eventually Black Hawk was captured and served briefly in prison

Abraham Lincoln, Winfield Scott, Zachary Taylor and Jefferson Davis all saw service in this brief war.

 
  Black Kettle 1803- 1868 {short description of image}

He was born in the Black Hills of South Dakota but moved into southern Colorado with his tribe. He was a great leader of the Southern Cheyenne who did his best to maintain peace between the Indians and white settlers and U.S. Army. In 1854 he was made president of the central council of the Cheyenne. The relations between the Cheyenne and U.S. were governed by the provisions of the Treaty of Fort Larmiewhich guaranteed extensive hunting lands to the Indians. The Southern Cheyenne had their main villages along the Arkansas River and traded extensively with William Bent at his Bent's Fort. But the government did not enforce the treaty and especially after gold was discovered in Colorado the area was flooded by prospectors rushing across into the mountains and decimating the critical bufallo on the way. In 1864 Colonel Chivington sought political advancement by conducting the infamous massacre of the Cheyenne at Sand Creek north of Fort Lyon on the Arkansas. Black Kettle barely escaped this outrage although his wife was badly wounded. The government convened an investigation at Denver which Black Kettle attended, still working for peace. He managed to obtain a new Treaty of the Little Arkansas River in 1865 but this again was broken by the U.S. Government. The Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 was also broken. General Sheridan sent Custer with the 7th Cavalry to attack Black Kettle. In 1868 while trying to escape the Battle of Washita River he was shot in the back by soldiers of the 7th Cavalry.

There is an area in western Oklahoma named for him. And there is a Black Kettle museum near where he was killed. The result of Chivington's and Custer's unprovoked destruction of the Southern Cheyenne camps was a generation of renewed warfate. The Cheyenne moved north into Wyoming. But joined the Lakota to continue warfare. The Cheyenne cavalry formed a major part of the Indian force that killed Custer at the Little Big Horn.

 
  Black Watch, The 1739 - on {short description of image}

The Black Watch - that is the 42nd Regiment of Foot - The Royal Highlanders, fought in North America and the West Indies in the French and Indian War - Seven Year's War - and American Revolution. Originally raised at the 43rd Regiment in 1748 they were renumbered as the 42nd. The fought in many battles but are especially noted for their heroic storming of Ft. Carillonin 1758, where they had over 50% casualties, and their battle of BushyRun in 1762, during Henry Bouquet's 'Highlanders relief of Ft. Pitt'.

See also {short description of image}for a detailed chronology of their service and {short description of image}for their current web page.

During the American Revolution they fought at LongIsland - HarlamHeights - Fort Washington- Brandywine- Germantown- Monmouth - and Charleston.

 
  Bladensburg, Battle of 1814 {short description of image}

British victory over American defenders of Washington D. C. after which the British burned many public buildings in the city.

   
  Bland, Richard 1710 - 1776 {short description of image}

His father, Richard Bland I, was a member of the highest level of Virginia families and first arrived in Virginia in 1654. They built both the Berkeley and Westover plantations which are still functioning today. He was a Virginia planter and statesman - a cousin of Thomas Jefferson. And by marriages he was related to the Randolph and Lee families. He attended college in Virginia and Scotland. He was admitted to the bar in 1746. He sat in the House of Burgesses for years. He wrote many articles opposing Parliament's laws, but initially still believed that reconciliation was possible. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress (Firstand Second) from 1774 to 1775

   
  Blair, Francis Preston 1791 - 1876 {short description of image}

He was a journalist, newspaper editor with significant political influence

His son, Francis Blair Jr. was a politician in Missouri.

 
  Blair, John, Jr. 1732 - 1800 {short description of image}

He was a lawyer and considered to be one of the best trained jurists in the colonies. He provided Virginia support for Madison as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He served as judge on the Virginia Court of Appeals and was governor during the Revolutionary War. George Washington appointed him to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1789 on which he is credited with making singificant decisions.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Virginia. He is considered to be one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

 
  Blair, John, Sr. 1687 - 1771 {short description of image}

He was the father of John Jr. He was a prosperous merchant and politician in Virginia. He was a member of the House of Burgesses and four times acting governor during absences of the governor.

   
  Blount, William 1749 - 1800 {short description of image}

He was a major speculator in western lands (Tennessee) and politician. During the Revolution, he was a paymaster. He was at the Siege of Charleston and Battle of Camden. He was a delegate to the ContinentalCongress in 1782 and to the Constitutional Conventionin 1789. He spent much time and effort going back and forth to the Congress in New York and his land holdings in North Carolina and the future Tennessee. He was appointed by President Washington as the Governor of the new Southwest Territory in 1790 when North Carolina gave it to the U.S. and established his capital at Knoxville. In 1791 he arranged the Treaty of Holstonwith the Cherokee Chief John Watts. He then proceeded to organize the necessary conditions by which Tennessee could become a State. He was U.S. Senator from the new Tennessee in 1796

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from North Carolina. He is listed as a Declaration Signer. {short description of image}
In 1796 he organized a conspiracy to manipulate land in Lousiana with the British. A damaging letter was found and he was impeached in Congress but resigned and escaped to Tennessee. His mansion home in Knoxville is in the Register of Historic placs and is a National Historic Landmark.

 
  Bolingbroke, Lord Henry 1678 - 1751 {short description of image}

He was a Tory political leader in Parliament who supported the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715.

He is best known as a political philosopher

 
  Boone, Daniel 1734 - 1820 {short description of image}

He became a legendary hero. He was indeed a pioneer, explorer, Kentucky fur trapper. He opened the WildernessRoad through the CumberlandGap.

He founded Boonsborough in Kentuckey - soon after, he was captured by Shawnee Indians, escaped, and warned about coming Indian attacks.
The Cumberland Gap is a lovely tourist destination today.

 
  Boone, Thomas   {short description of image}

He was appointed governor of New Jersey in 1759 but did not arrive until May 1760. In 1761 he was moved to be appointed Governor of South Carolina.

   
  Booth, John W. 1838 - 1865 {short description of image}

He was an actor and then the assassin of President Abraham Lincoln in Ford's Theater in D.C.

He was a Confederate sympathizer - was tracked down and shot.

 
  Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 {short description of image}

This event took place during a local mob confrontation with British soldiers in which several colonists were killed or wounded. It was widely publicized by Sam Adams and Paul Revere which generated hightened colonial revolutionary activity thoroughout the colonies.

The soldiers were defended in court by John Adams.

 
  Boston Port Act 1774 {short description of image}

One of the "intollerable Acts" that were the British response to the "Boston Massacre"

   
  Boston Tea party Dec. 16, 1773 {short description of image}

This was a major event in the movement of American colonists to revolution. It has become almost a mythological story in our history books but it was much more complicated than usually described. It is an example of government efforts to tax, to impose mercantilist political - economic measures and simply to assert authority and power. Specifically it also was about the economic interests of American smugglers of tea whose prices, even though not taxed, became undercut by the official prices of the East India Company, after it was subsidized by British government acts.

Some further references include the TownshendRevenue Tax of 1767 and the Tea Act. The event was triggered by the British Parliament and Lord North attempting to solve two financial problems at once - that of the Government budget from the Seven Year's War and that of the British East India Company pending bankrupty from loss of income in India and from sale of tea.

 
  Bouquet, general Henry 1719 - 1765 {short description of image}
see also {short description of image}

He was a Swiss military officer who served in Dutch and then British armies. He was sent to America and fought during the French and Indian War. During that war he led the British campaign against Fort Duquesneand defeated an Indian ambush at Loyalhamma Creek, near which he later built Ft. Ligonier. Then his most famous campaign was to lead the relief expedition to break and Indian siege of Fort Pitt during Pontiac's Rebellion - and then lead a further campaign into central Ohio area that ended the conflict. His tactics in Indian fighting became the model for subsequent engagements. Unfortunately, he died suddenly of Yellow Fever during his reassignment to command British forces in Florida.
His personal accounts have been republished frequently and are considered the best description of the period. They are available on the Internet.

His victory over a mass Indian ambush and battle at Bushy Run (see Battle of) is also known as the "Highlander's Relief of Ft Pitt" as his force of 438 soldiers plus civilian teamsters consisted mostly of sub-units of the 42nd Foot (the Black Watch) and the 77th Foot (Mongomery Highlanders) plus elements of the 60th Foot, RAR - his Royal American Regiment.

As part of his methodical campaign to capture Fort Duquesne, Bouquet not only built the Forbes' Road but constructed forts along the way to protect it - Forts Bradford, Fort Ligonier and Fort Littletonand then he built the new Fort Pittto replace Fort Duquesne.
These forts are today reconstructions and tourist destinations.

 
  Bowen, Catherine D. 1897=1973 {short description of image}

She was prize winning biographer.

   
  Braddock, Edward 1695 - 1755 {short description of image}

He was a British professional soldier and Commander in Chief of all British forces in North America. Nevertheless, he chose to personally lead an expedition to push the French out of the Ohio Valley in the French and Indian War. He advanced from western Virginia northwest through Maryland. He was killed in an ambush a few miles short of reaching Ft. Duquesne. George Washington participated in this campaign.

The successful British campaign to take Fort Duquesne was led by the famous Indian fighter, Colonel Henry Bouquet, who advanced directly from Carlisle west, buiding a road as he went. At that the French destroyed the fort and the British rebuilt one naming it Ft. Pitt. There is a memorial museum to Braddock's campaign at the site of the battle and there are articles and videos about it on the Internet

 
  Braddock's Campaign 9 July 1755 {short description of image}

This web site has articles on dozens of British battles listed along the left side. Scroll to Braddock's defeat and find 11 essays with multiple paintings and maps the describe the entire situation and course of the campaign in great detail.

This link {short description of image}is to the Wikipedia article on the expediion. It is also discussed as the Battle of the Monongahela.

 
  Bradford, William 1590 -1657 {short description of image}

He was a Puritan who opposed the Church of England and became a leader and governor of Plymouth Colony. He signed the Mayflower Compact.

There is an amazing number of his descendents listed down to famous people today.

 
  Bradford, William 1663 -1762 {short description of image}

He was born in England into a family of printers. They emigrated to Philidelphia in 1685 and established the first printing press in 1686. He was repeatedly repromanded and jailed there for printing articles the Quakers did not like. So he moved to New York. He established the first printing press in New York in 1693 and the first news paper in 1725.

His family and descendents continued in the printing business. Benjamin Franklin applied to him in New York and was sent on to his son in Philadelphia. Peter Zenger was one of his apprentices for a time.

 
  Bradstreet, Anne 1612 - 1672 {short description of image}

She was born in England, daughter of Thomas Dudley, and married Simon Bradstreet. They came to New England in 1630 during the Great Puritan Migration. She was a famous poet. In 1650 a collection of her poems was published in London.

   
  Bradstreet, John 1714 - 1774 {short description of image}

He was born in Nova Scotia and entered the British Army in 1735. During King George's War he was captured by the French and held a year. He developed plans to capture Fort Louisbourg which was achieved in 1747.
Like so many other later well known British officers he participated in the disaster at Fort Carillon. But in 1775 he had success as separate commander at Fort Oswegoand then again by burning Fort Frontenac. He was promoted Colonel in 1764 and sent by Lord Amherst to relieve Fort Detroit during Pontiac's Rebellion. There his dealings with the Indians were considered negatively by British headquarters, thus harming his career. But he was promoted Major General in 1772 anyway. He is most renouned for successfully organizing the bateau transport system on New York rivers and lakes that was essential in moving large quantities of supplies needed for British campaigns toward the Great Lakes.

   
  Bradstreet, Simon 1603 - 1677 {short description of image}

He was a business man who because the Last Governor of Colonial Massachussets.

His father, William, lived 1580 - 1661

 
  Bragg, Braxton 1817 - 1876 {short description of image}

He was from North Carolina and a graduate of West Point. He served in the Mexican war, especially at the Battle of Buena Vista. He retired in 1856 to become a Lousiana sugar plantation owner. At the Civil War he was called to be a Confederate general. He commanded a corps at Shilohand then was commander of the Army of Mississippi, and then the Army of Tennessee. He led at the Battle of Pereyville and Stones River were he lost. He won at Chickamauga due to arrival of Longstreet's Corps

He was personally aggresive and much disliked by subordinates and superiors. Finally he was recalled to Richmond in 1864-65 to be military advisor and then to lead the defense of Wilmington. Now historians rate him one of the worst of the very seniour generals in the war.

 
  Braxton, Carter 1736 - 1797 {short description of image}

He was a member of a very long, wealthy, and powerful Virginia landed aristocracy from his grandfather, Robert "King" Carter (1662 - 1732) to many descendents who fought for the Confederacy in the Civil War. He was a representative in Virginia House of Burgesses from King William County in 1761 and also county sheriff, and colonel in militia and vestryman. In 1775 he was sent to the Continental Congress. During the Revolution he invested and donated money to the cause. He lost 1/2 of his 14 ships and lost loans to Robert Morris whom he sued. At one time he owned 12,000 acres and 165 slaves, but after the war was much poorer.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Virginia. He is listed as a signer. {short description of image}Many of his descendents served as officers in the Confderate army.

 
  Bray, Thomas 1656 - 1730 {short description of image}

He was born in England and moved to Maryland as a minister of the Church of England for the Bishop of London. Although he did not remain in the colonies he is credited with establishing libraries.

   
  Brearley, David 1745 - 1790 {short description of image}

During the Revolution he was a colonel in the New Jersey Continental Line at Brandywine, Germantownand Monmouth. He then was a justice in the New Jersey Supreme Court. He was a delagate to the ConstitutionalConvention. There he was a member of the committee that wrote the final draft - fleshing out details on procedures and specifics. He died while in office as a Justice appointed by President Washington to a Federal District Court.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from New Jersey. He is listed here. {short description of image}

 
  Breckenridge, J. C. 1821 - 1875 {short description of image}

He was a lawyer and politician from Kentucky who was for 'states' rights' and was the candidate for U.S. president of the Southern wing of the Democratic Party in 1860. When the Civil War began he joined the Confederate army, fought at the Battle of Shiloh(loosing) and in others with some successes.

He was the 14th and youngest Vice President of the U.S., 1857 - 1861. He became a major general in the Confederate Army and in 1865 was appointed Confederate Secretary of War.

 
  Breed's Hill, battle on 1775 {short description of image}

The actual location of the engagement known as Battle of Bunker Hill.

Tbe battle is also listed here. {short description of image}

 
  Brewster, William 1568 - 1644 {short description of image}

He was a leader of the Puritans who crossed on the Mayflower and then became a leader of Plymoth Colony.

   
  Bridger, Jim 1804 - 1851 {short description of image}

He was a 'mountain man' They were the independent trappers and explorers of the far west - Rocky Mountains clear to California and Oregon who later led American settlers west.

   
  Bridge, John 1578 - 1665 {short description of image}

He was a leader in Cambridge, Mass. in 1632.

   
  British Orders in Council 1783 - 1807 {short description of image}

These were executive orders from the British King's Council that gave instructions on economic warfare against Napoleon. The orders of 1807 were especially offensive to the Americans over their shipping regulations.

   
  Broad Construction  

This term is a phrase used to describe a position toward interpreting the Constitution. It favors considerable latitude in constructing the powers of the government. Hence, a broad construction is used in an effort to expand the powers of the Federal govenment under the Constitution. It usually makes use of the idea of implied powers.

Today this is considered as 'judicial activism' as opposed to strict construction. The term was used during the Civil War.

 
  Brockholls, Anthony c. 1656 {short description of image}

He was the English Commander in Chief of military forces in the colonies and acting Governor of New York (1681 - 1683)

   
  Broom, Jacob 1752 - 1810 {short description of image}

He was a farmer, surveyor and local politician including various offices up to city mayor. His Quaker pacifism prevented him from serving in the armed forces but as surveyor he prepared maps for General Washington. His neighbors sent him to the state legislature from which, in turn, the representatives sent him to the Constitutional Convention. He was an advocate for a strong central government. He returned to Delaware and continued to be active in local politics and business and support of education.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Delaware. He is listed here. {short description of image}

 
  Brown, Albert Gallatin 1813 - 1880 {short description of image}

He was a Mississippi politician who held many offices and was especially popular as state governor - 1844-48. He was a strong supporter of slavery.

   
  Brown, Jacob 1775 - 1828 {short description of image}

He was a civilian living in upstate New York but in the militia when the War of 1812 began. He rapidly rose in rank and command with major wins to become major general. And after the war he remained a M.G. and was appointed the Commadning General of the U.S. Army in 1821.

Among his victories were the Battle of Sacket's Harbor and Battle of Chippawa. He was wounded in the Battle of Lundy's Lane.

 
  Brown, John 1800 - 1859 {short description of image}

He was an 'abolitionist' who lead raids and battles in Kansas and then sought to generate a slave rebellion by siezing the US government arsenal at Harper's Ferry Virginia. He was captured by Robert E. Lee and executed.

   
  Brown, Moses 1738 - 1836 {short description of image}

He financed some of the first American factories with spinning machines. He was an abolitionist and co-founder of Brown University. He is considered one of the leading developers of the Industrial Revolution in the United States.

   
  Bryant, William C. 1794 - 1878 {short description of image}

He was a poet and journalist and also newspaper editor active in politics.

   
  Buchanan, James B. 1791- 1868 {short description of image}

He was the last President born in the 18th Century and the only President to be a life-long bachelor.

He was the 15th President of the United States

 
  Buren, Martin van 1782 - 1862 {short description of image}

He was a lawyer and politician in New York Stte. He spoke Dutch and is only president to speak English as a 2nd language. He entered politics very young and served in may offices. He is credited with creating and organizing the modern Democratic Party while serving to assist Andrew Jackson.

He was the 8th VP of the U.S. 1833 - 37 and Sec of State, 1829-31. He was also the 8th President of the United States. He attempted to continue Jackson's policies through the Panicof 1837, but was defeated for re-election in 1840 by William Henry Harrison. In 1844 he lost to James K. Polkin the Democrat party nomination. In 1848 he ran again for the Free Soil Partyand lost.

 
  Bunker Hill, battle   {short description of image}

The main American position was actually on Breed's Hill, but this name stuck in the hisory books.

There is an excellent, animated map on the Internet.

 
  Burden, Henry 1791 - 1871 {short description of image}

He was born in Scotland and immigrated to U.S. in 1819. He was an engineer and business man who built the Burden Iron Works in Troy, New York. He improved iron plows and invented a cultivator. He invented a machine for mass producing horse shoes that was adopted world wide. He also invented production of rail road spikes that greatly assisted in the building of railroads

Benton Iron Works is now a historical landmark and museum.

 
  Burgoyne, General John 1722 - 1792 {short description of image}

He was a British general who fought in the Seven Year's War in Europe. Assigned to lead a campaign in the American Revolution he conceived of plan to invade from Canada. He and his army were trapped in the Battles at Saratoga N.Y. and forced to surrender.

After the war he became a play wright and Member of Parliament.

 
  Burke, Edmund 1729 - 1797 {short description of image}

He was an Irish political leader and political theorist who became a Whig MP and was pro=American colonists.

He wrote and spoke against the excesses of the French Revolution. He remains a favorite 'conservative' theoretician.

 
  Burnet, William 1687 - 1729 {short description of image}

He was governor (1720 - 1727) of New York and New Jersey until shifted to be governor of Massachusetts and New Hampshire.

   
  Burnside, Ambrose. E. 1824 - 1881 {short description of image}

He graduated from West Point in 1847 and became a Union general in the Civil War- He was successful leading brigades, such as at Antietam, and at Knoxville, but failed as commanding general at the Battle of Fredericksburg and when leading the assault on the Crateroutside Portsmouth.

He became famous for his extravant facial hair, from which the term 'side burns' was derived . After the war he was president of the National Rifle Association

 
  Burr, Aaron 1756 - 1836 {short description of image}

He was born in New Jersey and graduated from Princeton whose president was his father. He studied law and served in the Continental Army during the Revolution.

He was elected Vice President in 1800 as a Republican. He killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel and was charged with treason over his escapade on the Ohio River but was acquitted.

 
  Bushy Run, Battle 1763 {short description of image}

See Battle of Bushy Run (above) The decisive British defeat of Indians while relieving their siege of Ft. Pitt during Pontiac's Rebellion.

Also known as "The Highlander's Relief of Ft. Pitt" or Bouquet's relief of Ft. Pitt. There is a park that preserves the site of the battlefield - also paintings, and even movies on YouTube for reenactments in 2017 and earlier.

 
  Bushnell, Horace 1802 - 1876 {short description of image}

He was an influential Congregational Minister.

   
  Butler, Benjamin F. 1818 - 1893 {short description of image}

He was a lawyer who became a Union general during the Civil War and was much detested for his actions against civilians.

   
  Butler, Pierce 1744 - 1822 {short description of image}

He was a wealthy slave owning plantation leader in South Carolina who was very active politically in the Congress and the ConstitutionalConvention. He advocated for the 3/5 count of slaves in allocating state votes. He became a U.S. Senator from South Carolina.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from South Carolina. he is listed here. {short description of image}

 
  Butte, Lord John 1713 - 1792 {short description of image}

He was a Tory politician with family connections and with many offices on Parliament - finally was Prime Minister 1762 - 1763. He was a favorite of King George III. He was attempting to improve British finances after the Seven Hear"s War but King George changed his views and Butte was on the outs.

   
  Byrd, William I 1652 - 1704 {short description of image}

He was born in London. His father was a goldsmith. he moved to Virginia in 1669. He was granted 1,200 acres. He took part in Nathaniel Bacon's Rebellion. He also built the James River Fort. He became wealthy and expanded his planations which he left to his son..

   
  Byrd, William II 1679 - 1744 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and educated in England. He was a plantation owner in Virginia and founder of Richmond. He served in the House of Burgesses. He commanded militia regiments and led surveying expeditions west. he promoted bringing Swiss settlers to Virginia.

   
  Byrd, William III 1728-1777 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and inherited a huge estate from his father and grand father. But he chose military service rather than much politics in the House of Burgesses. He fought in the Fench and Indian War. He voluntered to lead the new Virginia militia regiment in 1758. He and George Washington were with General Forbes on his campaign against Fort Dusquense. In 1759 Virginia only raised one regiment and William Byrd commanded it for further operations at Fort Pitt, but Pennsylvania objected to having that critical fort controlled by Virginians In1761 he commanded Virginia.s regiment in the war against the Creeks, Chickasaw, Catawa and Iroquois in the Carolinas and west. He built 80 miles of road between Chiswell's Fort on Virginia's border and the Holston River in North Carolina. Because of the Amsterdam financial panic in 1763 Byrd lost over 20,000 pounds of debt, while Washington beingmore astute lost only 2000. In 1767 he was involved with many other southern Virginia planters in huge financial disaster from the Robinson financial losses due to failured to collect taxes..

He had 5 children with his first wife and 10 more with his second wife. Hi lost most of his property from expenses or gambling and committed suicide in 1777.

 
  Cabal  

A group of persons engged in more or less secret intribues. The Radicals who controlled Congress during Reconstruction did so sometimes by preparing their positions in advance in exclusive meetings with one another. The Committee of Fifteen took on some of the aspectes of a cabal.

   
  Cabot, George 1572 - 1632 {short description of image}

He was a British noble supporter of King Charles I - see also entry for George Calvert.

 
  Cabot, John 1450 - 1498 {short description of image}

He was born in Genoa, Italy (name Govanni Caboto) but moved to England to pursue his idea of sailing west to reach the Orient. He sailed for the King of England and claimed lands of the coast of what is now Canada.

   
  Calhoun, John C. 1782 - 1850 {short description of image}

He was from South Carolina, and one of the most prominant and powerful politicians in pre-Civil War America. He was vociferous champion of 'states; rights' and fought against tariff's and for slavery.

He was the 7th Vice President of the United States. He is still attacked politically today as the champion of slavery.

 
  Callander, James 1758 - 1803 {short description of image}

He was a politically active journalist and publisher.

   
  Calvert, Benedict 1679 - 1715 {short description of image}

He became the 4th Baron Baltimore in 1715, second son of Charles, the 3rd Baron. His father, Charles the 3rd Baron lost his title as Proprietary Governor of Maryland due to being Catholic. He was serving in the army of King James II when he was outlawed for being Catholic. In 1713 he converted to Protestanism in order to regain his titles. But this infurited his father, Charles, still 3rd Baron Baltimore. So when George I became king Benedict Leonard applied for reenstatement, which was granted to him as 4th Baron, but he died soon after. King George restored the Proprietary ship to his son, Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore.

   
  Calvert, Benedict Leonard 1700 -1732 {short description of image}

He was the 15th Proprietary Goveror of Maryland in 1727, appointed by is elder brother, Charles the 5th Baron replacing Captain Charles. He died early while on a ship.

   
  Calvert, Cecilius 1605 - 1675 {short description of image}

He was the eldest son of George Calvert (Cabot) and became 2nd Baron Baltimore on the death of his father. He became lord proprietor of Maryland and governed by proxy through Leonard. They had to struggle through the results of the English Civil War which included repeated conflicts in the colony between Puritans, regular Protestants and Catholics, plus those between Virginians and Marylanders.

   
  Calvert, Charles 1637 -1714 {short description of image}

He was the son of Cecil and the 3rd Baron Baltimore. He had to struggle through the results of the Glorious Revolution that exiled his patron, King James II and brought in King William III and Mary.

   
  Calvert, Charles 1699 - 1751 {short description of image}

He was the son of Benedict Calvert and became the 5th Baron Baltimore and the 18th proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland upon the death of his father in 1715.

   
  Calvert, Captain Charles 1688 - 1731 {short description of image}

He was the 14th Proprietary Governor of Maryland 1720 - 1722. when the family had recently regained control. He was appointed Governor by his cousin, Charles, 5th Baron Baltimore.

   
  Calvert, Sir George 1572 - 1632 {short description of image}

He was made a peer from Ireland with title 1st Baron Baltimore. He was given by King Charles I, first the proprietorship over a colony to be founded in Newfoundland. When climate proved that unatractive the title was moved to Maryland. But he died before taking possesion. (see Cecilius)

 
  Calvert, Leonard 1606 - 1647 {short description of image}

He was the second son of George Calvert and became the proprietory governor of Maryland as the local agent for his half brother, Cecil..

   
  Calvinism   {short description of image}

Also termed "Reformed Tradition". It was one of the major religious doctrines in colonial America.

   
  Calvin, John 1509 - 1564 {short description of image}

He was a French theologian who moved to Switzerland. He was a prolific author of doctrines opposing Catholicism which formed the basis of Calvinism.

   
  Camberling, Churchill 1786 - 1862 {short description of image}

He was a New York State politician.

   
  Canary Islands   {short description of image}

The group of islands 100 km west of Morocco. It was known from Phonecian, Greek and Roman times. The islands were occupied by the Spanish beginning in 1402. They became a main stopping point for Spanish galleons for using the northwest trade winds to reach America. The Wikipedia entry is extensive.

   
  Canning, George 1730 - 1827 {short description of image}

He was a Tory Member of Parliament who held various cabinet positions. He was Foreign Secretary who supported the Monroe Doctrine. He opposed the European powers and their Holy Alliance.

   
  Cannon, James 1740 - 1782 {short description of image}

He was a Scot who moved to the Colonies and became a leader in Revolution and the Constitutional Convention.

   
  Capital   {short description of image}

The term refers to one of the elements of production in economic theory, and refers to wealth used to produce goods. It may be money, buildings, machinery, raw materials, or other. Capital goods are also described as productive as opposed to consumer goods.

Capital is creaed by retained income from production, that is when not all that which is produced is consumed but some is retained for the purpose of use in increasing future production

 
  Carlyle, Thomas 1795 - 1851 {short description of image}

He was a Scotish philosopher

   
  Carpetbaggers   {short description of image}

A Northerner who came into the South after the Civil War seeking his fortune. Carpetbaggers were usually despised by southern whites because they took advantage of Reconstruction programs to gain wealth and political power while claiming to help the freed slaves.

The pejorative term came from southern notice of the cheap, carpet made, luggage of these interlopers.

 
  Carroll, Charles 1738 - 1832 {short description of image}

He was a very wealthy Catholic land owner in Maryland who signed the Declaration of Independence as Charles Carroll of Carrollton and became a U.S. Senator.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as a delegate from Maryland. He is listed as a signer. {short description of image}

 
  Carroll, Daniel 1730 - 1796 {short description of image}

He was a member of the wealthy and extensive Carroll family. Charles Carroll was a cousin and his younger brother, John, was first Catholic Bishop of Baltimore and founder of Georgetown Univ. He supported the Revolution financially. He was a delegate to both the Confederation Congress and the Constitutional Convention, He is one of only five signers of both the Articles of Confederation and Constitution. At the Convention in Philadelphia he supported a strong federal government with his friends Washington and Madison. Returning home, he was active in Maryland politics until his death.

He signed the Articles of Confederation and he signed the U.S. Consitution as a delegate from Maryland. He is listed here. {short description of image}

 
  Carroll, John 1735 - {short description of image}

He was a brother of Daniel Carroll. He studied at the Jesuit's College of St. Omer in Flanders. In 1753 he entered the novitiate in preparation to becoming a Jesuit priest. He was ordained in 1771. In 1773 Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) much to Carroll's dismay. But he returned to Maryland in 1774 where he established the first Catholic parish in America. In 1776 he was a member, along with Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase, of a delegatin sent by the Continentqal Congress to Canada in hopes of persuading the Canadians to join in rebellion. Tbe idea was that having a Catholic priets along might persuade the Catholics in Quebec. But the mission was unsucdessful. Back home he became the first bishop and then archbishop.

   
  Carroll. William 1788 - 1844 {short description of image}

He was a politician in Tennesse who was an officer in the state militia and who fought in the Creek War, rising to the rank of major general. He formed and led Tennessee troops to support Andrew Jackson, holding the center of the defense line against the British at the Battle of New Orleans. He became a very popular state governor.

   
  Carson, Kit 1809 -1868 {short description of image}

His full name is Christopher Houston Carson. He was born in Kentucky and the family moved to Missouri when he was about 1 year old. They bought land for a farm. His father died when he was 8. He was sent to work in a saddelry located at the terminus of the Santa Fe Trail. In 1826 he ran away with a caravan of trappers to Santa Fe whereupon Kit setttled in Taos. By age 19 he was ready (having learned he languages and skills) to be a professional trapper in the mountains with such experienced men as Jim Bridger. In 1829 he was with a party that went as far as California from Sacramento to Los Angeles and back along the Colorado River. In 1831 he went north with a party through the Rocky Mountains. On occasion he had to contend with Indians whom he killed and scalped or Grizzly Bears which he often avoided. He particularly hated the Blackfoot, whom he shot on sight. But around 1840 the beaver pelt market collapsed when European male fashion switched to silk hats. So in 1841 he was hired at Bent's Fort where he switched to hunting buffalo, deer and antelope. In 1842 he happened to meet John C. Fremont who was preparing to explore the routes clear to California, Fremont hired him at the magnificent sum of $100 a day. He led the party over South Pass. Fremont's published report made Carson famous. In 1843 he again led Fremont, this time to the Columbia River. In 1845 he again led Fremont to Oregon and California. This time Fremont helped instigate the separation of California from Mexico. After the Civil War he continued to serve in various capacities.

From 1847 on Carson became an international hero with the pubication of numerous dime novels about him an many languages. During the Mexican War Carson helped General Kearny in California. During the Civil War he was commissioned a colonel of New Mexico Volunters.
His home in Taos is now a museum with his belongings. He is burried in Taos. The Nevada capital, Carson City, is named for him. There are statues of him and other places named for him.

But of course with the current politically correct mania seeking to destroy all Amereican heros Carson has come under the usual violent attacks.

 
  Carter, Robert 1662 - 1732 {short description of image}

Robert was nicknamed "King" Carter due to his great wealth and aristocratic manner. At age 28 he entered the General Assembly. He acted as local agent for Thomas, Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. He used this office as an investment media of his own in buying land throughout Virginia and to the west. On his death he left heirs 300,000 acres and 1,000 slaves and 10,000 British pounds cash.
When Lord Fairfax learned what his agent was able to do, while correctly doing his job, Fairfax sent his own nephew over to be the agent at a fixed salary, and later moved to Virginia himself.

Robert's father was John Carter (1613 - 1669).

His plantation home is still open as a hisorical landmark.

 
  Carver, John 1584 - 1621 {short description of image}

He was a member of the Mayflower Separatist - Puritan passengers who wrote the Mayflower Compact and who was elected the first governor of the colony. Historians have traced him back to England and Leiden in the Netherlands. He was very wealthy and paid for much community expenses. He obtained the contract from the Virginia Company to finance the voyage and establish the colony. He had 5 servants among the passengers and colonists. He died in April of May 1621 along with most of the other colonists.

See Plymouth colony, the Puritans did not create their colony where they had originally intended. Captain Myles Standish was the military commander charged with organizing defense.

 
  Carteret, Sir George 1610 - 1680 {short description of image}

He was one of the proprietors of the Carolinas, along with John Locke and John, Lord Berkeley and also of New Jersey by grant of the Duke of York in 1664.

He was a vice-admiral and royalist - governor of Jersey who was titled 1st Baronet. - Carteret town in N.J. is named for him.

 
  Carteret, Philip 1639 - 1682 {short description of image}

Philip Carteret was appointed by his brother, Sir George Carteret, and Lord Berkeley of Stratton to be the first governor of New Jersey in 1665 until 1672.

Philip was again Governor - 1674 - 1682. He refused to relinquish his position when New York Governor Andros demanded it. Carteret was arrested and beaten. He was acquited at trial but his injuries led to his early death 2 years later.

   
  Cartier, Jacques 1491 - 1557 {short description of image}

He was a Breton seaman, explorer who made his first voyage to the New World in 1534. He mapped the St Lawrence river area. He named the new place "Country of Canadas" from an Iroquois Indian name.

   
  Cass. Lewis 1782 - 1866 {short description of image}

He was a military officer and politician. He was Governor of Michigan Territory and Secretary of War.

   
  Caucus   {short description of image}

A meeting of members of a political party to nominate a candidate. During the first third of the 19th century, presidential candidates were usually nominaed by a congressional caucus of those belonging to a particular party. The practice of nominating candidates by caucus at the local level continued in some states into the 20th century.

The first written mention of the term is from the colonies in 1763 - meaning "a smoke-filled room'

 
  Cayuga Indians 1778 {short description of image}

They were one of the original 5 Iroquois Nation living around the Finger Lakes in N.Y. between the Onondaga and Senecatribes. The various Iroquois tribes or sections, during the American Revolution fought on both sides, sometimes with British and sometimes with Americans, and often neutral.

But in 1777 the Iroquois raided throughout New York, Pennsylvania and further south. Congress ordered General Washington to eliminate the threat. In 1778 he sent a large force under General Sulivan to accomplish this. They burned many Cayuga villages and destroyed crops. The Indians were decimated and many fled west.

 
  Champlain, Samuel de 1574 - 1635 {short description of image}

He was a French soldier, explorer, geographer, and colonial leader. He went to Canada in 1603. He founded Quebec and is called "The Father of New France".

   
  Chancellersville, Battle of April 30 - May 6, 1863 {short description of image}

The battlefield is a short distance south- west of Fredericksburg, VA. It was Robert Lee's victory over Hooker.

   
  Channinng, William E. 1780 - 1842 {short description of image}

He was a Unitarian minister and theologian. His grand father was William Ellery.

   
  Charles I, King 1600 - 1649 {short description of image}

He was the son of King James IV of Scotland who became King James I of England. He was opposed by Parliament mostly over taxes but also religion and was executed. The political conflict in England had significant effects in the American colonies

   
  Charles II, King 1630 - 1685 {short description of image}

He was the son of King Charles I, and fled into exile at the death of his father. He was restored as King but again driven out in the "Glorious Revolution" again largely over taxes and religion. He also played important political role in the colonies through his selections of governors and proprietors.

   
Chartered monopoly   {short description of image}

A term used to describe companies which possessed a monopoly by government charter. The term was often used to describe national banks. The Jacksonians opposed chartered monopolies and generally favored free enterprise.

The Wikipedia article discusses first examples from early British history.

 
  Chase, Salmon P. 1868 - 1873 {short description of image}

He was an Ohio politician, governor and senator. and Lincoln's Sec. of Treasury in which position he made major significant fiscal improvements. He became 6th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 1864 - 1983.

   
  Chase, Samuel 1741 - 1811 {short description of image}

He was born in Maryland. His faher was a clergyman. He became a lawyer in 1761 He served in the state legislature for 20 years. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress. Then he was a judge in Maryland in the 1790's before being appointed by President Washington to the Supreme Court. The Jeffersonian Republicans in 1804 charged him with eight articles of impeachment but the Senate failed by 4 votes to convict him.

He was active even before the Revolution in opposing the StampAct and signing the Declaration of Independence and also serving in the Continental Congress. He is listed with the signers here. {short description of image}

 
  Chattel slavery  

A condition in which a person is owned as the property of another. Chattels are a species of property, namely, movable property. Since Negro slaves were movable property in America, their status was described as chattel slavery

   
  Cherokee Indians   {short description of image}

They lived in SW North Carolina, eastern Tennessee and parts of Georgia and South Carolina. They spoke an Iroquoian language and there is controversy over their origins. The colonists considered them one of the Five Civilized Tribes, since they were agricultural, lived in large villages and readily traded with the settlers. They today are the largest of the recognized Indian tribes.

They were active participants in wars with and against the British or colonists.

 
  Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831 {short description of image}

The Supreme Court took the case in which the Cherokee Nation claimed that the State of Georgia was infringing on its rights. In a real 'catch 22' decision the court refused to take the case on its merits claiming that as a 'tribe' the Constitution did not consider it a valid party at court. In a later decision the Court reversed itself, ruling that not only Georgia's laws but the federal Indian Revoval Act were unconstitutional. But President Andrew Jackson didn't care. He noted that the Court didn't have troops so sent the Army to remove not only the Cherokee but also the Creek, and other Indians from east of the Mississippi to Oklahoma.

   
  Chesapeake-Leopard Affair 1807 {short description of image}

This event was the attack of the British warship, Leopard by surprise on the U.S. Chesapeake in American waters. The Ameican commander surrendered and the British boarded and took 4 sailors they claimed were deserters. The incident created a huge public uproar with demands to declare war on England, but President Jefferson sought diplomatic methods. He pushed through the Embargoof 1807 ( like sanctions) but this merely hurt American business and trade. But the public animosity toward Britain eventually led to the War of 1812

The British were hunting for an arresting deserters from the Royal navy and finding many in the United States. They found some and by named tracked them to being crew in the U. S. Chesapeake. One man was hung as a deserter and the others were punished and eventually released.

 
  Cheyenne Indians   {short description of image}

Today the Cheyenne are split into the Southernliving in Oklahoma and the Northern living in Montana. But when the Europeans first arrived the Cheyenne were living in what is now Minnesota. The migrated into the Dakotas where they found horses and then introduced them around 1730 to the Lakota. Once with horses they became buffalo hunters and contined south and west into Colorado and Kansas, being pushed out by the Lakota. The Cheyenne traditional enemy was the Crow tribes and their ally the Arapaho tribes. When Charles and William Bent built their fort on the Arkansas River some Southern Cheyenne made their main camp nearby and engaged in trade. Then their enemy became the Comanche and Apache from the south.

   
  Chickasaw Indians   {short description of image}

A powerful Indian tribe residing in western Tennessee, and Mississippi and east into the mountians. They lived in fortified villages and were well armed.

They were among the 'civilized tribes' and allied with the British against the French.

 
  Chickasaw wars   {short description of image}

This is the overall description of the lengthy conflict between the French and their Indian allies with the powerful Chickasaw nation for control of the Mississippi and its eastern approaches.

   
  Chickasaw Campaign of 1736 1736 {short description of image}

This French campaign fought two pitched battles when they attacked the Chickasaw fortified villages at Ogoula Tchetoka and Ackia. The French were driven away with great losses.

   
  Chickasaw Campaign of 1739 1739 {short description of image}

The French were again defeated despite having numerous Indian allies from Lousiana to Illinois, and even sometimes Iroquois.

   
  Chivington, J.M. 1821 - 1894 {short description of image}

He was born in Ohio and became a Methodist minister. But then moved to Denver. He was an earstwhile politician in Colorado who used military campaigns for his personal agrandizement. In 1862 he fought the Battle of Glorietta Pass in which the Confederate offensive campaign toward Colorado was defeated. In 1864 he against orders attacked the peaceful Cheyenne camp at Sand Creek. The event created a storm of denunciation including commissions and a court hearing in Denver and one at Ft. Riley. But Chivington escaped justice.

He was a thoroughly evil man who while seeking to enhance his political popularity in Denver conducted the surprise Sand Creek Massacre against innocent Cheyenne camp killing mostly women and children. His later life, after the Civil War went from bad to worse but with him still maintaining that he was right at Sand Creek.

 
  Choctaw Indians   {short description of image}

They also lived east of the Mississippi but mostly west and southwest of the Chickasaw. They fought on the French side and continued to fight the Chickasaw in later years.

   
  Chouteau, Pierre Jr. 1789 - 1865 {short description of image}

He was born in St. Louis into a wealthy French fur trading family. For a time he was agent for the John J. Astor fur trading company, but did much on his own, including pioneering the use of steamboats on the Missouri River and building Fort Pierre in South Dakota and Fort Benton in Montana.

   
  Church of England (Anglican)   {short description of image}

The church established in England after it was wihdrawn from the Roman Catholic Church by King Henry VIII. It was also established in some of the colonies. It is also called the Anglican Church. The Episcopal Church in the United States is a descendant of the Church of England.

   
  Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints 1830 - present {short description of image}

This religious group was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 in New York. He took his followers to Ohio and then Missouri and Illinois. They clashed with other locals. Then Birgham Young led the members on the famous trek to Utah in 1847 where they established themselves and have their headquarters to the present.

   
  Cimarron cutoff   {short description of image}

This route between Santa Fe and St Louis was a short cut on the Santa Fe trading route using the Cimarron River, when travel through Comanchee territory became sufficiently safe.

   
  Claiborne, William 1600 - 1677 {short description of image}

He was an English pioneer, surveyor and politician in Virginia and Maryland. He asserted his right to Kent Island in Chesapeake Bay against the Maryland governors (Including Sir George Calvert, 1ist Baron Baltimore. He and the 2nd Baron engaged in the first naval battle in American waters Claborne and Ingel's Rebellion in 1644. Their struggles became involved with the strggles in England during the Civil War and Cromwell's reign, with alternating Parliamentary support. After he lost out in decisions over Maryland he retired to his Virginia plantation.

   
  Clark, Abraham 1726 - 1794 {short description of image}

He was a farmer, lawyer, and politician. He was elected by New Jersey to the Continental Congress where he strongly supported Independence. During the war his two sons were officers and were captured and imprisoned by the British. The British offered to release them if he would recant the Declaration but he refused. He was sent by New Jersey to the Annapolis convention where he advocated the convening of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. He served as a Representative in the U. S. Congress He was a strong advocate for workers and farmers as the productive engine of society.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from New Jersey. He is listed here. {short description of image}

 
  Clark, George R. 1752 - 1818 {short description of image}

He was an explorer, surveyor, and soldier. He was made general and was the senior American officer in the Northwest territories during the American Revolution. His most famous exploits were in the the Illinois Campaign, with his capture of Kaskaskia Illinois in 1778 and Vincennes, Indiana in 1779.

   
  Clark, William   {short description of image}

He was a brother of George Rogers Clark. He was one of the two leaders of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, from St.Lpuis to the Pacific Ocean and back.

The detailed daily Journal of their two year expedition to the Pacific and back to St. Louis remains a priceless document describing the terrain, vegitation and life along the route.

 
  Clarke, George 1676 - 1760 {short description of image}

He was acting governor of New York 1736 -1743. During his tenure the famous 'Negro Plot' (1740 -41) occurred. A large fire broke out in the city and without any evidence Negro slaves were blamed. A number were hanged, others burned at the stake, and many more transported to the West Indies.

   
  Clarke, John 1609 - 1676 {short description of image}

He was one of the founders, along with William Coddington, of Newport in future Rhode Island in 1637

   
  Clay, Henry 1777 - 1852 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia but moved to Kentucky where he had a distinguished political career in the U.S. Senate, House of Representatives and as Secretary of State for President John Q. Adams. He was repeatedly a candidate for President.

He accomplished the Missouri Compromise, the tariff compromise of 1833 and the Compromiseof 1850

 
  Clayton-Bulwer Treaty 1850 {short description of image}

This treaty between the United States and Great Britian was to settle issues involving British holdings in Honduras (Belize) and Nicaragua coast at a time when there was discussion about building a canal across Nicaragua.

   
  Clinton, DeWitt 1769 - 1828 {short description of image}

He was a New York state politician, Mayor of N.Y. City, and state Governor who was responsible for building of the Erie Canal and candidate for President in 1812

He was a nephew of Vice President George Clinton

 
  Clinton, George 1686 - 1761 {short description of image}

He joined the Royal navy in 1703 during the War of the Spanish Succession. He was the governor of Newfoundland and then Commander of the Royal fleet in the Mediteranian. He was Governor of New York 1743 - 1753 during which service he had to cope with attacks of the French fleet during King George's War. He was promoted full admiral in 1747. He was continually opposed by the liberal colonial legislature led by James DeLacy who wanted to continue profitable trade with the French. So he appointed Colden to be his advisor and appointed Sir William Johnsonto obtain the Mohawk Indians to be allies against the French.

The Wikipedia entry includes the names and dates of each ship he commanded as he rose throgh the ranks. He was the father of Sir Henry Clinton who commanded British forces during the Revolutionary War.
But among his cousins were the Clintons who were politicians and generals on the American side.

 
  Clinton, George 1739 - 1812 {short description of image}

He was a New York state politician and soldier. During the Revolutionary war he built the chain across the Hudson at West Point. He was N.Y. governor 1777-1795 and 1801-1804.

He was the 4th Vice President of the U.S. (1805 - 1812) and besides Calhoun the only one to serve as VP for two presidents.

 
  Clinton, Sir Henry 1730 - 1795 {short description of image}

He was a British general and Commander in Chief of British forces in America during the Revolution.

He was the son of Admiral George Clinton.

 
  Clymer, George 1739 - 1813 {short description of image}

He was a Pennsylvania politician and very early advocate for independence. He led demonstrations after the Tea and Stamp Acts. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1776. He remained active in politics for the rest of his life.

He is considered to be one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He signed the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution as delegate from Pennsylvania. His bio is here. {short description of image}and here. {short description of image}

 
  Cobden, Richard 1804 - 1864 {short description of image}

He was a British lawyer, politician, political theorist. He opposed mercantilism and advocated free trade.

He organized and led the Anti-CornLaw League in 1838. The British Corn Law (1815 - 1846) was a tariff and import restriction that favored the agricultural interests of the landed gentry in power by restricting imports and raising the price of grain.

 
  Cobden-Chevalier Treaty 1860 {short description of image}

A free-trade treaty between Great Britian and France to reduce tariffs and promote commerce. It produced greatly expanded trade but was ended by the French when their businesses demanded that tariffs be established.

   
  Cody, Bill 1846 - 1917 {short description of image}

William Frederick "Buffalo Bill"Cody was born in Iowa bu later settled in Kansas. He became a pony express rider at 14 and served in the Union army during the Civil War. Then he served as a scout for the Army on the plains and received the Medal of Honor in 1872. By age 23 he was already a living legend of the 'wild west'. He made a career out of this, in addition to his real exploits and buffalo hunter. He founced Buffalo Bill's Wild West in 1883 and toured with his company in Europe as well as the United States.

   
  Coddington, William   {short description of image}

He was a Puritan leader who moved to create a new colony in Rhode Island called Newport in 1637

   
  Colden, Cadwallader 1688 -1776 {short description of image}

He was born in Ireland of Scotish parents. He studies medicine and various sciences in London. In 1710 he was invited to move to Philidelphia and in 1717 Robert Hunter invited him to move to New York, where he continued to practice medicine while also entering political life. He was acting governor 1760 -1762 - again 63-65 - again 69-70 - and 74-75. He met with the Iroquois and wrote the book about them. He was a strong loyalist and at one time was met by a mob protesting his support for the Stamp Act.

As a acientist he published study of public health and botany and as a surveyor he correspondee with Benjamin Franklin and published his views correcting Issac Newton.

 
  Colve, Anthony 1600's {short description of image}

In 1673 during {short description of image}theThird Anglo - Dutch War the Dutch were able to evade the English fleet and enter New York harbor under command of Admiral Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest and Captain Anthony Colve. Admiral Evertsen returned to Holland where he was censured for disobeying orders to take Cayenne and Saint Helena rather than New York. No doubt the Dutch leaders knew they could not hold New York.

He was left to govern the captured territories in 1673-74, but not for long. They were returned to the English by the Treaty of Westminister

   
  Coercive Acts 1774 {short description of image}

Acts passed by the British Parliament to punish Massachuset colony for the Boston Tea party and general rebellion. They were called by colonists - Intolerble Acts. The four acts were: the BostonPort Act; The Massachusett Government Act; The Administration of Justice Act: and the Quartering Act. Provisions in these became some of the specific denunciations in the Declaration of Independence.

There was also the QuebecAct, which while not actually a part of the other 4, was considered by the colonists as bad or worse due to its provisions - prevention of settlers from crossing the mountains and displacing Indians - and extension of French Catholic rights throughout the territory between Quebec and New Orleans. The act was a direct result of the problems that caused Pontiac's War.

 
  Coinage act 1792 {short description of image}

One of the first Acts of the new Congress. It established the silver dollar as the currency of the United States and, following Jefferson's recommendation a decimal coinage system.

   
  Coke, Edward 1552 - 1634 {short description of image}

He was an English lawyer, judge - Chief Justice and influential for centuries by his book - Institutes - esspecially with respect to the 3rd and 4th Amendments to the Constitution.

   
  Colt, Samuel 1814 - 1862 {short description of image}

He was born in Connecticut and at age11 indentured to a farmer. He was self educated largely by reading science books. In 1829 he entered his father's business. From the beginning he had a dream of making guns. Using the factory tools and engineering books he began inventing things. Then he went to sea and sailed as far as Calcutta. He later stated that watching how the ship's steering wheel operated gave him the idea for a revolver. In 1832 he returned to work with his father, who financed his further experiments and inventions. To obtain more finances he went on the road demonstrating the effects of nitrous oxide. Later, he went to Englnd and obtained a patent for his revolving gun, then returned to the U.S. and received a patent here.

   
  Colve, Anthony   {short description of image}

He was the Dutch Governor of New York (1673 - 1674)who captured the place (New Netherland) from the English and held it for a year.

   
  Comanche Indians 1700 - on {short description of image}

After obtaining horses from the Spanish they became the primier cavalry of the plains. Their domain included eastern New Mexico, southern Colorado and Kansas, western Oklahoma and much of western Texas into Mexico. They fought not only the white settlers and ranchers but especially the Cheyenne and Arapaho.. Their population increased greatlly as they considered themselves lords of the plains. They took thousands of prisoners and incorporated the women into their bands. They had an unlimited access to over 2 million wild horses roaming in their domain. They lived as many separate bands, recognizing each other but not forming a real 'nation.'

See also Comanche Wars. This entry describes in detail the near continuous warfare from 1709 to 1877. It includes leaders and events, battles and raids.

 
  Committees of Correspondence 1773 {short description of image}

This developed out of the correspondence initiated by pro-revolutionary factions in the various colonies seeking to advise each other and spread the news. By working together the individual committees became the early de facto government making policy prior to the First ContinentalConvention. The committees had about 7,000 to 8,000 total membership.

   
  Committee of the Whole   {short description of image}

The wilipedia entry describes the procedural differences between when a legislature meets as a 'committee of the whole' and when it is in session as a legislature conducing that kind of business.

   
  common law   {short description of image}      
  Common Sense 1775-6 {short description of image}

This pamphlet written by Thomas Paine became a major influence on public opinion in the colonies. It was incendiary in tone and urged immediate rebellion.

   
  Communitarian  

A term devised to distinguish arrangements in which small groups of people live together, usually owning their property in common, from 20th century communism, where the power of government is used to impose communal arrangement on whole populations

   
  Compromise of 1850 1850 {short description of image}

This is a term for a set of legislative five bills in Congress that were designed for (hoped for) reducing political tension between the pro-slavery southern and anti-slavery northern states. But among the provisions was the Fugitive Slave law which demanded that escaped slaves found in northern states be returned to their 'owners'.

The 'compromise' was considered a major accomplishment of Senators Henry Clay and Stephen Douglas, but it did not last.

 
  Comprimise Tariff - 1833 1833 {short description of image}

From the very beginning of the United States, tariffs were a major political conflict. The first act of the new Congress was the passing of a tariff to raise imcome for the government. (Tariff of 1789), but there was also a protectionist' aspect to the specifics of each tariff - namely to protect and promote special economic interests. This tariff was developed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun as a compromise for southern agricultural interests.

The much detested 'Tariffof Abominations' in 1828 was so advantageous to New England and northern merchants and manufacturers at the expense of southern cotton and other agricultural interests that South Carolina threated to succed - and to prevent its enforcement in the state. Andrew Jackson put a stop to such ideas.

 
  Comstock, Henry 1820 - 1870 {short description of image}

He discovred the greatest deposit of silver ore in the United States which led to the usual rush and then creation of Virginia City, Nevada. But he had sold out early and did not reap the real fortunes.

The discovery is known as 'the Comstock Lode'.

 
  Concord, Battle of 18 April, 1775 {short description of image}

Together with the battle at Lexington the same day, these were the first battles between American revolutionaries and British troops. The British had marched out of Boston intent on capturing the cannon and other weapons the Americans had collected there. The Americans were alerted by a group of riders prepared for the purpose. The alert brought several thousand militia men not only to Concord but also all along the British retreat route. The British detachment at Concord was saved by a second and larger force sent out to secure their retreat.

Ralph Waldo Emerson gave the incident fame with his phrase 'the shot heard around the world".

There is an excellent animated map of the campaign on the Internet Revolutionary War site..

 
  Confederation  

This is an alliance or league of othewise independent states, nations, or countries, but more closely bound, The United States was a confederation constitutionally from 1781 to1789. Confederations are usually formed for particular purposes, such as war or defense, and each of he staes retains its independence of action otherwise.

   
  Confederacy  

Used to describe the Confederate States of America, an organization composed of the 11 Southern states which seceded from the union. While the Confederate Constitution was modeled after the United States Constitution, its makers insisted theirs was a confederation restrained by the basic independence of the states, not a consolidated system, such as they believed the United States was becoming.

   
  Confederate States 1861 - 1865 {short description of image}

The Confederate States of America were the 11 states in the south that declared independence from the Union and established their capital in Richmond, Virginia.

   
  Congregational Church   {short description of image}

A Reformed Preotestant church denomination in which each congregation is independent and forms its own organizational structure. They were frequently called 'Separatists' and formed congregations in PlymouthColony and Massachusetts BayColony. In the United States they became supporters of social change including abolition. and woman's sufferage.

The Wikipedia article and many others provide a detailed description of the history and leaders of the various types of Congregational churches from their early antecedents to today.

 
  Connecticut Compromise 1787 {short description of image}

This was a crucial development in the creation of the U.S. Constitution. The issue was how the states would be representated in the national legislature. The smaller states, such as Deleware, were concerned they would be overwhelmed by the large states such as New York and Virginia. Edmund Rndolph presented the Virginia Plan for a bicameral legislature. And William Patersonpresented an alternative New Jersey Plan. It was Roger Sherman of Connecticut who presented the plan upon which delegates finally agreed.

   
  Conestoga Wagon 1717 - to the 1860's {short description of image}

A heavy duty wagon first mentioned in writting in 1717. It was not a standard 'covered wagon' and was too heavy for much use on the western plains. It could carry 5 tons. It was named for the Conestoga River in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania. It was used as far west as Ohio, and fequently between north and south through the mounains from Canada to the Carolinas. It was built specially for fording rivers and being water tight. It was drawn by large teams of horses of oxen. It required a special breed of heavy duty horses.

   
  Conscription  

The drafting of men into the armed forces - compulsory military service. Both the Union and the Confederacy conscripted men to be soldiers during the latter part of the Civil War, but it was possible to hire a substitute rather than go in person.

   
  Constitutional Convention May - September, 1787 {short description of image}

The meeting in Philidelphia of delegates from the 13 colonies which drafted the new Constitution of the United States. It was organized to ammend the Articles of Confederation, but went far beyond its original purpose. There were many arguments over details of government organization but compromises were developed.

   
  Constitutional Union Party 1860 {short description of image}

This was a urgent political organization of Whigs, some Democrats and others who sought to preserve the Union at all costs by proposing 6 Constitutional Amendments

The party nominated John Bell for President and Edward Everett for Vice President. They obtained some votes.

 
  Continnental Army June 14, 1775 {short description of image}

At the outset of the Revolution the available military forces were the militias of the various states. The Second Continental Congress, with Washington's recommendation, realized the need for a more formal and unified army.

   
  Continental Congress 1774-1789 {short description of image}

This was the de facto government of the American Revolutionaries during the War in its first two sittings - 1774 and 1775-81. And then it was the Third Continental Congress 1781 -1789 under the Articles of Confederation. It was supplanted by the U. S. Congress under the Constitution.

   
  Convention of 1800 1800 {short description of image}

This was not a meeting but a diplomatic agreement - to cancel a previous agreement. It ended the Treatyof Alliance of 1778 between France and the Continental Congress. This was the only treaty of alliance the United States signed from then until the United Nations alliance.

The United States and France were engaged in the Quasi-War- a naval war in the Caribbean resulting from the Napoleonic Wars and the XYZ Affair.

 
  Coode, John 1648 - 1709 {short description of image}

He was born in Cornwall, attended Oxford, became an Anglican minister in 1688, and sailed to Maryland in 1672, He renounced his ministery and married a wealthy heiress. He became active in colonial politics and especially opposed the Cartert family ( Barrons). In 1681 he participated in Fendal's rebellion but was released. In 1689 he organized another rebellion. Coode's Rebellion. This time he was successful in capturing St. Mary and declared himself governor. But he was soon replaced by a royal governor. He attempted rebellion again in 1699 and was defeated, after which he retired.

   
  Cooke, Philip St. George 1809 - 1895 {short description of image}

He was born in Leesburg, Virginia and graduated West Point in 1827. He is noted as the author of a manual on cavalry and is claimed as 'father of US cavalry. His son John Rogers Cooke and his son in law JEB Stuart went with the Confederacy but Philip Cooke remained a Union officer. During his long service prior to the war he fought and conducted many campaigns against the Indians and during the Mexican War he led an expedition to California. During the Civil War he commanded large cavalry units in the field through the Penninsula Campaign and then served in staff positions. After the war he commanded several of the differen Wesern departments.

   
  Cooper, Thomas 1764 - 1829 {short description of image}

He was a U.S. Representative from Delaware.

   
  Coote, Richrd, 1st Earl of Bellomont 1636 - 1700/1 {short description of image}

He was the Governor of New York from 1698 to 1700/1 - He died in office.

   
  Copley, Sir Lionel 1648 -1693 {short description of image}

He was the first Royal Governor of Maryland - 1692-93 when he died in office. In the Glorious Revolution the Protestants deposed the Catholic Calvert family from proprietary control. The local Protestant leaders in the Assembly had gained much power during the previous period of chaos and resisted giving it up to executive authority. So Governor Copley faced much political struggle during his short tenure. He was succeeded as govenor by Francis Nicholson.

   
  Copperheads 1863 -64 {short description of image}

The term given to the northern Democrats who opposed the Civil War and advocated lettingthe southern states retain slavery. They opposed Lincoln in the election of 1864.

   
  Cornish, Samuel 1795 - 1858 {short description of image}

He was a Presbyterian Miniser, abolitionist, and Free black living in New York. He published the first black newspaper

   
  Cornwallis, , Charles, Marquis + 2nd Earl, Lord 1738 - 1805 {short description of image}

The Marquis Cornwallis was a long serving professional British soldier and governor. He is most famous in America for having been trapped and forced to surrender at Yorktown, VA in 1781.

General Cornwallis commanded British forces in the southern colonies. he won battles at GilfordCourt House, and at Camden. After the war he served as governor in India and of Ireland.

 
  "Corrupt Bargain" 1824 - 1876 - 1994 {short description of image}

The Wikipedia entry notes that this term has been applied to three American political events - elections - In 1824 the manipulation by Henry Clay in the House that gave the Presidency to John Q. Adams - in 1876 the manipulation that bought southern votes for - and in 1974 Gerald Ford's pardon of Richard Nixon

   
  Cosby, William 1690 -1736 {short description of image}

He was Governor of New York 1732 - 36. He was an Irish brigadier general who soon became in conflict with Rip Van Dam over pay for the latter. They battled in the competing public newspapers. In his New York Weekly Journal John Peter Zenger attacked Cosby who arrested him and charged him with libel. Zenger's defense advocate was Andrew Hamilton. The jury voted 'not guilty'

This is the famous trial that claimed freedom of the press.

 
  Cotton Gin 1793 {short description of image}

Much of the Amereican cotton crop was full of nettles which required hours of hand work in eliminating before the cotton could be used. Eli Whitney invesnted a simple machine tht could remove the nettles rapidly and easily. This enabled a greaqt expansion in the planting and production of cotton. In turn, this required a larger force of slaves, thus expanding and prolonging slavery in the southern states..

Ironically, Whitney's machine was so simple and easily made in small shops that it was rapidly produced,despite his efforts to secure a pattent. He received very little profit from this economic revolution.

 
  Craft, Ellen 1826 - 1891 {short description of image}

They were escaped slaves(in 1848) who generated anti-slavery opinion by their personal story and publications.

   
  Crawford, William H. 1772 - 1834 {short description of image}

He was a politician. he was Sec of war 1815-16, Sec of Treasury 1816 - 1825. He ran for President in the election of 1824 and finished 3rd. This resulted in there being no candidate wtih a majority in the Electoral College, which moved the election to the House of Representatives giving Henry Clay the opportunity to make John Q. Adams president.

   
  Crawford Radicals 1820 {short description of image}

This was a rebellion in Scotland over economic issues - wages and working conditions. William Crawford (Scot) was among the leaders.

   
  Creecoeur, J. H. 1735 - 1813 {short description of image}

He was the author of a very famous and popular "Letter from and American Farmer", that provided insight to Europeans about American society

   
  Creek Indians 1600 - 1860 {short description of image}

The Muscogee- lived in the southeastern woods - Tennessee, Alabama, western Georgia. They were considered one of the Five Civilized Tribesdue to their living in well established villiages and farming.

The nation was frequently split politically into northern and southers branches in which the southern allied with the coloniests. The northerners supported the Shawnee chief Temcuseh. They fought the Red Stick War (Creek War of 1813-14).Some were driven into Forida where they were named Seminole

 
  Crittenden, J. J. 1786 - 1863 {short description of image}

He was a politician in Kentucky - Representative, Senator and state governor.

 
  Crittenden Compromise 1860 {short description of image}

This was the effort offered to pass 6 Amendments to the Constitution to avert the Civil War.

The effort failed.

 
  Crocket, David 1786 - 1836 {short description of image}

He became a legend in his own time. He was a frontiersman, trhen a politician and Representative in Congress from Tennessee. There is was famous for voting against federal payments and subsidies as being 'unconstitutional'.

He explored the Virginia frontier and found the Cumberland Gap through which he opened the way into Tennessee. He later moved to Texas and died in the Battle of the Alamo.

 
  Crow Indians   {short description of image}

They lived around the Yellostone River from Wyoming into Montana and North Dakota. They were pushed west by the Cheyenne and the Lakota. During the expansion of settlers and US army the Crow remained enemies of the Cheyenne and Lakota so served some times as US cavalry scouts.

   
  Currency Act 1751 & 1764 {short description of image}

These were two acts of Parliament designed to protect British merchants and creditors from loss due to the depreciation of paper money exchanged by the American colonists for their imports.

   
  Currency, colonial   {short description of image}

The American colonists were generally in need of more currency to conduct commerce. They used three forms of money of exchange, commodity money (staples such as tobacco and beaver pelts); specie (gold and silver coin); wampum and paper money (fiat) issued by the colonial governments. Since specie drained out to England there was always a shortage, causing the governments to print more and more paper money. For coins they used Spanish and Portuguese dollars. The denominations were pounds, shillings and pence. But the nominal value of colonial pounds was different from British pounds and even different in different colonies. Of course the paper money depreciated - list value- in comparison with British coins and merchants there were being paid for their exports in reduce value currency. The Parliament passed several Currency laws - in 1751 - 1764 and 1773 either to restrict the quantity of paper being printed or to declare whether or not it could be called 'legal tender' .

Massachutes was the first colony (not only a colony, but the first in the entire Western world) to print paper money, in 1690, to finance debt from King William's War. But by 1715 all 13 colonies had printed paper money. These took the form generally of 'bills of credit' or bank notes based on land (Pennsylvania) and were not exchangable. All this was long before the huge printing and devaluing of paper during the American Revolution.

 
  Curtis, Benjamin 1809 - 1874 {short description of image}

He was a politician from South Carolina who became the only Whig to be the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. He defended Andrew Johnson in the president's impeachment trial.

   
  Dale, Sir Thomas died in 1619 {short description of image}

He was a British army and naval officer who was governor of Virginia from 1611 - to 1616. He was sent in 1611 by the Virginia Company of London as deputy governor to improve contitions. He ruled tyranically in order to bring the unrully colonists into order. His major economic reform was to abandon the communial organization of farming and establish individual private enterprise land holding. He established a new settlement named Henricus but it was destroyed in the indian massacre. He attempted to curtail the growth of tobacco, but after he was replaced it became the major source of export profits.

From 1588 to 1609 he served with the English army in the Netherlands. he was knighted by King James I in 1606. In 1616 he sailed back to England along with ThomasRolfe and his wife, Rebecca (Pocahontas) and their son. In 1618 he was appointed to command a squadron of 6 ships to sail to the East Indies and confront the Dutch. He defeated the Dutch in battle of Jacatra and captured the city. He died the following year in India.

 
  Dallas, Alexander J. 1759 - 1817 {short description of image}

He was Secretary of the Treasury

   
  Dallas, George M. 1792 - 1864 {short description of image}

He was a senator from Pemmsylvania and VP for President Polk

   
  Dana, Richard H. Jr. 1815 - 1882 {short description of image}

As a young man he went to sea as a sailor on a merchant ship to California from where hides were shipped back to New England. He wrote the very popular and famous book ' TwoYears before the Mast' was a very detailed personal memoir that became a major influence with the public. After that he obtained a law degree from Harvard in 1837. He was a prominent abolitionist and member of the Free Soil party. He did influence on the development of maratime law.

   
  Dare, Ananias and Ellinor and Virginia 1560 -1587 {short description of image}

Ananias and Ellinor were the parents of Virginia Dare who was the first English person born in America. They were members of the Roanoke Colony. John White returned to England to find more colonists and supply and when he returned no one could be found

The fate of the 'lost colony' has cntinued to enerate speculation from 1600 to the present. A popular tourist attraction on Roanoke Island in the North Carolina Outer Banks continues to draw visitors

 
  "Dark Horse'   {short description of image}

The term was first used in horse racing in the 1830's to indicate a horse that was not favored to win but did. In politics, the nomination of a candidate who was not expected to be chosen. It was first applied to candidate James K. Polk who one the nomination on the 9th ballot. Democrats were most likely to nominte a 'dark horse' or compromise presidental candidate because they required more thn a simple majority of the delegate votes to achieve nomination, and where there was heated contest among contenders none could get the necessary votes. Thus, they turned to a 'dark horse' where none of the contenders could be chosen.

The term has been applied to among others, Franklin Pierce, Rutherford Hayes, Jimmy Carter, Donald Trump, Abraham Lincoln, James Garfield and Warren Harding.

 
  Davis, Jefferson 1808 - 1889 {short description of image}

He was President of the Confederate States - 1861 - 65. He was the 23rd Secretary of War, under President Pierce. Some historian critics fault him with trying to micro-manage military affairs in the Civil War

He graduated from the U.S. Military Academy and served in the Mexican War.

 
  Davis, Nicholas J.   {short description of image}      
  Dawes, William 1745 - 1799 {short description of image}

He was an American patriot in Boston who along with Paul Revere rode to alert themen guarding weapons and ammunnition at Lexington and Concord.

   
  Dayton, Jonathan 1760 - 1824 {short description of image}

He was 15 at the start of the Revolutionary War and served under his father in the 3rd New Jersey Regiment. He fought at Brandywine, Germantownand Yorktown. After the war he became a lawyer and surveyor. He served in both the ContinentalCongress and the Constitutional Convention. He was a Federalist Party member as Congressional Representative and supported Hamilton and strong fiscal, monetary, policies. He was Speaker of the House in the 4th and 5th Congresses. He lent money to Arron Burr, which efectively ended his political career.

He was the youngest person to sign the U.S. Constitution, as a delegate from New Jersey. He became wealthy from land investments in Ohio where, now, the city of Dayton is named after him. He hosted Lafayette during the latter's American tour, which according to his obituary resulted in his death from the festivities.

 
  Dean, Silas 1738 - 1789 {short description of image}

He was a colonial merchant who became a diplomat for the Continental Congress in 1776 as envoy to France. He signed the Declaration of Independence.

He was accused of financial mistakes and had a long time proving his innocence.

 
  DeBow, James B. 1820 - 1867 {short description of image}

James Dunwoody Brownson De Bow was an influential publisher who lived in New Orleans. In his maazin,e De Bow's Review, he advocated expansion of southern agriculture.

He was concerned aboujtthe Mexican secession in 1848 and the political shift to guarantee Southern Rights that led to the Compromise of 1850. In 1860's he urged secession.

 
  Decatur, Stephen 1779 - 1820 {short description of image}

He was an American Naval commander who became a hero during his fighting in many wars.- including the Barbarywars - the Quasi-Warand War of 1812

His father, Stephen DecaturSr. was also a naval commodore

 
  Declaration of Independence 1776 {short description of image}

This document was enacted by the Second ContinentalCongress in Philidelphia by the 13 American Colonies, already at war with Great Britian, who announced they considered themselves independent states. The draft was prepared by a committee of three, with Thomas Jefferson writing the draft, which was ammended slightly by the Congress.

The te4xt was then printed in multiple copies and sent throughout the colonies. The original is preserved in the National Archives. A copy is available via Wikipedia link and from many other Internet sources.

 
  Declaratory Act 1766 {short description of image}

This was the Act of Parliament in which they repealed the Stamp act but still forcefully claimed the legal right to levy taxes on the colonies.

   
  deism 18th century {short description of image}

This cphilosophy became popular amongst the intelligencia during the late 18th century - the so-called "Age of Enlightenment" . Theadherents retained a belief in a single God but denied that He interfered in human affairs. They believed that pure reason, rather than revalation, was sufficient to establish this. They also rejected eatsblihsed religion and sacraments.

   
DeLncy, James 1703 - 1760 {short description of image}

He was born in New York. He was educated in England - at Cambridge and admitted to the bar in 1725. In 1729 he became a member of the Assembly and in 1731 a justice of the Supreme Court. In 1735 he presided at the trial of Peter Zenger. In 1754 he presided at the Albany Conference called in an effort to unite the colonies in defence against the French and Indians in the war. He was the Lt. Governor who then was acting Governor on the death of Danvers Osborn. -1755 In July he attended the conference of governors in Virginia that helped prepare General Braddock's fated expedition.

He was again acting governor 1758 - 1760, because Sir Charles Hardy was commanding the expedition against Louisbourg and then with Wolfe on the St. Lawrence River. He died in office.

   
  Delaware colony 1631 - on {short description of image}

The Dutch first established a colony in Delaware near what is now Lewes, but the colonists were all killed by the Indians. The colony and state is named forthe Delaware River which was named for the colonial governor of Virginia, Thomas West, 3rd Baron
De La Warr. In 1638 The Swedes founded New Sweden at Fort Christiana where Willmington is now. In 1651 the Dutch returned to establish a new colony and in 1655 they conquered the Swedes and united the area to New Netherland. In1664 the Dutch were conquered by an English fleet sent by the Duke of York, who they had also to fight off claims from Cecil Calvert of Maryland to give the area to William Penn in 1682. Penn wanted this area to gain access to the sea for his colony in Pennsylvania. When the Lower Colony - Delaware aned Pennslvania area began to separate in 1704 they still had the same governor. The Delaware region soon grew tobacco using slave labor. When the Revolution began the residents in Delaware were mostly loyal to England. But leaders such as John Dickenson convinced the colonial assembly to declare indepedence not only from Britain but also from Pennsylvania. For the war Delaware raised one of the best and largest regiments for the Continental Army.

For the critical roles of individual leaders in bringing the Delaware region into the United States see the biographies of Thomas Mckean, John Dickinson, George Read, Caesar Rodney and John Haslet.

 
  Delaware Indians   {short description of image}

A colonial name for the Lenape people who lived along the eastern seaboard - along the Hudson River, New Jersey, Long Island. The colonists prevented them from obtaining fire arms, while the Iroquois did have them. In the BeaverWars the Lenape were subjugated by the Iroquois, plus they lost population heavily due to European diseases.

They gradually moved west through Pennsylvania to the Ohio River area during which time they raided colonial settlements.Eventually, in the1860's they were moved to Indian country - Oklahoma.

 
  Democratic Party   {short description of image}

A political party formed and led by Andrew Jackson and his followers. It claimed to be a continuation of the Jeffersonian Republican Party. The party usually stood for states' rights, private enterprise, strict construction of the constitution, free trade and opposed Federal aid for internal improvements and national banks.

   
  Deposit Act of 1836 - Specie Circular 1836 {short description of image}

This act of Congress was to redistribute the Federal Government Treasury funds (30 - 35 million dollars) to selected state banks according to a formula. At the time the Federal government income was mostly from tariff and sale of western lands. It was politically contraversian due to the conflicting desires of special interests. The Specie Circular required that the US Treasury would only accept gold and silver coin in payment for public lands - previously it had accepted paper money - bank notes. The result was devaluation of the paper money and increased inflation. A political battle ensued.

The surplus was eliminated the next year during the Panic of 1837.

 
  Dickinson, John 1732 - 1808 {short description of image}

He was born in Maryland and educated in London but lived mostly in Pennsylvania and Delaware. He participated in many revolutionary events such as the Stamp Act Congress to the Constitutional Convention. He was a leading 'theoretician' of the Revolution. He is called 'the penman of the Revolution'. He wrote letters published in newspapers denouncing the Townshend duties which were then published as a pamphlet. He wrote the "Declaration of Rights" and the "Olive Branch Petition" and the Articles of Confederation. He influenced Deleware to be the first state to ratify the Constitution.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Delaware. His main point was that the colonies were not represented in Parliament, that taxes take property, and that the more Parliament intruded in this way the less secure was property in America. The result was widespread resistance with colonial legislatures passing letters. He also wrote "Letters from a farmer in Pennsylvania. Which was extremely influential in Europe. He is listed with the signers of the Constitution.

 
  District of Columbia July 16, 1790 {short description of image}

The area established for the National Capial. It was created by the Residence Act. Provision for such a capital in included in the Constitution. The political issue was where to create it. As a result of Compromiseof 1790 it was decided to place it along the Potomac River and the states of Maryland and Virginia ceeded land for that purpose. President Washington was empowered to selecd the specific location. Initially it was a quare with 10 miles on each side. The established towns of Georgetown, Maryland and Alexandria, Virginia were within the chosen area.

During 1791-92 a team of surveorys led by Andrew Ellicottlaid out the corner stones and established the boundaries. On July 9th, 1846 Congress returned to Virginia its portion of the District. Alexandria, being a major slave trading location was afrad slavery would be abolished in the District.

 
t la Dix, John A. 1798 - 1878 {short description of image}

He was a poliician in New York State, governor - Secretary of the US Treasury, senior Major General of Militia in the Civil War.

He commanded Union troops in Deleware and prevented state politicians from attempting seccession.

 
  Divine Right of kings   {short description of image}

This was a political and religious doctrine to establish the legitimacy for the rule of kings. It means that a kings' right to rule comes only from God and no human authority is justified in questioning it. In ancient civilizations the ruler was frequently considered to be either the representative of the gods on earth or to have divine origins himself. The Christian doctrine was seen to stem from Chapter 1 Samuel in the Old Testiment in which Samuel anointed Saul as king.

   
  Dongan, Thomas, 2nd Earl of Limerick 1634 - 1715 {short description of image}

He was an Irish supporter of King William III and Mary. He was appointed Governor of New York (1683 - 1688)

   
  Donelson, Andrew J.   {short description of image}

He was a diplomat and Vice Presidential candidate of the Know-Nothing Party in the election of 1856

He was sent to Texas in 1838 and was an important individual in the annexation of Texas

 
  Doniphan, Alexander 1808 - 1887 {short description of image}

He was from Missouri. He commanded a unit during the Mexican War which campaigned in New Mexico against Navajo uprising and then into Mexico

   
  Dorr, Thomas W. 1805 - 1854 {short description of image}

He was a politician in Rhode Island who fought to expand the franciseand political power ofthe middle class and rural population against the big city machines. He led the unsuccessful rebellion.

   
  Dorr Rebellion 1841-41 {short description of image}

A political effort (including actual rebellion and siezure of government) that had the objective of inceasing the political power of the rural and agricultural population. It was unsuccessful

   
  Douglas, Charles 1698 - 1778 {short description of image}

He was a Scot noble

   
  Douglass, Frederick 1818- 1895 {short description of image}

Frederick, Austustus Washington Bailey (Stephen) is considered the most influential African-American of the 19th century. He was an orator, stateman, author, reformer.

He was the VP candidate with Victoria Woodhull as President on the Equal RightsParty ticket

 
  Douglas, Stephen 1813 - 1861 {short description of image}

He as a Democrat paty politician from Illinois. He was in the Lincoln-DouglasDebates in 1858. He championed the doctrine of 'popular sovereignty' and economic expansion. He favored railroad expansion and created the land grant system to finance railroads. He was responsible for the Compromiseof 1850. He also pushed the Kansas - Nebraska Act of 1854. This caused a major political upheaval and realignment of the parties, creating the Republican out of northern Whigs and Free Soilers.

He was a Representative (1843), Senator (1846), and Democratic candidate for President in 1856 and again in 1860, loosing to Abraham Lincoln. Douglas' efforts to preserve his own political career in the face of growing political conflict over slavery cost him support in both the North and South.

 
  Drake, Francis ca 1540 - 1596 {short description of image}

He was an English sea captain, sometime pirate, naval commander, achieved the second circumlavigation of the World (1677 - 1580) and the first to accomplish the entire feat in command himself. He was knighted by Queen Elizabeth I. He visited Roanoke in 1585. He was second in command of the English fleet that defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.

   
  Dred Scott v. Sandford 1857 {short description of image}

This was probably the mopst notorious decision in Supreme Court History. Dred Scott was a slave transported by his master into a 'free state' who then claimed his freedom. But the court ruled otherwise

   
  Dunmore, Lord 1730 -1809 {short description of image}

John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore was a Scotish Peer who was appointed Governor of New York in 177 and then moved to be Governor of Virginia in 1771. He conducted Lord Dunmore's War against the Indians west of the Appalachians as the Virginia colonists wanted to occupy the area. In 1776 he fled to New York when the colonists were starting the Revolutionary War.

   
  Duane, William John 1780 - 1865 {short description of image}

He was Sec. of Treasury, briefly, who refused Preesident Andrew Jackson's order to remove Treasury deposits from the Second Bank ofthe United States during the Bank War. He was promptly fired.

   
  Durand, Asher 1796 - 1886 {short description of image}

He was an Americajn painter of the Hudson River School. He is most famous for his detailed landscapes, which are exhibited in many galleries

The Wikipedia entry includes lovely copies of many of his paintings.

 
  Dwight, Timothy 1732 - 1817 {short description of image}

He was a Congregational Minister and President of Yale

   
  Earle, Thomas 1796 - 1849 {short description of image}

He was a journalist and lawyer in Pennsylvania and VP candidae in 1840 for the Liberty Partyy wih James G. _Birney

 
  Earp, Wyatt 1848 - 1929 {short description of image}

He was born in Illinois. The family moved to Iowa and then during the Civil War, in 1864, the family moved to San Bernadino, California. Wyatt began work as a teamster hauling freight for the railroad as far east at Wyoming. In 1868 the family moved back to Missouri where Wyatt becan his career as a lawman. From then on he was variously a sheriff and marshal in the frontier towns. He was famous in Wichita Kansas and Dodge City. After many adventures he moved to Tombstone, Arizona in 1879. There the famous Gun fight between the Earp brothers and Doc Holliday against the 'Cowboys' took place. After that he left, riding to New Mexico and then Colorado where he dealt faro in a saloon owned by Bat Masterson.

He became one of the living legends of the old west - more in the stories than reality. He is featured in many books and movie.

 
  Easton Treaty 1758 {short description of image}

This was one of the important treaties concluded between the British colonial government and local Indian tribes. It was between the British governors of Pennsylvania and New Jersey and representatives of 13 Indian tribes lead by the Iroquois, Shawnee and Lenape. It was held at Easton, Pennsylvania. It assured to the Indians their preservation of their hunting grounds in Pennsylvania and Ohio. But of course it was soon violated by the colonists. But the Lenape had to relinquish their lands in New Jersey for the sum of $1,000 Spanish dollars. Also, the Indians agreed not to fight on the French side in the current war.

   
  Eaton, John Henry 1790 -1856 {short description of image}

He was a politician, diplomat, Senator at age 28, Sec. of War for Andrew Jackson, commander of troops at Battle of New Orleans in War of 1812

He was also at the center of the political scandal known as the Petticoat Affair that forced Jackson to have him resign as Sec. of War, but he later was Minister to Spain. The 'affair' was over his marriage to Margaret O'Neale Timberlake, who was denounced by Washington society for having been a bar maid (and possibly more) in her father's tavern.

 
  Education in New England   {short description of image}      
  Edwards, Johnathan 1703 - 1758 {short description of image}

He was a very learned philosopher, a strict Calvinist, Congregationalist Protestant. He enered Yale College just under age 13 where he was greatly influenced by John Locke's book - Essay on Human Understanding. He was also greatly interested in science and the work of Sir Isaac Newton. He was a leading preacher of the First GreatAwakening, eginning in 1731. He was a very influential orator and author of many books, of which some are available today. Yale University Library has a great many manuscripts of his writings and they are available on line.

He was the Grand father of Aaron Burr.

 
  Electoral College   {short description of image}

The Constitution established an indirect process for electing the president and vice-president through an electoral college. The electors are chosen by states, each state having as many electors as the combined number of its Representatives and Senators. The Constitution does not specify how or by whom the electors are to be chosen, so that decision is left to the states.

The Wikipedia entry has an excelent history of the Electoral College and a map showing the results for the 2016 election.

 
  Elizabeth I, Queen 1563 - 1603 {short description of image}

She was queen during the era in which the first English explorers and adventurers visited the areas that became the English colonies in America.

   
  Ellery, William 1727 -1820 {short description of image}

He graduated from Harvard in 1747 where he excelled in Greek and Latin. He was a lawyer and active in the Sons of Liberty. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress. He became a judge in the Rhode Island Supreme Court and was an active abolitionist.

He signed the Articles of Confederationand the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Rhode Island. His biography is with the list of signers.

 
  Ellot, Andrew 1728 -1797 {short description of image}

He was born in Scotland and moved to Pennsylvania in 1746. In 1763 he was appointed collector of the port of New York. During the Revolution he held various offices in the city. He was the last British military governor - 1783. He then returned to Scotland.

   
  Ellsworth, Oliver 1745 - 1807 {short description of image}

He was a lawyer, revolutionary and Senator from Conn.

   
  Ely, Ezra Stiles 1786 - 1861 {short description of image}

He was a Presbyterian Miniser and leader in the Second Great Awakening movement

   
Emancipation   {short description of image}

The act of setting free, especially slaves. When an owner sets his slaves free, he emancipates them, when government sets them free, that is the abolition of slavery

   
  Emancipation Proclamation 1 January, 1863 {short description of image}

This executiveproclamation by President Lincoln freed 3 million slaves in specified areas as a war measure and applied to areas in the South then in rebellion, but not to the states loyal to the Union at the time..

   
  Embargo, The   {short description of image}

This wilipedia article includes emargos in its general essay on economic sanctions. There are a wide variety of types of embargos - more or lesss severe, and they are often more servere than other types of economic sanctions. The embargo in 1807 is an example.

   
  Embargo Act of 1807 1807 {short description of image}

This was enacted by Congress with support from President Jefferson, against both France and England, who were at war and both interfering with American shipping. And England was taking seamen off American ships. Jefferson hoped this would force Britain and France to ammend their ways. But the result was that it greatly adversely impacted the American economy and did nothing significant to its intended targets. It was unpopular and recinded.

   
  Emerson, Ralph. W. 1803 - 1882 {short description of image}

He was a very influential leader of the 'trancendentalist' movement, a poet, leader of the 'romantic movement' and Unitarian. He made a career out of public speaking as well.

   
  Emigration   {short description of image}

This is the act of Leaving a counry - Imigration is the act of entering a country.

   
  Enumerated Powers   {short description of image}

These are the power of government that are listed or specified in the Constitution. For example, the power of the government to borrow money on the credit of the United States is enumerated in the Constitution. Strict constructionists usually insist that any power exercised must either be enumerated or be necessary to carry out one that is.

This Wikipedia article discusses enumerated powers in a full essay on these and other powers given in the Constitution to the government.

 
  Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs          
  Era of Bad Feelings 1800 - 1815 {short description of image}

This is a term coined by Cameron Addis in an essay describing the political, social situation in the United States between 1800 and 1815. He choise the title 'Era of Bad Feelings' as a counerpoint to the term "Era of Good Feeling" which was described as being from 1817 to 1825

   
  Era of Good Feeling 1817 - 1825 {short description of image}

The term was coined by Benjamin Russell to conote the period after the effective end of influence of the Federalist Party and unification of popular belief and hopes around the followers of Thomas Jefferson - Madison and Monroe and John Q. Adams.

The 'good feelings' soon disintegrated with the factional struggle within the Democratic Party and the conflict between Andrew Jackson and Whig party plus the Bank War and Panic of 1837.

 
  Erie Canal 1825 {short description of image}

This canal in New York between the Hudson River and Great Lakes was the second longest in the world. It recduced transportation costs by 95%. It made New York the leading port and then financial center in the United States.

The canal continued to function, but was gradually made less economic due to the development of railroads.

 
  Established Religion   {short description of image}

This Wikikpedia entry discusses this under the title 'state religion'. This is a particular religion which is supported by or receives favored reatment from government. The Constitution prohibits Congress to establish a religion for he United States, or to inerfere with theexercise of religion. Historically, he phrase has usually been 'established church' not 'established religion'.

Actually the Consitution prohibits Congress from taking any action about 'establishment' including disestablishment because at the time Congregational churches were established in several states.

 
  Evans, George Henry 1805 - 1856 {short description of image}

He was a radical reformer and champion of the Free Soil movement that advocated sale of the western frontier land. He is termed 'the Father of the Homestead Act" which was passed in 1862, during the Civil War without participation of the Southern States.

   
  Evans, Oliver 1755 - 1819 {short description of image}

He was born in Delaware and became an inventor, engineer and businessman. He was the first American to build a high pressure steam engine. He had manyh inventions including automated factor production. He built the first automobile and first amphibious vehicle.

The excellent Wikipedia essay describes his many achievements and notes that he was much under rated and overlooked during his life time.

 
  Everett, Edward 1794 - 1865 {short description of image}

He was a Whig politician, orator, Representative, Senator, state Governor, Minister, Secretary of State.

But he is most famous as the renowned popular orator who was invited to give the main address at the Gettysburg Cemetary and who spoke for two hours prior to Lincoln's address. Everett wrote to congratulate Lincoln on his superior address.

 
  Ex Parte Milligan 1866 {short description of image}

This was an important Supreme Court decision declaring President Lincoln's use of military courts in peacetime of where civilian courts were functioning to be Unconstitutional. The case arose from military trial of 3 individuals of whom Milligan became the namesake for history.

   
  Faction   {short description of image}

What is now usually described as an interest group. Political parties not in power were sometimes referred to an even denounced as factions in the early years of the Republic. Amereican politics remained largely factional until the elections in 1830's when many separate interests joined either the Whig or Democrat parties.

In classical and early modern times 'factions' were usually created around a political figure. Their history was considered dangerous by the authors of the Constitution

 
  Fallen Timbers, Battle of 1794 {short description of image}

This was the final, decisive American victory in the NorthwestIndian war of 1785 - 1795 for control of the Northwest Territories ceeded to the United States by Great Britain in 1783. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 had given the Ohio territory to the Americans, but the local Indians claimed the British and Americans had no right to the area as the Indiians had not been consullted. They formed a Western Confederacy and won several engagements in 1790 and 1791. In 1792 President Washington ordered General May Anthony Wayne to defeat the Indians. The Indian leaders were the Shawnee - Wiapiersenwalt _Blue Jacket - The Deleware (Lenape) chief - Buckangahela - and the Miami Chief - Michikinikwa - Little Turtle. They demanded the return to status of Treaty of Fort Stanwix, which had preserved their lands. Wayne led a well trained regular army force with Choctaw and Chickasaw scouts north from Cincinatti and defeated the Indians at Fallen Timbers

The result of the battle and war led to the Treaty of Greenville between Wayne and Little Turtle that kept the peace there until Tecumsah rebelled and was defeated at Battle of Tippecanoe.
Today the site of the battle is a national Historical Site

 
  Farragut. David. G. 1801 - 1870 {short description of image}

He rose in the U.S. Naval Service in the Civil War to rank of admiral. He captured New Orleansand Port Hudson on the Mississippi. Then captured Mobile, giving the famous order 'Damm the torpeados, full steam ahead'.

   
  Federalism   {short description of image}

This is a general article about 'federalism' as a method for organizing government.This is a system of government in which the powers are divided between the general government and those of territorial divisions of govenrment, both of which have jurisdiction on people within their bounds. The United States is a prime example of a country in which such powers of government have been divided, indeed, the Founders of the United Sates invented the system.

Here is the article on the specific structure of federalism in the United States. As the areticle notes "it is the constitutional relationship between the state governments and the federal government". It describes the historical origins of the federal structure as an outgrowth of the problems facing government under the Articles of Confederation.

is
 
  Federalist, Papers the 1787-88 {short description of image}

The famous series of 85 articles published in American newspapers in support of the ratification of the new Constitution. They remain in print today and are a major reference to the purposes of the Constitution

   
  Federalist Party   {short description of image}

The political party led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. it was the first party to hold power in the Unied States, and at the height of its following in the last years of the 18th century, it was strong throughout the country. However, after 1801, its following began to decline and, after that, was concentraed mostly in New England. After 1817, it was no longer a major facor in national politics.

   
  Fessenden, William Pitt 1806 - 1869 {short description of image}

He was a Maine state Whig then Republican - Representative and Senator, and Sec. of Treasury in which position he conducted monetary and fiscal policy. As a Senator he strongly voted to acquit President Johnson

   
  Few, William 1748 - 1828 {short description of image}

He was a farmer and businessman. He represented Georgia in the Constitutional Convention. At the beginning of the Revolution, Few, joined the Richmond Regiment of Georgia. Due to his leadership skill he rose through the ranks. His unit participated in the disasterous siege of Savannah from which his regiment formed a rear guard during the retreat. He then shifted west to confront the Creek Indians who supported the British. His skill resulted in the British being prevented from gaining control of all of Georgia. This led to his increasing political prominence and election to the Georgia legislature. From there he was sent to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. He was selected to be one of the Georgia first U.S. Senators.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Georgia. He is considered a Founding Father of the United States.

In 1799 at the behest of his wife, he moved the family to New York City, where he then engaged in banking and local politics.

 
  Fiat Money   {short description of image}

A form of money whose value is decreed by government as 'legal tender'. It is usually paper money, whose value is maintained by the government by acceptance as taxes. This Wikipedia entry includes some interesting historical examples dating back to China.

Today the great majority of American money is created by negociable credit shown in the electronic systems of the banking industry.Arguments over the use of 'fiat' money are political and seeingly never ending.

 
  Fillmore, Millard 1800 -1874 {short description of image}

He was born to a very poor family of long time ancestors in New York State. His father was Nathaniel Filmore and his Grand father was Nathaniel Filmore Sr. (1739 - 1814) who was a member of the Green Mountain Boys and a Lt. in the American Revolution. Millard was the last Whig president. He was instrumental in passage of the Compromise of 1850. He lost to Winfield Scott in 1852. He was candidate again in 1856 for the Know Nothing Party

He was the 12th Vice President and 13th President upon death of Zachary Taylor

 
  Finney, Charles G. 1792 - 1875 {short description of image}

He was a Presbyterian Miniser and social reformer. He was a leader in the Second Great Awakeningand is called the Father of modern Revivalism

   
  First Dragoon Expedition 1834 {short description of image}

This was the first official U.S. Army expedition into the southwest plains. It departed Fort Gibson under command of General Henry Leavenworth. The expedition had quite a few Indians along as guides and interpreters. The weather and terrain was terrible, 150 of the 500 men in theexpedition died including General Leavenworth. The command continued being lead by Colonel Henry Dodge. They did succeed in establishing friendly relations with several local tribes.

George Catlin, the famous painter of the early west was among the party and painted scenes. There were many others as well. including Jefferson Davis, Stephen Kearny, Jessy Chisholm. Philip St. George Cooke, and John Burgwin. This was at the time when the eastern Indians -Creeks, Chocaw, Cherokee were being moved into Oklahoma, so establishing relations with the local Indians was very important.

 
  First Reconstruction Act 1867 {short description of image}

Actually there were four acts designed to control the newly conquered southern states and help the freed slaves. They were passed again over President Johnson's veto.Among other things they required the southern states to ratify the 14th Amendment. But the establishment whites managed to circumvent most of the requirements.

   
  Fisk, Jim 1835 - 1872 {short description of image}

He was known as "Big Jim" and "Diamond Jim". He was a stockbroker and manipulator. With partner, Jay Gould he tried to use manipulation of President Grant to corner the gold market, but failed. He was a notorious "robber baron", He was murdered.

   
  Fisk, Theophilus   {short description of image}

Universalist author

   
  Fitzhugh, George 1806 - 1881 {short description of image}

He was a social theorist from the Southern states who was strongly pro-slavery, not only of blacks but whites also, and also strongly anti-capitalist

   
  Fitzpatrick, Thomas 1799 - 1854 {short description of image}

He was a 'mountain man' trapper and head of the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. With Jeddiah Smith he discovered South Pass in Wyoming. He led the first two wagon trains to Oregon. He was the official guide for John C. Fremont's second expedition and he led Philip Kearny's dragoon expedition into the plains to show off the howitzers to the Indians. In 1851 he helped negociatge the Fort Laramie Treaty, the largest assembly of plains Indians. In 1853-54 he went to Washington D. c. to work on treaties but died of pneumonia and was buried in Congressional Cemetery..

   
  FitzSimons, Thomas 1741 - 1811 {short description of image}

He was a business man engaged in trade with the West Indies. His business, then, was severely hurt by the British taxes and customs duties on eve of the Revolution. He served in local militia and helped organize logistics for the Continental Army and organize the Navy. He represented Pennsylvania in the Continental Congress in 1782, The Constitutional Convention in 1787 and the U. S. Congress in its first three sessions.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as delegate from Pennsylvania. He is one of only two Catholic signers, along with Daniel Carroll.

 
  Flagg, Azariah Cutting 1790 - 1841 {short description of image}

He lived in upstate New York and fought in militia as a very young man in the War of 1812. He became a newspaper man and politician in New York.

   
  Fletcher, Benjamin 1640 - 1703  {short description of image}

He was Governor of New York from 1692 to 1697.

   
  Fletcher v. Peck 1795 {short description of image}

This was an early and lasting 'landmark' decision by the Supreme Court. It stated the doctrine that the Supreme Courst could declare the decisions of a state court 'unconstitutional'. But the main purpose of the decision was to uphold the legality of contracts.

The issue arrose in Georgia when the two land speculators argued over contracts and the Georgia legislature rewrote the law and the two appealed to the state court.

 
  Floyd, William 1734- 1821 {short description of image}

He was a major general of militia during the Revolutionary War. He was a delegate to the First Continental Congress in 1774. And he was a member of the New York Senate 1777 - 1788. He was elected to the First United States Congress. He was a presidential elector in 1792, 1800 and 1804.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from New York.
The family estate on Long Island has remained active through 8 generations of the Floyd family. The town of Floye, N.Y. is named for him, as are several public schools.

 
  Forbes, John 1707 - 1759 {short description of image}

John Forbes was a professional British Army officer who served during much of the 18th Century. He was an officer initially in the Scots Greys. He led the British campaign in 1758 to capture fort Duquenseby constructing a new road (Forbes Road) through the Pennsylvania wilderness directly west from Carlisle. In this he delegated the lead command to Henry Bouquet.

See above entry for Bouquet for details of the campaign

 
  Forrest, Nathan B. 1821 - 1877 {short description of image}

Despite no formal military education, he rose from private to Lt. General in the Confederate Army. His speciality was mobile war, for which he wrote a doctrine book. Prior to the war he was a wealthy planter and real estate investor. During the war he was recognized for his brilliant tactics - but his simple doctrine was 'to be firstus with the mostest'. After the war he joined the KKK.

   
  Forsyth, John 1780 - 1841 {short description of image}

He was a politician, Fepresentative, Senator, Governor, Sec. of State for Andrew Jackson and slave owner.

   
  Forts of the French and Indian Wars   {short description of image}

This is a link to a remarkable Wikipedia entry that has links to a long alphabetical list of forts in use during the French and Indian Wars.

   
  Fort Adobe 1843 {short description of image}

The fort (ruin) was located near the Canadian River in the far north part of Texas near the Oklahoma panhandle. It was established as a base for Amerian trappers and trders in Comanche territory. There were two battles First Battle of Adobe Walls in 1864. And the Second Battle of Adobe Walls in 1874.

The sie is now listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

 
  Fort Amsterdam   {short description of image}

The Dutch fort built in present day Governor's Islandd to defend their settlement on Manhattan - New Amsterdam

   
  Fort Astoria 1808 {short description of image}

This fort on the Oregon - Pacific coast was established by John J. Astor to ship fur from the Rocky Mountains and west direct to China to exchange for tea, silk and manufactured goods.

   
  Fort Atkinson 1850 - 1854 {short description of image}

Fort Atkinson, Kansas is 2 miles west of Dodge City. The first fort here was established by the U.S. Army to protect travelers on the Santa Fe trail from Indians. A major treaty was signed there between the Government and the several Indian tribes. This was abandoned in 1853. A new post was reestablished in 1854, but no buildings were constructed. The post was again abandoned later that year.

There ae forts Atkinson in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas and Wisconsin.

are
 
  Fort Beausejour 1751 {short description of image}

The fort was built by the French as a Vauban style 5 bastioned fortress on Isthmus of Chingnecto between New Brnswick and Nova Scotia, Canada. The British captured it in 1755 (Battle of Fort Beausejour) and renamed it Fort Cumberland. It was part of the French defense of Acadia and continued to be important in the French and British struggle in the St Lawrence River area.

Fort Cumerland - It has been partially restored and has a museum. It is a national historic place for Canada.

 
  Fort Bernard 1845 -1866 {short description of image}

The fort was located 8 miles south-east of Fort Laramie on the North Platte River. It was a base for fur trappers and for defense of the Oregon Trail. It took much business from Fort Laramie due to its location. Traders would bring flour from Ft. Bent to sell to travelers going to Oregon. It burned down in 1866 and was abandoned.

   
  Fort Bridger 1842 {short description of image}

The fort was originally established by "mountain man' Jim Bridger as a fur trading post on Black's Fork of the Green River in south-west Wyoming. It became a key supply point on the California Trail, Oregon Trail and Mormon Trail. In 1858 the army established a military fort which remained until 1890. In 1847 the Mormons siezed the post and claimed that they bought it from Bridger and Valesquez. In 1857 during the Utah War the post was burned. In1858 William Carter became the post sutler and remained there throughout its history. The U.S. Government reje4cted theclaims of both the Mormons and Bridger and established its own official army fort. During the Civil War the fort was at first abandoned but then reoccupied. From then on it had a very colorful history. it was a post on the Pony Express route.

The fort now is in the town of Ft. Bridger. Some buildings remain. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. An annual festival to the Old West is held here.

 
  Fort Buford   {short description of image}      
  Fort Carillon 1758 {short description of image}

The fort was constructed by French commander, Piere de Rigaud de Vandreuil to protect the strategic avenue between the Hudson River and Canada along Lake Champlain. It was attacked by British General James Abercombie (failed) Battle of Carillon. It was later renamed Fort Ticonderoga

The fort became a ruin in centuries after it lost significance but now has been restored and turned into a very popular tourist destination.

 
  Fort Caroline 1564 - 1569 {short description of image}

The small triangular fort was established on the St. John's River at present day Jacksonville, Florida. It was the brief French effort to establish a colony in Georgia or Florida. The first expedition was led by Jean Ribault and Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere in 1562. They eastblished a colony called Charlesfort on Paris Island. While Rebault was detained from his second voyage de Laudonniere led about 200 men back to Florida and built Fort Caroline.The tiny colony was declining in 1565 when John Hawkins happened by and exchanged goods that enabled it to survive. One unexpected result was that Hawkins took tobacco supplied by the French colony back to England. In August Ribault finally returned with a larger fleet and more soldiers and women. But so did the Spanish, ordered by the government to remove the French.Both fleets suffered great loss in a hurricane. But under cover of the storm the Spanish moved overland and suprised the small French garrison. Laudonniere managed to escape but Ribault and most of the men were executed. The Spanish destroyed the French fort but built their own on the location. In 1568 another French naval force returned and in revenge destroyed the fort and executed the Spanish.

The exast location of the fort has not been found. But in 1953 the National Park Service established a memorial to the fort on the St. John's River. And in 1964 they built a replaca fort to show what the original may have appeared,

The Wikipedia entry has interesting illustrations of the fort and local Indians.

 
  Fort Casimir 1651 - 1675 {short description of image}

The Dutch from New Amsterdam built the fort near present New Castle south of the Swedish Fort Christina to block Swedish encrochment on their territory of New Netherland and to be in a better location to conduct fur trade with the Lenape Indians. It changed hands three from 1664 when the British first took all New Netherland from the Dutch, then the Dutch retook it and finally the British again took control. It was abandoned i n1675

   
  Fort Cass 1835 {short description of image}

The fort was constructed as part of theoperation to remove the Cherokee from Georgia, Carolina, Tennessee and Alabama. It was located at present day Charleston, Tennessee. In 1838 the large number of Cherokee camped there temporarily on their journey to Oklahoma. Prior to the fort, the location was the site of the Cherokee agency headquarters, the government agency that dealth with the Indians. Many of the Cherokee died from disease during their enforced stay there.

Nothing remains now of Fort Cass. The Wilipedia entry descries some of the events of the period during which the Charokee were camped there. It has a link to the Indian Removal Act.

 
  Fort Christna 1638 - 1655 {short description of image}

This Fort was the first settlement of the Swedish colony on the Delaware River near present day Willington. It was renamed Fort Altena by the Dutch when they captured it. It was named for the Queen of Sweden. The first settlers arrived on the Kalmar Nyckel led by Peter Minuit. The fort's earthworks were strengthened in 1640 and entirely rebuilt in 1647. The Swedes were in continual conflict with the Dutch who claimed the area as part of New Netherland. The Dutch built Fort Casimir in 1651 which the Swedes than captured. This brought the Dutch under Peter Stuyvesant back in force in 1655 to besiege Christina and expell the Swedish government, leaving the colonists to remain.

In 1938 the State of Delaware to celebrate the 300 anniversary of the Swedish colony established a memorial with a model of the Kalmay Nyckel and Chritina State Park. There was a big ceremony with President Roosevelt and Swedish Crown Prince Gustaf Adolph. The site was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961. In 2013 for the 375th anniversary Swedish King Carl Gustav XVI and V. P Biden reenacted the landing.

 
  Fort Collins 1864 - 1867 {short description of image}

The 'fort' was established (but walls were not built) in Colorado to increase protection for travelers on the Overland Trail. More settlers soon came to the location and a town was estsblished - now Fort Collins, Colorado

   
  Fort Cumberland 1754 {short description of image}

The fort was constucted in 1754 and was at the time the furtherest West Brtish fort in America. It was visited by George Washington. It was the starting point for General Braddock'sexpedition and remained a British supply point for campaigns west.

The remains of the fort (tunnels) now lie under the Emmanuel Episcolal Church in Cumberland

 
  Fort Dodge 1865 - 1882 {short description of image}

The post was esablished to protect travel on the Santa Fe Trail between Independence Missouri and Fort Lyon on the Arkansas River crossing. It was ordered by Major General Grenville Dodge. But buildings were not constructed until after the Civil War. The fort was raided frequently by Indians who would steal all the horses.

The fort is located east (near) Dodge, in southwest Kansas.

In 1889 the buildings were converted into the Kansas Old Soldiers Home.

 
  Fort Donelson, Battle of 1862 {short description of image}

During the Civil War this fort was emplaced by the Confederates on the Cumberland River to prevent Union movement south. In 1862 General Grant besieged and captured it and issued his famous sstatement 'no unconditional surrender'. In the same campaign he captured Port Hudsonas well.

   
  Fort Duquense 1758-63 {short description of image}

This was the major French fort at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers - creating the Ohio River. It was constructed by French commander Claude Pierre Pecauchy de Contrecour to pre-empt the Virginians led by George Washington. It served French interests during the French and Indian War

The fort was the target of General Braddock's failed expedition. Next, in 1758 it was temporarily held against the British advance party of James Grant on 14 Sept. 1758, but on recognizing the coming superior forces of John Forbes the French destroyed it. The British replaced it with Fort Pitt.

 
  Fort Ellsworth 1864 - 1866 {short description of image}

The post was established by Lt. Ellsworth to protect travelers moving west and increasing numbers of local settlers. It remained very primitive in construction. It was replaced by Fort Harker.

   
  Fort Frederica 1732 - 1748 {short description of image}

The fort was built by General James Oglethorpe in Georgia to defend the colony from Spanish attack. In 1743 the Battles of Gully Hole and Bloody Marsh successfully drove off the Spanish.

The archeological remains today are a National Monument.

 
  Fort Frontinac 1673 - {short description of image}

The fort was constructed by Louis, Comte de Frontenac in 1673 near present day Kingston, Ontario as the major connecting fort to the Great Lakes, against the British and Iroquois Indians.

Battle26 - 28 August, 1758

 
  Fort Garland 1858 - 1883 {short description of image}

It was named for General John Garland. In 1866 Colonel Kit Carson commanded here with his volunters. He negociated a treaty with the Ute Indians. whose domain was most of the montains in northern New Mexico and Colorado.

The fort is located east of Alamosa, Colorado on the south central state border. There is a museum there. It is in the National Register of Historic Places

 
  Fort Gibson 1824 -1888 {short description of image}

The fort was in eastern Oklahoma, on the Grand River near the Arkansas River, when it was built it was the furtherest west of any Army post. The garrison was very involved in the Indian Removal settling disputes between the Osage Indians and the arrving Cherokee and others. It was the largest U.S. Army garrison during the 1830's and was visited or had stationed there a very long list of famous individuals such as Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee and George Catlin. It was also involved in the independence of Texas. In 1857, at their request, the fort and town was abandoned and given to the Cherokee nation. But during the Civil War the Union reoccupied the fort to defend Indian Territory from Confederate occupation. There was one 'naval' battle on the Arkansas River when a Union supply ship was attacked. After the war, in 1872, the 1th Cavalry occupied the fort to protect the construction of a railroad in the area.

It is listed in the national Regiser of Historic Places and is named a National Historic Landmark.

 
  Fort Hall 1834 {short description of image}

It was built by fur trappers and traders as an outpost far into the Rocky Mountains. In the 1850's it became an important station on the Oregon Trail which diverged from the California trail a few miles further west. In the 1860's 70's it was an even more important post to protect miners One site was abandoned and a new Fort Hall was built nearby.

The fort was located on the Snake River in present day Idaho The Old Fort hall is listed as a National Historic Landmark and the New Fort Hall is listed in the National Register of Historic Places, but nothing actually remains of the original buildings. But the location is in the Fort Hall Indian Reservation.

 
  Fort Harker Nov. 1866 - Oct. 1872 {short description of image}

The fort is located at Kanapolis, Kansas, almost dead center in the state. It as named for General Charles G. Harker, killed in the Civil War and was one of the most important frontier forts for issuing supplies to the Army forts and operations further west. It was built under orders from General Winfield Hancock to replace Fort Elisworth. The Union Pacific reached the fort in 1867, making it an ideal location to collect provisions for operations on the open plains to the west. In 1867 a major out break of cholera took many lives of the soldiers and civilians. In 1868 General Philip Henry Sheridan moved his headquarters there from Ft. Leavenworth. In 1870 General George Custer past through with his 7th Cavalry. The fort was closed after int was no longer needed in the campaigns against the Indians.

It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places

 
  Fort Hayes 1863 - 2009 {short description of image}

The fort was built several miles north of the town but is now in present-day down town Columbus Ohio. It was build as an Arsenal and remained as such until 1875 when it became a recruiting station.

   
  Fort Jackson 1735 {short description of image}

The fort was built in 1735 to replace a stockade named Fort Toulouse (1717) on the Coosa River. The French used it as a trading post with the Creek Indians. When they left in 1763 the British let it decay. But in the war of 1812 the 'red stick' Creek Indians opened a war by killing many local setttlers. General Andrew Jackson with the 'White stick' Creek defeated them and he then rebuilt a new Fort Jackson.

The site is a National Historic Landmark. There are Fort Jackson's also in Georgia, Wisconsin, Lousiana, South Carolina, Colorado and Virginia.

 
  Fort Kearny 1848 - 1871 {short description of image}

It was an outpost on the Oregon Trail near Kearney Nebrasks and named after General Stephen W. Kearny. For 20 years it was a major station on the Great Platte River Road. It was a Pony Express and Overland Stage Coach station. Initially it was not fortified. Thousands of people on their way to Oregon or California would pass through on a single day. After 1864 when the Indian wars increased earth fortifications were added.

It is in the National Register of Historic Places. It is mentioned in may novels and movies

 
  Fort Phil Kearny 1866 - 1868 {short description of image}

The fort was built on the Bozeman Trail in northeastern Wyoming. It was named for Civil War General Philip Kearny who died at Chantilly. It was the largest of three stockaded forts along the trail, built to protect miners going to Montana. It was the location for Red Cloud's War and several major battles with Indians. It was abandoned in 1868 having lost importance. Whereupon it was burned by Cheyenne Indians.

The fort is a U.S. National Historic Landmark and also in the U.S. Register of Historic Places. Now a tourist place is operated there.

 
  Fort Kiowa 1822 - 1840's {short description of image}

It was constructed on the Missouri River in South Dakota as a trading post for fur trappers. Many famous 'mountain men' passed through it. In 1827 it was purched by John Jacob Astor. Many frontieradventures took place with relation to the fort . When the fur trade moved further west in the 1840's it was abandoned. Now the site is under the Missouri River.

   
  Fort Laramie 1834 - 1890 {short description of image}

It was originally named Fort William and then Fort John. It was located at the confluence of the Laramie and North Platte Rivers in eastern Wyoming. It was a major stopping place on the Oregon Trail and with Bent's Fort served as a central trading post for trappers and Indians. Fort William was built in 1834 by William Sublette and when purchased in 18441 by Astor's American Fur Company renamed Fort John. It was purchased by the U.S. Army in 1840. In construction this was a major fort. It was decommissioned after the railroads took most of the travel and the local Indians were supressed.

The site is listed in the U.S. National Register of Historic Sites.

 
  Fort Larned 1859 - 1878 {short description of image}

It is located 5 miles west of Larned, Kansas. The location on the Arkansas River was selected by William Bent. It saw many of the U.s. cavalry officers such as Custer, and Sheridan, who conducted renentless campaigns from the fort to drive the Cheyenne and Araphoe into reservations.

The fort is a National Histori Site and is also listed in the National Register of Historical Places. Nine of the original buildings survive, making this one of the best preserved of the frontier forts during the Indian Wars.

 
  Fort Lawrence 1749 -50 {short description of image}

One of many forts the British constructed after building Halifax to protect it and Nova Scotia from French attacks. (see Father le Loutre's War). It was named for the British commander, Majopr Charles Lawrence. It was near Fort Beausejour. It was involved in the British capture of that French fort and in the explusion of the Acadians.

   
  Fort Leavenworth 1827 - today {short description of image}

This is the oldest active Army post west of Washington D.C. It has a long history described in this link. It was constructed by Colonel Henry Leavenworth.

   
  Fort Ligonier 1758 {short description of image}

The fort was constucted by Henry Bouquet as a supply point during his construction of Forbes' Road across Pennsylvania to capture Fort Duquense in 1758. It was immediately attacked by French troupes de la Marine and 150 Delaware Indians on October 12, 1758. BattleThe British drove the French off.

Now the fort has been rebuilt in replica and has a museum. There are celebrations and much effort to attract tourists . See web site.

 
  Fort Livingston 1834 - 1861 {short description of image}

This was a 19th century coastal defense fortress. Construction began in 1834 and continued until the Civil War, but not completed, during which it was occupied by Confederate and Union forces. .

The ruins remain today. It is the only major fortress in Lousiana on the Gulf of Mexico. It is in the National Register of Historical Places.

 
  Fortress Louisbourg 1720 - 1740 {short description of image}

The major fortress was constructed by the French on Cape Breton Island to defend the entrance to the St. Lawrence. It was very expensive and extensive. It was captured by American militia in 1745, returned to France and then besieged and captured in 1758.

Siegein 1745 - Siege in 1758

 
  Fort Lupton 1840 {short description of image}

The for was constructed bu Lt. Lancaster Lupton. But nothing of the trading post remains today - only the town of Fort Lupton

   
  Fort Lyon 1860 - 1897 {short description of image}

The fort was originally named Fort Wise and was renamed during the Civil War for General Nathon Lyon. It was located on the Arkansas River just west of Big Timbers, where Wiilliam Bent constructed his second fort. It was convenient for control of the Cheyenne as well as for protecting caravans between Independence and Santa Fe. The next post east was at Fort Dodge. In 1866 flooding on the Arkansas River caused the fort to be relocated to near Las Animas.

The Ft. Lyon National Cemetary is there and nearby is a Kit Carson museum . The fort is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

 
  Fort Mann 1847 - 1848 {short description of image}

The small fort was located west of Fort Dodge to protect the Santa Fe Trail. On 19 June 1847 it was attacked by 400 Indians while only a few teamsters were present. Thomas Sloan, the blacksmith took command of the defense. After repelling the attack Sloan and remaining men abandoned the Fort. But it was reoccupied by U.S. Army infantry and artillery later that summer. In November it was visited by peaceful Pawnee Indians. But the commander didn't realize this and killed or captured several, creating a major public relations unroar in the press and much loss of morale among the soldiers. The post was abandoned and a new one built further east and named Fort Atkinson.

   
  Fort McHenry 1798 {short description of image}

The bastioned fort was built to defend Baltimore. During the War of 1812, in September, 1814 it was bombarded by the British navy. The bombardment was witnessed by Francis S. Key who wrote a poem describing the event.

The fort in now a National Monument and park with rangers and is a major tourist destination.

 
  Fort McPherson 1862 - 1880 {short description of image}

The Fort was built after the Dakota War to protect travelers on the Oregon and California Trails. From it many cavalry and infantry expeditions were launched during the Indian wars across the plains.

The fort is located in Noth Platte Nebraska on the North Platte River

 
Fort Moultrie 1776 - on {short description of image}

The 'fort' was still under construction on Sullivan's island at entrance to Charleston S. C. on 28 June 1776 when it was attacked by a strong British naval squadron. Their bombardment failed. The cannon balls bounced off the palmetto logs. This is the origin of the nickname of South Carolina - the Palmetto State.

The fort was greatly expanded and strengthened and remains today as a fine tourist location

 
  Fort Nassau 1626 {short description of image}

This fort was constructed by the Dtuch from New Amesterdam on the New Jersey - east bank - of the Delaware River to maintain their ownership of the region as part of New Netherland.

   
  Fort Necessity 1754 {short description of image}

The 'fort' was constructed as an emergency measure by George Washington and immediately attacked by the French forcing Washington to surrender.

The battlefield is preserved today. General Edward Braddock'sgrave is nearby

 
  Fort Nya Elfsborg 1643 - {short description of image}

This was a Swedish fort built by governor Johan Printz to defend their colony along the Delaware River. But the Dutch came from New Amsterdam and expelled the Swedish governors while allowing the settlers to remain

   
  Fort Ontario 1755 {short description of image}

These two forts - Ontario and Oswego - were adjacent - Ontario is actually in modern Oswego, New York. Ontario was built by Sir Gordon Drummond in 1755 across the River from Ontario by the British, destroyed by the French, rebuilt in 1759. Here Pontiac met with Sir William Johnson after the end of the Pontiac Rebellion - It was destroyed by New York militia in 1778, rebuilt again by the British in 1782 and held by them until 1798. The British again attacked and destroyed it in 1814. It was rebuilt for the Civil War and remained until the 1940's.

The fort was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1970.

 
  Fort Osage 1808 -1822 {short description of image}

The fort was in far western Missouri and also called Fort Sibley and Fort Clark. The Treaty with the Osage Indians was signed there. It was built by William Clark. During the War of 1812 the garrison was reduced as the fighting was further north and east. It was abandoned after the Osage moved west and trade shifted with the frontier.

It islised in the National Register of Historic Places

 
  Fort Oswego 1727 {short description of image}

Fort Oswego was built by William Burnet. It was attacked in 1756 by a large force of French and Indians commanded personally by Montcalm on August 15. It was defended by elements of the British 50th and 51st Regiments - Battle who were forced to surrender. The Indians plundered the fort and killed and scalped some of the British - something Montcalm should have remembered when he captured Fort William Henry in 1757. The British atttack here was on 6 May in 1814.

The article has a good map showing all the French and British forts along Lakes Ontario and Erie and through New York to Lake Champlain.

 
  Fort Platte 1840 - 1846 {short description of image}

The fort was built by Lancaster Lupton as a trading post near Fort Laramie. He sold it in 1842. But the new owners moved opeations to Fort Bernard in 1846.

   
  Fort Pulaski   {short description of image}

The fort construction was begun at Savannah in 1829 as part of the major national system (Third System) to defend the seacoast. The system was ordered by President Madison. Robert Lee (Corps of engineers) participated in the construction. It is located on Cockspur Island on the Savannah River. In 1833 it was named after the Polish officer who assisted colonial troops in the Revolution. He took part in the Sieges of Charleston and Savannah. The fort was completed in 1847. At the start of the Civil War it was siezed by Georgia troops. On April 10, 1862 it was besieged by Uniontroops. Their bombardment using the new Parrot and James rifled cannon quickly opened the wall, forcing the Confederate commander to surrender. The Union troops quickly repaired the fort thus closing Savannah port to Confederate shipping.

The for is now a National Monument - well preserved and worth a visit to see a fine example of sea coast fortification. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. The Wikipedia article includes some excellent photos of the fort both at the time of the siege and today.

 
  Fort Recovery, Ohio 1793 {short description of image}

The fort was build by order of General 'Mad' Anthony Wayne on the Wabash River near Indiana. It was the location, where in 1791 General St. Clair had been defeated by Litle Turtle and Blue Jacket. On 30 June, 1794 the fort was attacked by Blue Jacket

The fort is listed in the national Register of Historic Places and there is now a museum and gift shop on site. See {short description of image}

 
  Fort Riley 1853 - to now {short description of image}

The fort was named for Major General Benett C. Riley who led the first military expedition along the Santa Fe Trail. The fort was to defend settlers along that and the Oregon Trail. In 1887 it became the post for the Army Cavalry School

Today it is the home of the First Infantry Division (Big Red One).

 
  Fort Scott 1842- 1853 {short description of image}

The fort was abandoned by the Army, but the town that was built around it continued to play an active role during the pre-Civil War conflicts in Kansas and during the war. Several battles took place there.

The fort is located in Scott, Kansas on the Missouri border. There are 4 other Fort Scott's from Washington DC to San Fransico all nemed for General Winfield Scott

 
  Fort St. Anthony 1503 - 1642 {short description of image}

This fort was established by the Portuguese inpresend day Ghana on the African Coast probably to participate in the gold trade. It was captured by the Dutch in 1642.

   
  Fort St. Vrain 1837 {short description of image}

It was built by the Bent - St. Vrain Company at the confluence of St. Vrain Creek and the South Platte River about 20 miles from the Rocky Mountains to serve as their northern base for supply and trade with fur trappers in the montains and buffalo hunters on the plains. Ceran's brother, Marcellin managed this fort. Governor William Clarkissued the license to trade with the Indians. Ceran sold his shares to William Bent in 1849.

   
  Fort Sumner 1863 - 1869 {short description of image}

The fort and surrounding large area was authorized by Congress to form a reservation for Navajo and Apache Indians to prevent them from raiding local farms and ranches. It was located in south east New Mexico. It was named for General Edward Vose Sumner and built by General James Henry Carleton . Carleton ordered Colonel Kit Carson to round up the Apache. They soon ran away. At its largest it held 8,500 Navajo and 500 Apache, far too many for the local agriculture to support. In 1868 the Army gave up after continued deaths among the Indians. A new treaty allowed the Navajo to return north to their own reservation.

In 1869 Lucien Maxwell puchased the place and converted an officers quarters to his home where he died.

The place is now listed in the National Register of Historic Places and is a New Mexico state historic place with a museum.

 
  Fort Sumpter 1829- begun {short description of image}

This was one of the 'Third System' fortresses along the Atlantic Seaboard but was unfinished in April 1861 when it was bombarded by Confederate batteries as the opening hostilities of the Civll War. Lacking the possibility of relief it was surrendered. Later in the war the Union failed to recapture it.

   

 

Fort Stanwix 1758 {short description of image}

The fort was constructed by British General Stanwix near present day Rome, New York, to protect a portage on the river system between Albany and the Great Lakes. In 1768 it was the location for the signing of an important treaty by the British and Iroquois Indians. The fort was reoccupied by Revolutionay war colonial troops in 1776. In 1777 it was besiegedby British troops with loyaists and Indians commanded by Bary St. Leger as part of the campaign that included Saratoga. The Battle of Orskany was fought nearby when the American relief column was ambushed by Tories and Indians. During that battle the fort garrison was able to sortie and destroy the British camp. The combined result was the British withdrew. Their failure at Stanwix was important to their total defeat in the British effort.

The fort is an excellent example of a Vauban style fortress with four bastions. The Wikipedia article has excellent photos. The fiort is a National Historic Monument and the Orskany battle field is a state Historic site.

 
  Fort Ticonderoga 1755 - 1757 {short description of image}

This fortress, originally named Fort Carillon was built by the French to control movement between Canada and the Hudson River Valley. In 1758 at the Battle of Carillonthe 4,000 French garrison was able to defeat the siege by 16,000 British regulars. In 1755 a surprise attack by the GreenMounain Boys hed by Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen captured it and removed the cannon to the siege of Boston. In 1777 it was captured by General Burgoyne. In September 1777 John Brown failed to recapture it.

Having lost strategic significance, the fortress fell into ruin, but it has been largely restored and is now a popular tourist destination.

 
  Fort Toulouse 1717 {short description of image}

The French built this fort near present day Wetumpka, Alabama on their frontier with the expanding British settlements in Georgia and Carolina. It was named for the Count of Toulouse and also Fort Alabama for the name of the Alabama section of the Creek Indians. The garrison was small, 20 -30 French colonial marines. They traded extensively with the Creek and frequently married into leading Creek families. Some descendents continued to be leaders in Creek society and politics. The fort was rebuilt at great expense i n1751 but then abandoned when the Treaty of Paris the ended for French and Indian War gave the territory to Great Britain. The fort figured in the later Creek War and was used by Andrew Jackson during the War of 1812

The remains of the fort are now listed in the National Register of Historic Places and U. S. HIstoric Landmarks - It is also an Alabama historic place.

 
  Fort Uncompahgre   {short description of image}

This fort was built as a trading post by Antoine Robidoux - and also called Fort Robidoux, in 1820's at the confluence of the Gunnison and Uncompahgre Rivers in the central Colorado state. It was attacked by Ute Indians in 1844 and abandoned by Robidoux who returned to St. Louis.

The City of Delta has built a replica nearby.

 
  Fort Union, Misssouri River 1828-1829 {short description of image}

The fort was built on the Missouri River near the North Dakota - Montana border as a trading post and was operated by John Astor's trading company. It was the most important trading post in the region until 1867. It was the place all the northern tribes traded buffalo and beaver for guns and manufactured products. It was visited by a long list of the early travelers including the artists, Catlin and Bodmer.

It is one of the first designated National Historic Landmarks. There is a well built restoration for tourists there now.

 
  Fort Union, New Mexico 1851 - 1891 {short description of image}

There were three forts built in succession at this location. The remains of the second one are now a National Monument. It is located in northern New Mexico in the Mora Valley, where it was IN the existing private property of the Mora Grant. It as built to defend the Santa Fe Trail, but was not fortified but left open. The owners protested in court for decades but the U.S. Government never paid a penny for their confiscation of a sizable area.

   
  Fort Vanderburgh   {short description of image}      
  Fort Vasquez 1835 {short description of image}

The for was built by Louis Vasquez and Andrew Sublette as a trading post north east of Denver but in competition with other trading posts it was unprofitable. They sold in in 1840 but the subsequent owners then went bankrupt so Vasquez and Sublette lost their payment.

It has been rebuilt as a museum in the Register of Historic Places.

 
  Fort Wallace 1865 - 1882 {short description of image}

This fort was built in far north-western Kansas to defend settlers from the Cheyenne and Sioux. It was attacked in 1867. George Custer was among the many famous soldiers stationed there.

The fort is located in the western part of Kansas on the north Fork of the Smokey Hill River. There is a museum there.

 
  Fort William and Mary 1692 {short description of image}

The for was located on New Castle Island, New Hampshire in 1632 to guard the entrance to Portsmouth. and renamed for the new monarchs, King William III and Mary in 1692. It was the main munitions depot. It was captured and recaptured by the Britsh and American forces during the Revolutionary War. It was rebuilt under the Second System for coastal fortresses and renamed Fort Constitution in 1808 and remained in service through World War II. During the Civil War construction for a Third System fortress was begun but not completed.

It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places

 
  Fort William Henry 1757 {short description of image}

The British fort at the south end of the Lake Champlain corridor was attacked by French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm on 3 August 1757 with 3,000 regulars, 3,000 militia and 2,000 Indians. The British garrison plus refugees totaling 2,300 effectives were forced to surrender on 8 August. The exceptionally large number of Indians reslted from mobilization of braves from 33 nations as far west as Lake Superior to gain individual prestige and loot. When Montcalm attempted to prevent both, the Indians did as much damage as they could and then quickly returned home. But the recognition that the French had not kept what the Indians considered their due (after all they were not paid except in loot) then no longer flocked to French service.

The siege - a romanticized version of it - was the centerpiece of James F Cooper's novel, The Last of the Mohicans. And this was then dramatized even more in a recent movie. The main interest stems from the Indian attack on the British column and wounded remaining in the fort despite Montcalm's assurance of their safety and personal efforts to prevent the massacre.
Now the fort has been reconstructed with a museum and is a major tourist attraction.

 
  Fort Wingate 1866 - 1993 {short description of image}

The fort was built near the former Fort Lyon to protect the Navajo tribe during its long walk back to its homeland. A previous fort in New Mexico was also named Fort Wingate.

The Wikipedia entry has a full description of this and its former forts - This fort remained in operation as a special ammunition depot until the BRAC.

 
  Fort Wise   {short description of image}

This is the former name for Fort Lyon in Colorado. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

   
  Fox, George 1624 - 1691 {short description of image}

He was an English dissenter who founded the Religious Society of Friends - known as Quakers.

   
  Fractional Reserve Banking   {short description of image}

This is the practice by banks of holding only a portion of the money on deposit in reserve. In the early 19th century, most banks were banks of issue - i.e. issued their own currency - and they often kept only a fraction of the amount needed to redeem their currency on hand. After the Civil War, only national banks issued currency, because Congress drove the other banks out of business by taxing their bank notes; and other banks handled mainly saving and checking accounts. Fractional reserve banking enables the total money supply to expand far beyond the amount kept in reserve.

Today the Federal Reserve sets the regulations on reserves - generally banks maintain a 10% reserve versus deposits. But many also borrow from investors and create loans larger than 10% - Now they do not issue currency but credit circulates instead.

 
  Franco-American Alliance 1778 - 1800 {short description of image}

The Treaty of alliancewas signed in 1778 that brought French military and naval assistance to the American Revolutionaries. It had to be formally ended during the Napoleonic Wars when the U.S. wanted to preverve its neutrality.

This was the subject of Washington's recommendation against formal foreign alliances and was the last such until after World War II.

 
  Franklin, Benjamin 1706 - 1790 {short description of image}

He was born in Boston but moved to Philadelphia. He was one of the most learned men in the Colonies and engaged in numerous different businesses and political activities, as a publisher, scientist, inventor, statesman, and diplomat. In the Second Continental Congress he helped write the Declaration of Independence, which he signed, and was a delegate to arrange the peace treaty. He served in the Constitutional Convention.

Franklin is known as a "Founding Father " of the United States. He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Pennsylvania.

 
  Fredericksburg, Battle of December 1862 {short description of image}

The battle took place as the Union army of Burnsideattempted to cross the Raphannock River into the town of Fredericksburg. The planned crossing had to be delayed due to lack of floating bridges. This gave Lee plenty of time to establish formidable defenses on the hills and ridges outside the town. Burnside believed he had to attack anyway, since he had been ordered to and he had witnessed the failures of McClellan to attack at Antietam.

   
  Free Democratic Party  

There are political parties in many countries with this name.

   
  Freedman's Bureau 1865 - 1870's {short description of image}

This organization was established within the Union Department of War to assist in the development of the freed slaves. It was a central part of the Reconstruction progam and was hampered and largely defeated by continual and increasing obstruction by the southern white political establishment and organizations such as the KKK.

   
  Free Soil Party 1848 - 1852 {short description of image}

The party platform was focused on one issue - prevention of expansion of slavery into the western territories and future states. It contested the elections of 1848 and 1852 with little success. The members eventually participated in creation of the Republican Party.

   
  Frelinghausen, Theodore 1787 - 1862 {short description of image}

He was a New Jersey politician, senator (1829 - 1835), VP candidate of the Whig party in 1844.

   
  Fremont, John C. 1813 - 1890 {short description of image}

He had a long and varied career as explorer, soldier and politician. He led many exploration trips across the Rocky mountains to California and was in Monterey when the Mexican War began. He organized the Americans there to create the Bear Republic. He made a fortune in the Gold Rush and eventually lost it all. He was the first senator from the new state of California.
In 1848 he led another expedition passing through Bent's Fort. He asked for Kit Carson to lead him through the mountains in winter but Carson refused. Dick Wootton and Old Bill Williams agreed but they met a blizzard in the Sangre de Christo Mountains whereupon Wootten advised them to turn back and did so himself. Fremont continued to refuse Williams' advice and became mired deep in snow by Christmas Day. (The place is called Fremont's Christmas Camp). Ute Indian found and rescued Fremont and took him to Taos where Kit Carson and his wife nursed him back to life.
In the Civil War he was appointed general in command of the Western area and campaigned with some success. But insuborination to the policies of President Lincoln resulted in his dismissal..

   
  French and Indian War 1754 - 1763 {short description of image}

The final and decisive war in which the British captured French fortresses and cities in Canada thus also taking their western territories around the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley.

   
  French and Indian Wars 1688 - 1763 {short description of image}

This is the Wikipedia link to a lengthy overview discussion with further links to the entire series of wars that followed the Beaver Wars. The objective of both French and British was to gain control over the interior of America. They include King William's War, Quen Anne's War, King George's War and the French and Indian War with much frontier fighting and raiding in between.

   
Frobisher, Martin 1535 - 1594 {short description of image}

He was an English privateer and explorer. He led three expeditions to the Northern American coast in search of a passage to China. He found what looked like gold and carried many tons back to England - it was all 'fools gold'. But he was knighted for his successful actions in the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588.

   
  Frontenac, Count de 1622 - 1698 {short description of image}

Louis de Baude de Frontinac was a French soldier and sometime courtier who had a long and distinguished career in war - including the Thirty Year's War and even an expedition to Crete. He was appointed Governor General of New France from 1672-82 and again 1689-98. He built forts as far west as the Great Lakes, fought both British and Iroquois and is a French Canadian hero.

He built Fort Frontenac near what is now Kingston, Ontario. He defended Quebecin 1690 from the British during King William's War. He led large allied Indians on devastating raids against the Iroquois that resulted in putting them out of action and ceasing to be a danger to New France.

 
  Fugitive Slave Act 1850 {short description of image}

This notorious act of Congress was part of the Compromise of 1850 to reenforce Article IV, Section 2, of the U.S. Constitution which demanded that fugitive slaves found in other states be returned to their owners.

The requirement of the Constitution to return escaped slaves was largely ignored and increasingly fought by abolitionists in Northern States. The Southern States were concerned that with the addition of more western territories at 'free' their political power would end. The Fugitave Slave Act, greatly increased the Northern refusal to return slaves and hightened the abolitionist demands and popularity.

 
  Fuller, Edward 1575 - 1620-21 {short description of image}

He was a passenger on the Mayflower and signer of the Mayflower Compact. He and his wife died in Plymouth soon after their arrival. Their son, Samuel (1608 -1683), was raised by his uncle, also Samuel. Samuel married Jane Lathropp. They are the ancestors of the Sloan family.

   
  Fulton, Robert 1765 - 1815 {short description of image}

He was an engineer and inventor. He traveled to England and France and studied all the latest industrial development. He became fascinated with steam engines as a youth. He was also a painter and earned his living partly at painting. He invented the first operational steam boat, the first submarine and naval torpedoes.

   
  Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina March, 1669 {short description of image}

This was adoped by the eight Lords Proprietors of the Carolina colony. But was later ammended. The entire text is available at Wikipedia. The document was largely ignored and difficult to follow in any case. It is probably most famous because John Locke was the main author even though it did not adhere to his political philosophy - especially in the matter of slavery and the creation of an aristocracy,

   
  Fundamental Orderts of Connecticut 1639 {short description of image}

The document describes the structure and operation of the government of the proposed new colony of Connecticut and isfrequently considered the first written constitution in America.

The Wikipedia article provides much more detail about the document and its importance.

 
  Fur Trade 16th to 19th centuries {short description of image}

Prior to the arrival of Europeans the North American Indians traded in fur. The European trade began when fishermen were remaining near the coast for long periods obtaining wood to use in drying the cod for shipment to Europe. They would exchange metal items for fur to make coats. Fur became a luxury item in Europe and this generated a huge expansion of interest in obtaining it, especially when beaver pelts became the fashion rage. The fur trade became the major economic venture of the native tribes as well as the French, Dutch and English frontier explorer merchant. For a time the AmericanFur Company dominated US industry. When fashions in Europe changed and fur declined to value the industry largely collapsed.

The Wikpedia entry is long and detailed as the subject is extensive.

 
  Fusion Party 1854 {short description of image}

The name "fusion Party" has been that of several political parties in the U.S. In 1854 it was the original name of the Republican Party, as it was created as a fusion of several anti-slavery parties. The members were opposed to the Kansas-NebraskaAct.

Later, there were political parties in South Dakota and South Carolina using this name.

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  Gabriel's Rebellion 1800 {short description of image}

Gabriel and his two brothers, Solomon and Martin were slaves belonging to Thomas Prosser. In 1800 Gabriel planned a slave revolt in Richmond VA, but it was leaked and the Virginia militia captured the slaves including Gabriel. They were hanged. The result was that Virginia and other states passed laws further restricting the opportunities of slaves.

The Wikipedia entry includes a useful long list of many slave revolts in North America.

 
  Gadsen, Christopher 1724 - 1805 {short description of image}

He was a soldier (Brigadier General of militia) and politician and principle leader of the Patriots in South Carolina during the Revolutionary war. He was a wealthy merchant. He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress in New York and a strong advocate of the Revolution. He was a delegate to both the First and Second Continental Congresses. He participated in the defense of Charleston, which was captured by the British General Sir Henry Clinton. Gadsen was captured and held prisoner in Florida until 1781. He returned to South Carolina and continued to aid in the Revolution.

The Gadsen Purchase is named for his grand son, James Gadsen

 
  Gadsen, James 1788 - 1858 {short description of image}

He was a soldier, diplomat and businessman. He served under Andrew Jackson in he War of 1812 and against Indians. He built Fort Gadsenin Florida. He was Adjutant General of the U. S. Army in 1821-22. In 1853 he was appointed Minister to Mexico. He successfully negociated the purchase of the strip of land known as the Gadsen purchase, which was thought to be necessary for construction of a transcontinental railroad there.

He was strongly pro-slavery and pro secession and nullification. By the time he was appointed Minister to Mexico he had been the president of a southern railroad out of Charleston that was heavily in debt. He was among the Southerners who were strong advocates of building a railroad from El Paso to San Diego.

 
  Gadsen Purchase Dec. 30, 1853 {short description of image}

This area of 29,673 square miles in southern Arizona and New Mexico was purchased to establish a better defined border with Mexico and because it was thought it would be a good route for a trans-continental railroad. But the railroad was not built. The area includes Tucson today, but little else besides desert and mountains. Mexico netted 10 million dollars for the sale.

The Wikipedia entry has maps and more details. And there are other links at google to articles on the topic.

 
  Gage, Thomas 1718/20 - 1787 {short description of image}

He was a professional British Army officer who served in America during the Frenchand Indian War. He was with Braddock and George Washington at the Battle of the Monongahela where he was wounded. He was wounded again at the disaster at the Battle of Carillon. But participated in the later successful capture of Fort Ticonderogain 1759. He was again in command of a regiment at Montreal and remained there as military governor. He advicated and was allowed to form the first 'light infantry' regiment in the British Army designed for fighting in American terrain environment. He was promoted Major General in 1761. In 1763 he was promoted to be Commander in Chief of British forces in America and moved to New York. Immediaely he was confronted with the problem of Pontiac's Rebellion. He sent Colonel's Bradstreet and Bouquet to suppress the rebellion. He was promoted Lt. General in 1771. He was visiting England at the time of the Boston Tea Party, but was a strong advocate for increased discipline in colonial administration. in 1774 he was appointed governor of Massachusts in Boston in hopes the he could negociate with colonists. in September he moved the British garrisons from New York and other cities to concentrate all in Boston. Immediately after the Battle of Bunker Hill he was recalled to England and replaced by General Howe.

See Bouquet and Battle of Bussy Run. The Wikipedia article has much more in the essay on Thomas Gage about the early events in the American Revolution.

 
  Gallatin, Albert 1761- 1849 {short description of image}

Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin was a Swiss-American who was a Democrat politician from Pennsylvania, a U.S. representative and senator and the longest serving Secretary of the Treasury. he formulated much of the Democrat Party financial policy.

He was also an ambassador to France (1812 - 1823) and Great Britain (1826-1827) and negociated the Treaty of Ghent that ended the War of 1812. Then while ambassador helped with the Oregon question.

 
  Galloway, Joseph 1731 - 1803 {short description of image}

He was a politician in Pennsylvania. He was a delegate to the Second Continental Congress but a loyalist. He proposed measures to preserve union. He accompanied General Howe in the occupation of Philadelphia and acted as city administrator. When Howe removed himself andtroops to New York, Galloway went with him. He moved to England at the end of the Revolutionary War and remained there.

   
  Garnet, Henry 1815 - 1882 {short description of image}

Henry Highland Garnet was a former slave, African-American abolitionist and major orator. He was prominently connected with the Creation of the United States Colored Troops units.

   
  Garrison, William. L. 1805 - 1879 {short description of image}

He wsa journalist, strong abolitionist whose paper - The Liberator - was very influential. After the Civil War he focused more on women's suffrage.

   
  Gaspee Affair 1772 {short description of image}

The Gaspee was a British revenue - customs - schooner attempting to enforce the navigation acts when it ran aground at Newport Rhode Island. Revolutionists led by John Brown borded and burned the vessel. This was the first significant violent act of the colonists against British authority. The British instituted legal proceedings with the purpose of identifying the perpetrators for trial for treason in England. This generated colonial 'committees of correspondence.'

   
  Gates, Horatio 1727 - 1806 {short description of image}

He was a retired Britih officer in the War of the Austrian Succession and the French and Indian War, in which he was in Braddock's force in the ill fated expedition, and the successful capture of Martinique. When the war ended and the army was demobilized he resigned his commission. He then /served as a general in the American army during the Revolutionary War. He claimed credit for the victory at Saratogaand was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden.That ended his military career.

   
  Genet, "Citizen" Edmond 1763 - 1834 {short description of image}

Edmund Charles Genet was a French ambassador to the U.S. But instead of proceeding to Washington to present his credentialls in 1793 he stopped in Charleston and began recruiting a militia and outfititng privateers to fight the British. This engangered President Washington's policy of neutrality. This caused a diplomatic uproar and 'Citizen" Genet was recalled.

He was a child prodigy who who could read Greek, Latin, German, Itlain, French and English by age 12. He became a court favorite.

 
  Georgia Province 1732 {short description of image}

This was the last of the original 13 colonies established by the British Crown and Parliament and included a narrow strip of land from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. It was granted by King George II to General James Oglethorpe. General Oglethorpe planned the colony for settlement of debtors and poor people and he prepared rules and regulations including no alcohol and no slavery, which the colonists opposed. Another purpose was to create a defense zone against Spanish Florida. In contrast to some propriators of the previous century, he actually led his expedition in person seeking a suitable location for a capital, which became Savannah. In1755, due to the inability of the trustees to control the colonists and financial problems the colony reverted to the Crown. In 1763 King George III issued a proclamation extending the province southern border. By the time of the Revolutionary War slavery had developed and expanded, but the western part territories were still controled by the Creek Indians. Georgia was the 4th state admitted into the Union and it ceeded its western lands to form Mississippi and Alabama.

   
  George II, King 1683 - 1760 {short description of image}

He was of the House of Hanover and rules that state (as the Elector) as well. He was the last British King born outside Great Britian. After Queene Anne and Sophie died in 1714, his father, George I, inherited the crown due to the exclusion of Catholics. He spent much time governing Hanover, resulting in increasing power of Parliament. He was the last British King to actually lead his troops on the battlefield at Detttingen in 1743. In 1745 he had to suppress the Jacobite Rebellions. Due to the early death of his son, Frederick, he was succeeded by his grandson as George III.

   
  George III, King 1738 -1820 {short description of image}

He was King of Great Britain until the Union with Ireland in 1801 after which he became King of the United Kingdom of Great Britian and Ireland. He became King of Hanover in 1814. But he suffered from serious mental illness (of unknown origin) and in 1810 a regency was established with his son, George, as regent, and who succeeded him as King George IV.

His reign involved Great Britian in world war - Seven Year's War and the wars of the French Revolution and Napoleon. And between these occurred the American Revolutionary War, which also involved war with France and Spain.

 
  Germain, Lord George 1716 - 1785 {short description of image}

George Germain, 1st Vicount Sackville is known variously as The Honorable George Sackville, Lord George Sackville, or Lord George Germain. He was a soldier and politician and Secretary of State for America in Lord North's Parliament administration. His military career began in 1740 during the War of the Austrian Succession, as he commanded both horse and foot regiments. He charged so deeply into the French lines at Fontenoythat when wounded and captured he was brought to King Louis XV. He served in Holland in 1747-48. He served in Parliament between wars, and then reentered active military service in the Seven Years' War. He fought as the British contingent commander at Minden, and refused to obey the orders of the Duke of Brunswick. For this he was courtmartialed. In 1760 with the accession of George III he developed his political career. He was a supporter of Lord North. In 1775 he was appointed Secretary of State for the American Department. He remained in charge of the war in America until the British defeat at Yorktown which brought about his exit in exchange for a peerage.

   
  Gerry, Elbridge 1744 - 1814 {short description of image}

He was a wealthy business man with trade to Spain and the West Indies, and very prominent and influential politician in Massachusetts. He is most famous for the term 'gerrymandering' - that is organizing electoral districts with the object of insuring victory which he aproved during his tenure as state Governor. The result frequently is a very distorted district. He was very active in the group that advocated split from England in the 1770's and aided creation of Colonial military supplies both before and during the War. He was elected to the Second ContinentalCongress and the ConsitutionalConvention, in which he played a major part.. He was a diplomat to France during the XYZ Affair.

He signed the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation as delegate from Massachusetts, but, along with George Mason and Edmund Randolph, refused to sign the U.S. Constitution due to its lack of a Bill of Rights. But in the Congress he then advocated for passage of the 10 amendments to create the Bill. He was a Democrat-Republican and was elected the 5th Vice President of the United States and died in office.

 
  Gettysburg, Battle July 1-3, 1863 {short description of image}

This three day battle was the climax of General Robert E. Lee's second invasion campaign into Northern states . It was fought at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. He did not intend to fight there, but a meeting engagement between one corps movingeast and Union cavalry outside the town gradually forced Lee to attack the gathering Union forces who took up defensive positions on favorable terrain. Lee launched three attacks that were all repelled with heavy losses. He was forced to retreant back across the Potomac River.

   
  Gettysburg Address November 19,1863 {short description of image}

This is one of the most famous speeches in American history. It was delivered by President Lincoln at the Gettysburg battlefield cemetary to honor the fallen soldiers from the battle.

   
  Gibbons v. Ogden 1824 {short description of image}

This landmark decision by the Supreme Court held that the Constitutional power to regulate commerce includes the power to regulate navigation. The specific issue was the right of a state to grant monopoly to use of steamboats on rivers.The court ruled that state monopolies were unconstitutional

   
  Giddings. Joshua, R. 1795 - 1864 {short description of image}

He was a Whig Party politician and US Congressman

   
     
  Gilbert, Sir Humphrey 1539 - 1583 {short description of image}

He was born in Devon, England and became a pioneer explorer and developer of the English colony in North America. He was a half-brother of Sir Walter Raleigh. He campaigned in Ireland in 1567. He was elected to the English Parliament in 1571. He later undertook several naval expeditions or financed others, inclding toward Newfoundland all unsuccessful.

   
  Gilman, Nicholas 1755 - 1814 {short description of image}

He was born in New Hampshire. He was a soldier in the Revolutionary War in the 3rd New Hampshire Regiment which participaed in the battle of Saratoga and the winter at Valley Forge and the battles at Monmouth andYorktown. He was delegate to the ContinentalCongress in 1786 and the ConstitutionalConvention in 1787. He was a Representative in the House for the first four Congresses and then Senator.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from New Hampshire. He is listed with biography at {short description of image}

His home in Exeter is now a museum.

 
  Gilpin, Henry D. 1801 - 1860 {short description of image}

He was a Pennsylvania lawyer and was appointed 14th Attorney General of the U.S. by Martin van Buren. He presented the USG side in the Armistad case.

   
  Gilpin, William 1813 - 1894 {short description of image}

He was born in Pennsylvania, graduated the university in 1833, attended West Point 1834 - 1835 but did not graduate. He was commissioned a 2nd Lt. in 1836 and served in the Seminole War. He moved to Missouri and became a frontiers man. He met Fremont and went with him on his expeditions to Oregon, where he settled for a while. he returned east and promoted settlers to go to Oregon, In 1846 he was commissioned as major for the Mexican War during which he was distinguished in the campaign through New Mexico. He returned to Misouri and then realizing that he had found gold in Colorado years previously moved there. In 1861 President Lincoln appointed him governor of Colorado. He took up the post in Denver in 1861 and quickly organized a Union military militia to defeat Confederate supporters and the Texas offensive. His volunteers defeated the Texans at the critical Battle of Glorietta Pass.. . .

In 1863 with financial backing he purchased the enormous Charles Beaubien land grant. However law suits over this land persist to today.

 
  Girard, Stephen 1750 - 1831 {short description of image}

He was born in France andhis father was a sea captain. Stephen became a sea captain in 1773. He was a merchant sea captain trading in the West Indies and in 1776 was driven into Philidelphia by the British Navy. He settled there. After the First Bank of the United States closed in 1811 he purchased the stock and opened his own bank. He was the major financier of the U.S. Government during the War of 1812. he became a stock holder and director of the Second Bank.

His bank went through various name changes. When he died is was the richest individual in America. And he remains the 4th behind Rockefeller, Vanderbilt and Astor when inflation is considered. He had no children and left all his wealth to charities. Many places and establishments are named for him.

 
  Glorious Revolution 1688 {short description of image}

The Revolution of 1688 was the overthrow of King James II by Parliament with the Dutch stadtholder, William III and James' daughter, Mary II brought in to take the throne.

In America this led to the collapse of the Dominion of New England and to the overthrow of the Province of Maryland's government.

 
  Goodspeed  

The name of a ship that brought colonists to America

   
  Goodyear, Charles 1800 - 1868 {short description of image}

He was born in Connecticut, went to Philidelphia for education and returned to partnership with his father in business. He was trained as a chemist and manufacturing engineering. In 1844 he obtained a patent on vulcanized rubber. But the company named for him - Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company was not so named until 1898.

   
  Gorham, Nathaniel 1738 - 1796 {short description of image}

He was born in Boston as a descendent from a passenger on the Mayflower (and signer of the Compact). He was a merchant. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress and The ConstitutionalConvention.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as delegate from Massachusetts, with biography{short description of image} .
He had many descendents including the Adams and Everett and Morgan families.

 
  Gorton, Samuel   {short description of image}

He was a Puritan leader who founded colonies in Rhode Island - Portsmouth and Warwick in 1638.

   
  Gouge, William M. 1575 - 1653 {short description of image}

He was and English clergyman.

   
  Government Intervention   {short description of image}

This describes government action to regulate or control what would otherwise be voluntary peaceful activities. It is most often used to refer to interference in the economy, but it can refer as well to religion or any other area of human activity. Mercantile regulations were government intervention.

   
  Granger, Francis 1792 - 1868 {short description of image}

He was a New York Whig politician, representative and then Postmaster General. He supported the Compromise of 1850 thereby contributing to decline of Whig political influence. In 1860 he called for the Convention of Constitutional Union Party

He was nominaed as Vice President with William H. Harrison as president in election of 1836 but Van Buren won the Presidency. However, the Virginia delegates to the Electoral College refused to vote for Johnson., thus depriving him of election by one vote. The result was the only contingent election for Vice President in U.S. History. But Richard Mentor Johnsondid win - 33 - 16 in the Senate

 
  Grant, James 1720 -1806 {short description of image}

He was born in Scotland and began his career by buying a commission in the Royal Scots Regiment in 1744 and with them fought at Fontenoy. In the French and Indian War, in 1757 he was major in the 77th Foot (Montgomiere's Highlanders) and particpated in Forbes expedition. Bouquet assigned him to take an advance party toward French Fort Dusquense. He was ambushed and captured. In 1761 he led an expedition during the Anglo-Cherokee war. He fought at Havana during the British capture. During the American Revolutionar War he was a colonel commanding a regiment and also a temporary major general. He advised Gage and then Howe to move from Boston to New York. He fought in several battles up to Brandywine Creek and in 1778 was sent to command British forces in the West Indies. He retired as a full general.

See also - British battles.

 
             
  Grant, Ulysses. S. 1822 - 1885 {short description of image}

He was born in Ohio. His great -grand father fought in the French and Indian War and his father fought in the American revolution. He graduated from the U. S. Military Academy in 1843 and fought in the Mexican War.

He was the 18th President of the United States.

 
       
  Grasse, Francis-Joseph Pasul,, marquis de , Admiral 1723 - 1788 {short description of image}

He was the French Admiral commanding at the Battle of the Chesapeakewhich prevented the British from reenforcing or rescuing General Cornwallis at Yorktown

   
  Great Awakening, the First- 1730 - 1743 {short description of image}  

for a general article {short description of image}

 
  Great Awakening - the second late18th - mid19th century {short description of image}      
  Greaat Awakening- the Third 1850's- 1900 {short description of image}      
  Greeley, Horace 1811 - 1872 {short description of image}

He was born in New Hampshire. He founded and was editor of the New York Tribune in 1841. It became the largest circulation newspaper in the country. He was selected to be Representative in Congress for 3 months in 1848-49 during which time he was very unpopular for advocating reforms. In 1854 he helped found the Republican party. Through his newpaper he was an influential opponent of slavery. He supported Henry Clay for president.

   
  Greenbacks 1860's {short description of image}

These were fiat money issued by the United States Treasury during the Civil War. They were put into circulation by making them legal tender, and they were 'fiat money' because they wee not redeemable in gold or silver at the time. There later was a Greenback political party that advocated this form of money.

They were nick named 'Greenbacks' because they were printed on green paper - although they were eventually withdrawn, the Federal Reserve now prints money on green paper.

 
  Greene, Nathanael 1742 - 1786 {short description of image}

He was born in Rhode Island and was elected to the Rhode Island general assembly. In1774 he helped organize the Rhode Island militia and then participated in the Siege of Boston. He was promoted Major General in the militia and brigadier general in the Continental Army. He commanded troops and held fortifications around New York during the battles there. Then he commanded one of the two columns at the Battle of Trenton. At Brandywine he commanded the reserve. At Valley Forge he was appointed Quartermaster General. He commanded troops again at the Battle of Rhode Island. In 1780 after the failures of three American generals in the Southern campaigns Washington appointed Greene to command and rebuild the Continental Army units there. He performed a brilliant retreat across the Dan River into Virginia thus escaping General Cornwallis. In1781 he recrossed the Dan and gave battle at Gilford Court House on 15 March. There he inflicted serious losses on the British. He then let Cornwallis march north into Virginia while he used his army to clear the British out of western North Carolina and finally to confine them to a few coastal cities. His generalship and strategic thought is considered excellent.

Greene was along with Washington and Knox the only generals to serve through the entire Revolution. He was granted land in North and South Carolina and Georgia. He died in Georgia at age 43. An equestrian statue is at Gilford National Military Park and another is in nearby Greensboro, which is named for him. There are many locations, naval and Coast Guard vessels including a nuclear submarine named for him. His statue is one of the two representing Rhode Island in the National Capitol. Of course there are many books written about him.

 
  Grenville, George 1712 - 1770 {short description of image}

He was the son of Richard Grenville and one of five brothers who all became Members of Parliament. He was a Whig politician. He entered Parliament in 1741 and became Treasurer of the Navy in 1754. He became Northern Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty. (See John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Butte) Then, in 1763 he became Prime Minister. He attempted to bring spending under control and passed the Stamp Act. He was facing serious financial difficulty due to the cost of the French and Indian War and Pontiac's Rebellion. King George III dismissed him in 1765.

   
  Grenville, Richard 1542 - 1591 {short description of image}

He was a soldier, owner of an armed merchant fleet, explorer and participant in the first efforts of the English to establish a colony in America at Roanoke Island. He fought against the Turks in Hungary. He fought in Ireland and in the defeat of the Spanish Armada. He died at sea in the battle of Flores against the Spanish.

   
  Grenville, William 1759 - 1834 {short description of image}

He was the son of George Grenville and was also a Whig politician who became Prime Minister - 1806-07.

   
   Gros Ventre Indians 1745 - on {short description of image}

This Indian tribe lived in northern Minnesota and adjacent Canada when the French trappers first met them, hence the name in French. The Arapho people split from them and moved far south onto the plains. In1832 they met Prince Maximilian and Karl Bodmer who painted many for the historical record. They moved west into Montana and allied with the Blackfoot until 1861. Then, in 1867 they fought the Blackfoot in alliance with the Crow.

   
  Grundy, Felix 1777 - 1840 {short description of image}

He was Congressman and Senator from Tenn. and 13th Atorney General of U.S. in 1838.

   
  Gwinnett, Button 1735 - 1777 {short description of image}

He was born in England and moved to America in 1762, where he became a successful planation owner and was elected to the provincial assembly. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress. He was killed in a duel with a rival for a general's commisson in the army.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Georgia. His biography is with the signers{short description of image} He is also listed among the Founding Fathersof the United States.

 
  Habeas Corpus Act 1867 1867 {short description of image}

The Act greatly expanded the power of courts. It amended the Judiciary Act of 1789. It extended the power of federal court since prior to this prisoners held by state courts could not appeal for a writ to a federal court. It was also a response to the suspension of Habeas Corpus in 1863. And it also enabled to court to question the veracity of the jailor's claim about the cause of holding the individual.

   
  Hale, John Parker 1806 - 1873 {short description of image}

He was a Representative and Senator from New Hampshire and member of the Free Soil Party and then the Republican Party

   
  Hale, Sarah, J. 1788 - 1879 {short description of image}

She was born in New Hampshire and became an important 19th century author, poet, and editor with 50 volumes in print.

   
  Hale, Nathan 1755 -1776 {short description of image}

He was born in Connecticut and graduated Yale with honors in 1773. After the Batttle of Long Island, during the campaign around New York City, Hale was sent into the city to spy on British activities. He was recognized, captured and hung as a spy.

   
  Hall, Lyman 1724 - 1790 {short description of image}

He was born in Connecticut and graduated Yale in 1747. He moved to South Carolina and then Georgia. He was a doctor by profession. He was sent as a delegate to the Second ContinentalCongress in 1775. In 1783 he was elected Governor of Georgia.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Georgia. He is listed with the signers. {short description of image}

 
  Halleck, Henry. W. 1815 -1872 {short description of image}

He was born in New York and graduated the U.s. Military Academy in 1839 in th Corps of Engineers with a noted knowledge of military science. After work on New York defenses he wrote a report that resulted in his being selected to tour Europe to study fortifications. Upon returning to the U.S. he lectured and published a book on military art and science, which became a major text in tactics used during the Civil War. During the Mexican War he had duty in California constructing fortifications. He translated Jomini's book on war. In 1849 at the conference at Monterey he was a principle author of the California state constitution. He resigned his commission and became a successful lawyer in San Francisco. He became very wealthy and a major general in the California militia. At the outbreak of the Civil War he was immediately made major general in the Union army, the fourth ranking general after Scott, McClellan and Fremont. He was assigned to command the Western District with headquarters in St. Louis. In July 1862 President Lincoln moved Halleck to Washington to be Commander in Chief of all the Union Army. Halleck was an administrative bureaucrat and unable to control his field commanders. In 1864 Lincoln replaced him a Commander in Chief with General Grant, making Halleck the chief of staff.

   
  Hamilton, Alexander 1753 - 1804 {short description of image}

He was born in Charlestown, Nevis (Island) were he learned merchant business. He was sponsored to go to New York and enter college. He played a very significant role dueing the Revolutionary War. He first raised an artillery company but then became an aide to General Washington. In that position he participated throughout the war right up to Yorktown, where he led one of the assaults on British redoubts. He became the first Secretary of the Treasury. He organized the coast guard. He pushed through the creation of the First Bank of the United States. He was a leading Federalist and vigorous opponent of Jefferson and the agragarian interests. He was killed in a duel by Aaron Burr..

He was the only delegate from New York to sign the U.S. Constitution. His bio is here. {short description of image}And he is one of the Founding Fathersof the United States

 
  Hamilton, James Jr 1786 - 1857 {short description of image}

He was from South Carolina, Representative in Congress and State governor 1830 - 32

   
  Hamilton, James A 1788 - 1878 {short description of image}

He was the third son of Alexander Hamilton, a soldier in the war of 1812 and Secretary of State

   
  Hamilton, John 1681 - 1747 {short description of image}

He was governor of New Jersey in 1736-38 and 1746 and 1747. In 1746 The College of New Jersey (now Princeton Univ.) was founded in Elizabethtown by adherents to the Great Awakening including Jonathan Dickinson, Aaron Burr, Sr; and Peter Van Brugh Livingston.

   
  Hamlin, Hannibal 1808 - 1891 {short description of image}

He was born in Maine. He became a lawyer and politician. In the 1840's he was both a Representative and a Senator in the U.S. Congress. He was a strong opponent of slavery and voted against any bills that favored it. After the Civil War he was again elected to the Senate.

He was the 15th Vice President of the United States - 1861-65, the first Republican Party member to be VP..

 
  Hammond, James H. 1807 - 1864 {short description of image}

He was a lawyer, planter and politician from South Carolina and a strong supporter of slavery. He was a very wealthy land owner with 300 slaves. He served as Congressman, state Governor and Senator. He was brother in law of Wade Hampton I and uncle of Wade Hampton II.

   
  Hampton, Wade I 1752 - 1835 {short description of image}

He was from South Carolina. He was one of the wealthiest land owners and largest slave owners (with 3000) in the United States. He was a Lt. Col of cavalry during the Revolution. In 1809 he was promoted Brigadier General and led troops in the War of 1812. He lost the Battle of Chateauguayin 1814 and then resigned.

His mansion in Columbia, South Carolina is in the Natiional Register of Historic Places.

 
  Hampton, Wade II
1791 - 1858 {short description of image}

He was a son of Wade I and was a plantation and slave owner in South Carolina and soldier in the War of 1812 with Andrew Jackson at the Battle of New Orleans. He was the father of Wade III.

   
  Hampton, Wade III 1818 - 1902 {short description of image}

Prior to the Civil War he was one of the largest plantation and slave owners in South Carolina by inheritance from his father. During the War he became a Lt. General of cavalry. His "Hampton's Legion" which he raised and equipped himself, played an important role in the Confederate victory at First Battle of Manassas. He led cavalry in the Penninsula Campaign and Gettysburg campaigns and all the others in Virginia. When J.E. B. Stuart was killed, he became commander of the whole Confederate Cavalry.

After the war he was elected 77th Governor of South Carolina and then a U.S. Senator.

 
  Hampton Roads   {short description of image}

Wikipedia defines this as both the body of water and the surrounding land areas at the bay where the James and York Rivers reach the ocean in south eastern Virginia. In this usage 'roads' does not refer to a highway but to a 'roadstead'. It is where English Captain Christopher Newport landed in 1607 at Camp Henry. It played significant roles in the American Revolution, War of 1812, and the Civil War.

The article on the History of HamptonRoads is a more detailed essay on the signifance of the harbor without discussion of its current usage and physical features..

 
  Hancock, John 1737 - 1793 {short description of image}

He was born in Massasachutes. His father was Colonel John Hancock Jr. He was a merchant, one the most wealthy individuals in the colonies. He began his political career with Sam Adams and became a leader of the colonists opposed to British rule. He was elected to the Second Continental Congress. As President of the Congress he was first to sign the Declaration, and with a signature so extra large that signatures are sometimes called John Hancocks. He became governor of Massasachutes and strongly advocated ratification of the Constitution.

He signed the Articles of Confederationand the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Massachusetts. He is listed with the signers.{short description of image}

Several places and Naval ships have been named in his honor.

 
  Hardy, Charles 1714 -1780 {short description of image}

His father was a vice admiral, Charles entered the navy in 1731. In 1745 he commanded the fleet from Gibralter to Louisbourg. He was knighted in 1755. He was Governor of New York - 1755 - 1758. But again returned to naval command. He led the British navy against Louisbourg in 1757 and was 2nd in command in 1758. He supported Wolfe's campaign on the St. Lawrence River. In 1779 as full admiral he commanded the Channel Fleet until his death in 1780.

His brother, Josiah, was Governor of New Jersey 1761-63

 
  Hardy, Josiah 1715 - 1790 {short description of image}

He was the son of Vice-Admiral Sir Charles Hardy, Lord commissioner of the Admiralty and brother of Sir Charles Hardy Royal Governor of New York. He was noted for being a good governor. But he was replaced in 1763 by the British effort to impose greater authority over the colonies after the French and Indian War.

   
  Harper's Ferry   {short description of image}

The town is on the Potomac River and had an important crossing, first a ferry and then a bridge. It is located where the river passes the Blue Ridge mountain chain and was a major station on the B&O railroad. It was named for Robert Harper who was an early settlers who bought the land from Lord Fairfax. It later had a Union army arsenal. Ths arsenal was siezed by John Brown in his effort to create a slave revolt. He was captured and executed. During the Civil War it was occupied and fought over several times.

It includes National Historical Park and is in the National Register of Historic Places.

 
  Harrington, James 1611 - 1677 {short description of image}

He was an English political theorist and important author of republicanism theory. His ideas were important in the development of English ideas that influenced the American colonists for Revolution.

   
  Harrison, Benjamin V 1721 -1796 {short description of image}

He was born at Berkeley plantation in Virginia, the son of Benjamin Harrison IV. He was elected to the House of Burgesses. His brothers fought in the French and Indian War and the Revolution. He was an early protester of British repressive acts and was sent to the First Continental Congress, and was a leader in the Second ContinentalCongress. He delivered the final reading of the Declaration, having been the leader of the Committee of the Whole that approved it. While he was in Philadelphia
Benedict Arnold commanded British troops that destroyed the contents and much of the Berkeley home and others of colonial leaders. He was the 5th Governor of Virginia, followed by Patrick Henry.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Virginia. He is shown in John Trumball's famous painting of the Signing, seated at table at the far left. He is listed with the signers. {short description of image}And he is included with the Founding Fathers of the United States.

 
  Harrison, Benjamin IV 1693 -1745 {short description of image}

He was a Virginia planter, politician, member of the House of Burgesses and builder of Berkeley mansion on the family plantation by the James River, which today is the oldest three story brick mansion in Virginia. He married Anne Carter, daughter of Robert "King' Carter thus merging two of the most prominent famlies in Virginia. And four of his children married grand children of William Randolph I.

When he died relatively young, six main plantations along with Berkeley mansion went to his son, William V and eight other plantations were divided among his other heirs.

 
  Harrison, Benjamin III 1673 - 1710 {short description of image}

He was a Virginia politician - member of the House of Burgesses and holder of various offices including Atorney General, Treasurer and Speaker of the House. His heir was Benjamin IV.

   
  Harrison, Benjamin 1833 - 1901 {short description of image}

He was born in Ohio. The original Benjamin Harrison arrived in Jamestown in 1630. This Benjamin was the great grand son of Benjamin Harrison V, who signed the Declaration. He graduated Miami Univ. in 1852. He was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1854 and moved to Indiana to practice law. He became a member of the Republican Party. He raised a volunteer regiment as was commissioned colonel and then brevet brigadier general in the Civil War. He fought in many battles in the Western theater ending with Sherman's march to the sea. After the war he returned to Indianapolis to practice law and enter state politics. After loosing several elections he was sent to the Senate in 1880. For the election of 1888 he was the Republican candidate after a contested party battle on the 8th vote. He defeated Democrat Grover Cleveland. His term in office was full of significant political struggles such as over money policy, tariffs, civil service, and monopolies.

He was the 23rd President of the United States, and grand son of the 9th, William Henry Harrison. These are the only pair of grand father and son to be presidents.

 
  Harrison, William H. Sr. 1773 - 1841 {short description of image}

He was born at Berkeley Plantation, the youngest son of Benjamin Harrison V. He was commissioned Lt. in the army and particiated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers. He resigned in 1798 to enter politics. He became the NorthWest Territory's first Congressional Delegate. In 1800 the territory was split in two (north to south). He became the governor of the new Indiana part of the Territory, being reappointed by Jefferson and Madison. In 1810 and 1811 he confronted the Shawnee Indians of Tecumseh and then defeated them at the Battle of Tippecanoe. In 1812 he resigned in order to resume military command during the war and was commissioned to comand the Army of the Northwest. In 1813 he defeat3ed the British and Shawnee at the Battle of the Thames. This is considered one of the great American victories second only to New Orleans. In 1816 he was elected Representative in Congress, and in 1824 to the Senate. He was Northern Whig candidate for President in 1836. He was the Whig candidate facing van Buren in 1840..

He won the election of 1840 with the slogan "Tippacanoe and Tyler Too". He was the 9th President and the last President born as a British subject prior to the Revolution. He gave the longest inaugral address - bareheaded in a rain storm and promptly died of it, having had the shortest presidency in our history.

There are several statues of Harrison and places named for him.

 
  Harrison, William Jr 1750 - 1789 {short description of image}

He was a delegate from Maryland to the Continental Congress in 1786

 
  Hart, John 1706 to 1713 - 1779 {short description of image}

He was born in Connecticut or New Jersey. He was elected to the New Jersey assembly in 1761. He was elected to the Second Continental Congress. During the Revolution, the British raided his farm and he had to hide. At the Battle of Monmouth he hosted Washington as the army camped on his farm. He died young from kidney stones, but after his wife, leaving 13 children.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from New Jersey. He is listed as a signer.{short description of image}

 
  Hartford Convention 1814 -1815 {short description of image}

This was a series of meetings in Hartford, Connecticut in which the Federalist Party met to oppose the War of 1812 and other issues (such as the 3/5th provision) that new Englanders considered too favorable to the Southern states, such as the Louisiana Purchase and the Embargo of 1807. But Andrew Jackson's victory at New Orleans and the prior signing of a peace treaty rendered their opposition useless and even disgraced the Federalist Party.

The political issues discussed and proposals made are evidence that it was not only the Southern States that had significant opposition to the Federal Government at times proir to the Civil War.

 
  Hat Act 1732 {short description of image}

This was an Act of Parliament to prevent and control the making of hats in the colonies. A result was to increase the price of hats and clothing for the colonists 4 times versus prices of locally made goods.

This is an excellent example of mercantilism economic - political theory that favored manufacturing in a country and prevented imports to protect domestic produceers. In the case of colonies the concept was the force the colonists to buy in the home country. Jefferson denounced this as a political outrage. Washington in his private papers repeatedly complained about having to buy goods at high prices from English merchants.

 
   Hatcher, John 1634 - 1678 {short description of image}

He was a member of Parliament

   
  Hawthorne, Nathaniel 1804 -1864 {short description of image}

He was born in Massassachutes and became a very well-known and popular author. He graduated Bowdoin College in 1825. He was a member of the Romantic and Trancendentalist movements.

His novel - The Scarlet Letter - published in 1850, used to be standard reading in high school English class. And he wrote many more short storeis and novels, Including the House of the Seven Gables..

 
  Hay, John Milton 1838 -1905 {short description of image}

He was born in Indiana and surved a lifetime as public official and politician, rising from secretary to Abraham Lincoln to Secretary of State for Presidents Mckinley and T. Roosevent. He graduated Brown University in 1858. He was also an author and successful diplomat.

   
  Hayes, Rutherford B. 1822 - 1893 {short description of image}

He was promoted brevt Major General during the Civil War in which he was wounded in action 5 times. After the war he was Governor of Ohio. He was elected president in 1877 in the most unusual and disruptlive election settled by the "Compromise of 1877" in which the Republicans agreed to withdraw Union troops from the South and a group of Electors were decided upon as voting for Hayes.

He was the 19th President of the United States, 1877 - 1881

 
  Heighton, William 1801 - 1873 {short description of image}

He was born in England and became a shoemaker in Philadelphia. afer the Panic of 1819 the shoemaking business increased industrializing, which increased the need for skilled labor and reduced the need and opportunities for unskilled labor. Heighton was an important organizer of labor into unions: The Mechanics Union of Trade Associations (MUTA)

   
  Helper, Hinton Rowan 1829 - 1909 {short description of image}

Although he lived in the South, prior to the Civil War he was a outspoken opponent of slavery who generated much controversy.v His book- The Impending Crisis of the South was a sensation. For the wealthy slave owning elite he representated a treasonist threat to their social status, hence they denounced him. But after the war he was a racist anti-black aggitator.

   
  Hemphill, Joseph 1770 -1842 {short description of image}

He was a lawyer who was a U.S. Representative 1803 - 1826

   
  Henry, Patrick 1736 - 1799 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and became a lawyer through self study. He was elected to the House of Burgesses and became famous for his orationin 1775 opposing the StampAct of 1765, which at the time was an early call for revolution. He was sent to both the First and the Second Continental Congresses. He organized the GunpowderIncident. In 1776 he was a member of the commission that drafter the Virginia Declarationof Rights and Virginia Constitution.
Virginia commissioned him a colonel of militia to raise a regiment, which he did , but then resigned. During the war he was repeatedly elected Governor of Virginia. He sent George Rogers Clark west to protect Virginia territory north of the Ohio River. During the was he and the colony government had to move to Richmond, then Charlosville and then Staunton due to attacks by Benedict Arnold and Banastre Tarleton. Afer the war he remained very active in politics. He opposed the Constitution for providing too much power to the Federal Government.

His speech ending with "give me liberty or give me death' used to be memorized by school students.

Several of his homes are listed a National Historic Places or are in the Register of National Landmarks. Several forts and naval vessels have been named in his honor.

 
  Herkimer, Nicholas 1728 - 1777 {short description of image}

He was born near German Flats, New York. As a militia captain he successfully defended German Flats from French - Indian attacks during the French and Indian War. During the Revolutionary War he was commissioned Brigadier General of the Tryon county militia. When Fort Stanwix was besieged he led the county militia to its relief. They were ambushed by Mohawk Indians and British at Oriskany.

There is an excellent painting of him wounded, resting against a tree, yet directing his troops in battle of Oriskany. Due to faulty efforts to amputate his leg he died of the wound. His home is a state historic site. He has been portrayed in a movie about the war.

 
  Henshaw, David 1791 - 1852 {short description of image}

He was a Whig politician from Massachusets who was briefly Secratary of Navy but introduced significant improvements during his time.

   
  Hewes, Joseph 1730 - 1779 {short description of image}

He was born in New Jersey and became a successful merchant with his own fleet. He moved to North Carolina at age 30 and three years later was elected to the legislature in 1763. He was elected to the First Continental Congress in 1774. There he was an early and strong proponent of independence to the point of war, in opposition to the Quaker pacifists. In 1776 he was appointed Secretary for Naval Affairs and is considered to be a central figure in the creation of the American Navy. He provided his own fleet of merchant ships to convert into warships, and appointed their captains, including John Paul Jones. He retired due to ill health and died in 1779. The Entire Congress attended his funeral.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from North Carolina. He is included as a signer. {short description of image}

 
  Heyward, Thomas Jr. 1746 - 1809 {short description of image}

He was born in South Carolina. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1775. While in command of a militia unit he was captured by the British at the Siege of Charleston. After the war he was a judge.

He signed the Articles of Confederation and the Declaration of Independence as delegate from South Carolina. {short description of image}
His home is listed in the National Register of Historic Places.

 
  Hill, Ambrose Powell 1825 - 1865 {short description of image}

He was a Confederate Army Lt. General and was was killed in the Third Battle of Petersburg

   
  Hobbes, Thomas 1578 - 1689 {short description of image}

He was an English political philosopher considered one of the founders of modern political science. His very important book -Leviathan is a 'must' study for students today. Among his central contributions is the concept of the 'social contract'. È

He was also an active contributor in many other scientific fields.

 
  Homestead Acts 1862 {short description of image}

These were several Acts of Congress that gave away federal lands to individuals who would occupy the land and create a 'homstead'. The first was signed during the Civil War as part of the 'free soil' movement policies. The Act in 1866 specifically added blacks to eligibility. Several more acts followed as late as 1916.

The government game away millions of acres under these laws. Priior to the Civil War according to the original Northwest Territory provisions individuals had to purchase a plot of land.

 
  Hone, Philip 1780 - 1851 {short description of image}

He was a mayor of New York City and wealthy socialite. He is famous for the extensive diary he kept which has become a significant reference to American life during his time.

   
  Hood, John Bell 1839 - 1871 {short description of image}

He was born in Kentucky and graduated from the U.S. Military Academy in 1853. He served in California and Texas, where he was wounded by Comanches. After Fort Sumpter he resigned his commission and immediately became a Major in the Confederate Army. After success in battle in the Penninsula by Sept. he was promoted Colonel in Texas Infantry. He lead brigades and then a division in all the main battles in Virginia, being wounded severaly at Gettysburg. After recovery he went west with Longstreet to the Battle of Chicamauga Creek, were he lost most of a leg but was prooted Lt.General. Again, after recovery and with an artificial leg, he returned west and rode into combat as before. He fought in the Atlanta Campaign. General Johnston was replaced by Hood, who at age 33 became the youngest commander of a whole army during the war. He continued to fight and launched offensives north to Franklin and then Nashville, but to no avail.

After the war he moved to New Orleans, married, had 10 children and was successful until both he and his wife and one daughter died in the Yellow Fever Epidemic.

Ft. Hood Texas is named for him.

 
  Hooker, Joseph 1814 -1879 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusettes and graduated the U.S. Military Academy in 1837. He served in the Seminole War and the Mexican War, during which he was promoted Lt. Colonel. He resigned and settled in Sonoma California. When the Civil War began he returned to Washington and asked to be commissioned. After the defeat at First Battle of Manassas, he was apointed a Brigadier General and commanded a brigade and then division. In the Penninsula Campaign he did very well and was promoted to Major General. He was promoted to Corps command after the Union defeat at the Second Battle of Bull Run. He fought with valor at Antietan were he was wounded. He fought at and criticized Burnside at Fredricksburg. Lincoln then made his commander of the Army of the Potomac. During 1863 he restored the army morale and fighting spirit. But he suffered defeat by Lee at the Battle of Chancellorsville. President Lincoln replaced his with George Meade 3 days before the Battle of Gettysburg. Hooker was sent to command a corps in General Grant's army and did well at that level of command. After the war he commanded several Military Districts.

His house in Sonoma still exists.

 
  Hooker, Thomas 1586 - 1647 {short description of image}

He was born in England and graduated Cambridge in 1608, and Master of Arts in 1611. He was a very prominent Puritan preacher. He was driven ou of England with the Puritans and sailed to Massachusetes where he became pastor of the first established church. In 1636 he founded Hartford. He is known as 'the father of Connecticut. In 1639 the leaders of the settlements wrote "The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut..

He has many famous descendents.

 
  Hooper, William 1742 - 1790 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachutes. His father was a minister. He graduated Harvard in 1760 and then studied law. He moved to North Carolina in 1764 were be became a lawyer and politician. In 1770 he was appointed Deputy Atorney general of North Carolina. Initially thought to be a loyalist, he shifted to support the revolution and became a member of the local Committee of Correspondence. Then he was elected to the First ContinentalCongress. and again elected to the Second ContinentalCongress. During the Revoluton the British burned both of his estate homes. After the war he returned to practice law and campaigned strongly in favor of ratification of the Constitution.

He signed theDeclarationof Independence as delegate from North Carolina. He is included in the list. {short description of image}

His home in Hilsorough is a National Historical monument.

 
  Hopkins, Stephen 1707 - 1785 {short description of image}

He was a member of a prominent local family - his great grand father had arrived in 1685. He was an avid student and became a surveyor and astronomer who observed the transit of Venus in 1769. He was governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations - elected in 1755. - and Chief Justice of the Rhode Island Supreme Court. He was an advocate for paper money. He was elected to the First Continental Congress, at age 68 the eldest delegate. Due to his experience in shipping he was on the committee to organize and outfit the new Continental navy.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Rhode Island. He appears in Trumble's famous painting of the signing of the Declaration. The Wikipedia quotes John Adams' appreciation of Hopkins' contributions to the Congress. He is inncluded in the list. {short description of image}

 
  Hopkinson, Francis 1735 - 1791 {short description of image}

He graduated from the College of Philadelphia in 1757. He was a customs collector and lawyer. He moved to New Jersey in 1774 from which colony he was elected to the Second Continental Congress. He served in various capacities including conduct of naval affairs. President Washington appointed him a judge of a Federal District Court. He was also a prolific author and musician and music composer.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from New Jersey. He is included in the list. {short description of image}

 
  House of Burgesses, VA. 1619 - 1776 {short description of image}

This was the first elected legislative body in the British colonies. It was created by the Virginia Company (the fianciers of the expedition). It met at Jamestown until 1699 and then moved to Williamsburg. In 1776 Virginia became an independent Commonwealth and the legislature became the House of Delegates.

   
  House of Commons 1295 0n - of Great Britain 1707 -1801 {short description of image}

The House of Commons is the lower of the two Houses of Parliament in Great Britian. The House of Commons of England sat from 1296 to 1706 when it became the House of Commons of Great Britain and then the United Kingdom in 1801..

   
  House of Lords   {short description of image}

This is the upper house of Parliament. The members are The Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal. The former are the 26 bishops of the Church of England. The latter comprise hereditary peers and others peers appointed by the Crown.

   
  Houston, Sam 1793 - 1863 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia, and moved to Tennessee. He served in the army in the War of 1812. He was elected to Congress in 1823 and as governor of Tennessee in 1827. As a young boy he lived for years with the Cherokee and learned their language. In the War of 1812 he was wounded in battle with the Creek Indians. After political trouble in Washington he went to Texas in 1832. When Texas eclared independence in 1836 he was appointed Commander in Chief of their armed forces. On 21 April he surprised the Mexicans at the Battle of SanJacinto - at 18 minutes the shortest decisive victory.

He was twice elected President of Texas. When Texas became a state he was elected Senator. He strongly opposed all legislation that favored slavery. In 1859 he was elected Governor - the only governor to be elected in two States - Tennennessee and Texas. He was the only southern governor to oppose the seccession.

Houston is named for him.

 
  Howe, Elias 1819 - 1867 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts. He was one of the early inventors of the sewing machine. As with so many inventors and inventions he had to assert and defend his patent in court for years before finally receiving royalties from Singer.

   
  Howe, Richard Lord 1726 - 1799 {short description of image}

He was born in London and entered the Royal Navy in 1739. He participated in naval battles during the War of the Austrian Succession, rising through the ranks to commander in 1745. In the Seven Year's War he commanded various ships in North America and the English Channel. In that was he was noted for success in conducting amphibious operations against the French. When his elder brother died he became Vicount Howe. By 1776 he had risen through more ranks and became Admiral, Commander, North American Station. Another brother was General, Sir William Howe. Richard favored the colonist position and attempted negociations. He was ordered to excute a blockade but claimed he had too few ships to accomplish a full blockade. He transported his brother's army from New York to the Chesapeake for the campaign against Philadelphia. He returned to England and oppoosed the North Government in Parliament. In 1782 he was promoted Full Admiral and Commander of the Channel Fleet to combat the French, Spanish and Dutch. He succeeded in complex operations and even managed a relief of the Spanish siege of Gibralter. He became First Lord of the Admiralty in 1783. He was made an Earl in 1788. In1793 with the war of the French Revolution he was called to active duty again to command the Channel Fleet.È

   
  Howe, Sir William 1729 - 1814 {short description of image}

One brother was Admiral Richard Howe. Their elder brother, George, was a general and killed before Fort Ticonderoga. William was born in London and entered the army at age 17. He saw extensive combat service in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Year's War. In 1759 he captured the cliffs that enabled Wolfe to capture Quebec. He was sent to America in 1775 and replaced Thomas Gage and commander in chief of all British forces in America. He successfully captured New York and Philadelphia. But subsequent planning, such as for the Burgoyne campaign has been criticized. He resigned his commnd in 1778 and rfeturned to England where he was active in Parliament. When Richard died in 1999 William became Vicount Howe.

   
  Hudson, Henry 1565 - 1611 {short description of image}

Informatrion about his birth is unknown. He condeucted many explorations for English or Dutch merchant companies. In 1607 the English Muscovy Company hired his to attempt to find a passage to Asia going north around North America or Europe. He sailed in a small ship along the east coast of Greenland, then turned and reached about 80 degrees north latitude when forced by ice to return to England. In 1608 he was again hired, this time to try going east around Russia. This time he reached Novaya Zemlya but again was forced to turn back. In 1609 he was hired by the Dutch East india Copany, again to sail around Russia. After reaching Norway's East Cape and being blocked, he turned west - south west. He reached Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Cape Cod by August. He explored the coast as far south as Chesapeake Bay, then turned north and sailed up the river now named Hudson as far as where Albany is now locaed. The Dutch used this to claim the land and fur trading in 1614. In 1610-11 he was hired by theVirginia Company and East India Company. This time he passed west of Greenland, and entered the large bay _Hudson's Bay. There the crew mutinied and put him with 7 others into a long boat while they sailed back to England. No trace was found of him or his crew despire several searched by rescue parties.

Hudson's Bay is twice the size of the Baltic Sea and has many rivers. It was then claimed by the Hudson's Bay Company and exploited for fur trading.

'
 
  Hudson Bay Company 1670 - present {short description of image}

The company was incorporated by English royal charter in 1670. It was at one time was the world's largest land owner and functioned as the government over its areas. From its headquarters at York Factory it controlled most of the fur trading business in North America. It still exists as a Canadian company.

   
  Hunter, Robert 1664 - 1734 {short description of image}

He was an army offficer and the Governor of New York and New Jersey, 1710 - 1719.

   
  Huntington, Samuel 1731 - 1796 {short description of image}

He was admited to the bar in 1754. He was elected as delegate to the Second ContinentalCongress and served as its President. Later he was Lt. Governor and then Governor of Connecticut in which office he accomplished many political projects.

He signed the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation as delegate from Connecticut. He is included in the list. {short description of image}

His father's home, in which Samuel was born, is now a National Historic Landmark

 
  Hussey, Obed 1792 - 1860 {short description of image}

He was born in Maine and moved to Ohio where he invened a reaper. That put him in competition with Cyras McCormick.

   
  Hutcher, John 1634 - 1678 {short description of image}

He was a member of Parliament

   
  Hutchinson, Anne 1591 - 1643 {short description of image}

She was born in England as Anne Marbury. She married William Hutchinson in 1612. The couple and their 10 surviving out of 14 children moved to Boston in 1633. She was a very outspoken Puritan. So much so that she upset the colony established leadership. In 1637 she was tried and banished. She moved with Roger Williams to Rhode Island. Further pressure forced her (now a widow) to move with her youngest children to where is now the Bronx in Dutch territory. There in 1643, she and her children were massacred by Indians in Kieft's War.

During her short life she was an important leader in the development of religious freedom in America. But here family massacre was greated by the religious leaders in Massachutes with great glee and apÆÆprobation claiming it was an act of God's vengance for her false beliefs

 
  Hutchinson, Thomas 1711 - 1780 {short description of image}

He was born in Boston. He was descended from Anne Hutchinson - her son, Edward. He graduated Harvard in 1727. He was a business man and prominent Loyalist politician. He was the Lt. Governor and then the Governor 1758 - 1774. He was so extreme in his policies against the colonists like the Adams' that his mansion was ransacked and he was threatened. The British considered that he actually was making matters worse. They replace him with General Thomas Gage in 1774 and was exiled to England.

   
  Hyde, Edward, 3rd Earl of Clarendon 1661 - 1723 {short description of image}

He was the Governor of New York and New Jersey from 1702 - to 1708

The legal proprietors of New Jersey were so disgusted with the colony that they officially resigned their government role as civil proprietors to the crown and retained only their personal role of ownership of land and real property. East and West Jersey were re united as a royal province. Queen Anne was then the ruler. She appointed her uncle, Sir Edward Hyde (Lord Cornbury) as the Governor. - See the history of New York since he was already the Governor of New York and quite a strange fellow. He committed all sorts of 'criminal' activities. For New Jersey he was especially an autocrat, treating Roman Catholics harshly. He curtailed printing, promoted the slave- trade, stole public money and worse.

He was recalled in 1708

   
  ice, trade 1806 {short description of image}

The export of block ice was the brainstorm of Fredric Tudor, a New England enrepreneur and business man. He realized that with proper handling blocks of ice could be cut in winter on New England lakes and shipped by fast sailboats into the tropics where they served as refrigerantion. The ice trade also revolutionized the meat and vegetable distribution industries. He first built a special ice house on Martinique to cater to the rich plantation owners. But soon business spread clear to India, China and Australia as well as southern U.S. cities. But then increasing demand even in the northern American cities made him a fortune. Ice was used in refrigerated rail cars. It expanded the meat slaughtering industries in Chicago and other meat packing centers. At its peak the industry employed 90,000 people

Gradually ice harvesting was supplanted by local ice making plants and then of course by electric refrigerators. after World War One.

 
  Indentured servant   {short description of image}

A person bound for a specific length of time, usually 4 to 7 years, of servitude to a master. The master had contractual rights to the services of the servant for several years; after which, the servant could be free if he chose. Many Europeans came to America as indentured servants.

Until thelate 18th century indentured servitude was very common in British colonies in North America. Between a half and 2/3 of the white colonists in British North America came as indentured servants. But, considering that the term of indenture was limited of the total population were free laborers.

 
  Independent Treaaury act 1840 - again 1846 {short description of image}

The Wikipedia article is an excellent summary not only of this specific act but of American financial and money policy during the 19th century. The purpose of the act was to enable the Treasury to manage the country's money supply - showing that prior to that it was not able to do so as the money supply was dependent on the actions of the private banking system.
This event and the context shows that control of the money supply was a central political issue throughout the century (and stil is today). The Democrat Congress passed a Treasury act in 1840 - the Whigs repealed it in 1841. The Democrats again in power pssed it again in 1846. Interesting, that President Martin van Buren claimed that creation of an Independent Treasury would remove politics from the issue of the nation's money supply - but the result was to make it more political than ever.

The immediate cause of government action was the Panic of 1837. Which, in turn was related to Jackson's veto of the Second Bank of the United States and the new government demand that payment to purchase public land be in specie rather than bank paper There was another Panic in 1857. The constant political struggle over the nation's money supply is due to the results of having a large supply versus a small supply - the first leads to inflation and the latter may lead to deflation. In turn inflation favors debtors and deflation favors creditors. And specific segments of the polulation and economic interests are generally usually either debtors or creditors.

 
  Independence Missouri 29 March, 1827 {short description of image}

The town quickly became an important port and transit place for people and goods traveling west to Oregon and California and south west to Santa Fe, as it was the furtherest west place where steamboats could travel. In 1831 the Mormons passed through. It was the site of two battles during the Civil War, 1862 and 1864 in both of which the Confederates were victors.

   
1830 Indian Removal Act 1830 {short description of image}

The Act of Congress authorized President Jackson to force the native Indians in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Tenn. to move to "Indian Territory' AKA Oklahoma. This was demanded by settlers in Georgia through their legislature. The Whigs and Northern people opposed this as did the Supreme Court, but Jackson hated Indians anyway. The result was death of thousands of Cherokee and Creek Indians on the 'Trail of Tears'.

   
  Individualism   {short description of image}

A social theory which gives first place to the rights, liberty, and responsibility of the individual. The opposite theory is collectiveism, in which the emphasis is on the group or whole body of the people

   
  Ingersoll, Jared 1749 - 1822 {short description of image}

He was a Pennsylvania lawyer and politician. His father, also Jared Ingersoll (Sr.) was appointed stamp master by Parliament under the hated Stamp Act, resulting in his being hung in effigy and tared and feathered by patriots in Connecticut. The younger Jared ingersoll was admitted to the bar in Pennsylvania in 1773 and initially abstained from revolutionary support in deference to his father. As a result he went to Europe where he met Benjamin Franklin. In 1798 he returned to Philadelpnia as a confirmed Patriot. He was a delegate to the ContinentalCongress where he supported revision of the Articles of Confederation. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. After the Constitution was adopted he made significant contributions as a lawyer in Supreme Court Cases. He was candidate for Vice President in the 1812 election.

He signed the U. S. Constitutionas delegate from Pennsylvania. His bio is in this list. {short description of image}

 
  Ingham, Samuel 1779 - 1860 {short description of image}

He was a Congressman 1832-29 and Sec of Treasury 1826 - 1831. He was involved in the Petticourt Affair during the presidency of Andrew Jackson. He opposed Jackson's views on the Second Bank of the United States

   
  Ingoldesby, Richard d. 1719 {short description of image}

He was an English military officer who served as acting governor of New York after Henry Sloughter died until Benjamin Fletcher could arrive to become governor. He was acting governor again in 1709.

   
  Intellectual   {short description of image}

One who primarily uses ideas in his work, for example, a poet, a journalist, a teacher, a social thinkie. The term is sometimes used in the speical sense of one who is bent on reforming or transforming society to conform with his ideas. For example, William Lloyd Garrison could be described as an intellectual because he used the power of ideas in the reforming abolitionist movement.

Not all inellectuals by any means are politically activist. Collectively those who seek power are frequently termed the 'intelligentsia'.

 
  Interposition   {short description of image}

A doctrine connected with the nullification theory. It was the belief tht a state which nulified a Federal law could use its power - 'interpose' it - to proect its citizens from the operation of the law. This doctrine was never really put into effect in the 19th century.

Now this theory is the basis for the political efforts to create 'sanctuary cities and even states' in which the local police power will resist the Federal government effort to deport illegal immigrants.

 
  Iroquois Indians   {short description of image}

The native name is Haudenosaunee. They were a very powerful confederacy the English called 'The Five Nations" until 1722 and the "Six Nations' there after. These were the Mohwk, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, and the Seneca - and then added the Tuscarora.. The Iroquois name was given by the French. The Frencdh, Dutch and English colonists established mutually favorable trading relationships with the powerful Iroquois from Canada as far south as Pennsylvania and from the Hudson River to the Great Lakes. For well over 200 years they exerted a strong influence on colonial policy. They participated significantly in the French and Indian War and the Revolutionary war, sometimes allied with the French and sometimes with the British or sometimes with different of the Five being on each side. They were also engaged in frequent wars with other neigboring tribes..

   
  Iron Act 1750 {short description of image}

This was one of the Trade and Navigation Acts. When the colonists began to find iron and smelt into to raw pig iron the the English ruled that it must be sent to England for further uses and manufacturing. This was both to increase English production and hamper production (competition) in the colonies. The act was partially repealed in 1757 but the act itself was not repealed until 1857. Why did it last that long - it applied to Canada.

This is another example of the counterproductive results of the theory and practice of mercantilism

 
  "Irrepressible Conflict" 1858 {short description of image}

The idea that the existing political conflict between the slave and free states was unavoidable, and that it would continue until the United States were all either slave or free. The idea has servived since the Civil War mainly as a way of raising the question of whether or not the war was inevitable.

The speech titled "On the Irrepressible Conflictr" was given by Repulblican Senator William Seward at a meeting in New York. It is provided here in the Wikipedia entry.

 
  Irving, Washington 1783 - 1859 {short description of image}

He was born in New York. He was the author of a huge number of books and essays such as Rip Van Winkle and The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. He was also U.S. Ambasador to spain 1842- 1846. He greatly encouraged many ther American authors such as James Fenimore Cooper, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville.

   
  Jackson, Andrew 1767 - 1845 {short description of image}

He was born in Waxhaws, North Carolina and moved to Tennessee. He represented the state in the House and Senate and was then a Tennessee Supreme Court Justice. In 1801 he was appointed colonel in the Tennessee militia and won fame as the victor in the Battle of Horshoe Bend (1814) in the Creek War. But his most famous victory was the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812 in which he defeated the British invasion force. Then he won the First Seminole War that resulted in the annexation of Florida. He campaigned for President as a Democrat in 1824 but this famous election there was no winner in the Electoral College so the election when to the House of Representatives and John Q. Adams secured the winning vote. He campaigned again in 1828 and won.

He was the 7th President of the United States (1829 - 1837)

 
  Jackson, Thomas J. 1824 - 1863 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and graduated from the U.S. Military Academy. He fought in the Mexican War with distinction. He then taught at the Virginia Military Academy. When Virginia sceeded he joined the Confederate Army and was assigned a brigade to defend Harper's Ferry. From there he moved his brigade by rail (a first) to Manassas and performed brilliant service at the First Battle of Bull Run. From there he contributed greatly to every Confederate battle (including his own detached service in campaigning in the Shennadoah Valley) until he was killed at Chancellorsville in 1863.

   
  Jamestown begun in 1607 {short description of image}

Jamestown was the first permanent settlement begun by the English in America. It was established by individuals sent by the Virginia company of London and named James Fort. It was the capital from 1616 to 1699, when the capital was relocated to Williamsburg. The territory was then ruled by the Powhatan Confederacy of Indian tribes. The settlers soon were at war with the Indians. During the first 2 years many of the English died of disease or starvation. Initially they were to work in common but when that resulted in shirking duties. The governor, Sir ThomasDale then divided the land into private holdings. The colonists had hoped to find gold, but did not. In 1614 John Rolfe planed tobacco he vbrought from Bermuda and it became a cash crop that could be sold in England in exchange for finished goods.The first African slaves arrived in 1619. By 1610 only 60 of the original settlers were alive. They embarked to return to England, but were met as they sailed down the James river by a relief ship, so all returned to the settlement. Among the settlers in the 2nd and 3rd relief ships were Polish and German craftsmen who soon established a profitable glass industry. Increased conflict with the Indians nearly destroyed the colony. {short description of image}In March 1622 the Indians attempted to wipe out the entire colony.{short description of image} Of the 6,000 individuals who arrived in Jamestown between 1608 and 1624 only 3.600 survived In 1624 King James revoked the Virginia company charter and turned the settlement into crown colony.

The Virginia Company also established a town in Bermuda in 1612, which can claim to be the oldest English settlement continually occupied in the Americas.

Today the site of the original Jamestown has been unearthed in archological exploratio and a popular toursit operation draws many visitors. {short description of image}

 
  Jay, John 1745 - 1829 {short description of image}

He was a member of a wealthy merchant family in New York City. He was a lawyer, jurist, patriot, diplomat, member of the Federalist Party. He was elected to the Second Continental Congress in which he served as President. He served as ambasador to Spain and convinced the Spanish government to aid the Revolution. After the war he signed the Treatyof Paris in 1783. He wrote 5 of the Federalist Papers. In 1794, while also Chief Justice, he negociated Jay's Treaty with Great Britain. He was first Chief Justice of the United States - 1789 - 1795 and governor of New York 1795 - 1801. He owned slaves, but later championed anti-slavery and pushed legislation to eliminate slavery in New York. He was a candidate for President in the election of 1796.

He is considered to be one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Two of his homes in Westchester County, NY. are designated National Historic Landmarks James Fenimore Cooper's novel, The Spy, is based on stories of John Jay being a spymaster in the Revolutionary war. Today many places have been named for him.

.
 
  Jay's Treaty 1794 {short description of image}

The treaty settled disputes with Great Britain.

   
  Jefferson, Thomas 1743 - 1826 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and graduated from William and Mary College. He as a Virginia planter, but the leading intellectual of his generation. He was a lawyer, writer, phrasemaker, political thinker, diplomat, statesman, architect, inventor, scholar as well as farmer. He attended the Second Continental Congress.

He was an author of the Declaration of Independence, governor of Virginia, minister to France, first Unied States Secretary of State, second Vice President, and third President. He gave his large library to Congress to create its Library. He is included in the list of signers. {short description of image}

 
  Jenifer, Dan of St. Thomas 1723 - 1790 {short description of image}

He was active in colony politics from early age. As a wealty land owner he strongly supported the Revolution. He became president of the colony's council of Safety, which organized the militia. He represented Maryland in the ContinentalCongress -1778 - 82. He attended the ConstitutionalConvention in which he was an influential elder statesman.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Maryland. He is considered a Founding Fatherof the United States. He is included in the list here. {short description of image}In his will he freed his slaves.

His home is now in the National Register of Historic Places.

 
  Johnson, Andrew 1808 -1875 {short description of image}

He was born in North Carolina and moved to Tennessee.He was elected to the Hose of Representatives in 1843, served 10 years, then was elected state governor, then was sent to the U.S. Senate in 1857. He was a Democrat, but was selected as Vice President for Abraham Lincoln's second campaign in hopes of balancing the ticvket and rewarding Tennessee for remaining loyal to the Union. Of course no one could expect that he would possibly become President. He opposee every policy of the Republican party, especially the 'radical Republicans'. He opposed the 14th Constitutional Amendment. So it is no wonder that he was impeached. But he narrowly escqaped conviction. After returning to Tennessee he showed his local popularity by being again sent to the Senate in 1875.

He was the 17th President of the United States (1865 - 1869). He is the only individual to be President of the country and then a Senator.

 
  Johnson, William Samuel 1722 - 1819 {short description of image}

He graduated from Yale in 1744 and Masters in 1747. He was a lawyer and also a Colonel in the state militia. He attended the StampAct Congress in 1765. He was the Connecticut agent in London 1767 - 1771. He was strongly critized in Connecticut for his efforts to reach compromise with the British government. He believed that independence was not necessary. However, once independence was achieved, he strongly supported the new nation. He was a delegate to the Congress of the Confederationin 1785-87. In 1787 he was an influential delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He favored a strong Federal Government and supported the Connecticut Compromise which set the composition of the Senate. He was the oldest living Senator from 1791 - 1789 and 1793 - 1819.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as delegate from Connecticut. Catherine Drinker Bowen describes his influence in her important book Miracle at Philadelphia. He is included in the list. {short description of image}

 
  Johnson v. Mintosh 1833 {short description of image}      
  Johnston, Albert. S. 1803 - 1862 {short description of image}

He was born in Kentucky, moved to Texas, and graduated West Point in 1826. He served in the Black Hawk War, resigned to move to Texas where he enlised in the Texas Army for the War of Indepedence - rose through the rangs to genereal and then he became Secretary of War of the Republic of Texas 1838. He resigned. But again duringthe Mexican War he was comissioned again in the U.S. Army and led troops at the Battle of Monterey. Then he commanded at higher levels in the frontier army including in the campaign against the Mormons in Utah. He sailed to California to be commander of he Department of the Pacific. At outbreak of the Civil War he resigned and traveled across Arizona and Texas back to Richmond. Jefferson Davis promoted him to be full general (2nd in seniority to Samuel Cooper) ando assigned him as commander of all Confederate forces west of the Allegheny Mountains except the coast. He returned west. He worked hard to control the numerous Confederate units scattered through the large region under various doubtful commanders. He assembled as many as he could and attacked General Grant at the Battle of Shiloh, hoping to defeat the Union scattered forces before they could assemble. But General Don Carlos Buell did manage to reenforce Grant on the second day. But Johnston was shot and killed, probably by a Confederate soldier. The battle was lost.

He served as a general officer in three armies - USA, Texas and Confederate. Jefferson Davis considered Johnston the best general of the Confederacy and historians agree. His death was a disaster. Note that Stonewall Jackson, another of the best Confeerate general, also was killed by one of his own soldiers. Both those losses were very significant in the course of the Civil War.

His wife and 6 children remained living in Los Angeles, California. There are several places named for him and also monuments.

 
  Johnston, Joseph E. 1807 - 1891 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and graduated West Point in 1829 a classmate of Robert Lee. He served with distinction in the Mexican War and Seminole War. He was the first West Point graduate to be a general officer in the regular army. He resigned in 1837 to study civil engineering. But while conducting engineering activities in Florida he was thrown into battle with the Seminole Indians. Deciding there was more action in the Army than previously he returned to Washington and was re-commissioned as a captain of topographic engineers. In the Mexicasn war he served on General Winfield Scott's staff at the Siege of Veracruz. He was wounded twice in seperate battles. After the war he served in the frontier wars with Indians. With the Civil War he resigned his commission as a brigadier general, the highest ranking officer to do so. In 1861 he commanded the Army of the Shenandoah and moved it rapidly to Manassas to win the First Battle of Manassas. After that he was promoted general. Then he was wounded during the Penninsula Campaign. Then sent west to command all the Confederate forces after Albert S. Johnston was killed. He failed to relieve Viksburg and also could not defeat Sherman at Atlanta..

Throughout the war he had a continual paper battle with Jefferson Davis because Joe Johnston believed he had been slighted in not being promoted senior to Cooper, Lee or A. S. Johnston. But this made Davis all the more mad at him.

 
  Jones, John Paul 1747 - 1792 {short description of image}

He was born in Scotland as John Paul and later added 'Jones' to avoid trouble there after his raids. He began as a salior in the British merchant shipping and rose to command merchant ships and then armed naval vessles. After several problems he fled to the American colonies and in 1775 volunteered to serve in the new Continental Navy. With the assistance of friends he obtained an appointment as 1st Lt. He rose rapidly in command. He fought successful naval engagements, making him a national hero.

After the Revolutionary War he served briefly as an admiral in the Russian navy. He died in Paris, France where he died in 1792. In 1906, his coffin having been found after considerable search, he was brought to the U.S. and interned at the U.S. Naval Academy with great ceremony..

 
  Judiciary act of 1789 1789 {short description of image}

This act of Congress was one of the early Acts of the First United States Congress. It was to create the Supreme Court as specified in the Constitution, which had specified the existence of such a judiciary body but left it up to Congress to create and organize it. Even during the debates the powers of a judiciary were a contentious issue. The Act also created some lower courts and judiciary officers. President Washington nominated John Jay to be the first Justice and 4 others as justices.

   
  Judiciary act of 1801 1801 {short description of image}

The purpose of the Act was to relieve the 6 Supreme Court justices from having to also serve as circut judges. The act created 16 Circut judgeships, which President John Adams quickly at the last minute filled with Federalists. Hence the nickname 'Midnight Judges' Jefferson did not like having his political opponents as judges so had his Congress abolish the circut courts thus forcing the Supreme Court justices back into riding circut.

   
  Julian, George W. 1817-1899 {short description of image}

He was born in Indiana and was admitted to the bar in 1840. He was elected to Congress from 1849 to 1851, and again 1861 - 71. He was the Free Soil candidate for Vice President in 1852. Then he helped found the Republican Party. He was strongly anti-slavery and pro western settlement.He was a Radical Republican throughout the Civil War. He supported the Homestead Act. He called for President Andrew Johnson's impeachment. After Grant defeated Greeley in 1872 he switched to become a Democrat.

   
  Kalb, Johann de 1721 - 1780 {short description of image}

He was born in Bavaria and became a French-Bavarian professional military officer. He fought for France in the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Year's War. He resigned in 1764. He visited America in 1768 as a covert investigator for France to assess the colonial situation. He returned in 1777 with Lafayettte. He served in the Continental Army and was assigned to command a division of Maryland and Delaware units. They went south where he was killed in the Battle of Camden.

He was much respected and honored during the Revolution and numerous places are named for him.

 
  Kansas - conflicts   {short description of image}

This interesting entry is a list with descriptions and links to battles and lesser fights that took place in Kansas beginning with one between the Spanish explorers and Natives. Some are pre-civil wars "bloody Kansas" others are Civil War engagments and some are between native Americans and U.S. troops during the 'Indian Wars'.

   
  Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854 {short description of image}

This Act was drafted Senator Stephen Douglas and President Franklin Pierce to create two territories open for settlement. Douglas wanted to promote creation of a transcontinental railroad along a northern route from Illinois. Immediately the territories became a huge political conflict over whether they would be open for slavery or not. Not only was slavery demanded by the Southern states but especially they were concerned about the balance in the Senate if two states (4 Senators) would be elected as anti-slavery. Nebraska territory was soon split with parts for the Dakotas, Colorado and Idaho. It became a state in 1867. Meanwhile the center of the battle was in Kansas creating 'bloody Kansas' .

The attention on the creation of territories for Kansas and Nebraska in our text books centers on the struggle over slavery. Not mentioned so much is that it also opened the huge plains for farming settlements. But this area was the home of the various Indian nations that depended on the Buffalo and their nomadic existence over this vast area. Warfare between Indians and settlers had already commenced, and this expanded it including long after the Civil War.

 
  Kearny, Philip 1815 - 1862 {short description of image}

He graduated Columbia College with law degree but in spite of family desires wanted a career in the Army, which he joined in 1837 as a 2nd Lt. of cavalry. He soon became a milionaire from an inheritance and frequently used his wealth to support his military units. His unit then was the First U S. Dragoons. He fought with distinction in the Mexican War at Battles ofContreras and Chursbusio in which battle his left arm was amputated due to being hit. But that did not stop him, he quicly recovered and continued fighting - He was the first American through the gate of Mexico City.
He became bored with inactivity after a few years fighting Indians and resigned to return to France. There he fought with the Imperial Guard at Solferino and was awarded the French Medal of Honor. With the outbreak of the Civil War he returned to the U.S. and created the First New Jersey Brigade. They fought the many battles of the Penninsula Campaign by which time he was a Major General, commanding a division. He led his division at the Second Battle of Manassas and greatly opposed retreating. Then he was with his division in the rear guard as the Army retreated to Washington. At the Battle of Chantilly he was killed while conducting a personal reconnaissance. Generals on both sides were devastated at his loss.

Due to his outstanding ability, he was sent to study at the French cavalry school in 1839and went to Africa to fight with the Cnasseurs d'Afrique, where he learned cavalry tactics and gained much fame. From then he rode into battle like a chasseur - with sword in right hand, pistol in left and the reins in his teeth. After he lost his left arm he dropped using a pistol.

There is a small park now that includes part of the battlefield at Chantilly on which there is a monument to Kearney. He is buried in Arlington Cemetary and his grave has one of the two equestrian statue in the cemetary.

 
  Kearny, Stephen Wattts 1794 - 1848 {short description of image}

He was a U.S. Army officer mostly stationed on the Western frontier. He fought in the Mexican War, led military expeditions, founded frontier forts including Leavenworth. He was called 'the father of the U.S. cavalry'. During the Mexican War he led a small Army force through New Mexico to California. He occupied Santa Fe, New Mexico enroute to California and appointed Charles Bent as governor. He was at times governor of both territories. In California he disputed command with Admiral Stockton and John Fremont and then succeeded Stockton as governor of the territory.

Philip Kearny was his nephew. Many locations are named after him, including a street in San Francisco.

 
  Kendall.Amos 1789 - 1869 {short description of image}

He was well-known as a poet and journalist. He was editor of the influential newspaper, Arcus of America, and he built the Democratic Party of Andrew Jackson, He was a member of Jackson's "kitchen cabinet' whom some thought was the real brains behind Jackson's and van Buren's administrations.

He invested in the new telegraph and transformed America's news media Later he helped found Galludet College.

 
  Kentucky-Virginia Resolutions 1798-99 {short description of image}

These were statements by the Kentucky and Virginia state legislatures opposing the Federal Alien and Sedition Acts. Actually they were written secretly by Jefferson and Madison respectively. They argued that the states had the right to declare Federal laws unconstitutional. The Acts had long lasting effects up to the Civil War. Not because of their position on the Alien and Sedition Acts but rather for the doctrine that 'states rights' included nullification or interposition against federal law if the state considered it unconstitutional. These Resolutions and the doctrine were rejected by most other states or simply ignored. President Washington was strongly opposed. Alexander Hamilton suggested the federal army be sent into Virginia.

The issue came up even stgronger in 1828-32 when South Carolina declared two tarriffs unconstitutional and claimed 'nullification'.
Historians today have faulted Jefferson strongly for his creation of this theory. One commented that if his authorship had been known at the time, he likely would have been impeached for treason.

 
  Key, Francis Scott 1779 - 1843 {short description of image}

He was born in Maryland. his father was a lawyere, judeg andofficer in the Continental Army. He also was a lawyer, and author and poet. He witnessed the British bombardment of Ft. McHenry in Baltimore during the War of 1812 and wrote a memorial poem . This was later set to music and became the U.S. National Anthem.

He had a long, distinguished career as a lawyer in Washingtion D.C.

 
  Kidd, William 1654 - 1701 {short description of image}

He was a Scotish sailor who settled in New York. Sailing out of the British colony - Nevis_ in the West Indies as a part of the naval force to fight the French in 1689 he was authorized to take what he could as a privateer instead of government pay. He did so in the West Indies and also along the American coast clear to New England. Back in New York in 1695 he was tasked to attack both French and pirate vessels. Then back in London he was outfitted with a ship and a letter of marque, signed by King William III to continue attacking the French. He returned again to New York to increase his crew. Of Madagascar he engaged in privateering that bordered on piracy. After several adventures (all reported to England and America) he returned to the West Indies. Then, learning that British Navy men-of-war were hunting for him, he sailed along the colonial coast, hid a treasure, and slipped into Long Island Sound. His colonial financial backers were afraid of being implicated, so arrested him, held him in Boston prison a year, then sent him to London, where he was tried, found guilty of murder and hung.

Many myths and legends followed his demise. Both his career and the existence of his 'treasure' excited much study and physical searchs.. Washington Irving, Edgar Allen Poe, and Robert Loluis Stevenson all wrote novels based on Captain Kidd. And there have been several movies.

 
  Kidder Massacre 2 July, 1867 {short description of image}

This was a skirmish in Kansas between a small detachment of the 2nd Cavalry commanded by Lt. Lyman Kidder who were wipped out by a force of Lakota and Cheyenne warriors during Hancock's War. Lt. Kidder was taking a message from General Sherman to Colonel Custer when his party passed near a Cheyenne - Lakota camp of buffalo hunters.

The location is in north west Kansas on the Beaver River.

 
  Kieft, Willem 1597=1647 {short description of image}

He was the Dutch Governor of New Netherland (1638 - 1647) He purchased Governor's Island from the Canarsee Indians for two axeheads, a string of beads and some iron nails. He lost the colony's claim to the Connecticut River valley to New England colonists. He was successful in pushing settlers from Virginia out of the Delaware River area. But he perpetratred a surprise attack on the Lenape Indians which resulted in massacres during Kieft'sWar. For that he was fired by the company.

He died in a ship wreck on the way back to Holland.

 
  Kiowa Indians   {short description of image}

This tribe lived lived on the American Great Plains, They originated in Montana and gradually migrated south through Colorado until reaching southern Colorado, Kansas and northern Texas - south of the Arkansas River. They acquired horses from the Spanish over a century or more and became expert buffalo hunters. Among the plains tribes they mostly allied with the Comanchee and fought the Cheyenne and Araphoe. They were noted for the men being warriors. They mostly conducted raids and these included long range raids far north and south into Mexico. When the eastern 'civilized nations' such as Creeks and Cherokee and Chickasaw were moved into Oklahoma, the Kiowa fought with them as well. .

Eventually they wee subdued and forced onto reservations.

 
"King Cotton"   {short description of image}

A phrase that gained currency before the Civil War of the leading role of cotton in domestic, but especially in foreign trade. Cotton was king, some Southerners held, and through her control of it the South would be invincible because of the foreign support she would receive in a war against the North.

The result was failure. First the South itself stopped export of cotton in an effort to show England they better support the South. Then the Union successfully created a naval blockade that stopped much export. Meanwhile the British found ample supply of cotton in Egypt and elsewhere.

 
  King. Rufus 1755 -1827 {short description of image}

He ws born in Massaschutes to a prosperous farmer - merchant family. He graduated Harvard in 1777. He fought in the Battle of Rhode Island. He was admitted to the bar in 1780. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention in 1787 where he was influential. He then moved to New York City and was elected to the New York legislature. He next was elected U.S. Senator from New York until 1796 when President Washington sent him as Minister to Great Britain. In the elections of 1804 and 1808 he was the candidate for Vice President of the Federalist Party with no real chance for victory. In 1813 he was again elected Senator. In 1816 he was an informal nominee for President of the Federalst Party (their last candidate) and received 30% of the vote but Monroe won. President J.Q. Adams reappointed him as Minister to Great Britain. He is credited with considerable success as Minister in London. He was strongly opposed to slavery and the slave trade.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as delegate from Massachusetts. His biography is with the list of signers.{short description of image}

He had an extensive library which is now at the New York Historical Society. He had many distinguished descendents.

 
  King. George's War 1744 -1748 {short description of image}

This was the North American part of the War of the Austrian Succession and the third of the French and Indian Wars. Military operations were conducted mostly in New York, Massachusets and Nova Scotia. The principle campaign was the capture of French Fortress Luisbourg by an expedition of mostly Massachusets militia. But the fortress was returned to France according to the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapellie, much to the disgust of the American colonists.

The conflict also included the War of Jenkin's Ear. The Wkpedia entry has details and illusrations.

 
  King Philip's War 1675 - 1678 {short description of image}

Tis conflict in also known as First Indian War or Metacome's War. It began because Metacom (1638 - 76) the second son of chief Massoslit, who had maintained friendly relations with the Puritans, began a war over disputes with the colonists. For the first year or so the Indians were very successful at burning villages and farms and killing farmers who had not escaped. But by the second year the Indian tribal alliances broke with many siding with the colonists. The result was that the opposing Indian tribes werw wiped out and Metacom was killed.

This is generally considered the worst episode in New England history. More than half of the towns were attacked, many destroyed, the English population decimated and economy ruined.

 
  King William's War 1688 - 1697 {short description of image}

This is also termed The Second Indian War . and Castin's War. It is the North American theater of the European Nine Year's War , or the War of the Grand Alliance, or War of the League of Augsburg. It was the first of the six colonial wars between France and England in North America. Both European contestants had Indian nations as allies. The result of this war was the status anti - that is no change in the border. .

In this conflict both France and England devoted little effort to their operations in North America but were greatly concerned with Europe. That would change.
The Wikipedia entry provides much detail including maps.

 
  Know Nothing Party 1850's {short description of image}

The party is also known as the American Party. Their principle political policy was anti-immigration. especially by Catholics. But the individuals tried to conceal much of their program by saying "I know nothing' when asked. They gained some political support when the Whig Party collapsed, and they collapsed in turn when the Republican Party became strong. But their immediate successor was the Constitutional Union Party.

The Party won one seat in the Senate in 1854 - 5 in 1856 and 2 in 1858. Their candidate for President in 1852 was Jacob Broom and in 1856 Millard Filmore.

 
  Knox, Henry 1750 - 1806 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachutes. Before the war he owned a book store and studied military history. During the Revolutionary War he was the chief artillery officer in the Continental Army and accompanied General Washington on most campaigns. Then he was an officer in the U.S. Army and was the first Secretary of War. In that position he supervised sea coast fortifications and also relations with the Indian Tribes in the North West Territory. He organized the expedition lead by Anthony Wayne that resulted in the Battle of Fallen Timbers.

His headquarters home in New Windsor, New York is listed as a National Historic Landmark. Fort Knox, Kentucky is named for him. Also many towns and counties bear his name.

 
  Knyphausen, Wilhelm von 1716 - 1800 {short description of image}

He was a professional general in the army of Hesse-Kassel who fought in the American Revolution. His father was an officer in the Prussian army with the Duke of Marlborough. He entered Prussian service in 1734. In 1755 he was a general in the army of King Frederick the Great and Lt. Gen. in the army of Hesse-Kassel. He commanded the Hessian troops in many battles. He was sometimes the commander of forces in New York. He returned to Germany in 1782.

He fought in all the early battles up to Trenton. See. britishbattles.

 
  Kossuth, Louis 1802 - 1894 {short description of image}

He was a lawyer - stateman and President of Hungary during the revolution of 1848-49. After defeat he fled to Turkey. He was already an international hero as a liberal. In 1851 he was invited by Congress to visit America, which he did via a stop in Great Britain. Everywhere his oratory was sensational. Apparently he had learned English mostly by study of Shakespeare and spoke in delightfully archaic English. He was a revolutionary hero for whom the crowds turned out. He was the second foreigner after Lafayette to address a joint meeting of Congress. President Filmore had him to dinner at the White House. But his fame and public approval soon ended and he moved on to Italy and years later died in Turin.

   
  Krok, Sebastiaen Jansen 1595 - 1674 {short description of image}

He was the Dutch commander at Fort Orange in New Netherland and also a Director General of the colony (1632-33)

   
  Lafayette, Marquis de 1757 - 1834 {short description of image}

Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Mortier, Marquis de LaFayette was a French nobleman who came to America out of belief in the Revolution.
He was appointed an officer in French Army at age 13. He came to America at age 19 and was commissioned Major General but not given a command then. He was wounded at the Battle of Brandywineand was distingished in combat at the Battle of Rhode Island. Then he was given command of American troops in Virginia to counter Cornwallis and brought them to the Siege of Yorktown.

After the Revolution he retuned to France, He was a member of the Assembly of Notables in 1787 and the Estates General in 1789. He supported the French Revolution in part but when it turned to terror he fled to Austria were he was in prison for 5 years until freed by Napoleon. He made a grand tour of the 24 American States in 1824. In 1830 he supported the July Revolution.

 
  Land Ordinance of 1785 1785 {short description of image}

This act of the Congress of the Confederation established a unified system for surveying the acquired land and for its distribution by sale to prospective settlers (and land speculators) Its basic provisions remained until the Homestead Act.

The lasting aspects of this Act were the methods for survey and division of the land into sections. The Wikipedia article containes detailed diagrams showing graphically how the system looked on the land.

 
  Land Act of 1820 1820 {short description of image}

This Act of Congress ended the system whereby individuals could purchase land on credit or installment of 4 years. It required immediate payment - but to encourage such purchase it did reduce the price of public land.

All these Acts presumed that the U.S. Government OWNED the land being sold - not the Indians and not the people already. This concept followed the European concept that the monarch (and then parliaments) Owned the property of land as well as the political - civil control of a ruler.

 
  Land Act of 1804 1804 {short description of image}

This Act of Congress established the rules for the sale of lands acquired by the United States in the Northwest Territories from Britain (never mind from the Indians). It superceeded the Harrison Land Act introduced by William Henry Harrison. It set the prices to be paid the Treasury. - These were $2.00 an acre to be paid in installments over 4 years.

   
  Homestead Acts 1862 - 1866 - 1904 {short description of image}

The act of 1862 passed during the Civil War established new policy and methods for distribution of the land being taken from the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi.

   
  Land Banks   {short description of image}      
  Lane, John 1835 - 1888 {short description of image}

He was born io Kentucky and moved to Texas where he became a politician. He served in the Confederate Army and after the war was elected Mayor of Dallas.

   
  Langdon, John 1741 - 1819 {short description of image}

He was a member of a very wealthy family who came to America in early 17th century and settled in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. They were farmers and ship builders. And Langdon commanded ships at sea and eventually owned a whole fleet engaged in the triangle trade with London and Carribean. Thus he personally was damaged by the British Acts against colonial trade. He participated in the Siege of Louisbourg in 1745. During the Revolution he participated in Battle of Benningtonand at Saratoga. And he supervised and assisted with the construction of several war ships.

He is considered a 'Founding Father of the United States". He was a delegate to the Second Continental Convention in 1775 and the Philadelphia Convention that wrote the Constitution. He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from New Hampshire. He was one of the first U.S. Senators and first president pro Tempore of the Senate. He later became Governor of New Hampshire

 
  LaSalle, Charles Louis, Comte de 1775 - 1809 {short description of image}

Antoine-Charles-Louis,Comte de Lassale was a French cavalry general who was killed at Wagram

   
  Lasalle,. Robert Cavilier 1647 - 1683 {short description of image}

He sailed from France in 1666 and was a French explorer of America including the Great Lakes, Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico. He claimed the entire area for France. He built Fort Frontenac, named for the governor, in 1673 and was appointed its commander. He constructed a ship on the Niagara River and sailed it through the Great Lakes. Then he voyaged down the rivers toward the Mississippi, building forts along the route. In 1682 he traveled down the Mississippi to the Gulf, naming the entire area Louisiana in honor of his king, Louis XIV. In 1683 he returned up river and to France from where he returned to America in 1684, seeking the mouth of the Mississippi. He landed in what is now Texas and searched on foot. He was murdered while still in "Texas" by mutineers.

His great legacy is the string of forts along the Great Lakes and Mississippi and the friendly relations he established with the many Indian tribes in the regions which enabled the French to conduct their trade in furs and have Indians as allies against the British.

There are many places named in his honor. His statue is in Lincoln Park, Chicago

is
 
  Laudonniere, Rene Gouliane de 1529 - 1574 {short description of image}

He was a French Huguenot explorer who was sent to establish a colony on the American coast where now are Georgia and Florida. In1652 he was second-in-command to Jean Ribault. They established a colony at Charlesfort in present day Soth Carolina. He returned to France and sailed again in 1654 and eastablished a colony at Fort Caroline in the St. John's River where now is Jacksonville. The colony was not successful, and received food and help from Saturiwa, a friendly Indian chief. In 1655 he bought a ship from John Hawkins and prepared to retun to France. But the Spanish arrived with the mission to destroy the French colony. This they did despite a hurricane and battle with Ribault. Laudonniere escaped back to France..

   
  Lay, Benjamin 1682 - 1759 {short description of image}

He was born in England, moved to Barbadoes in 1710, where he was detested for his anti-slavery advocacy, moved then the Pennsylvania where he continued opposing slavery. He was a strict Quaker and is considered the first radical abolitionist. He gave such violently anti-slavery orations and publications that even many Quaker slave owners ostracized him. He published over 200 pamphlets denouncing many things such as prisons, animal food, capital punishment and wealthy Quakers. He stood 4 feet tall and lived by himself in a country cottage where he grew his own food and made his own clothes.

Through the 19th Century he was then honored as the leading abolitionist. His portrait was in many Quaker homes. Recently there is a full article about him in the Smithsonian Magazine. And there are several biographies published.

 
   Leavenworth, Henry 1783 - 1834 {short description of image}

He was born in Connecticut and admitted to the bar in 1812. He was commissioned as Captain in 1812 and then served in the War of 1812. He was wounded in the Battle of Niagara and breveted to rank of colonel in 1814. He served in the New York state assembly in 1816 but then returned to Army service. In1820 he constgructed Fort St. Anthonyand in 1823 commanded troops in the Arikara War, the first 'war' in the west with Plains Indians. He built Fort. Leavenworth in 1827. He continued to lead expeditions thoroughout Indian territory and died in the field in 1834 either from sudden sickness or an accident while buffalo hunting.

   
  Lecompton Constitiution 1857 {short description of image}

This was the second of four proposed constitutions for the entering state of Kansas. This one was written by a pro-slavery legislature in opoosition to an anti-slavery constitution written at Topeka. The pro-slavery constitution was upported by President Buchanan and southern Democrats but opposed by Northern Democrats. The political battle further broke theDemocrat Party. This constitution was not adopted and Kansas was admitted as a free state.

   
  Lee, Charles 1758 -1815 {short description of image}

He was born in Prince William County, Virginia. He was brother of General Henry Light Horse Harry Lee and Richard Bland Lee, and uncle of General Robert E. Lee. He was U.S. Attorney General for George Washington (1795- 1801).

   
  Lee, Francis Lightfoot 1734- 1797 {short description of image}

He lived at Stratford Hall, built by his father, Thomas Lee, in 1738. He served in the Virginia House of Burgessess. Then was a delegate elected to the First ContinentalCongress. His family was one of the most prominent in Virginia for many generations. He had no children, but his namesake was the son of his brother.

He signed the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation as delegate from Virginia.

 
  Lee, Henry I 1691- 1747 {short description of image}      
  Lee, Henry II 1730 - 1787 {short description of image}      
  Lee, Henry III 1756 - 1818 {short description of image}

"Light Horse Henry"

   
  Lee, Henry IV 1787 - 1837 {short description of image}

"Black Horse Henry". He was the son of Henry III and half brother to Robert E. Lee

   
  Lee, Henry 1782 - 1857 {short description of image}

He was a noted economist and also was a candidate for Vice president with John Floyd as president in 1832

   
  Lee, Richard Henry 1732 - 1794 {short description of image}

He was another member of this distingished multi-generational Virginia family. His father was Colonel Thomas Lee, a governor of Virginia prior to 1750. He lived at Stratford Hall with Francis Lightfoot. In 1757 he was appointed local justice of the peace, and elected to the House of Burgesses in 1758. He was an early champion of independence and organized Committees of Corespondence. he was elected to the First ContinentalCongress in 1774 and the Second Continental Congress in 1776 in which he put the resolution to declare independence. In 1784 he was elected president of the Congress under the Articles of Confederation. There he pushed for the states to relinquish their clames to western lands _NorthwestTerritory- to the national government so it could sell them to fund the government. But the rush of 'squaters' to the territory and inability of the government to pay for officials or troops to prevent it largely failed to accomplish the financial concept. He was a U.S. Senator 1789 - 1792

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Virginia he named his fourth son after his brother, Francis Lightfoot.

 
  Lee, Robert E. 1807 - 1870 {short description of image}

He was born at Stratford Hall, Virginia. His father was general Henry (Light horse Henry ) Lee II. He graduated West Point and fought in the Mexican War. He became commanding general of the Army of Virginia in the Civil War.

   
   Lee, Stephen Luis    {short description of image}      
  Leggett, William 1801 -1839 {short description of image}      
  Leib, Michael 1760 -1822 {short description of image}      
  Leisler, Jacob 1640 - 1691  {short description of image}

He was a New York militia officer who staged a rebellion. Leisler's Rebellion and claimed to be governor 1688-1691. He was captured and tried. Governor Sloughter pardoned him but his opponents managed to execute him anyway.

   
  Lewis, Francis 1713 - 1802 {short description of image}

He was born in Wales, educated in Scotland and England and moved to America in 1734. He was captured by the French during the French and Indian War and taken to France from where he returned to New York and entered politics. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1755.

He signed the Articles of Confederation and the Declaration of Independence as delegate from New York. His Biography is at{short description of image}
The British destroyed his home in Queens and held his wife in captivity which ruined her health.

 
  Lewis, Meriwether 1774 - 1809 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia, but after his father, moved to Georgia. As a youth he enjoyed hunting and exploration and met with Indians. In 1794 he joined the Virginia militia and in 1795 the U.S. Army. Among his companions was William Clark. in 1801 he was appointed aide to Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson must have been greatly appreciative of Lewis because he appointed him to lead the very dangerous expedition across unknown America. Lewis then recruited Clark to be his second-in-command. In 1807 Jeffeerson appointed him governor of the Louisiana territory with headquarters in St. Louis.

   
  Lewis and Clark expedition 1805 - 1805 {short description of image}

The transcontinental exploration from St. Louis to the Pacific ocean and back which produced volumes of important information about the area and its inhabitants.

   
  Lewis, William J. 1766 - 1828 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and elected to Congress in 1817.

   
  Lexington, Battle April 19, 175 {short description of image}

With Concord these were the opening battles of the American Revolution.

   
  Liberalism   {short description of image}

In the 19th century, it referred to the beliefs of those who favored extending individual liberty by limiting government. Liberals also tended to favor universal suffrage. in the 20th century, American liberals have shifted toward expanding government power which often curtails individual liberty.

   
  Liberty Party 1840's {short description of image}

They were abolitionists who nominated James G. Birneyfor President in elections of 1840 and 1844. They gained only a few votes, but some historians note that their votes in New York were sufficient to switch the outcome from Henry Clay to Polk.

The members eventually joined the Republican Party

 
  Lincoln, Abraham 1809 - 1865 {short description of image}

He was born in Kentucky and moved to Illinois where he became a lawyer and Whig Party politician and changed to the Republican Party when it was created. He was commissioned a captain in the state militia. He fought in the brief Black Hawk War. Among his most famous speches are the Lincoln- Douglas debates, His Gettysburg Address and his two Presidental Inaugral speeches. He also wroe the Emancipation proclamation.

He was the 16th President of the United Sates

 
  Lincoln, Benjamin 1733 -1810 {short description of image}

He was born in Massaschusetts. During the American Revolutionary War he was a major general. He was at the Battles of Saratoga, the Siege of Charleston and the Siege of Yorktown. He was Washington's first Secretary of War. He also led troops to supress Shay's Rebellion.

   
  Lincoln-Douglas Debate 1858 {short description of image}

The rival candidates held 7 debates each in a different Congressional district in Illinois

   
  Livingston, Edward 1764 - 1836 {short description of image}

He was born in New York, the son of Robert Livingston 1718 - 1775 (below). He graduated Princeton in 1781 and was admitted to the bar in 1785. He was a Democrat-Republican Party representative in Congress and opposed the Jay Treaty. He moved to New Orleans in 1804. He helped Andrew Jackson during the War of 1812 battle of New Orleans. In 1821 he prepared the "Livingston Code' as the new legal system for the new state. He was a representive in Congress and then Senator from Louisiana and then Secretary of State for Andrew Jackson's and Martin van Buren's administrations.

Fort Livingston on the Lousiana coast (now a ruin) is named for him. (along with many other places)

 
  Livingston, Philip 1716 -1778 {short description of image}

He was born in Albany, New York. He graduated Yale in 1737 and entered business. During King George's war he made a fortune provisioning and privateering. In 1754 he was a delegate to the Albany Congress. During the French and Indian War he financed privateers. He atended the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. And in 1775 he was a delegate to the Continental Congress. He died suddenly.

He was a member of a numerous and politically important family with famous ancestors and descendents. One brother was William Livingston.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from New York. See here {short description of image}

 
  Livingston, Robert. R. 1718 - 1775 {short description of image}

He is one of many famous Robet Livingston's. He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress.

 
  Livingston, William 1723 - 1790 {short description of image}

He was born in Albany, New York. His father was a Philip Livingston who lived 1686 - 1749. He graduated Yale in 1741. He was admited to the bar in NewYork in 1748. In 1770 he moved to New Jersey. He was a delegate to the ContinentalCongress and then commissioned Brig gen in the New Jersey militia. In 1776 he was elected governor of New Jersey and continued in office until his death. During the was the family fled as their home, Liberty Hall was looted. In 1787 He was a delegate to the ConstitutionalConvention.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from New Jersey. His biography is also here {short description of image}

He was a member of a numerous and politically important family with famous ancestors and descendents. One brother was Philip Livingston.

His home still stands. He and his wife Sussan had 13 children. Sarah married John Jay.

 
  Locke, John 1632 - 1704 {short description of image}

He was born in England. He received his bachelor degree from Christ Church Oxford in 1656 and masers in 1658. He was considered one of the most influential Enlightment philosophers or his time, and ever since. He promoted republicanism and liberalism. His theories were strongly influential in the Declaration of Independence. But he also wrote the Fundamental Constitution of Carolina for his patron and this was designed to establishe a kind of feudal government for the colony. When asked his opinion on what constitutes real money he insisted it was gold.

   
  Loco Focos group 1835 - 1840's {short description of image}

A 'loco foco' was the nickname of a type of friction match - these were used by a radical group at a meeting and the name was then attached to these members.

They were a local political part active in NewYork, particularly the city opposing Tammeny Hall. They advocated separation of government from banking, which was partially achieved in 1836. They became the "Equal Rights Party"

 
  Logan, James 1674 - 1751 {short description of image}

He was born in Ireland and came to Philadelphia in 1689 as William Penn's secretary. He held various political offices, including mayor of Philadelphia, Chief Justice of the colony supreme court and acting governor, while also engaging in fur trading. He was also a natural scientist. He had a very large library of classical works. Upon his death 3900 volumes were willed to the city.

His estate (Stenton) is now a National Historic Landmark operated as a museum.

 
  Log Cabin Campaign 1840 {short description of image}

The Presidential Electiion campaign between William Henry Harrison and the incumbent President, Martin van Buren. Harrison's campaign supporters claimed he was a simple man, product from being born in a 'log cabin', when he actually was the descendent of one of the first families of Virginia. This was also the campaign in which he was touted with the slogan "Tippicanoe and Tyler too ".c The Whigs were unified and also claimed the Panic of 1836 and resulting depression were van Buren's fault. das

Interesting side fact is that in this election four presidents -including future ones- were running. Tyler was VP for Harrison and became president on Harrison's death. And Polk was VP for van Buren and replaceed Tyler in the next election.

 
  London Company 1606 {short description of image}

It was also called the Charter of the Virginia Company of London. It was a joint stock comany with a charter from King James I. With a territory from Cape Fear to Long Island Sound. It made its first landfall in 1607 at Cape Henry near modern day Virginia Beach. They then moved inland along the river they named James and established Jamestown.

There is a monument and hisoric marker at the location which was in U.S. Army Fort Story.

 
  Longfellow, H. W. 1807 -1882 {short description of image}

He was born in Maine when it was still part of Massachusetts. He became a professor at Bowdoin and Harvard. He is famous for some of the most significant poetry in English and he also translated Divine Comedy.

   
  Longstreet, James 1821 - 1904 {short description of image}

He was born in South Carolina but his father obtained an appointment to U.S. Military Academy from Alabama. He graduated in 1842 and was posted west where he served with U.S. Grant. In the Mexican War he fought with Zachary Taylor in many battles. He was wounded in the Battle of Chapultepec. When the Civil War came he was not infavor of succession, but did believe in "States rights so resigned to be commissioned from his state, Alabama. But Jefferson Davis promoted him to Brig. General and sent him to command a brigate at Manassas. He then fought in the battle of First Bull Run (Battle of Manassas.) He continued to command increasingly larger formations throughout the war and was Robert Lee's senior subordinate and principle advisor. But Lee did not take Longstreet's advice at Gettysburg.

   
  Lord Dunmore's War 1773 - 1774 {short description of image}

This was a conflict between Virginia colony and Shawnee and Mingo tribes. The conflict was caused by colonial settlers moving into territory that had been preserved for the Indians by treaty - southwest Pennsylvania, Virginia and Kentucky south of the Ohio River. The Indians lost the Battle of Point Pleasant. By concluding treaty the Indians agred to give up that area and retain hunting lands west of the Ohio - of course they lost that area as well.

   
  Louisiana Territory 1805 -1812 {short description of image}

This name was retained when the region was acquired from France, but not including the area that became the State of Lousiana, until it was renamed Missouri Territory in 1812.

   
  Louisiana Purchase 1803 {short description of image}

The United States purchased the territory from France for 15 million dollars. Jefferson had originally wanted to buy only New Orleans to secure the port for trade, but was surprised when Napoleon wanted to unload the whole area, which he new he could not eventually use anyway.

   
  Lovelace, Francis 1621 - 1675 {short description of image}

He was the English Governor of New York after Richard Nicolls took it from the Dutch. (1668 - 1673)

   
  Lovelace, John, 4th Baron Lovelace 1672 - 1709 {short description of image}

He was the Governor of New York from 1708 to 1709. He was no relation to Francis Lovelace.

   
  Lovejoy, Owen 1811 - 1844 {short description of image}

He was born in Maine and moved to Illinois. He was a preacher, and 'conductor' on the Underground Railroad - that is he helped escaping slaves to transit to Canada. He was strongly anti-slavery and delivered powerful speeches favoring abolition. He helped found the Republican Party.

   
  Lowell, Francis Cabot 1775 - 1817 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts. He became a prominent meerchant, sailing to various places including Revolutional France. With the Napoleonic wars disruption of trade and the embargos, he became interested in American production of textiles. In 1814 he built a mill on the Charles River. It was advamced in that is processed the entire production from raw cotton to finished cloth. He died very young but his business was already productive and profitable. His son inherited the wealty

Lowell Massachusetts is named for him.

 
  Lowell, J.R. 1799 -1836 {short description of image}

He devoted much of the wealth created by his inherited textile business to philanthropy

   
  Loyalists   {short description of image}      
  Lundy, Benjamin 1789 - 1839 {short description of image}

He was born in New Jersey and moved to Wheeling, Virginia and then to Obio where he made a profitable saddlery business. He sold that to become a publisher in St. Louis. He was a strong abolitionist. He traveled extensively promoting abolition and worked with William Lloyd Garrison.

   
  Lupton, Lancaster P. 1807 - 1885 {short description of image}

He was born in New York and graduated West Point in 1829. He was commissioned and served in dragoons on the plains. He resigned to open a trading post - Fort Lancaster - later moved to Pueblo, Colorado and then to California during the Gold Rush, where he died.

Fort Lupton, Colorado is named for him.

 
  Lynch, Thomas Sr. 1726 - 1776 {short description of image}

He waws born in South Carolina. He served in the colonial legislature. He was a delegate to the Stamp_Act_Congress and to the First and the SecondContinental Congresses.

   
  Lynch, Thomas Jr. 1749 - 1779 {short description of image}

He was born in South Carolina. His father, also Thomas Lynch, was a prominent politician. He graduated Eton College, Cambridge Univ. and studied law at the Middle Temple. He returned home in 1772 and was then married. He worked in local politics with all the famous names in South Carolina. He was commissioned in the South Carolina militia but then was sent to the Continental Congress, along with his father, who was already very ill, the only father- son delegates. He was the second oldest, next to Edward Rutledge. As both Lynchs were ill they retired but the father died en route in Annapolis. In1779, while seeking to improve his health, he died at sea in a lost ship enroute to the West Indies.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from South Carolina. His bio is here {short description of image}

 
  Macon, Nathaniel 1757 - 1837 {short description of image}

He was born in North Carolina, served briefly in army during the Revolution. He represented the state in both the House and Senate. Throughout he opposed strong central government and soughtt to keep it weak.

Many places are named for him.

 
  Madison, James Jr. 1751 - 1836 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and inheried a large plantation with numerous slaves. He was a delegate to the Continental Congress and the Constitutional Convention. He wrote parts of the Federalist Papers. In1789 he was a leader in the first Congress in which he drafed the Bill of Rights - 10 amendments. He was President Jefferson's Secretary of State.

He drafted and signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Virginia He was fourth President of the Unied States. He is considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. His bio is also {short description of image}

 
  Magna Carta 1215 {short description of image}

On 15 June Englisn King John was forced by his barons to sign the Great Charta which established legal rules for the king's limitations of power over his nobility and subjects. This he soon abrogated but it remained a standard for English liberties ever since.

   
  Manassas   {short description of image}

The city contains several historic sites - especially dating from the Civil War in 1861 - when it was called Manassas Junction due to it having an important railroad junction It was the location (nearby) of the First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) and the Second Battle as well. Now it has an historical old town.

   
  Manifest Destiny mid- 19th century c- published in 1839 {short description of image}

This was a controversial concept or theory that the United States had a 'destiny' that was obvious 'manifest' to extend its realm from sea to sea - coast to coast. In other words it was a jutification for the U.S. to take land from Mexico and Britian to complete its destiny. And that the high moral stature of the Americans proved this.

   
  Manifesto   {short description of image}

A strong public statement of intentions or purposes, usually of some group or organization. Examples, the Ostend Manifesto and the Communist Manifesto.

   
  Mann, Horace 1796 - 1859 {short description of image}

He was born in Masassachutes. He seved in the state legislature. His principle effort was devoted to improving public primary education.

   
  Marbury v. Madison 1803 {short description of image}

This was a very significant early Supreme Court Decision. It established the concept of 'judicia' review' - that is the rule that the Supreme Court can consider legislation and deside if it conforms to the Constitution or not. But the underlying case was a minor one in which Marbury petitioned that the Jefferson administration should honor his commission given by the Adams administration. Justice Marshall ruled that Secretary Madison's refusal to give the document was illegal but that the idea of the petition was unconstitutional, since it relied on power that the Supreme Court did not have..

   
  Marcy, William 1766 - 1857 {short description of image}

He was a captain in the War of 1812. Then he was a Representative and Senator and Governor of New York -then Secretary of War during the Mexican War and Secretary of State who concluded the Gadsen Purchase

   
  Marshall, James W 1810 - 1885 {short description of image}

He operated a sawmill on the American River in California. In 1848 gold was discovered in his mill water, setting off the gold rush that brought thousands of people to California. The mill was actually owned by John Sutter, but neither gentlemen profited from the discovery and subsequent mania.

   
  Marshall, John 1755 - 1835  {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and served in the Continental Army during the revolution. He became a distinguished lawyer and served in the Virginia legislature, then in the U.S. House of Representatives. He was Secretary of State for President John Adams. Some of his most significant Supreme Court decisions include:
Marbury v. Madison; 1803
Fletcher v. Peck; 1810
McCulloch v Maryland; 1819
Cohens v Virginia: 1821
Gibbons v Ogden: 1824
Johnson v. M'Intosh; 1833
Cherokee Nation v Georgia; 1831
Barron v Baltimore; 1833
And he presided at the trial of Aaron Burr.

His most important role was as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1801 to 1835 In which he made the Supreme Court a coequal part of the Federal Government. His decisions establshed the role of the Constitution itself in American juisprudence. He is listed among the Founding Fathersof the United States

 
  Maryland colony 1632 - 1776 {short description of image}

The English colony in American granted by King Charles I to friends as proprietors. It beame one of the original 13 States upon independence from Britain.

   
  Mason, George 1725 -1792 {short description of image}

He was born in Fairfax County, Virginia. He was an early and strong proponent of Independence and the Revolution. He was so strong an advocate of individual rights that when a delegate to the ConstitutionalConvention he refused to sign, claiming it lacks sufficient protection for individal liberty. He was part author of the Virginia Declaration of Rights.

His plantation home still stands on the Potomic River not far south of Mount Vernon.

 
  Mason, John 1600 - 1672 {short description of image}

He was born in England. He enlisted in the army in 1624 and served on the continent in the Thirty Years' War. in1632 he sailed with the Puritans to Massachusetes Bay were he was immediately elected to the militia. In 1633 he commanded the first American naval task force pursuing pirates. He and Roger Ludlow constructed the first fortifications on Castle Island in Boston Harbor. (Fort Independence). He moved to Connecticut. In 1637 he commanded the colonial forces in the Pequot War. In 1647 he becane commander of Saybrook Fort. And he was a major general as military commander in chief of the colonial army - 1654 - 1672. He was a friend of the Mohegan Indians and negociated treaties and purchased tracts from them. He served a Deputh Governor and helped write the Charter of Connecticut.

There are several statues of Mason and other memorials. Mason Island is named for him. He is considered on the main founders of Connecticut. He has many prominent descendents right up to the present.

 
  Mason-Dixon line 1763- 1767 {short description of image}

The boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland and Delaware. And it now also includes West Virginia. It has been thought of, however, as the boundary beween slave and free states and thus as separating the North and the South. Actually the line was commissioned to solve the land dispute between Pennsylvania and Maryalnd and Delaware.

The survey was accomplished by Mr. CharlesMason and Mr. Jerimiah Dixon

 
  Massachusetts Bay Colony 1628 -1691 {short description of image}

The original English colony included much territory now included not only in Massachusetts State but also parts of the states to the north and all the territory west to the Pacific Ocean. It later became the province of Massachusetts Bay.

   
  Massachustts Government Act 22 May 1774 {short description of image}

The Act of Parliament which abrogated the Charter of 1691 and confered on the royal governor expanded power. It was part of the British effort to reduce colonial indepdent political power but was a step toward more revolution

   
  Masterson, Bat 1853 - 1921 {short description of image}

Bartholemew William Barkley "BAT" Masterson was born in Quebec, Canada. The family moved to New York, Missouri and then Kansas. As a teen he, with his brothers Ed and James, became buffalo hunters. In June 1874 he was in the group of hunters that defended themselves at the Second Battle of Adobe Walls. In August 1874 he signed on as a scout for Colonel Miles out of Fort Dodge to hunt down Apache and Cheyenne Indians. Among other exploits they rescued 4 captive girls. In January 1876 at Sweetwater Texas he had his first gunfight in which he killed Melvin King. In 1877 he was elected sheriff of Ford County, Kansas (in which was Dodge City). Then his brother, Ed, was elected city Marshal of Dodge. The pair immediately and successfully catching train robbers. But Ed was killed in a gun fight, which Bat quickly ended by killing the killers. He had Wyatt Earpand Bill Tlighman along in his posse to capture James Kenedy. In 1879 he was recruited by the Sante Fe Railroad to combat the Denver and Rio Grand Railroad. In 1880 he was living in Dodge City and his other Brother, James, was now City Marshal. In 1881 he moved to Tomstone, Arizona to be with Wyatt Earp. They were faro dealers. In 1881 he rushed back to Dodge to help Jim confront two opponents. A big gun fight ensured, Bat, was charged, but released. In 1882 he was appointed city marshal of Trinidad, Colorado. He was voted out of office in 1883 in time to rush back to Dodge to help Earp again. They were successful by show of force without gunfire. For the remainder of his life he traveled freqeuntly but finally settled in New York City and became a newspaper columist, especially about professional boxing.

   
  Maxwell, Lucien 1818 - 1875 {short description of image}

He was born in Illinois. In 1834 he moved west to explore. He became friends with Kit Carson and in 1841 the both signed on with John Fremont for his expeditions. In 1844 he returned to Taos, married Luz Beaubien whose wealthy father gave him 15,000 acres out of his million acre land grant. In 1847 he was at Fort Bent when Charles Bent was murdered in the Taos Revolt. His wife survived but her brother was killed. In 1850 he moved to Cimarron, New Mexico. He inherited the land grant 1,714,765 acres. (Maxwell Land Grant). He was the largest land owner in the country. After the Civil War gold was discovered on his property, so he leased stakes to miners. In 1870 he sold out for over a million dollars. He moved to Fort Sumner where he died in 1875. After he had sold the area became the battleground for the Colfax County War.

In 1881 Pat Garett killed Billyu the Kid at Maxwell's home at Ft. Sumner, then owned by Lucien's son, Pete. Billy the Kid was buried next to Lucien.
Today the huge land grant has been divided into many private holdings, some of them well known such as the PhilmontBoy Scout ranch, Ted Turner's ranch and the National Rifle Association center.

The extensive ties over years between Lucien Maxwell, Kit Carson and the Bent brothers are well described in David Lavender's book -Bent's Fort.

 
  McClellan, G. B. 1826 v -1885 {short description of image}

He was born in Philidelphia and graduated the U.S. Military Academy second in his class in 1846 and was commissioned 2nd Lt. in Corps of Engineers. He immediately served in the Mexican War in which he fought in several battles but was stricken with malaria. As an Engineer officer he performed surveys of the west for location of future railroads. He resigned in 1857 and began a carrer with railroads. When the Civil War began he was commissioned Major General in the Ohio militia but was soon transfered to status in the regular Union army. His first assignment was to command Union forces in western Virginia where he soon demonstrated his penchant for exceeding his military authority to become involved in political matters. President Lincoln called him to Washington after First Bull Run to reorganize the Union army. The rest his history.

   
  McCormick, Cyrus 1809 - 1884 {short description of image}

He was born in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and moved to Chicago where he became a business man and inventor. He established his factory to produce reapers in Chicago in 1847.

   
  McCulloch v. Maryland 1819 {short description of image}

This was a very significant ruling by the Supreme Court in a case in which Maryland sought to tax and out of state enterprise, the Second Bankof the United States. The ruling had two important results - the Court envoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution to rule that the Federan Congress had implied powers. And it ruled that states could not interfer.

   
  McDowell, Irvin 1818 - 1885 {short description of image}

He was born in Ohio and graduated the United States Military Academy in 1838. He was commissioned 2nd Lt. of Artillery. He served in the Mexican War. He was promoted brigadier general in the regular army in 1861 and given command of the Army in Northeastern Virginia. He protested that his troops were untrained and not reacy but was pushed by Congress into the Battle of First Bull Run where his complex tactics failed. He was also blamed for tactical problems as a corps commander at Second Bull Run. After that he was sent to command the military district in California.

   
  McDuffie, George 1790 - 1851 {short description of image}

He was born in Georgia but moved to South Carolina where he had a lengthy political career. He was admitted to the bar in 1814 and then a representative in the state legislature by 1818. In the U.S. Congress in 1824 he followed Andrew Jackson and Martin vn Buren. However, by 1832 he favored nulification nd opposed Jackson on the national bank question. On nulification he supported Calhoun.

He was twice a Congressman , then state governor and then Senator from South Carolina.

 
  McHenry, James 1753 - 1816 {short description of image}

He was born in Ireland. In1771 his family sent him to America and then followed the next year. He studied medicin and became a surgeon in which capacity he served in the Revolutionary War. He was captured, then paroled and then served on Washington's and Lafayette's staffs. After the war he was a delegate from Maryland to the Constitutional Congress where he was one of three doctors to sign the Constitution. He was the third Secretary of War for Washington and Adams, from 1794 to 1800. He reorganized the Army and negociated with the British about the frontier forts.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from Maryland. He is listed with the signers of the Constitution. {short description of image}
Ft. McHenry in Baltimore is named for him.

 
  McKean, Thomas 1734 -1817 {short description of image}

He was born in Pennsylvania. His father was a traven keeper from Ireland. In 1755 he was admitted to the bar in the "Lower Counties' as Delaware was then called. He served in he Stamp Act Congress. He was sent to the First and the Second Continental Congresses and was President of the Second. And he was also a colonel commanding a battalion of militia with Washington in New York. He srongly pushed in Delaware for independence against local opposition. In he Second Congress he signed the Articles of Confederation. In 1776 he single handedly drafted the new Constitution for the State of Delaware. In 1777 he became Chief Justice of Pennsylvania in which position he established significan precedent for the role of the judiciary. In 1799 he was elected Governor of Pennsylvania.

He signed both the Articles of Confederation and the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Delaware. He is listed with the signers. {short description of image}

 
  Martin v. Hunter's Lessee 1816 {short description of image}

This was a significant early Supreme Court decision that established U.S. Supreme Court power over state courts in matters of Federal Law. The case at issue was between the State of Virginia and a private land owner claiming ownership from pre-revolutionary war British law. But the issue being resolved was the power of the US Supreme court over the Virginia court which had ruled against the landowner.

   
  Massosoit   {short description of image}

He was the 'chief' of the Indian tribes around Plymoth colony who was friendly to the English colonists.

   
  Mather, Cotton 1663 - 1728 {short description of image}

He was born and remained in Boston. He was the most prolific writer in the American colonies with over 450 books and pamphlets. He was very well educated in many fields. He was a minister in his father's church. He was involved in the Salem Witch trials.

His father was Increase Mather.

 
  Mather, Increase   {short description of image}

He was the father of Cotton Mather. He had two degrees from Harvard and was a member of the British Royal Society of London. But he believed in witches. But also recommended inoculation for smallpox.

   
  Mayflower Compact 11 November, 1620 {short description of image}

The compact was written and signed by the male passengers on the ship Mayflower while in harbor but before landing at Plymouth to establish the legal basis for the colony's government.

   
  Mayhew, Johathan 1720 - 1776 {short description of image}

He was born in Martha'w Vinyard and became a noted Congregational Minister in Boston. He is famous for having stated the phrase "no taxation without representation." He vigorously opposed the Stamp Act and delivered many sermons opposing British authority. On the day after one of them a mob attacked governor Hutchinson's mansion.

   
  Meade, George G. 1815 - 1872 {short description of image}

He was born in Spain where his father was serving as a naval agent. He graduated the U.S. Military Academy in 1835 and served in both the Seminole and Mexican Wars. After that war he mainly was the engineer desiging and constructing light houses and then after 1857 the Great Lakes Survey. In 1861 he was appointed a brigadier general to command a brigade. He fought in the Penninnsula Campaign where he was shot 3 times. He recovered and commanded again at the Battle of second Manassas where his brigade held the rear guard defense. He as promoted to division command and then at Antietam to command I Corps when General Hooker was wounded. He again commanded with distinction at Chancelorsville. On the eve of Gettysburg President Lincoln appointed his the Army Commander. When Grant was brought east to be Commander of the entire Union army, Meade continued to be the field commander of the army in Virginia.

   
  Melville, Herman 1819 - 1891 {short description of image}

He was born in New York City and went to sea on merchant ship and then whaler. Upon retun to the U.S. he began writing novels, at first based on his personal experience as sea, but then many more on various topics. but his most famous novel, known to every school student now is Moby_Dick.

   
  Mennnonites 1683 {short description of image}

The first German and Dutch Mennonites came to the Pennsylvania in 1683.

   
  Mercantilism   {short description of image}

An economic system in which the economy is regulated, directed and controlled for nationalist ends. It comprehends, too, the idea that a nation's wealth consists of its holdings of precious metals.

   
  Merrimac   {short description of image}      
  Metecomet 1638 - 1676 {short description of image}

He was the second son of Chief Massosoit, who had maintained friendlyh relations with the Massasachustes colonists. But he began the most destructive war in New England with resulted in total destruction of his Indians and his own death.

   
  Methodists   {short description of image}

Methodism is a branch of Protestanism developed by John and Charles Wesley and George Whitefield. It spread throughout the British Empire and was in particular imported into the colony of Georgia by General James Oglethorpe

   
  Mexican War 1846 - 1848 {short description of image}

The war was an essential part of the U.S. program to extend to the Pacific. It was championed by President Polk but was denounced by most Whig politicians. The excuse for the war was found in the conflict between Mexico and the newly independent Republic of Texas

   
  Middleton, Arthur 1742 - 1787 {short description of image}

He was born in South Carolina and educated at Cambridge. He succeeded his father as a delegate to the Continental Congress. During the Revolution he served in the defense of Charleston where he was captured and put in prison in Florida. He died at age 44. His eldest son became governor of South Carolina.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from South Carolina

 
  Mifflin, Thomas 1744 - 1800 {short description of image}

He was born in Philidelphia and became a merchant after graduating the College of Philadelphia. He was a member ofthe Continental Congress and then joined the Continental Army as Quartermaster General and aide to General Washingtion. He fought at Trenton and Princeton. He returned to the Continental Congress in 1783 and signed the Constitution. He was the first governor of Pennsylvania under the new Constitution.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as delegate from Pennsylvania. He is listed as a Founding Fatherof the United States.
He was expelled from the Quakers due to his service in war. Fort Mifflin in Penn. is named for him as well as is the main building at the Quartermaster School at Ft. Lee. He appears in the famous Trumbull painting of the Death of General Mercer at the Battle of Princeton.

 
  Minuit, Peter 1580 - 1638 {short description of image}

He was the Dutch governor of New Netheland who purchased Manhattan island from the local Indians on 24 May 1626 for 60 Dutch Guilders worth of goods. After he was recalled by the Dutch authorities, Minuit organized a Swedish effort to establish a colony along the Delaware River.

He was governor of New Sweden in 1638 from his arrival in March and then departed in June to recruit a second set of settlers. But he died during a hurricane in the Caribbean in August.

   
  Mint Act 1792 {short description of image}

Among the first Acts of the new Congress was this act to establish a mint in Philidelphia and to specify that gold and silver would be the basis for American currency with a $10 dollar gold coin and a $1 dollar silver coin.

But actual commerce, exchange of assets, was accomplished by the use of paper money issued by banks. The Constitution forbids states from issuing money, but does not forbid banks to do so.

 
  Missouri Compromise 8 May, 1820 {short description of image}

This Act of Congress was designed as a compromise in the growing political conflict between the Southern, slave-owning states and the Northern politicians who were opposing slavery and especially its extension. It enabled the admitance of Maine as a 'free state' and Missouri as a 'slave state'. This was to keep the balance of senators. It was later repealled by the Kansas_Nebraska Act and declared unconstitutional by the Dread Scott decision.

   
  Mohawk Indians   {short description of image}      
  Molassas Act   {short description of image}      
  Monckton, Robert, Brig. Gen. 1726 -1782 {short description of image}

He entered military service at age 15 in 1741 in the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards. He fought in Flanders in the War of the Austrian Succession and rose to be Lt.Col in 1752. He moved to command in Nova Scotia and then to staff in Halifax. In 1755 he captured Fort Beausejour in Nova Scotia area. He was then assigned to supervise the relocation of the Acadians and then he was named Lt. Governor of Nova Scotia. In 1759 he was one of the three brigade commanders and 2nd in Command to the Army commanded by James Wolfe that captured Quebec. Although severly wounded in the battle, he remained for a month as commander of the city, then was sent to New York for recovery. He was promoted major general in 1761 and in charge of organizing the British frontier taking over the French forts. In 1762 he commanded the British campaign that captured Martinique. This was a tremendous, if little understood on our text books, strategic victory. The French were eager at the peace conference to give away all of Canada in exchange for return of Martinique (their rich sugar industry). He was appointed Governor of New York 1762 - 1763

He was wounded at Quebec and is shown in the famous painting of the Death of Wolfe, holding his hand over his wounded heart. Another painting by West is of Monckton at Martinique.
His younger brother was killed leading the grenadiers at the Battle of Monmouth.

 
  Monro, George   {short description of image}      
  Monroe, James 1758 - 1831 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and held many elected and appointed offices in that state and the national govenment. He studied law under Thomas Jefferson and was elected delegate to the Continental Congress. He was a Lt. in the 3rd Virginia Regiment and was severely wounded at the Battle of Trenton. He wintered at Valley Forge and fought at Monmouth. He then returned to Virginia and worked with governor Thomas Jefferson. He continued to support Jefferson in the political battles with the Federalist Party and Alexander Hamilton. In 1794 President Washington appointed him Ambassador to France. He was elected Governor of Virginia in 1799. In 1800 he called out the state militia to supress Gabriel's Rebellion. That year he also considered calling out the militia to support Jefferson's election as U.S. President. Jefferson then sent him to France to negociate purchase of Lousiana ressulting in the much larger acquisition of the whole Territory. In1803-1807 he was Ambassador to Great Britain. During the War of 1812 he served as both Secretary of State and of War. He then won the election for President in 1816. His administration began the Era of Good Feelings. But it also began the increased political battle over slavery. Despite the passage of the Missouri Compromise. He also faced the Panic of 1819.

He was the fifth President and last of those considered Founding Fathersof the United States. He is shown, wounded, in Trumbull's painting of the Capture of the Hessians at Trenton.. He obtained Florida from Spain. He issued the Monroe Doctrine. And there were many other successes in foreign relations.
His family home is listed in the Register of Historic Places. He also once owned the land now occupied by the Univ. of Virginia.The lengthy wikipedia article describes much more about this very active political leader. And it includes information about his extensive plantations and large slave holdings.

 
  Monroe Doctrine 1823 {short description of image}

This is the popular name for the American government policy stated by President Monroe that the U.S. would oppose any further interventions or attempts to colonize in the Western Hemisphere.

   
  Montcalm, General Louis-Joseph de 1712 - 1759 {short description of image}

He was a professional French soldier who saw service in many battles. He was appointed Commander of the French army in Canada during the Seven Year's War (French and Indian War) while the colony governor was Pierre de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagniac. They had continual conflicts over strategy. Montcalm was killed during his defense of Quebec in July 1759. Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

Montcalm inherited from his father the title, Marquis de Saint_Veran. He enered the French army as ensign in 1721. He fought in the War of the Polish Succession and - The War of the Austrian Succession.Arriving in Canada he immediately toured the fortifications along the frontier. With Vandreuil that an attack from Fort Frontinacacross Lake Ontario to take the British fort at Oswegowould be worthwhile. He crossed the lake on 9 August with an overwhelming force and bombarded the fort. The British soon surrendered. As they were leaving Montcalm's Indian allies attacked and killed some British while sacking the fort. Montcalm's next victory was his successful siege of British Fort William Henry on 3 August 1757 with 6200 regulars and militia and 1800 Indian allies. In July 1758 he successfully defended Fort Carillon with 3600 troops against the British 6000 regulars and 9000 militia.

 
  Montesquieu 1689 - 1755 {short description of image}

He was a French political philosopher and author whose writing influenced the authors of the U.S. Constitution.

   
  Montgomerie, John d. 1731 {short description of image}

He was an army colonel who became governor of New York and New Jersey (1728 - 1731). He also died in office.

   
  Montgomery, Richard 1738 - 1775 {short description of image}

He was born in Ireland and joined the British Army to fight in the French and Indian War. He was stationed at Fort Detroit during Pontiac's War. After going to England and returning, in 1775 he was commissioned general in the Continental Army and led the expedition toward Canada. On December 31 he was killed during the attack on Quebec.

   
  Moody, Paul 1779 - 1831 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts. He is credited with inventing the first textile power loom in the U.S He worked with Francis Cabot Lowell.

   
  Moore, Sir Henry   {short description of image}

He was born in Jamacia to a wealthy plantation family. By 1756 he rose to become the governor, for which service he was made Baronet. In 1764 he was appointed Governor of New York and arrived in 1765. He was governor 1765 - 1769. When he arrived the city was in near rebellion over the Stamp Act. He agreed to not enforce it and in general was so well liked by the citizens that they gave him floral tributes. But he then did order General Gage to suppress rural uprisings by the tenants of the patroon land owners who also controled the legislature. He suddenly died in office and was succeeded by Colden. His 13 year old son succeeded as 2nd Baron but died at age 23.

   
  Moravians   {short description of image}

One of the oldest Protestant religious sects. The name comes from Moravian people who fled from Moravia in 1722. But they claim their religious belief back to 1457. In the mid 18th century they sent out missionaries to many places, especially to convert non-believers to Christianity. They first established a mission in New York with the Iroquois and then in Pennsylvania with the Lenape and then further.

   
  Morgan, Daniel 1736 -1802 {short description of image}

He was born in New Jersey, but became an explorer, soldier and politician from Virginia. He was a cousin of Daniel Boone. He was a teamster for General Braddock's campaign. He served then in Lord Dunsmore's War. At the Revolutionary War Virginia's House of Burgesses appointed him to form and command a company of militia, which he did, marching them to the Siege of Boston. His men were riflemen marksmen. He participated in other campaigns and battles. He was promoted colonel and formed and commanded the 11th Virginia Regiment and then a corps of riflemen. He participated prominently in the Battles of Saratoga. After other services, he went to the Southern army commanded by Nathanael Greene who detached him to harrass the British. He then won the important Battle of Cowpens. In 1794 he was recalled to service as a major general and led troops to suppress the Whiskey Rebellion.

He is clearly depicted in the famous painting of the British surrender at Saratoga. His homes are in the National Register of Historic Places and many places have been named for him.

 
  Morgan. E. S.   {short description of image}      
  Morgan, Cadwalader 1696 {short description of image}

He was a radical Quaker abolitionist in Philadelphia.

   
  Mormons 1820's - today {short description of image}

A name for the religious followers of Joseph Smith and then BrighamYoung from New York to Utah.

   
  Morrill Act 1862 {short description of image}

The act, passed by Congress during the Civil War, created the Land-grant colleges. There had been political pressure for 20 years to create agricultural colleges. The Act provided that each state would receive 30,000 acres of federal land for each member of Congress it had from the census of 1860. After the war the southern states were added.

The Wikipedia entry has a map showing a surprising number of these colleges, especially in some states.

 
  Morris, Gouverneur I 1752-1816 {short description of image}

He was born into a wealthy land owning family. His father was Lewis Morris Jr. (II) (1698 - 1762). He graduated from Kings College (Columbia) and then studied law. He was appointed to the Continental Congress from New York in 1778. He was a strong advocate for support to the Continental Army in Congress and cast the deciding vote on retention of George Washington as commander. In 1779 he moved to Philidelphia. There he was a delegate to the ConstitutionalConvention. He gave more speachs at convention than any other delegate, He thewas responsible for most of the draft and final form of the Constitution. He opposed the admitance of the western territoriesi nto the union as equal states. He spoke often against slavery. He was Minister to France 1792 - 1794. He was elected U.S. Senator in 1800

He signed the Articles of Confederationand the U.S. Constitution to which he wrote the Preamble as delegate from Pennsylvania. He is considered a Founding Father of the United States. He is listed in the Army Center of military History{short description of image}

 
  Morris, Lewis 1726-1798 {short description of image}

His great grand father emmigrated from Barbados and bought the land that beame the family estate. His grand father, Lewis Morris 1671 -1746 expanded both family and land holdings. He was the 8th Colonial governor of New Jersey. His father waw Lewis Morris II (1698 - 1762) . He was half-brother to Gouverneur. As a prominent land owner Lewis was appointed judge and then elected to the colonial assembly. With the Revolution he was sent to the Continental Congress. He had 10 children, 5 sons served in the military during the war. And he had many distinguished descendents..

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from New York. He is listed as a signer of the Declaration. {short description of image}. His estate was burned and looted by the British.

 
  Morris, Robert 1734 - 1806 {short description of image}

He is considered as one of the four 'Founding Fathers' of the United States. He was a financer and the financer of the Revolution. He signed the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation and the U.S. Constitution. In 1781 -84 he was Superintendent of Finance of the United States - the predecessor of the Secretary of Treasury, which made him the second most powerful man in the country. Washington offered him the Treasury position, but Morris recommended Alexander Hamilton instead. But Morris continued to support Hamilton's plans for financing the United States. Much of his wealth was due to speculation on western lands. He was also Agent of Marine, which meant he controlled the Continental Navy.

It is ironic that this very wealthy supporter of the U.S. independence and then new government lost his fortune in the financial crash of the Panic of 1796-97 and was declared bankrupt, resulting to him being sentenced to 'debtor's prison'. Later, he was released by Act of Congress.

 
  Morris, Thomas 1771 -1849 {short description of image}

He was a New York politician and son of Robert Morris.

   
  Morse, Samuel 1791 - 1872 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts. He was a very famous and much sought after painter already, but after his wife's sudden death in 1825 he set about to develop a long distance communication system that resulted in the telegraph. Now he is famous for inventing the signal code of dots and dashes for use with the telegraph that is called the Morse Code..

The Wikipedia entry displayes some of his famous paintings.

 
  Morton, John 1725 - 1777 {short description of image}

His grand-father and father were Finnish who emigrated to the Swedish colony of New Sweden in 1654. He was a farmer and surveyor. He was elected to the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly in 1756. He was a delegate to the Stamp act Congress. He was a justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court in 1774. Then he was elected to the First Continental Congress that year , and to the Second Continental Congress in 1775. On July 2 he signed the Declaration, allowing Pennsylvania to vote for it. He was chairman of the committee that wrote the Articles of Confederation. He then died in 1777.

He signed the ContinentalAssociation and the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Pennsylvania. He is considered a Founding Father of the United States. He is listed as a signer of the Declaration.{short description of image}

 
  Morton, Marcus 1784 -1864 {short description of image}

He was a politician born in Massachusetts and served two terms as state governor and was on the State Supreme Judicial Court..

   
  Murray, John, 4th Earl of Dunmore 1730 - 1809 {short description of image}

He was born in Scotland, son of the 3rd Earl - thus a Scotish peer. His father supported the Stuarts in the '45 but his uncle (the 2nd Earl) supported the Hanoverians. In 1756 he became the 4th Earl. He was appointed Governor of New York in 1770 - 1771. But in 1771 on the death of the Royal Governor of Virginia - Norborne Berkeley, 4th Baron Botentourt - he was sent there. (See governors of Virginia for more biography.) As governor he promoted expansion to the west that led to Dunmore's War. After the burning oif Norfolk in 1776 he fled to New York and then England. He was the last Royal governor of Virginia. Later he was appointed governor of the Bahama Islands.

   
  Murry, James, Brig.Gen. 1721 - 1794 {short description of image}

He was born in Scotland and began his military service in 1736 in the 3rd Scotish Regiment. His lengthy service included the War of the Austrian Succession. He served as 2nd in command to James Wolfe at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham (Quebec) and with Wolfe dead he became the British governor of Quebec. Later he was Lt. govenor and Governor of Minorca.

One ofhis sons, James Patrick Murry, was a general in the British army.

 
   Murray, Lucas    {short description of image}      
  Muskhogean Indians   {short description of image}

This is the name of the Creek Indians from the broader name of the language group. They were descendents of the mound culture peoples and were first encountered by Europeans of De Soto's exploration in the 1540's. They were split into various tribes, some of whom participated in the Yamassee War. During the American Revolution some fought for the British and some for the Americans. In the 1830's they were forced to move west to Indian Territory along with the Cherokee and others.

   
  Nanfan, John 1688 - 1702 {short description of image}

He was the acting Governor of New York on the death of Richard Coote. He was succeded by Edward Hyde.

   
  National Bank Act 1863 -64 {short description of image}

The Congress passed these Acts during the Civil War to aid in its financing. They wanted to develop a national currency on the basis of banks holding Treasury securities as reserves. The Act created the federal office of the Comptroller of the Currency. It created Nationally chartered banks and via taxation drove many state banks out of business.

Suprisingly the United States did not have a national currency before the Civil War, execept for a brief time before President Jefferson closed the Federal mint.

 
  National Road 1806 {short description of image}

A road from Cumberland, Maryland to Illinois was begun that year. In 1808 Secretary ofthe Treasury Albertallatin presented a plan to provide feneral financing among other major transportation routes. Presidents Madison and Monroe favored expansion of such transportation facilities, but believed the Constitution prohibited Federal Government financing, so vetoed the idea. They wanted to see private funding and ownership. Then Jackson also vetoed a proposed Maysville Road in 1830. Nevertheless federal funds were spent on building canals.

The private companies die build roads - turnpikes - and charged tolls. But these were soon abandoned when canals and then railroads took the traffic.

 
  Nationalism   {short description of image}

Devotion to the interest and well being as well as attachment to a nation. In the 19th century, a growing nationalism led more and more peoples to want to have their own independent nation. Viewed from that perspecive, the Southern nationalism that gave rise to the Confederacy was the reflex of a widespread spirit of the period.

In Europe nationalism resulted in the unification of Italy and Germany by the 1880's and then resulted in the split of the Austro- Hungarian Empire into a multitude of small states during World War One.

 
  Natural Law   {short description of image}

This refers to the laws of nature, whether they be laws governing the behavior of physical objects, laws of development, laws flowing from human nature and man's situation on earth, or those that are congenial to constructive accomplishments among men. The philosophy claims that certain rights are inherent in human nature, not granted by governments.

The Wikipedia enry descries the evolution of the philosophy naming many important contributors from Aristotle on.

 
  Navajo Indians {short description of image}

They moved to the southwest of the future U.S. from Alaska and Canada around 1400 AD. They lived with the Spanisn - Mexicans from the 1600's. They came in contact with the U,S. Army in 1846 when General Philip Kearny led his army units through New Mexico and on to California. In 1861 Colonel Kit Carson was at Fort Wingate to help stop raids by the Navajo and Apache. Eventually the Navajo obtained a large reservation area in New Mexico and Arizona.

   
  Navigation Acts 1651 - 1849 {short description of image}

These laws enacted by Parliament were to restrict colonial trade to being with England. The purpose was to benefit British merchants and manufacturers. They were in accord with the theory of mercantilism. The 1651 Act was renewed and expanded frequently.

The Molassas Act of 1733 and the Sugar Act of 1764 were two in this series that became particularly opposed by the American merchants.

 
  Nelson, Thomas Jr. 1736 - 1789 {short description of image}

He was born in Yorktown to a prominent family, His father and grandfatuer were both prominent. He was educated in England and returned home in 1761 and was immediately elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses. His wife, Lucy Grymes, was also a member of the Virginia aristocracy. They had 11 children. He was appointed to the Continental Congress in 1766. He was one of the drafters of the Articles of Confederation During the war he succeeded Thomas Jefferson as governor of Virginia and was also brigader general in command of the Virginia militia defending the state against Corwallis. He participated in the Siege of Yorktown, commanding the Virginia militia there, where he is said to have told General Washington to fire artillery on his own house.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Virginia. He is considered one of the Founding Fathersof the United States. He is listed as a signer of the Declaration{short description of image}
He loaned millions to Virginia to finance the war, none of which was repaid. He died a very poor man.
His house in Yorktown is a National Historic Landmark. Nelson County in Virginia and in Kentucky are names for him.

 
  Neutrality Act of 1794 1794 {short description of image}

The Act prohibits Americans from supporting foreign governments in war and many other related provisions.

Tbe Act has been amended and is till in force.

 
  Newcastle, Thomas Pelham- Hollis, Duke of 1693 - 1768 {short description of image}

He was also known as Duke of Newcastleand was a Whig politician very active for years in Parliament and twice Prime Minister. He served during the Seven Year's War but died prior to the American Revolution.

   
New England Council   {short description of image}      
  New Hampshire colony   {short description of image}

This entry is for the History of New Hampshire

{short description of image}

Entry for the Province of New Hampshire.

 
  New Jersey colony   {short description of image}

Provinceod New Jersey

{short description of image}Colonial history of New Jersey

 
  New York colony   {short description of image}

New York History of New York State

Colonial history {short description of image} of New York

 
  New York Stock Exchange 1817 {short description of image}

This is the date it was formally organized, but informal trading had been going on already for 20 years. By the 1850's it was linked to other cities by telegraph. Both company stocks and bonds were exchaned and sold.

   
  Nicholas, George 1754 - 1799 {short description of image}

He was several times a member of the Virginia House of Delegates and then the first professor of law in Kentucky.

   
  Nicolls, Richard 1624 - 1672 {short description of image}

He was the British naval officer in command of the fleet (4 frigates) that forced the surrender of New Netherland in the Second Anglo-Dutch War and remained as temporary military governor (1664 - 1668)

   
  Nicholson, Francis 1655 - 1728 {short description of image}

He was military governor of New York 1688 - 1691 but actually only until June 1689.

e
   
  Nonintercourse Act 1809 {short description of image}

This act of Congress replaced the EmbargoAct of 1807 by lifting trade with nations other than France and Great Britain. It was designed to punish both France and Great Britain for their interference with American shipping during the Napoleonic Wars but was ineffective . But it did lead to the War of 1812.

   
  North Carolina colony   {short description of image}  

Colonial history of North Carolina

 
  North, Frederick Lord 1732 - 1792 {short description of image}

He was the 2nd Earl of Guilford. He was a membver of Parliament from 1754 to 1790. He was British Prime Minister during most of the Revolutionary war. He was also Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer. Opinion of historians on his capabilities has varied.

   
  Northwest ordinance 1787 {short description of image}

This was an Act of the Congress of the Confederation to establish government rule and policies with respect to the northwest territories won from Great Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War. These lay beyond the mountains and between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes. It was replaced by the Northwest Ordinance of 1789.

   
  Noyan, Pierre- Jacques Rigen de   {short description of image}      
  Nullification Crisis 1832 - 1837 {short description of image}

The State of South Carolina threatened to nulify the Tariff of 1832 which the citizens considered unfair and discriminatory to them versus the more industrial northern states. President Andrew Jackson threatened military action. The affair was partially settled with passage of a somewhat lower Tariff.

   
  Oglethorpe, James E. 1696 - 1785 {short description of image}

He was a British soldier who joined the Army of Prince Eugene of Savoy in the Turkish war of 1716-18. He returned to become a Member of Parliament where he chaired a committee on prison reform. He conceived the idea of founding a colony specifically as a place for the poor and former convicts. This would be Georgia, located south of the Carolinas as a buffer against Spanish Florida. In1732 his proposal was approved. He led the first expedition in person, in contrast to many other colonial proprietors. He founded Savannah. He also established friendly relations with the Creek Indians. He took a delegation of Creek chiefs to London to meet King George II. He built Fort Frederica. During the War of Jenkin's Ear he had to defend the colony against Spanish invasion from Florida. He originally banned slavery and alcohol in the colony but the demands of the colonists eventually overcame those regulations. During the Jacobite Rising he happened to be in Scotland raising troops for Georgia but led them to assist in the Supression of the Jacobites. He was appointed a general but had no further military activity there.

   
  Olive Branch Petition 1775 {short description of image}

This was written by the Second Continental Congress as an attempt at a compromise with Parliament to prevent open war. It was an effort led by John Dickinson, but the situation had already deteriorated too far.

   
  Ogden, William Butler 1805 - 1877 {short description of image}

In 1821 he quit school to take over his father's business. In 1834 he was elected to the New York legislature. There he began promoting railroads. In 1835 he was sent to Chicago to manage property. There he invested in real estate and advocated more railroads. He was the first mayor of Chicago. and was president or leader in many other enterprises. His Ralenas &Chicago Railroad went from Chicago westward. He pushed for and then was the first president of the Uniion Pacific Railroad.

   
  Oneida Indians   {short description of image}

They were one of the 5 member tribes of the Iroquois confederation. They lived in central New York. In 1768 their territory was formally established in the Treaty of Fort Stanwix and again in anothe treaty in 1784. During the Revolutionary war they tried to remain neutral, but after the other 4 Iroquois tribes sided with the British the Oneidas joined in support of the Revolution and provided assistance around Fort Stanwix and in the Battle of Oriskany.

   
  Onondaga Indians   {short description of image}

They were another of the five Iroquois confederation. They lived south of Lake Ontario. In the Revolutionary war they also were initially neutral but after 1779 they were attacked by American colonists so sided with the British

   
  Ordnance of 1787 1787 {short description of image}

This is another name for the Northwest Ordnance of1787

   
  Oregon Trail 1811 - 1840 and later {short description of image}

This was the route initially laid out by 'montain men' fur trappers and traders from St. Louis across the Rocky Mountains to the valleys in Oregon. It was developed into a 'road' passable to wagons. It reached its high point in travel from 1846 to 1869. The eastern half also was part of the routes to California and the Bozeman Trail.

The Wikpedia entry has a map showing the route.

 
  Osage Indians   {short description of image}

They lived near the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. When the French arrived the Osage were the most powerful Indian tribe in that region. They were described as the tallest people with many being well over 6 feet tall. Along with the others, they were forced to move to Oklahoma - Indian Territory.

   
  Osborne, Sir Danvers 1715 -1753 {short description of image}

He was the 3rd Baronet Osborn, succeding his grandfather. His parents on both sides were of distinished families, as was his wife. He raised and commanded troops in 1745 in support of King George II against the Stuarts. In 1753 the Board of Trade recommended him to be Governor of New York. He arrived in New York as was popular as Governor in 1753 but suddenly died of strangulation that was presumed to be suicide.

   
  Ostend Manifesto 1854 {short description of image}

This document was the brainchild of Southern slave owners during the administration of President Franklin Pierce to justify the occupation and incorporation of Cuba as a slave state if the North received any 'free' states out of the western territories. The American ministers met secretly in Ostend, Belgium. When the contents were leaked and published the outrage caused great damage to the Pierce and Southern political position.

   
  Otis, James Jr. 1725- 1783 {short description of image}

He was born in West Barnstable, Massachusetts. He graduated from Harvard and became a lawyer like his father. He was a leader defending American liberties from British intrusions, opposed to the issuing of writs of assistance, wrote several pamphlets defending the colonial position, was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress and fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill. His phrase "Taxation without Representation is Tyranny" is a very famous expression.

   
  Otis, James Sr. 1702 - 1778 {short description of image}

He also was born in West Barnstable, Massachusetts. He was the leading lawyer of the colony bar. He was a colonel in the militia. His sons and grand sons became famous patriots as well. With his son, he opposed the British 'writs of assistance'.

   
  Owl Woman d. 1847 {short description of image}

She was a Cheyenne princess, daughter of White Thunder. Her Cheyenne name was Mis-stan-sur. She married William Bent in 1835 or 37, and they had 4 children. These were Mary (1838) - Robert (1840-41) George (1843) and Julia 1847). She had two younger sisters. Yellow Woman and Island, who according to Cheyenne custom would live with them. After Owl Woman died then Bent would marry Yellow Woman.

She was included in the Colorado Woman's Hall of Fame. The Wikipedia article has a much longer background description of Bent's Fort and William Bent's activities than of Owl Woman.

 
  Paca, William 1740 -1799 {short description of image}

He was born in Maryland, second son of a weallthy planter. He was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1764. He was appointed to the Continental Congress in 1774. He served in several judicial positions issuing important opinions. He was appointed U.S. Senator in 1790.

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Maryland.
He is listed among the Declaration signers. {short description of image}
His Annapolis home is listed in the Register of Historic Places and is a National Historic Landmark

 
  Pacific Railway Acts 1862 - on {short description of image}

These were a series of Congressional Acts authorizing exploration and preparation for building a transcontinetal railroad from the Missouri River to the Pacific. They authorized a subsidy to the railroad company of acres of land on either side of such railroad. The 1862 Act was signed by President Lincoln. Of course since the legislation was passed during the Civil War it excluded the Southern states interest in selecting a location.

   
  Paine, Robert Trent 1731 1814 {short description of image}

He was born in Boston to a family that dated back to the Mayflower. He graduated from Harvard at age 18 in 1749. He first became a merchant and traveled extensively overseas. But then became a lawyer, admitted to the bar in 1757. He was prosecutor, opposted to John Adams, in the trial of the British soldiers after the BostonMassacre. He was a delegate to the ContinentalCongress in 1774. For the remanider of his life he served in various judicial positions..

He signed the Declaration of Independence as delegate from Massachusetts. He is listed among the Declaration signers. {short description of image}

 
  Paine, Thomas 1737 -1809 {short description of image}

He was born in England and sailed to America in 1774 with the help of Benjamin Franklin. He was an influential political philosopher whose support for the Revolution was desired. And he wrote two very significant documents to that effect. - Common Sense - And The American Crisis. In the 1790's he lived in France where he supported the French Revolution, writing The Rights of Man. In spite of that in 1793 he was arrested and put in prison until freed at the request of James Madison. He returned to the United States in 1802.

The Wikipedia entry has full discussion and links to Paine's most importnt written works. There are many memorials and honors to him.

 
  Pakenham, Sir Edward 1778 - 1815 {short description of image}

He was born in Ireland and served in the British army with his brother-in-law, the Duke of Wellington throughout the Penninsula war rising to the rank of general. He fought also in many other places and was wounded several times. He was the commander of British forces in America in 1814 and was killed in the Battle of New Orleans.

   
  Panic of 1796-97 1796-97 {short description of image}      
  Panic of 1819 1819 {short description of image}      
  Panic of 1826 1826 {short description of image}      
  Panic of 1837 1837 {short description of image}      
  Panic of 1849 1849 {short description of image}      
  Panic of 1857   {short description of image}      
  Papeoja, Johna d. 1667 {short description of image}

He was the 5th governor of New Sweden and was Printz's son-in-law and remained in charge in 1653-54 when Governor Printz returned to Sweden.

   
  Parker, Theodore 1810 - 1860 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts and became a trancendalist preacher. He was a strong abolitionist who supported John Brown.

   
  Parkman, Francis 1823 - 1893 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts and entered Harvard at age 16. He made his life's work the study and writing about American History. Among his most famous works are 'The Oregon Trail' and his 7 volume France and England in North America.

He has received many honors. His home in Boston is a National Historic Landmark.

 
  "Parson's Cause" 1758 {short description of image}

This was part of the controversy in colonial Virginia prior to the Revolution about public payment to Anglican parsons. According to Virginia legislation of 1748 Anglican clergy were to be paid 16,000 pounds of tobacco a year. In 1758 the price of tobacco trippled from 2 to 6 pennies a pound thus trippling the clergy salary. The Virginia legislature then change the payment back from tobacco to 2 pennies. King George vetoed the law. The case went to court in 1763. Patrick Henry argued in favor of the government against the clergy (Maury) - the court ruled in Maury's favor but the jury set the amount owed at one penny.

The issues shown in this case provide historical evidence on the use of tobacco as currency in the colonies and also what happens with something being used as currency changes in value versus other monies.

 
  Patent   {short description of image}

An exclusive right or privilege (monopoly) over the use or disposal of something. patents wee usually issued by the king at the time of the settlement of America, and they might be for anything ranging from the right to sell in some market to control or ownership of land. Charters, deeds, copyrights and patents for inventions are descendents of such patents.

   
  Paterson. William 1745 - 1806 {short description of image}

He was born in Ireland, moved to the colonies when young, graduated from the College of New Jersey, studied law under Richard Stockton and was admitted to the bar in 1768. In 1776 he helped write the new Constitution of New Jersey. He was elected to the Constitutional Convention where he proposed the New Jersey plan for a unicameral legislature. He was a U.S. Senator 1789 - 90 (when he helped write the Judiciary Act of 1789), and resigned to become governor of New Jersey. In 1793 President Washington appointed him to be Associate Justice on the Supreme Court.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from New Jersey. The Army Center for military history has an excellent biography. {short description of image}

Patterson, New Jersey is named for him.

 
  Parton, James 1822 - 1891 {short description of image}

He was born in England and brought to America at age 5. He became a well known biographer of many important Americans including such as Horace Greelley, Andrew Jackson, Aaron Burr, Benjamin Franklin, and Thomas Jefferson

   
   Pawnee Indians    {short description of image}

They were one of the most powerful of the plains Indian tribes. They were regular enemies of the Lakota, Chyenne and Arapho. They were also sometimes at war with the Comanchee and Kiowa who lived to their south. Thus many Pawnee became scouts for the U.S. Cavalry. Today they live in a designated area of Oklahoma.

   
  'Pas d'en haut' 1600's - 1700's {short description of image}

This is the French designation for the area around the Upper Great Lakes Region during their control of Quebec and Montreal. It was the land of numerous Indian tribes allied to the French and from whom the French received many beaver pelts.

   
  Peace of Paris - 1763 1763 {short description of image}

This treaty ended the Seven Year's War - the French and Indian War in America with British victory.

   
  Treaty of Paris - 1783 1783 {short description of image}

This Treaty ended the Amerian Revolutionary War.

   
  Peach Tree War   {short description of image}      
  Pemberton, Israel   {short description of image}      
  Pemberton, J. C. 1814 - 1881 {short description of image}

He was born in Pennsylvania and graduated U.S. Military academy in 1837 with commission at Lt. of Artillery. He served in the Second Seminole War and in many battles of the Mexican War. After that war he served at many posts in Southern states and on the western frontier. In 1861 he resigned his commission and offered to serve the Confederacy. After having several assignments are becoming a Lt. General, he was assigned to defend Vicksburg on the Mississippi River. He did his best there but was overwhelmed in the siege by General U.S. Grant and forced to surrender - that was a huge loss to the Confederacy.

   
  Pendleton, Edmund 1721 - 1803 {short description of image}

He was a Virginia colonial planter, lawyer, judge and politician. He was a delegate to the First Continental Congress. He helped revise the Virginia Legal Code and served for many years as First Chief Justice of the State Supreme Court.

   
  Penn, John 1741 - 1788 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia, was home schooled and studied law. He became a lawyer in 1762. He moved to North Carolina in 1774. He was elected by North Carolina to the ContinentalCongress in 1775.

He signed the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederationas delegate from North Carolina. He is listed with the signers of the Declaration. {short description of image}

 
  Penn, Wiliam 1644 - 1718 {short description of image}

He was an English Quaker. In 1681 King Charles II gave a huge tract of land comprising the now states of Pennsylvania and Delaware to William Penn to pay a debt owed to his father who was an officer in the English navy who had helped bring Charles II back from exile to his throne. This huge domain made Penn the largest private land owner in the world. He had all poltical, civil rights to rule in addition to his ownership of the land itself. His objective then was to create a place in which Quakers could live without penalty. Some of the southern part was taken from Lord Baltimore's Maryland (which resulted in a 80 year long legal battle over ownership) and the rest was given from the Duke of York who retained New York and other small areas. Penn immediately sailed to America (in contrast to many other proprietors who remained in England) to settle his new domain. He landed where New Castle is now. He is noted for many favorable policies and actions, among them he bought the land the King had given him from the local Lenape Indians and signed favorable treaties. He founded and laid out his capital at Philidelphia. His colony offered religious freedom to all and was strongly Quaker, but with Penn's active advertisments also brought many colonists being of a variety of persecuted religious beliefs from throughout Europe.. But the Dutch, Swedish and English colonists who had been there, especially in the lower counties - Delaware, did not like being governed by Quakers or from Philidelphia so by 1704 had petitioned and managed to have their own local assembly.

The Wikipedia entry contains detailes of William Penn's life prior to America including his time in Holland and Germany and his conversion to Quakerism.
The strict pacifist belief of the Quakers did cause problems when it came to defending the colonists from Indian raids.

Penn had to return to England to fight the financial problems his agents had created and was put in debtor's prison. When released he was destitute and died that way. So from being the owner of the greatest private estate in the world he died with nothing. But his colony was booming.

He had many descendents and received many civic honors.

 
  Pennsylvania colony   {short description of image}

Province of Pennsylvania

   
  Perfectionism   {short description of image}

The belief that perfecion is attainable here on earth. It undergirds utopianism - the vision of a perfect society - and gives thrust to reforms and revolutions for making over society. Reforms are pushed by comparing current conditions with some perfect model, not with what has ever been. It has been a belief of Christian docrine since the very earliest Middle Ages.

Perfectionism is also considered in psychology and in philosophy

 
  Perry, Mathew C. 1794 - 1858 {short description of image}

He joined the U.S. Navy in 1809 and rose through the ranks by service on many ships in various expeditions and wars including the War of 1812, The Second Barbary War and the Mexican War. But he is most known aw Commodore Perry who opened commerce with Japan in 1852 - 1854. He is also known as the 'father of the steam navy" for his promotion of steam and other modern technology for naval use. He also helped develop the U.S. Naval Academy. He wrote and published a 3 volume report on his activties in the Pacific and Far East.

Admiral Perry's flag from his visits to Japan was flown from the U.S. Naval Academy to Japan and flown on the U.S.S. Missouri during the surrender ceremony and then returned to the Academy. Now a replica of that flag is displayed on the Missourt in Pearl Harbor. The flying of the flag at the surrender was specifically ordered by General MacArthur who was a relative of Perry.
He received many honors and ships were named for him.

 
  Perry, Oliver H. 1785 -1818 {short description of image}

He was born in Rhode Island, son of a American Navy captain and brother of Commodore Mathew C. Perry. He served in the Caribbean in the Quasi War with France and the Meditteranian against the Barbary pirates. But he is most famous for the Battle of Lake Erie during the War of 1812. He won immediate fame for his slogan "Don't give up the ship" and his message "We have met the enemy and they are ours". His leadership and skill was critical in the victories in 9 engagements and for the war on the Lakes oveall. Later he was in command of ships during the Second Barbary War.

Hereceived many honors.

 
  Petition of Right 1628 {short description of image}

This has been an important English political document since 1628 as it sets out rights of the citizen against royal authority and prohibits the monarch from abridging them. It was drafted by Sir Edware Coke in a dispute between Parliament and King Charles I over finances from the Thirty Years' War. The King was forced to agree and sign due to his desperate financial needs.

   
  Philip II, King of Spain 1527 - 1598 {short description of image}

He was the Spanish monarch most at war with England - and Holland during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I when the early English colonies in America were being attempted. He launched the Spanish Armada and defended against English privaters in the West Indies.

   
  Pickering, Timothy 1745 - 1829 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts and graduated Harvard. He served at the Siege of Boston. He was a lawyer and served in the army during the Revolution as Adjutant General and Quartermaster General of the Continental Army. He was Postmaster General, Secretary of War and Secretary of State for President Washington. And he continued at State for President Adams. He was a leader in the Federalist Party.

He was a planner of the creation of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point.

 
  Pickett, George E. 1825 -1875 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and graduated last in the West Point class of 1846. He served in the Mexican War. He was stationed in Washington State when the Civil War began so resigned his commission and returned to Virginia to serve. He arrived after the Battle of First Manassass but soon was appointed brigadier general and commanded successfully during the Penninsula Campaign in defense of Richmond in which he was wounded. He commanded a brigade in Longstreet's division and then a division in Longstreet's Corps. His most famous military event was the charge against the Union position at Gettysburg he was ordered to lead with his and two other divisions. It was the newspapers after the battle that enhanced his role in the attack. He was the only Virginia general involved. During the rest of the war Pickett comanded in southern Virginia and then at the defense of Richmond and Siege of Petersburg. He commanded his troops through to the Battle at Appatomax court house and final Confederate surrender.

   
  Pierce, Franklin 1804 -1869 {short description of image}

He was born in New Hampshire - was a northern Democrat who was concerned that the struggle over slavery and the abolition movement was breaking the country. He was a lawyer who served in the US House of Representatives and Senate. He was a brigadier general during the Mexican War. He was nominated for President by the Democrats as a compromise candidate and easily defeated the Whig candidate, Winfield Scott. But his administration was plagued by political crises such as the Ostend Manifesto and the Kansas-Nebraska Act and 'bleeding Kansas". His efforts to be a middle man and seek compromises only made him enemies on both sides. His wife was always seriously ill and their three sons died very young the last one in a terrible train accident as the family was on the way to Pierce's presidency. This had a very depressing impact on both husband and wife. .

He was the 14th President of the United States (1853 - 57).For the election of 1856 he hoped to be reelected but by then the political conflicts had nearly broken the country so James Buchanan was nominated as a compromise candidate for the Democrats.

He continued to work for compromise and to avoid war. Once the Civil War began he still continued to oppose it.

 
  Pietism   {short description of image}

This was a philosophical - theological movement within the Lutheran Church. It spread from Germany throughout the German influenced countries of Northern Europe to the United States.

The wikipedia entry has a detailed history and theological explanation of the movement.

 
  Pike, Zebulon 1779 - 1813 {short description of image}

He was born in New Jersey and became a brigadier general in the American Army. He followed his father, also Zebulon, into military service, on the western frontier then at the Mississippi. He was directed to find the origin of that river so explored north to Canada in 1805. General Wilkinson then ordered him to find the origins of the Arkansas and Red rivers, so in 1806 he led another expedition to the southwest. They sighted what became known as Pike's Peak in Colorado. They ventured into Spanish territory and were arrested. They were escorted back to and released in Lousiana. In 1811 Pike commanded a Regiment at the Battle of Tippecanoe. He was promoted brigadier general in 1813. He was commanding troops in the successful attack on York when the garrison blew up its ammunition and the flying rocks killed Pike. His written memoir of his explorations in the west was published in 1810 and became internationally popular.

He was treated as a hero after his death in battle and many places were named for him including of course Pike's Peak although his attempt to reach the top had failed..

 
  Pilcher, Joshua 1790 - 1834 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and the family later moved to Kentuckey and then St. Louis. He became a fur trader and owned the the Missouri Fur Company. President van Buren appointed him to be Superintendent of Indian Affairs in St. Louis.

   
  Piles, Robert 1698 {short description of image}

He was an early Quaker radical abolitionist in Philadelphia

   
  Pilgrims 1620 - and after {short description of image}

The name given to the Puritans and Separatists who departed England to settle in America as a result of religious persecution by the established Anglican church. The history of their travel is included in the article on Plymouth colony.

   
  Pinckney, Colonel Charles 1732 - 1782 {short description of image}

He was a wealthy South Carolina plantation owner and politician. During the Revolutionary war he first fled Charleston to escape the British occupation but then changed sides and accepted the British. After the war the state legislature fined him for his changing sides.

   
  Pinckney, Charles 1757 - 1824 {short description of image}

His father was wealty Colonel Charles Pinckney, from whom he inherited a large estate. His in-laws were among the most powerful political families in the state. He was elected to the Continental Congress in 1777, after which he began to practice law in 1779. He served in the militia at the Siege of Savannahand was captured and held prisoner at the Siege of Charleston. He was again elected to the Continental Congress in 1783-87. He was again one of the youngest delegates when attending the Constitutional Convention. He spoke often and was very influential in the results. After that he helped insure ratification in South Carolina. He was one who inseerted the fugitive slave clause - Article IV, Sect. 2 [ in the Constitution. His clause in Article VI requires that no religious test be allowed in selecting officials. He changed parties from Federalist to Democrat-Republican. As governor he attacked Jay's . Treaty. He was elected Senator in 1798. Jefferson apointed him Minister to Spain in 1801. He was again elected Governor in 1806, again to the legislature in 1810. In 1818 he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives where he fought against the Missouri Compromise.

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from South Carolina. He was the 37th Governor of South Carolina and the ancestor of 7 future governors. The Army Center for military history has an excellent biography.{short description of image}

His farm is a National Historic Site.

 
  Pinckney, Charles C. 1746 - 1825 {short description of image}

He was a member of a very wealthy and politically prominent family and was born in South Carolina and educated at Oxford. He was a lawyer in the state legislature but joined the army during the Revolution. He raised a regiment and participated in the successful defense of Charleston at the Battle of Sullivan's Island. Then he took the regiment north and fought at Battle of Brandywine and Germantown. Then he brought the regiment south and participated in the Battle of Alligator Bridge. He rose to rank of Brigadier General. He was captured in the British Siege of Charleston and held prisoner. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. There, among other issues he obtained the rule that the Senate must ratify treaties. .

He signed the U.S. Constitution as a delegate from South Carolina. He was Minister to France during the XYZaffair and told the French that Americans would not pay a penny as a bribe.. An excellent biography is at the U.S. Army Militaryhistory site.
He was a Federalist Party candidate for Vice President i n1800 and for President in 1804 and 1808, but failed each election.

Castle Pinckney and several other places are named for him.

 
  Pinckney, Thomas 1750 -1828 {short description of image}

He was a member of the wealthy and politically powerful family. He was educated in England. He was a brother of Charles C. Pinckney. He reteurned to South Carolina in 1775 and became a strong revolutionay supporter. He saw much combat action and was captured at the Battle of Camdenin 1780. After the war he was elected Governor of South Carolina and pushed for ratification of the Constitution. President Washington sent him as Minister to Great Britian and simultaneously Envoy to Spain - he negociated Pinckney's Treaty. He was electted to the House of Representatives. He was comissioned major general during the War of 1812..

He was the Federalist Party selection for Vice President with Adams as President in 1796. But, while Adams won with the most votes, Thomas Jefferson had second most, and under the Constitution then Jefferson became Vice president, with disasterous results. This resulted in the 12th Constitutional Amendment to change the method for selecting President and Vice President.

His home in Charleston is listed in theRegister of Historic Places

 
  Pitt, William, elder. 1708 - 1778 {short description of image}

He was a Whig politician active in several offices including the cabinet in the 1750's. He was PM during the Seven Year's War and was responsible for the shift in national strategy to defeat France. This was to avoid sending British soldiers to the continent, instead paying large sums to finance French opponents, especially Frederick of Prussia. Meanwhile he focused all British attention to naval warfare that supported world-wide war against French colonies and interests from America to India. He was a political reformer, attacking corrption. He favored the American colonists.

Financing government expenses was possible due to the great agreement between the sovereign (then William III) and Parliament with the creation of the Bank of England. This converted the medieval finnance system of the sovereign's debt into the national British state - government debt held by the merchant class. The emrchants were happy to invest in Bank perpetuals that paid good interest while the government paid for the naval protection that insured their overseas profits.

 
  Pitt, William, the younger 1759 - 1806 {short description of image}

He was born in Kent, the second son of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham and his mother, Hester, was the sister of George Grenville. He entered the House of Commons in 1781. At first he joined with the Whigs, but latter switched to the Tories. He became at age 24 the youngest Prime Minister. He was PM of Great Britain 1783 - 1801 and then of The United Kingdom 1801 -1806. He served King George III through difficult times. He was also Chancellor of the Exechequer. His period in office was a constant partisan political struggle. He also had to contend with the massive public debt. In foreign affairs he dealt with India and Canada plus the French Revolution.

   
  Plains of Abraham 13 Sept. 1759 {short description of image}

This is the plateau area just outside the walls of Montreal on which the famos battle of the Plains of Abraham occured when the French commander, Montcalm, chose to bring his troops out of the city to fight off the British commanded by Wolfe. The British won and both commanders were killed in action.

There is a museum and park at this location now.

 
  Plan of Union, Albany 10 July, 1754 {short description of image}

Benjamin Franklin managed to have delegates from the northern and central American colonies to meet at Albany, New York in an effort for form a union that would facilitate defense of all from the French and Indians who were raiding and attacking not only the scattered frontier places but deep into the colonies. Much discussion ensued but no results.

   
  Plymouth Colony 1620 - 1691 {short description of image}

The location had previously been explored, surveyed and named by Captain John Smith. The colony was founded by Puritans and Separatists, who became known as Pilgrims. They were successfull in establishing a treaty with the local Indian chief, Massasoit{short description of image}But from 1675 - 1678 they were engaged in King Philip'sWar. In 1691 the colony was merged with others to form the Province of Massaschusetts Bay. The early leader was William Bradford.

The settlement became the modern town of Plymouth, Massachuttes, but the colony had included most of the southeastern part of the modern state.

 
  Plymouth Company 1606 {short description of image}

This was an English joint stock company founded by King James I to establish colonies along the American coast between those of the Spanish and French. It was given land grants to the coast north of that given to the London company - their grants actually overlapped between Chesapeake Bay and Hudson River.

   
  Pocahontas 1596 - 1617 {short description of image}

She was the daugher of Powhatan, the paramount chief of the group of Indian tribes living around the James River and Chesapeake Bay. She is said to have saved the life of John Smith in 1607. She was captured and held hostage by the colonists in 1613 during the First Anglo-Powhatan War and was converted to Christianity. In 1614 she married John Rolfe and they had a son, Thomas, through whom she has many descendents today. In 1616 they went to London to try to obtain more financial backing and colonists. She died there in 1617.

A large painting "the Baptism of Pocohantas" is in the rotunda of the U.S. Capitol Building.

 
  Polk, James. K. 1795 - 1849 {short description of image}

He was born in North Carolina but the family then moved to Tennessee. He became a colonel in the Tennessee militia. Then he entered politics and was elected to the House of Representatives in 1825 and again in 1827 - first 2 of 5 terms. He supported Presidents Jackson and Van Buren. In 1835 he was elected governor of Tennessee. He lost in campaign for reelection. But in the election of 1844 there were many candidates in both the Democrat and Whig parties. Polk was maneuvering to be Vice President for one of the leaders. But he became the Democrat candidate. In the election he won by 39,000 votes out of 2.6 million and by 170 to Clay's 105 electoral votes.

He was the 11th President of the United States

 
  Polk, Leonidas 1806 - 1864 {short description of image}

He was born in North Carolina and was 2nd cousin to President Polk. He graduated the U.S. Military Academy in 1827 with an outstanding academic record. But he resigned the same year in order to study to become a minister. He moved his family to Tennessee and became a bishop. With the Civil War he wrote to his classmate, Jefferson Davis to offer his services. He was immediately commissioned as a major general to command the district between the Mississippi and Tennessee Rivers under the command of General Albert Sidney Johnston - commander of the Western Theater. Polk commanded in many battles in the Western Theater from Shiloh to the Defense of Atlanta. In June 1864 at the Battle of Marietta he was killed by Union artillery fire.

   
  Pontiac, Ottawa Leader 1720 - 1769 {short description of image}

He was the war chief of the Ottawa tribe living near the Great Lakes. He spent several years in diplomatic preparations that brought a unity of purpose to manyh tribes as far east as Pennsylvania and Virginia. They all staged a organised uprising begining in May 1763 when Pontiac led the attack on Fort Detroit in person. He conducted an unusual lengthy siege but the fort could be resupplied by water. Meanwhile the allied Indians successfully attacked many other forts and raided widely across the area. The only other fort to survive a siege was Fort Pitt and that because of the successful relief by Colonel Bouquet at the Battle of Bushey Run. He made peace in 1766 and was then assassinated by a Peoria Warrior in 1769.

The excdeptionally wide spread Indian campaign was and is known as Pontiac's War even though many other tribal chiefs were leaders. The extent of the war had significant results as it generated much alarm as far as the British Parliament. The results included the decision to station more troops in the colonies and charge the colonists with their payment. And the Quebec Act that prohibited colonist settlement west of the mountains - this to abide by the treaties the British made with the Indians to preserve their hunting grounds.

 
  Pontiac's Rebellion 1763 {short description of image}

This is another name for Pontiac's War - mentioned above.

   
  Pony Express 1860 - 61 {short description of image}

Despite only being in operation for 19 months this became another legend of the wild west. It was origanized as the Leavenworth and Pike's Peak Express Company and then named The Central and Pike's Peak Express company. It was superceeded by the building of the telegraph between the Mississippi and Pacific Coast. It was only a part of the large freight company that employed 6000 men and 75,000 oxen, operated a saw mill, meat packing company and bank and insurance company.

   
  Popular Sovereignty   {short description of image}

The belief in allowing the people within a poliically organized area to make the decisions. Stephen Douglas applied this doctrine to the slavery issue in the territories, and advocated letting the people decide the quesion in each territory.

In a way this was a politician's effort to avoid having to take responsibility. Both the Democrat and Whig parties were very split between their northern and southern members and politicians oder slavery. By sluffing off the responsibility for deciding if the western territories would allow slavery or not they tried to escape the issue but by 1860 the Whigs were gone and the Democrats totally divided.

 
  Post Service Act 1792 {short description of image}

The Act set initial postal rates high in expectation they would provide full financing. That proved a dream so in 1840 the rates were greatly decreased. The number of post offices was 75 in 1790 and about 13,500 in 1840 but the population per office declined from 42,000 to 1,000 during that time.

So nothing really new about financing of the post office. Also, from earl on the mail sending of news papers was subsidized, resulting in their expansion.

 
  Powhatan d. 1618 {short description of image}

The name actually refers to the whole group of Indians in eastern Virginia and southern Maryland encountered by the first English settlers at Jamestown. And it became used also for the paramount chiefton of the confederation. The natives were of Algonquian stock and spoke an Algonquian language common to others much further north. Powhatan had assembled some 30 tribes into his confederation. He mostly was friendly with the English despite their agressive actions. But when he died his brother, Opechancanough, attempted to drive the English out by waging war.

The Wikipedia entry describes more about the entire relationship and situation between the English and the natives than about the individual chief, Powhatan, himself

 
  Pownall, Thomas, Gen. 1722 - 1805 {short description of image}

He was born in England and graduated Cambridge in 1743 with a classical education. In1753 he went to New York as the secretary to the new governor who soon committed suicide. Pownall remained in New York. He traveled widly from Maryland to Massachusetts and also to visit the Iroquois to study conditions throughout the colonies. He advocated colonial rights and also those of the Indians. In1755 he was appointed Lt. Governor of New Jersey. He became involved in the rivalry between William Shirley (governor of Massachusetts) and William Johnson (chief leader of Indian affairs). In 1756 he returned to England to report about Shirley and then returned with Lord Loudon the new Commander in Chief. He was then appointed as the new Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. He immediately needed to call up militia in the French and Indian War for the relief of Fort William Henry. He then began to disagree with Lord Loudon over civilian versus military governorship. In 1760 he returned again to England and was appointed as governor of South Carolina but remained in England and in Parliament where he championed the colonists' position.

   
  Pratte, Bernard 1803 - 1886 {short description of image}

He was the 8th Mayor of St. Louis, 1844- 46

   
  Pratte, Henry 1788 - 1822 {short description of image}

He was the son of John-Batiste Sylvester. He was born in Missouri and became the first native Catholic priest in the state.

   
  Presbyterians   {short description of image}

This was a 'reformed' Protestant group particularly strong in Scotland. Many of the Scotch and Scotch- Irish settlers who came to American colonies were Presbyterians.

   
  Prescott, William 1726 - 1795 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusettes and served in King George's War and the French and Indian War. At the Revolution he commanded patriot forces at the Battle of Bunker Hill. He was present at the Battles of Saratoga.

He is depicted in John Trumbell's painting of the British surrender at Saratoga which is in the Capitol building.

 
  Prrescott, William H. 1796 - 1859 {short description of image}

He was a prominent historian recognized as the first 'scientific' American historian. His histories of the Conquest of Peru and of Mexico are still valuable.

   
  Price, Sterling 1809 - 1867 {short description of image}

He was born in Virginia and admitted to the bar in 1830. The family moved to Missouri in 1831, where he ran a hotel. He was a member of the Misssouri legislature and then elected to the U.S. Congress in 1845. In 1846 he resigned to become a colonel and raise a regiment of cavalry. He marched his regiment to New Mexico with Alexander Doniphan. When Stephen Kearny passed through Santa Fe en route to California he appointed Price as the military governor with Charles Bent as the civil governor. In January 1847 when Charles Bent was murrdered at Taos, Price led the Army force to suppress the Taos Rebellion. In July he was promoted brigadier general. He then led 300 men into Mexico and won the Battle of Santa Cruz de Rosales (after the war had actually ended). He was mustered out and returned to Missouri. He was elected Governor of Missouri. When the Civil War began he opposed the state joining the Confederacy. But when Union units entered and took control he switched and became commander of the state guard. He defeated the Union troops at the Battle of Wilson'sCreek on 10 August. For the remainder of the war he served as a Confederate Major General but under the command of others. His final campaign was a raid into Missouri, the last engagement of the war west of the Mississippi.

   
  Prideaux, John, Brig. Gen. 1718 - 1759 {short description of image}

He was born in England. In 1739 he was appointed Ensign in the 3rd Foot Guards. In 1743 he fought at the Battle of Dettingen and became Lt. Col. of the regiment. In the French and Indian War he was promoted brigadier geneal and commander of Fort Niagara. In 1759 during the Battle of FortNiagara he was hit by a shell fragment from his own mortar and killed. His loss greatly effected the garrison. He was succeeded as commander by Sir William Johnson.

   
  Printz, Johan 1592 - 1663 {short description of image}

He was governor of New Sweden 1643 - 1653. He began construction of fort Nya Elfsborg and Fort Nya Gothenborg on the Delaware River.

   
  Proclamation Line 7 October 1763 {short description of image}

The Proclamation was issued by King George III after the British won the Seven Year's War - French and Indian War. It prohibited colonists from crossing and settling west of a line drawn through the Appalachian Mountains. It waspart of the provisions of he Quebec Act. This revoked the grants of land that had been given to many colonists for service in the War. And it revoked the charters given to the original colonies that had claim west of the line. The extensive territory had been won from France in that war. The British government was concerned about the conflicts when colonists ineracted with the native Indians who had been promised the same territory.

The Parliament was particularly influenced by the very large amont of frontier warfare generated by Pontiac's Rebellon and wanted to reduce or eliminate such conflict.

 
  Prosser, Gabriel 1776- 1800 {short description of image}

He was a slave who led a rebellion in Richmond. The plot was discovered and he was hanged.

   
  Pueblo Indians {short description of image}

They lived mostly in New Mexico and Arizona. They were different from the adjacent plains and mountain tribes in that they lived in multi-story adobe buildings. The first Europeans they met were the Spanish coming north from Mexico. The Spanish missionaries converted many to Catholicism. But there were conflicts such as the major rebellion in 1680 in which they drove the Spanish out for 12 years. The Americans met them in the 1840's when they conquered Mexico during the Mexican War.

   
  Pulaski, Casimir 1745 -1779 {short description of image}

He was a Polish military commander who opposed Russian rule over Poland. He became a champion of independence. He commanded in many battles in Poland and upon defeat went into exile. Benjamin Franklin recommended he go to the American colonies to assist which he did in 1777. He was especially known and effective for cavalry organization and operations. He was commissioned a general after his first demonstration of military skill at the Battle of Brandywine. In 1779 he went to Charleston and then to the Siege of Savannah where he commanded both the American and French cavalry. He was killed leading a cavalry charge. He became a favorite hero of the Revolution

Fort Pulaski at Savannah is named for him.

 
  Puritans 1620 - on {short description of image}

This article discusses the history of the Puritans in north America from their first arrival in 1620 on.

   
  Putnam, Israel 1718 - 1790 {short description of image}

He was born in Massachusetts. In 1755 when the French and Indian War began, he enlisted in Connecticut militia. He was promoted through the ranks to colonel and commanded Roger's Rangers. In 1758 he was captured by the Mohawk Indians and almost killed until rescued by a French officer. In 1759 he led a regiment in the attack on Fort Carillon. In 1760 he was with the British campaign to Montreal. In 1763 he led reenforcments to rescue Fort Detroit during Pontiac's Rebellion. When the Revolutionary War began he immediately rushed to Boston and supervised the fortification of Breed's Hill and Bunker Hill. He served as General Washington's second in command until he had a stroke in 1779.

Fort Putnam on a high ridge overelooking the buildings at West Point is named for him.And many counties and other places are named for him.

 
  Quakers   {short description of image}      
  Quartering Acts 1765 & 1774 {short description of image}

There actually were two Quartering Acts of Parliament as ammendments to the MutinyAct, which actually prohibited the quartering of troops in civilian property. The issue first came up during the French and Indian War and subsequently when Colonel Bouquet and Lord Loudon demandedthat their troops be quartered, colonial refusal led to the 1765 act.
Then in 1773-4 the British Commander in Chief in America, General ThomasGage asked Parliament for these because he could not get the colonial legislatures to pay for the British army defending the colonies from the French and Indians. Parliament went far beyond what Gage had requested. The first act was occasioned by the arrival of 1500 soldiers in New York and refusal of the colony to pay for their housing. The second act - in 1774 - was one of the 'coercieve acts' leveled due to the riots in Boston.
Military personel usually reside in quarters, rooms , housing, tents or bulidings, Quartering had to do with providing such facilities as well as food. Thus a quartering act requires somebody to provide quarters for troops.

The British demand that colonists provide such quarters (to reduce government expenses of course) was a major cause of colonial opposition. it is interesting that the Ameerican Continental Congress itself did quarter troops in civilian property.
That the issue was extremely opposed by the colonists can be seen in the 3rd Amendment to the Constitution, which expressly prohibits it.

 
  Quebec Act 1774 {short description of image}

This Act of Parliament was designed to establish peaceful conditions in the North American colonies after the British victory in the French and Indian War had given Britain the huge French dominions which included many Indian tribes. And it also was a result of Pontiac's Rebellion in which the Indians had sought to maintain their lands west of the Appalacian Mountains. The provisions were to encourage the French colonists on Quebec that their property and religion were save as well as to protect the Indians from further colonial expansion. The provisions were denounced by the American colonists in the 13 colonies both for there favoritism to Catholicism and to the prevention of colonial expansion to the west.

   
  Queberon Bay 1759 {short description of image}

The location of naval battles off the Atlantic coast of France, dating back to Roman days. The battle between French and Engish in 1759 was one of the greatest English victories. The battle made Gret Britain the greatest naval power..

   
  Queen Anne's War 1702 - 1713 {short description of image}

This was the American theater of the War of the Spanish Succession. In America it was between the French and British as one of the series that contested control of the continent. Both sides had Indian allies. The fighting was active in Florida, Canada and the colonies near to Canada. The war ended with the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 by which various territories were exchanged.

   
  Quesnay, Francois 1694 -1774 {short description of image}

He was an early French economist of the Physiocratic school. His work was influential to Adam Smith, who wrote Wealth of Nations published in 1776.

   
  Raleigh, Walter, Sir 1554 -1618 {short description of image}

He was a poet, explorer, landed gentleman. soldier, politician, spy, and more. His relatives included Richard Grenville and Humphrey Gilbert. He was a favorite of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1585. He had many adventures including attempts to colonize in North America in which he lost much money. But eventually he was executed in 1618.

   
  Randolph, Edmund 1753 - 1813 {short description of image}

He was the 7th Governor of Virginia and the first U.S. Attorney General. He was another of the prominent Randolphs. His father was the loyalist John Randolph and his uncle was Peyton Randolph. During the Revolution he as aide de camp to General George Washington. His son was another Peyton Randolph who became Governor of Virginia in 1812. He represented Virginia at the ContinentalCongress in 1789, the Annapolis Convention and the Constitutional Convention where he introduced the Virginia Plan for organization of the legislature. He refused to sign the Constitution claiming it gave too much power to the Federal Government, but when it came up for ratification in Virginia, he supported it.

   
  Randolph, John 1773 - 1833 {short description of image}

He was a Virginia planter and politician. He was Congressman and Senator and in 1830 Minister to Russia. He was a member of one of the most important families in Virginia - Randolphs. He suffered from life long tuberculosis, which greatly impacted his career, although despite it he was known as one of the great orators of his time.

   
  Randolph, Sir John 1693 - 1737 {short description of image}

He was the youngest son of William Randolph. He was another prominent politician in Virginia. His son was Peyton Randolph.

He was the only Virginia colonist to be knighted.

 
  Randolph, Peyton 1721 - 1775 {short description of image}

He was a prominent member of a distinguished Virginia family. After a very active and important political career in Virginia in which he championed independence, he was sent to both the First and Second Continental Congresses where he was Speaker. But he died before the Declaration of Independence was written.

His home in Colonial Willismburg is a National Historic Landmark. There are many places named for him

 
  Randolph, William 1650 - 1711 {short description of image}

He was born in England and moved to Virginia between 1669 and 1673 where he became a wealthy planter and politician. He was one of the most important leader in early colonial Virginia. Among many other purchases he bought Nathaniel Bacon's forfeted property. He owned a huge amount of land at least 20,000 acres. And he held many important civic and political offices..

Through intermarriages he has a huge number of famous descendents including many one would not expect. The Wikipedia entry has a list.

 
  Read, George 1733 - 1798 {short description of image}

He was born in Maryland but his family moved to Delaware while he was an infant. He was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar in 1753. He married Gertrude Ross Till, the widdowed sister of George Ross. Feom 1764 he led the colony Committee of Correspondence. He was elected to both the Firstand Second Continental Congresses. At first Read voted against the Declaration, forcing Rodney to ride all night in time to cast a vote in favor. But later Read did vote for the Declaration. He was then elected as president of the Delaware costitutional convention to create a state constitution. In 1786 he represented Delaware at the Annapolis Convention. And also at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. Then, partly due to his efforts, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution. He was then elected as one of the first Delaware U.S. Senators. and then was Chief Justice of the Delaware state Supreme Court.

He signed the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution as delegate from Delaware. He is listed as a signer of the Declaration {short description of image}And the Army Center for military history has an excellent biography {short description of image}

 
  Reading, John 1686 - 1767 {short description of image}

He was acting governor of New Jersey in 1747 and again in 1758 as President of the Provincial Council.

   
  Reconstruction Era 1865 - 1877 {short description of image}

This was the period immediately after the Civil War during which the Republicans -especially the'radical ' group occupied the Southern states and attempted to 'reconstruct' their society. The main policy and effort was to enhance the opportunities for the freed slaves. For this three Amendments to the Constitution were passed. The Northern occupiers met with strong opposition from the white Southerners, especailly the former elite and wealthy slave- owners.

   
  Reed, John  

He was an immigrant who farmed near Charlotte Noth Carolina. One day a large nugget was found on his property and it turned out to be gold, but he had already sold it for mittle money. He realized his misake and began searching for more, which he found. A gold mine was soon esablished and enough gold was produced to need to build a mint to process it.

The Reed gold mine still open as a tourist site close to Charlotte N.C.

 
  Republican Party   {short description of image}

The Republican Party was organized after the Whig Party collapsed out of Free Soil Party members to oppose the Democrat Party. The main issue initially was the Kansas-Nebraska Act which had overthrown the Missouri Compromise. The first victory was the election of Abraham Lincoln as President in 1860.

   
  Revere, Paul 1735 - 1818 {short description of image}

He was born in Boston and became an accomplished silversmith and businessman. Prior to the Revoltionary War be joined in the patriot cause and organized a spy and alert system to monitor British military activities in Boston. One the night when he learned that the British were sending a detachment to Concord and Lexington to take the colonists arsenal of ammunitin and weapons, he and others of his team rode to alert the locals throughout the area.

His ride and alert operation was memorilized in Longfellow's poem if a bit exagerated as his role was not alone.

 
  Rhode Island colony 1636 {short description of image}

The beginning of the colony was established by Roger Williams, who left Massachusetts due to religious dispute and bought land from the Narrgansett Indians. He named it Providence Plantation. Soon other leaders joined and purchased additional land to found Newport, Potsmouth and Warwick.

Here is a list of the governors of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations prior to the Revolutionary war and creation of the state. {short description of image}

 
  Ribault, John 1520 -1565 {short description of image}

He was a French Huguenot naval officer and explorer who led the early French efforts to establish a colony on the Ameican coast in Florida. In 1562 h