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CHRONOLOGY - 18th CENT

 
 

MICHA JELISAVCIC
JOHN SLOAN

 
   

Return to 17th century.

 

1703-30 AD

Ahmen III, Ottoman Sultan.

1704-07 AD

Gazi Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1707-09 AD

Kaplan Girei I, Khan of Crimea.

1709-12 AD

Devlet Girei II, Khan of Crimea, second time.

1711 AD

Ottoman - Tatar army surrounds and defeats Peter I on Pruth River in Moldavia, Peter surrenders Azov.

1713-16 AD

Kaplan Girei I, Khan of Crimea, second time.

1716-17 AD

Ka-devlytar Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1717 AD

Ottoman campaign to Belgrade with Tatar aid.

1717-24 AD

Saadat Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1724-30 AD

Mengli Girei II, Khan of Crimea.

1725-27 AD

Catherine I, Empress of Russia.

1727-30 AD

Perter II Alexeivich, Emperor of Russia.

1730-54 AD

Mahmud I, Ottoman Sultan.

1730-36 AD

Kaplan Girei I, Khan of Crimea, second time.

1730-40 AD

Anna Ivanovna, Empress of Russia.

1730-36 AD

Ottoman-Persian war - Crimean Tatars ordered to support by attack on Persia via Caucasus.

1731-33 AD

New defense lines, planned by Peter I, finally built across Ukraine from Dneper to Donetz with 15 major forts for defense against Tatars.

1732-34 AD

Mengli Girei II, Khan of Crimea, second time, continues Tatar raids on Russia.

1732 AD

Russian troops (4000) under Prince of Hesse Homburg defeat (25,000) Crimean Tatars led by Terti-Girei in Daghestan area Peter I took from Persia. This was result of Nadir Shah's (of Persia) war on Ottomans at Baghdad. Ottoman Sultan ordered Crimean Khan to attack Persia via Caucasian pass at Derbent so he had to cross this Russian territory. Expecting this, Nadir Shah had made agreement with Russians to cover his rear.

1734-40 AD

Feti Girei, Khan of Crimea, continues Tatar raids on Russia.

1733 AD

Russians begin operations against Crimean Tatars who are busy fighting Persians in Daghestan. General Leontiev enters Ukraine and defeats Nogai but is then defeated by sickness and November snow.

1736-39 AD

Russo-Turkish war mostly conducted by Russia against Crimean Tatars.

1736 AD

Marshal Munich organizes Russian attack on Crimea and siege of Azov. He opens siege successfully in March and then goes to Dnieper to lead main attack on Crimea. He reaches Perekop on 22 May and storms the defensive lines and captures the Turkish garrison. He proceeds to take Koszov (Evpatoria) and burn Bachtsch- Serai. He departs Crimea on 28 Aug. Meanwhile Marshal Lacy takes Azov. The Russians lost only about 2000 to enemy action but half the army to sickness and heat.. Unable to defeat the Russian army the Tatars nevertheless continue to raid throughout Ukraine.

1736 AD

To expand pressure into Kuban, in the spring the Russians send 20,000 Kalmyks against Tatars there. They force considerable numbers of Tatars to surrender. They repeat their campaign again in November. The Kalmyks made several ten's of thousands of Tatars slaves.

1736-37 AD

Tatars mount extensive winter raids throughout Russia and Ukraine. Despite all Munich's precautions including trying to break river ice, the Tatars carry off thousands of prisoners.

1737 AD

Munich conducts another campaign. Russian army marches along the Dnieper and Bug. By an incredible stroke of luck the Russians are able to capture Ochakov fortress when the magazines explode and start a conflagration that forces the Turkish commander to surrender. Munich withdraws into Ukraine by October. Russians repair fortifications and the combined 4000 man garrison and 100 ship fleet successfully withstand Turkish- Tatar (20,000 each) siege in the fall.

1737 AD

In June Marshal Lacy marches into Crimea with regular troops, Cossacks and Kalmyk warriors, bypassing the refortified Tatar line at Perekop. He burns and ravages Tatar villages and defeats Tatar and Turkish troops in several battles. Admiral Brenal wins Russian naval victory over Turks in Sea of Azov. Lacy withdraws into winter quarters in Ukraine by October.

1737 AD

Simultaneously with Russian operations, the Kalmyks again lay waste to the Kuban region destroying Nogai villages and enslaving prisoners.

1737-38 AD

Despite extensive Russian efforts to strengthen frontier fortification lines the Tatars continue small- scale raids throughout Ukraine. In Feb 1738, however, the Khan, himself, brings 40,000 Tatars against the lines, but with such a large force he can not avoid detection or get through.

1738 AD

Marshal Munich conducts his third campaign, this time deep into Moldavia, assembling 50,000 troops including Cossacks and Kalmyks on the Dnieper beginning in May. By early August, after several successful battles, he reaches the Dniester. In September he returns into winter quarters around Kyiv.

1738 AD

Marshal Count Lacy again leads about 35,000 troops including Cossacks again bypasses the Perekop fortifications held by the Khan with 40,000 Tatars. Taking advantage of sudden low water he simply marches across the Sivasch. He then attacked the Perekop fortress from the Crimean side and captured the Turkish Janissary garrison. He spends July and August ravaging Crimea and returns to the frontier lines for the winter. In the fall the Russians abandon Kinburn and Ochakov destroying the fortifications.

1738-39 AD

The Tatars counter all winter with border raids. Finding the Russian frontier too well guarded they take their compensation by shifting to capture prisoners from Polish villages, despite their treaty with Poland.

1739 AD

Marshal Munich launches his fourth campaign with about 65,000 troops including Cossacks and Georgians from Kyiv. They cut the march distance into Wallachia by crossing Poland, despite heated complaints. They cross the Bug in early July and then by means of a feignt and ruse cross the Dniester near Khotin in August. Sultan Islam Gerei with 12,000 Tatars and 6000 mounted Janissaries attack the vanguard on 3 August and are defeated. The Russians reach the upper Pruth and turn south on 17 Aug .but are soon surrounded in camp. Munich storms the Turkish camp in turn, gains a great victory and then captures Khotin. Munich then marches further south, crosses the Pruth on 10 Aug and on the 14th takes Jassy, which he begins to fortify. But Russia gave all this area back to Turkey in the peace treaty.

1740-41 AD

Ivan VI, Emperor of Russia.

1740-43 AD

Seldmet Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1741-62 AD

Elizabeth Petrovna, Empress of Russia.

1743-48 AD

Selim Girei II, Khan of Crimea.

1748-56 AD

Kishyan Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1754-57 AD

Osman III, Ottoman Sultan.

1756-58 AD

Khalim Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1757-74 AD

Mustapha III, Ottoman Sultan.

1758-64 AD

Krim Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1762 AD

Peter III, Emperor of Russia.

1762-96 AD

Catherine II, Empress of Russia.

1764-68 AD

Selim Girei III, Khan of Crimea.

1767-68 AD

Mgaksud Girei, Khan of Crimea .

1768-74 AD

First Russo-Turkish war of Catherine II, Ottomans declare war after Russian invasion.

1769-70 AD

Devlet Girei III, Khan of Crimea.

1769 AD

Ottomans lose Kabardia in Caucasus - Russians invade Balkans - Peter Rumiantsev wins battle on Dniester - takes Jassy and all Moldavia.

1770 AD

Battle of Karkel - Ottoman- Tatar army attempts to drive Russians out of Moldavia, Rumiantsev in big win. Turks lose fortresses on Danube and Pruth - cut from Tatars - Turks facing war also in Egypt and Greece.

1770 AD

Kaplan Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1771-75 AD

Sakhib Girei II, Khan of Crimea.

1771 AD

Vasili Dolgoruki invades Crimea, storms Perekop.

1773 AD

Rumiantsev on Danube again.

1773 AD

Beginning of Pugachev revolt on Volga basin.

1774-89 AD

Abdul Hamid I, Ottoman Sultan.

1774 AD

Suvorov wins at Shumla.

1774 AD

Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji - Crimea declared independent of Turks - Russians regain Azov, part of Kuban, Kabardia, Kerch Penn in Crimea to fortify, area between Bug and Dnieper Rivers.

1777-83 AD

Shakhin Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1778 AD

Crimean Christians deported to Russia to Ekaterinoslav.

1783 AD

Russia annexes Crimea.

1786 AD

Eparchy of Gothia abolished.

1787 AD

War - Ottomans try to get Crimean Tatars to revolt.

1788 AD

Austrian-Russian war with Turkey.

1788 AD

Suvorov wins at Kinburn as Turks move to regain Crimea - Rumyantsev invades Moldavia again at Chocim and Jassy, Potemkin takes Ochakov - John Paul Jones wins naval victories at Dnieper mouth, 17and 27 June.

1789-1807 AD

Selim III, Ottoman Sultan.

1789 AD

Austrians capture Belgrade - repulse Turks in Bosnia - Russians invade Moldavia again, Suvorov and Saxe Colburg win at Focsani and Rimnik.

1790 AD

Suvorov storms Izmail.

1792 AD

Treaty of Jassy - Russians return Moldavia and Besarabia to Turkey but keep all rest of Dniester region .

1796-1801 AD

Paul, Emperor of Russia.

   

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