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Return to 16th century.


1603-17 AD

Ahmed I, Ottoman Sultan.

1605 AD

Lzhyedimitrii I, proclaimed Tsar.

1605-13 AD

Time of Troubles - Muscovy.

1605 AD

Vasilii Shuiski proclaimed Tsar.

1606-10 AD

Seldmet Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1607 AD

Crimean Tatars renew campaigns against Moscow now that Ottoman war in Poland has ended. Poland signs treaty with Great Nogai and Crimean Tatars against Moscow from south as he invades western Russia - Tsar Vasilii Shuiski busy with Bolotnikov rebellion.


1609 AD

Battle on Zhabni river near Kalyhazin. Polish detachment defeats troops of M. Skopin-Shuiskii.


1609 AD

Crimean Tatar campaign to Orlov in coordination with Polish army offensive. In June 40- 80,000 Tatars cross Oka at Serpukhov.

1610 AD

Vasilii Shuiski deposed, Tatar attacks coincide with Polish siege of Kremlin, but they also oppose the 2nd False Dmitri's forces - Nogai attack Riazan.

1610-23 AD

Dzhantsbek Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1611 AD

Crimean and Nogai Tatars continue to take advantage of Russian preoccupation with war against Poles at Moscow - They collect every moveable valuable they can out of south central Russia.

1612-15 AD

Ottoman Sultan changes policy and renews war against Poland, this diverts Crimean Tatars from Russia and back into Poland, But Nogai continue to raid Muscovy on into following years as well.

1613-45 AD

Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov, Tsar of all the Russias.

1615 AD

Crimean Tatars return from Poland and renew campaigns against Moscow.

1617-18 AD

Mustafa I, Ottoman Sultan (1st time).

1617 AD

Ottoman Sultan orders Crimean Khan to support war with Persia. Khan reluctant due to danger from Nogai but goes via Sinope to campaign.

1618-22 AD

Osman II, Ottoman Sultan.

1620 AD

Ottoman Sultan leads army personally into Moldavia and Poland, Belgorod Tatars participate but Khan Dzhantsibek Girei stays home.

1620 AD

Don Cossacks begin series of naval attacks on Crimea as well as Azov and Kaziev Tatars.

1621 AD

Sultan Osman orders decisive offensive against Poland, Crimean and Nogai Tatars supply 100,000 troops. Poles and Cossacks win great victory at Khotin for which Osman blames the Tatars.

1622 AD

Crimean Tatars take out their disappointment over Khotin on Moscow with border raids.

1622-23 AD

Mustafa I, Ottoman Sultan 2nd time.

1623-27 AD

Mukhammed Girei III ,Khan of Crimea.

1623-40 AD

Murad IV, Ottoman Sultan.

1623 AD

Mukhammed immediately launches largest Tatar campaign of the decade against Moscow, Cossacks countering with attacks on Azov.

1625 AD

Mukhammed switches into campaign against Poland with 60,000 troops in December but they lose too many horses to winter weather.

1625 AD

Cossacks naval campaigns reach Trebizond on Turkish coast, then they attack Azov again.

1627-35 AD

Dzhantsbek Girei, Khan of Crimea, second time with Ottoman support in civil war against Shagin and Mahmet Girei.

1627-29 AD

Multi- sided campaigns among Crimeans, Cossacks, Turks, Nogai, Muscovites. Civil war in Crimea in which Khan besieged in Bakhchisarai by 30,000 Tatars. Zaporozhie Cossacks aiding Khan in battle on Alma River, they drive opposing Tatars into Kaffa and besiege it.

1632 AD

Crimean Tatars renew lucrative attacks into Muscovy.

1632 AD

Kalmyk Mongols arrive on lower Volga and begin constant war against Nogai - Muscovy, after initial concerns, soon pleased with new ally.

1633 AD

Poles offer subsidy to Crimean Tatars for attacks on Moscow, Khan only too glad to agree, despite Ottoman objections. Russians attempt pre-emptive attacks from Astrakhan into Kuban and Taman regions.

1634 AD

Don and Zaporozhie Cossacks conduct naval attacks on Black Sea and capture Azov. They ambush Nogai who are themselves attacking Russian territories.But Kalmyks drive Nogai west across Volga and occupy all steppe east of river. This puts more Nogai into action in central and western Ukraine.

1635-37 AD

Dzahtsibek Girei dies and is replaced by Imaiet Girei who refuses to support Ottoman sultan's war to capture Georgia and keeps troops home also from attacking Moscow.

1636 AD

Imaiet Girei besieges Ottoman garrison at Kaffa and Sultan sends army to depose him and replace with Bekhddehr Girei. Meanwhile there is continual warfare between Nogai and Cossacks.

1637-41 AD

Bekhddehr Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1637 AD

With Turks busy against Venice and Persia (Georgia too) the Don Cossacks capture Azov after siege. This time they want to keep it or give it to Moscow. Sultan orders Crimeans to attack Moscow in retaliation, which they do gladly.

1640-48 AD

Ibrahim I, Ottoman Sultan.

1640 AD

Cossacks continue to hold Azov and prepare for Tatar attacks, but Crimeans send 80,000 troops into Poland.

1641 AD

In January 40,000 Tatars suddenly appear at Azov but are reluctant to engage in formal sieges. Sultan Ibraham brings large Ottoman army of 40- 50000 men and 100 siege guns plus large navy - total of 250,000. Cossacks number 5000 but hold out until September when Ottomans raise the siege. Cossacks lost 3000 out of 5000. Ottomans lost 15,000 troops, 7000 Tatars and 3000 sailors.

1641 AD

Bekhddehr Girei refuses to stay at Azov and returns to defend Crimea from Cossack attacks at Perekop - then dies and is succeeded by his nephew, Mahmet Girei.

1642 AD

Russian Duma and Zemski Sobor decide against incurring expense of defending Azov with war against Poland coming - they order Cossacks to leave city after destroying fortifications. Ottomans return with large army and rebuild even stronger fortifications from which to attack Cossacks along Don.

1642 AD

Fighting between Nogai and Kalmyks around Astrakhan.

1644-54 AD

Islam Girei III, Khan of Crimea, He immediately launches attacks against both Muscovy and Poland.

1644 AD

Kalmyks push west of Volga to Terek River.

1645-76 AD

Alexis Mikhailovich, Tsar of all the Russias

1645 AD

After suffering major naval loss against Venice, Ottoman sultan orders Tatars to round up thousands of slaves for new galleys - As Tatars mobilize Russians learn of this and prepare stronger defense against winter campaigns (best time for Tatars to capture people). The raid nets only 6300 prisoners, however, due to extreme cold.

1648-87 AD

Mohammed IV, Ottoman Sultan.

1648 AD

Boghdan Khmelnitski begins Cossack uprising against Poland. Tatars join as allies and together they defeat Polish army at Zolte Wode and Korsun, Potocki is captured. Then at Pylavo another Polish army is destroyed. With Tatars taking prisoners and loot at will in Poland, Moscow is spared for several years.

1654-66 AD

Mukhammed Girei IV, Khan of Crimea.

1653 AD

Cossacks now allied with Moscow in war with Poland over Smolensk, so Crimeans also switch and begin campaigns against Moscow again in Ukraine.

1644-76 AD

Ddil' Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1657-62 AD

War in Transylvania Turks and Tatars drive Rakoczy out.

1657 AD

Tatars defeat George Rakoczy II at Tombovia in Transylvania, capture commander Janos Kemeny.

1657 AD

Kalmyks sign new treaty with Moscow to attack both Crimean and Nogai Tatars.

1660 AD

During long Polish-Russian war, General V Sheremetev with combined Muscovite- Cossack army is surrounded by Polish - Tatar army at Liubar in Volhynia. Hetman Khmelnitski is defeated at Slobodyszcze while trying to bring relief. Sheremetev surrenders and is held prisoner in Crimea for 20 years. (At Chufut-kale and Mangup). - The Ottoman government sends a powerful fleet and army supported by 40,000 Tatars to fortify the mouth of the Don and Donetz with towers and chains. - Needing Kalmyk aid all the more after these disasters the Russians establish special relations. From 1661 under the new treaty the Kalmyks send from 1 to 10 thousand warriors each year against the Tatars.

1661 AD

Crimean Tatars again ordered to support Ottomans in war in Hungary. They send 30,000 and left Ukraine and Muscovy alone. Tatars forming more and more important part of Ottoman army. But Kalmyks attack Tatar rear areas several times into 1663.

1662 AD

Battle of Nagyszollos in Hungary, Ottoman - Tatar victory under Mehmed Kucuk, recently released from Tatar prison, Janos Kemeny killed

1666 AD

Crimean Nuriadin, Devlet Girei leads 60,000 Tatars deep into Poland as ally of Cossack Doroshenko. Tatars return with 100,000 prisoners for slave markets.

1671-78 AD

Selim Girei I, Khan of Crimea.

1672 AD

Polish leader Jan Sobieski defeats Cossack-Tatar army bringing Ottoman Sultan Mohammed IV with 300,000 man army to aid Tatars to capture Kamenets-Podolsky. Cossack war between right (Doroshenko) and left (Ivan Samoilovich) bank groups.

1675 AD

Jan Sobieski leads Polish army to defeat of Turks and Tatars at battle of Lvov but can not recapture Kaminetz.

1676-82 AD

Feodor III, Alexievich, Tsar of all the Russias.

1676-81 AD

Ottoman-Muscovite war for Ukraine, Tatars provide cavalry for Turks.

1676 AD

Ottoman-Tatar invasion of Poland with 200,000 under Ibrahim Pasha, Sobieski wins battle of Zorawno on Dniester.

1677 AD

Ottoman and Tatar army defeated by Russian- Cossack forces at siege of Chigirin. The following year a larger Tatar- Turkish army captures the city (held by Patrick Gordon) after an even larger battle. Russia loses right bank Ukraine.

1678-83 AD

Murad Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1681 AD

Peace treaty of Bakhchisarai, among prisoners returned was V Sheremetev, prisoner since 1660.

1682-89 AD

Ivan V, Alexeivich, joint Tsar with Peter I.

1682-89 AD

Sophia Alexievna, regent of Russia.

1683 AD

Ottoman siege of Vienna, Tatars support, Jan Sobieski leads allied army to victory.

1683-84 AD

Khadzhi Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1684-91 AD

Selim Girei I, Khan of Crimea, second time.

1687-91 AD

Suleiman II, Ottoman Sultan.

1687 AD

First campaign by V. Golitsyn (Sophia's lover) against Crimea fails disastrously.

1688 AD

Tatar attacks in Volhynia force Russians and Poles onto defensive.

1689 AD

Second Golitsyn campaign toward Crimea fails.

1689-1725 AD

Peter I Alexeivich, Tsar of all the Russias - Emperor.

1691-95 AD

Ahmed II, Ottoman Sultan.

1691 AD

Saadat Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1692 AD

Safa Girei, Khan of Crimea

1692-99 AD

Selim Girei I, Khan of Crimea, third time.

1695-1703 AD

Mustapha II, Ottoman Sultan.

1695-1700 AD

Russo-Turkish war for Azov, Tatars aid Ottoman army.

1695 AD

Peter I, 1st Azov campaign, failure.

1696 AD

Peter I, 2nd Azov campaign with new navy, captures fortress.

1697 AD

Austrian major victory over Ottoman -Tatars at Zenta.

1698-1702 AD

Devlet Girei II, Khan of Crimea.


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