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8 BC - 38 AD

Aspurgas (son of Asander) began dynasty rulers to 341 AD.

49-62 AD

Cotys, King of Bospor

100-106 AD

Trajan's campaigns in Dacia

165-180 AD

Goths migrating into Ukraine

241-267 AD

Rhaescuporis V, Ruler of Bospor

255 AD

Goths seize Bospor ships to raid Asia Minor and Aegean coasts

256 AD

Goths, Borani by sea from Azov - Crimea raid Caucasian Black Sea coast

257 AD

Borani and Ostrogoths by sea from Azov - Crimea sack Trebizond by using ships from Bospor

258 AD

Visigoths by sea from Crimea raid Dardanelles and Bosporus, Goths in Crimea converted to Christianity

262-64 AD

Visigoths by sea raid Thrace and Bithniya from Crimea

267 AD

Ostrogoths raid Athens and Corinth by sea from Crimea

268 AD

Visigoths raid Salonika

325 AD

Council of Nicaea, Bishop Kapitan from Chersonesus

350-70 AD

Ermenrich, King of Ostrogoths

360 AD

Alans in north Caucasus conquered by Huns

362 AD

Goth Embassy from Bospor to Emperor Julian, Chersonesus still independent of Goths

363 AD

Bospor under Gothic control

363-78 AD

Valens, Roman emperor in east

364-70 AD

First Hun Invasion crossing Kerch strait from Taman - Huns take Bospor

370 AD

Huns defeat Ostrogoths

370-75 AD

Byzantine governor repairs fortification of Chersonesus

373-76 AD

Alano-Gothic War

375 AD

Alans defeat Ostrogoths at Erak battle

379-95 AD

Theodosius, Roman emperor in east

395-408 AD

Arcadius, Roman emperor in east

400 AD

John Chrysostom ordains Bishop Unila

408-50 AD

Theodosus II, Roman emperor in east

434-53 AD

Attila, King of Huns

450-57 AD

Marcian, Roman emperor in east

451 AD

Council of Chalcedon

457-74 AD

Leo I, Roman emperor in east

473 AD

Attila dies - Huns start retreat - cross through northern Crimea and back across Kerch strait - some Goths go along - Utigurs and Kutrigurs

473-74 AD

Leo II, Roman emperor in east

474-91 AD

Zeno, Roman emperor in east, (first Byzantine emperor)

480 AD

Possible earthquake damages city - Join Goth, Byzantine alliance to defend against Huns

488 AD

Inscription at Chersonesus mentions ballistarii - comes Diogenes sent by Zeno to defend city and restore towers

491-518 AD

Anastasius I, Byzantine emperor

518-527 AD

Byzantine Emperor Justin - effort to get Bosporus to join Byzantines fails

527-65 AD

Justinian the Great, Byzantine emperor

559-63 AD

Avars migrate from Central Asia to Ukraine, then to Hungary

550-60 AD

Emperor Justinian I - captures Bospor, re-fortifies Chersonesus, builds forts at Aluston and Gorzuoitae and long walls to protect Doros, Basilica of Church of St Constantine built on Mangup.

565-78 AD

Justin II Byzantine emperor, adds to fortification of Chersonesus

575 AD

Bospor and Chersonesus exempted from Byzantine naval duty

576 AD

First Khazar capture of Bospor

578-82 AD

Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor

581 AD

Khazars appear near Chersonesus

582-602 AD

Maurice, Byzantine emperor

592 -97 AD

Byzantine campaigns against Slavs

602-10 AD

Phocas I, Byzantine emperor

610-41 AD

Heraclius I, Byzantine emperor

626 AD

First Byzantine mention of Khazars

626 AD

Avars raid Constantinople and are defeated, Byzantine-Khazar alliance against Persia.

641 AD

Constantine III, Heracleon, Constans II, Byzantine emperors, last until 668.

650 AD

Bolgars split in north Azov steppe area, move to middle Volga and into lower Danube regions

651 AD

First Arab raid across Caucasus

654 AD

Pope Martin I exiled to Chersonesus

668-85 AD

Constantine IV, Byzantine emperor

680's- 90's

Khazars capture Bospor again

683 AD

Khazars raid Armenia

685-95 AD

Justinian II, Byzantine emperor

692 AD

Council of Constantinople - Bishop of Doros attends

690 - 710 AD

Chersonesus belongs to Byzantine empire but Doros independent - Khazars hold northern part of Crimea

695 AD

Revolt in Constantinople - Justinian II dethroned, exiled to Chersonesus

695-98 AD

Leontius, Byzantine emperor

698 AD

Another revolt - Justinian flees to Doros and then to Khazars, marries khagan's sister.

698-705 AD

Tiberius II, Byzantine emperor.

700 AD

Justinian flees Khazars by ship via Chembolon.

705-11 AD

Justinian II regains Byzantine throne with Bolgar assistance, launches revenge on Crimea.

706 AD

Justinian sends army and fleet to capture Chersonesus - then city revolts - second Byzantine expedition besieges city, Khazars relieve city.

710 AD

Khazars control Chersonesus with appointed governor.

711 AD

Justinian assassinated, Philippicus travels from Khazars to become new emperor 711- 713.

711 AD

Khazars support revolt in Chersonesus.

713-15 AD

Anastasius II, Byzantine emperor.

715-17 AD

Theodosius III, Byzantine emperor.

714 -17 AD

Arab-Khazar war in Caucasus.

717-41 AD

Leo III, Byzantine emperor.

726-32 AD

Arab-Khazar war in Caucasus.

732 AD

Khazar - Byzantine alliance against Arabs - Emperor Leo III marries Khazar Khagan's daughter, Irene, Crimea split 3 ways.

735 AD

Norse defeat Magyars in Don river region. By mid 8th century there is extensive trade along the Volga between Baltic and Caspian seas and beyond, into Central Asia.


737-63 AD

Khazar's convert to Judaism.


737 AD

Arab army crosses Caucasus and campaigns through Khazaria clear to lower Volga. Disrupts trade between Asia and Baltic.


741-75 AD

Constantine V, Byzantine emperor.



Abbasids overthrow Ommayad's move capital from Damascus to Baghdad and introduce new policy of encouraging international trade, expands trade to Baltic.


750 AD

Staria Ladoga now Scandinavian trade outpost. Silver coins passing from Arab and Central Asian lands to Baltic and beyond. Norse reach Azov sea and establish trading post under Khazar overlords.

755 AD

John of Gothia Bishop at Doros.

764 AD

Khazars capture Tiflis, raid Armenia.

775-80 AD

Leo IV, Byzantine emperor.

780 AD

Emperor Leo IV (the Khazar) dies, Constantine VI and Irene rule to 797 and 802 respectively.

786-87 AD

Khazars capture Doros and make it vassal, John of Gothia leads revolt to drive Khazars out temporarily, Khazars return same year and imprison John at Phullae, he escapes to Amastris in Asia Minor.

787 AD

List of Crimea bishops - Doros, Tamatrakha, Sugdaia, Chersonesus, Bospor

737-763 AD

Khazar convert to Judaism.

790's AD

Toparch of Gothia at Doros

800-825 AD

Bravlin, Varangian from Novgorod? attacks Crimea from Chersonesus to Kerch, captures Sudak, attacks Gothia also.

802-11 AD

Nicephorus I, Byzantine emperor .

810 AD

Bolgar-Byzantine war.

811 AD

Nicephorus I takes Crimea.

811 AD

Stauracius, Byzantine emperor.

811-13 AD

Michael I, Byzantine emperor.

813-20 AD

Leo V, Byzantine emperor.

817 AD

Khazar empire boundaries: Derbent on south, Yaik river on east, North Crimea on west, Kama Bolgars on north - trade colonies spread from China to Spain.

819 AD

End of Iconoclastic movement.

820-29 AD

Michael II, Byzantine emperor.

822 AD

Khazar-Magyar war along Black sea northern coast.

829-42 AD

Theophilus I, Byzantine emperor.

830-50 AD

Varangian traders arrive via Don to Azov Sea at Tmutorakhan, Rus reported also on Caspian Sea.


833-36 AD

Mjmir, founder of Moravian state.


835 AD

Emperor Theophulus sends Petronas Kamateros the engineer to build fortress on Don at Sarkel for Khazars, Kamateros then appointed strategos at Chersonesus to organize thema - apparent external danger from north to both Byzantines and Khazars (Varangians and/or Slavs?).

836 AD

Chersoneses united to Byzantium - Bulgar war .

837 AD

Magyars now on Danube.

839 AD

Rus campaign to Crimea and Constantinople.

839 AD

Embassy from "kagan of Rus" at Ingel'heim going to Swedes.

840 AD

Rus attack Amastrid, and Sudak but by agreement return prisoners.


840-42 AD

Rus campaign to Byzantine territory at Chersonnesus.


842-67 AD

Michael III, Byzantine emperor .

842 AD

Title - Strategos of climata - in 10th century title was Strategos of Chersonesus.


846-69 AD

Rastislav, Prince of Moravia ally of Michael III of Byzantium.


854 AD

Transcaucasian princes ask for help from Byzantium, Khazars, and Slavs.


Division of spheres of influence - Varangians collect tribute from Chud, Slavyan, Meri, Krivichei - and Khazars from Polyane, Severyan, and Vyatichye.

860 AD

Rus attack on Constantinople via Crimea on 18 June - Result is first peace treaty - Magyars at war with Khazars.

860-61 AD

St Cyril mission to Khazars via Chersonesus, learns Slavic language from Rus resident there.


860 - 1015 AD

One traditional date for founding of Kyiv - Relations between Novgorod - Kyiv and Let, Chud, Est, Livonian trives mostly regular and peaceful


860 - 900 AD

Patzinak (Pechenegs) settle in steppe and penetrate Crimea.

862-79 AD

Rurik, ruler at Novgorod.


862 AD

Polotsk, Rostov, Murom, Bellozero, Ladoga all founded - according to chronicles, but villages existed in these places long before


863 AD

Smolensk founded


863 AD

Conversion of Moravians to Christianity.


865 AD

Askol'd campaign against Polyanians.

865 AD

First Latin mention of Khazars convert to Judaism, Rus at Tmutorakan convert to Christianity

866? AD

Second Rus campaign against Constantinople, (Askold and Dir?) result is new peace treaty the following year.


867-86 AD

Basil I, Byzantine emperor.

867-68 AD

Rus campaign to Constantinople and Crimea.


870 AD

Traditional date for death of Rurik, He bequeaths realm to Oleg and makes Oleg regent for his son, Igor.


870 AD

Askol'd war against Krivichiye.


870-94 AD

Prince Sviatopulk of Moravia adds Bohemia and Slovakia.


878-912 AD

Oleg, ruler at Kyiv. He leads combined army of Varangians, Chuds, Slavs and others from Novgorod down Dniper to capture Smolensk and then Lyubech and establishes garrisons, then continues to capture Kyiv after killing Askold and Dir.


880-2 AD

Oleg frees Polyanians from Khazar control and controls himself.


883 AD

Oleg frees Drevlyane from Khazars and controls himself, imposes tribute of marten skins.

884 AD

Oleg frees Sevryane from Khazars and controls himself.


885 AD

Oleg frees Radimichi from Khazars and controls himself. His tribute set as silver coin (money trade in region?).


886-913 AD

Leo VI, Byzantine emperor. He asks his brother, Alexander, to rule with him.


889-893 AD

Pecheneg cross between Don and Dnepr and then occupy region between Dnepr and Dnestr pushing Magyars out of that region. Magyars recorced passing Kyiv headed west. They war against Vlach and Slaves to control Hungary. Khazars hold Sarkel but lose other steppe forts to Pecheneg.


895 AD

First reconnaissance raid by Pechenegs against Rus brings first contact


898 AD

Magyar army headed by Almosh campaign into Rus lands and besiege Kyiv - "peace treaty" payment of 10,000 marks and more goods.


899 AD

Emperor Leo urges Magyars to fight Bulgarians.


Go to 10th Century.


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