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Return to 14th century.


1401-07 AD

Yedigei installs Sadi Beg (Shadibek) as Khan of Kypchak Khanate (Ulus Juchi). Sadi, Beg restores closer ties with Moscow.


1401 AD

Vasilii fails again in attempt to wrest northern Dvina region from Novgorod.


1403 AD

Vasilii Kirdyapa, main enemy of Moscow, dies in Gorodets.


1403 AD

Prince Alexei ruler of Theodoro at Mangup.


1404 AD

Teutonic Order returns Dobrzyn to Poland but subjugates Samogitia.


1406-7 AD

The bloodless Russian-Lithuanian War pits Vasilii II against his father-in-law, Vitvot. The first standoff is at Krapivna on the Plava River near Tul'ya. The second is at Vyaz'ma in Smolensk region. The third is at the Urga River, probably near Kaluga.


1407 AD

Battle of the Field of Logozovitskoye. Following three years of light skirmishing and raids by both sides, the conflict between Novgorod and Livonians turns serious. The main leaders of Novgorod and Pskov take their polki as well as three Novgorod posadniki to this battle where they are all killed. Magistrate Conrad von Vietinghof leads the Livonians. The attempt to compel Pskov to surrender in 1408 and 1409 results in a peace treaty signed at Kirumpyaya in 1410.


1407-10 AD

Pulad Han Khan of Kypchak Khanate.


1408 AD

Emir Edigei attacks Moscow and nearby towns. He demands troops and artillery for support from Prince Ivan of Tver. Ivan pretends to agree but keeps his forces at home, greatly improving his position within Russia. Edigei besieges Moscow but fails to take city before he is recalled to send troops elsewhere. But he extracts ransom. Meanwhile Vasilii is conveniently in north 'raising troops.'


1409 AD

Samogitia revolts against Teutonic Order. Order retakes Dobrzyn.


1410 AD

Battle of Tannenberg,( or Grundvald or Salgir) On 15 July Vitvot with Polish, Lithuanian and Russian troops defeats Teutonic Knights of Ulrich von Jungingen. Tens of thousands of Teutonic knights are killed. But Livonian Order stays out of the battle.


1410-12 AD

Temur Khan of Kypchak Khanate.


1411 AD

Genoese records at Kaffa mention Prince Alexis of Theodoro (Mangup).


1411 AD

Emir Edigei overthrown at Kypchak Khanate .


1412 AD

Gelal ed-Din, then Kerim Berdi, Khan of Kypchak Khanate.


1414 AD

King Vladislav IV of Poland invades Prussia again, then retreats.


1414-17 AD

Kibak Khan of Kypchak Khanate.


1417-19 AD

Jeremferden Khan of Kypchak Khanate.


1419 AD

Uleg Mehmed Khan of Kypchak Khanate.


1422 AD

War between Gothia (Theodoro) and Kaffa over Cembalo seaport and trade access to sea.

1423 AD

Prince Alexis captures Chembalo - Genoese under Pietro Magnero retake it.

1423 AD

Genoese raid Kalimita and burn town, Alexis rebuilds.


1423 AD

Teutonic Order cedes Samogitia to Vitvot. Last German knights go to Prussia.


1425-48 AD

John VIII, Byzantine emperor.


1425 AD

Ivan Mikhailovich, prince of Tver, dies followed by his son, Aleksandr Ivanovich. Throne goes to Boris Aleksandrovich. The new prince strengthens his power by eliminating the remaining udels.


1425-62 AD

Vasilii II Vasil'yevich, Tyemnii, Grand Prince of Vladimir.


1425 AD

Yuri Dmitriyevich, prince of Galich, immediately prepares army to contest rule with his nephew, Vasilii. Metropolitan Photius goes to Galich and prevents this.


1425 AD

Genoese fortification work expanded at Cembalo.

1425 AD

War between Genoa and Theodoro.

1427 AD

Alexis of Mangup- Theodoro, building port at Kalimita (Inkerman).


1427 AD

Boris Aleksandrovich of Tver signs alliance with Grand Duke of Lithuania, Vitvot.


1428 AD

Boris participates in Vitvot's campaign against Novgorod.


1429 AD

Emperor Sigismund requests Teutonic Order knights go to defend Hungary against Turks.


1430 AD

Vitvot dies. Boris supports Svidrigailo for Lithuanian throne with troops but they are defeated in several battles.


1431 AD

War between Genoa and Venice again.


1431 AD

With both Vitvot and Metropolitan Photius dead, Yuri, brother of Vasilii I, again claims throne of Moscow - he and Vasilii II go to Sarai for decision by Khan Ulug Mehmed.


1432 AD

Ulug Mehmed gives yarlik to Vasilii II.


1432 AD

Prince Alexis of Theodoro, alliance with Venice.


1433 AD

Hussites and Poles invade Prussia.


1433-34 AD

Yuri Dmitriyevich Galitski attacks and captures Moscow and becomes grand prince, Vasilii II sent to Kostroma but by end of the year Vasilii has raised army and returned - Sajjid Ahmed claims to be Khan of Kypchak Khanate.

1433 AD

Renewed war between Theodoro and Genoa until 1441. Alexis gains support of Greeks living in Cembalo drives Genoese out.

1434-62 AD

Vasilii II Vasil'yevich, Grand Prince 2nd time. He seeks revenge and sacks Galich. But later in 1434 Yuri again defeats Vasilii but then Yuri dies in Moscow and his son, Vasilii Kosoi, is unable to keep the city.

1434 AD

Genoese fleet regains Cembalo and combined fleet and army attack Kalimita.


1435 AD

Poles defeat Livonian Order knights at Wilkomierz.


1435-65 AD

Kuchak Mehmed, Khan of Kypchak Horde after overcoming Ulug Mehmed.


1436 AD

Vasilii II captures and blinds Vasili Kosoi.


1437-45 AD

Ulug Mehmed, Khan of Kazan.


1438 AD

Ulug Mehmed defeats Moscow at Belev.


1439 AD

Ulug Mehmed besieges Moscow.


1440-66 AD

Khadzhi Girei, Khan of Crimea.


1440 AD

Casimir Grand Duke of Lithuania .


1440 AD

Boris Aleksandrovich of Tver signs alliance with Moscow and then sends troops to support Vasilii's campaign against Novgorod.


1441 AD

Peace treaty between Theodoro and Genoa.

1443 AD

Kypchak Horde Tatars led by Prince Mustafa attack Riazan, defeated by Vasilii II's troops.

1444 AD

Khan Uleg Mehmed moves from Belev down Oka to Gorodets.


1444-8 AD

Novgorod at war with Livonian Order.


1445 AD

Uleg Mehmed attacks Murom, he sends sons, Mahmudek and Yakub to attack Suzdal, they capture Vasilii II. Mahmudek captures Kazan from Kypchak Horde.


1445 AD

Tver campaign against Torzhok.


1445-62 AD

Uleg Mehmed, proclaims self Khan of Kazan.


1446 AD

While Vasilii is held by Tatars, Dmitrii Yurivich Shemiaka takes Moscow throne. Uleg Mehmed lets Vasilii return to Moscow for huge ransom. Then Ivan, prince of Mozhaisk helps Dmitrii by capturing Vasilii and Dmitri then blinds Vasilii. Nevertheless, by end of the year Vasilii has gained support and Dmitri is driven out of Moscow.


1446 AD

Boris Aleksandrovich of Tver builds new strong fortress at Luboven, at mouth of T'mak River opposite strengthened kremlin.


1446 AD

Alexis attacks Cembalo again.

1447 AD

2 May - Olobei (Alexis' son) ruler of Theodoro at Mangup.

1446-47 AD

Ottoman Sultan Murad II (1421-1451) sends fleet to attack Trebizond, then Crimea, takes prisoners from Gothia.


1447 AD

Casimir becomes also King of Poland.


1447 AD

War between Kaffa and Trebizond, Byzantine Emperor John IV Commenus sends fleet under command of David, brother in law of Olobei, David goes to Kaffa and Kalimita , then visits Doros (Theodoro).

1447 AD

Vasilii retakes Moscow from Dmitri Shemiaka - Mahmudek, now Khan of Kazan, attacks Moscow but is driven away. Boris cements alliance with Vasilii by agreeing that his daughter, Maria, marry Ivan. Boris sends cannon from Tver to help Vasilii take Ustug and defeat Shemiaka. And Vasilii to show friendship gives Rzhev to Tver. But Rzhev objects so Boris has to besiege the town using his cannon.


1448 AD

Fearing Tver- Moscow alliance, the Lithuanians come and take Rzhev and hold it until Tver signs a new treaty.


1448 AD

Battle on the Narova River. Prince Vasilii Vasil'yevich of Suzdal defeats the Livonian German army. By sea at the isthmus of the River Narova the Novgorodian boats assault the Livonian ships andcapture two barons and 84 knights.


1448 AD

28 March - Battisto Marchexano appointed capitaneus of Genoese Gothia.

1448-53 AD

Constantine XI, last Byzantine emperor.

1449 AD

Statute of Kaffa, detailed instructions from Genoese government on how to govern colony - important historical source.

1449 AD

King Casimir of Poland supporting Haji Gerei, living in Lithuania, to seize Crimea from Said Ahmad, Khan of the Kypchak Horde.


1449 AD

Casimir IV makes treaties with Vasilii II of Moscow and Boris Aleksandrovich of Tver - Vasilii makes his son, Ivan, co-ruler.


1449 AD

Said Ahmad sends part of Horde against Moscow, defeated by Kasim, Tsarivich of Kasimov Tatars.


1450 AD

Dmitrii Shemiaka attacks Moscow again, when defeated flees to Novgorod.


1451-81 AD

Mohammed II, Ottoman Sultan.

1451 AD

Another Horde Tatar army of Said Ahmad reaches Moscow but is repulsed at the walls.

1453 AD

Ottoman Sultan Mohammed II captures Constantinople.

1453 AD

15 November - Genoese government cedes all Black Sea possessions to Bank of San Giorgio.


1453 AD

Moscow Kremlin burns.


1454 AD

In revenge for Ivan's support of Dmitri Shemiaka, Vasilii drives him out of Mozhaisk and annexes the town.


1454 AD

14 July, Ottoman Turkish fleet attacks Kaffa - Tatar Khan Haji Girei helps Ottomans but siege fails, however, tribute now due to Sultan.

1454 AD

Ottoman fleet attacks Theodoro before returning to Constantinople.


1454-66 AD

War between Teutonic Order and combination of Poland and Prussian towns.


1455 AD

In May, consul at Sudak (Carlo Chicala) reports about Gothia (Theodoro) border conditions.

1455 AD

Genoese repair fortifications St George and St Nicholas at Chembalo.

1455 AD

Giobanni Piccinino, Italian engineer, to fortify Kaffa. He proposes plan to capture Theodoro, not accepted.

1456 AD

Protectors of Bank of St George send friendly letter to Theodoro concerning danger from Ottomans.

1456 AD

Sultan Mohammed captures Athens from Franks.


1456 AD

Vasilii and Boris sign a new treaty of alliance as equals, calling each other 'brothers'. Vasilii II leads his army to Novgorod, fines the city and limits operation of the veche.


1458 AD

Olobei probably dies, succession at Theodoro goes to Isaac.


1459 AD

Vasilii conquers Viatka, temporarily.


1461 AD

Boris Aleksandrovich of Tver dies after 36 year rule that brought great prosperity to Tver. He is suceeded by Mikhail Borisovich. He signs alliance with Moscow the following year.


1461 AD

Ottoman Turks take Trebizond.

1462-67 AD

Halil, Khan of Kazan.

1462 - 1505 AD

Ivan III Vasil'yevich, Grand Prince of Moscow.

1462 AD

First campaign by Ivan III against Kazan.

1465 AD

Isaac (Saichus) probably son of Olobei, Prince of Theodoro.

1465-81 AD

Ahmed, Khan of Kypchak Horde.

1465 AD

Khan Ahmed starts campaign against Moscow, attacked en route on Don by Haji Girei and Crimean Tatars, allies of Moscow.


1466 AD

At second peace of Torun Teutonic Order cedes half Prussia to Poland.


1466-72 AD

Tver merchant Afanasiyi Nikitin travels overland to India.


1466-68 AD

Nur-Devlet Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1467-79 AD

Ibrahim, son of Mahmudek, Khan of Kazan.

1468-1515 AD

Mengli Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1468-69 AD

Ivan III begins another major campaign against Kazan, fails twice.

1470's AD

Religious struggle between Catholics and Greek Orthodox over reunion of churches generates civil unrest in Genoese Black Sea colonies.


1470 AD

Novgorod seeks help from King Casimir IV of Poland.


1471 AD

Livonian Lithuanian alliance is blocked when Livonian Master Wolthus von Herse is deposed.


1471 AD

Ivan III campaigns against Novgorod with Muscovite and Tatar troops and detachment from Tver, wins victory at Shelon River, forces treaty on Novgorod.


1471 AD

Kaffa pays tribute to Khan to buy friendship.

1471 AD

Genoese Kaffa and Sudak sign alliance with Theodoro for joint defense, Genoese Guasko brothers to stop bothering Lusti, belonging to Theodoro.

1471-72 AD

Genoese at Kaffa side with Mengli-Girei in his struggle for power with his brothers, (Nur- Devlet) whom they capture and keep at Sudak. Genoese try to get aid from Poland against Turks, but Poles fighting elsewhere.

1472-73 AD

Kaffa resident, Khozya Kokos, sends letter to Ivan III in Moscow proposing marriage of Ivan's 16-year -old son to daughter of Isaac, Prince of Theodoro on Mangup.

1472 AD

14 Sept. Isaac's sister, Maria, marries Stephen the Great, Prince of Moldovia.

1472 AD

Casimir signs treaty of alliance with Great (Kypchak) Horde against their mutual enemies, Muscovy and Crimean Tatars.


1472 AD

Ivan captures Perm, inherits Dmitrov.


1472 AD

Sophia Palaeologina travels from Italy to Moscow to marry Ivan III, accompanied by Prince Constantine of Mangup.

1472 AD

Ahmed launches another major campaign against Moscow, blocked with aid of Kasimov Tatars when Lithuanian allies failed to show.

1474 AD

Ivan III sends boyar, Nikita Beklemishev, to Khan Mengli Girei and Isaac (to check about marriage) and sign alliance with Mengli against Ahmed. Ivan also pays damages for raids of cossacks against Kaffa merchants.

1474 AD

Ottomans win victory in Hungary and prepare to shift forces to Black Sea.


1474 AD

Ivan unites Rostov to Moscow.


1475 AD

Early spring - Stephen wins great victory over Turks in Moldovia.

1475 AD

Ivan III negociating treaty of alliance with Mengli Girei when Ottomans invade and capture Mengli.

1475 AD

Early spring - Ivan III sends boyar, Aleksei Starkov, to Theodoro to cement proposed marriage, Starkov also is to obtain redress for damages done to Muscovite merchants.

1475 AD

Stephen of Moldovia sends Alexander, brother of his wife and of Isaac, by ship from Montecastro to Kalimita with 300 mercenary troops supplied by king of Hungary. Alexander deposes and kills Isaac, assumes rule of Theodoro.

1475 AD

Khan Mengli Girei forced out at Solkhat, takes refuge in Kaffa. Tatar chieftans support Ottoman sultan, who uses the excuse to conquer Crimea.

1475 AD

31 May - Large Turkish fleet under Grand Vizier Keduk Akhmet Pasha arrives to conduct naval landing and besiege Kaffa with Tatar aid.

1475 AD

6 June - after 5-day siege, Kaffa surrenders, 500 Genoese families sent to Constantinople, many leaders manage to flee to Mangup. Many foreign merchants including Russians taken into slavery.

1475 AD

Ottoman army takes Sudak after Genoese put up heroic defense throughout city and in upper castle.

1475 AD

Stephen III of Moldova appeals to King Matthew Corvinus of Hungary for more help.

1475 AD

December - Ottomans capture Mangup after 3-month siege, during which 5 assaults fail, by using heavy artillery. Prince Alexander has 300 Wallach mercenaries and possibly 15,000 local men. Mengli Girei taken to Constantinople then returned to be Khan. Prince Alexander taken and beheaded after his wife and daughters are given to Sultan's harem.

1475 AD

Ottoman Turks establish their local governor on Magkup and begin repair of fortifications. This becomes their citadel for control over Crimean Tatars.


1475 AD

Ivan goes again to Novgorod - Aristotle Fioroventi arrives in Moscow with contract to fortify and build churches.


1477 AD

Ivan again campaigns against Novgorod with support from Tver troops.


1478 AD

Khan Ibrahim of Kazan tries to capture Viatka while Ivan III busy at Novgorod, but fails. Ivan takes great bell from Novgorod to Moscow. He also takes Torzhok.

1479-84 AD

Ali, Khan of Kazan.


1480 AD

Livonian Order fails to capture Pskov.


1480 AD

Incident on the Ugra, Ivan III and Khan Ahmed face each other across river but both refuse battle. Tver sends troops to support Ivan.


1481-1512 AD

Bayazid II, Ottoman Sultan.


1481 AD

Andrei of Vologda bequeaths appanage to Ivan - Khan Ahmed killed.


1481-1502 AD

Seyed Ahmed, last Khan of Great (Kypchak) Horde.

1482 AD

Ottoman Turks capture Matrega on Taman Penn.


1483 AD

Being now nearly surrounded by Moscow, Mikhail Borisovich signs treaty with Casimir IV and agrees to marriage. But, having helped Ivan take Novgorod it is now too late for Mikhail.


1484 AD

Ottomans take Chilia Kilia on Danube and Moncastro (Akkerman - Belgorod Dnistrovski) on Dniester.

1484-85 AD

Muhammed Emin, Khan of Kazan.

1484 AD

Ivan III conducts another campaign against Kazan.

1484 AD

Ivan sends his Tatar troops to aid Mengli Girei against Great Horde after the Horde under Murtaza (Ahmed's son) invades Crimea. Mengli sends Murtaza as prisoner to Istanbul, then Mengli defeated and goes temporarily to Istanbul.

1484 AD

Under increasing pressure Great Horde migrates west to Donets River, continues much fighting with Crimean Tatars and Moscow.


1485 AD

Ivan III attacks Tver in winter 1484-5. Casimir does not send help. Mikhail is forced to swear allegance to Moscow. This causes his boyars and serving princes to go to Moscow. Then Ivan comes again in September. Mikhail flees to Lithuania and the citizens open the gates to Ivan.


1485-87 AD

Ali, (2nd time) Khan of Kazan.

1486 AD

Ivan sends army under Nur Devlet against Great Horde.

1487-95 AD

Mohammed Emin (2nd time) Khan of Kazan.

1487 AD

Under pressure from Ottoman sultan Great Horde attacks Lithuania instead of Crimea or Moscow. Horde spends 2.5 years campaigning in Poland and Lithuania thus weakening Poles versus Ottomans but also weakening itself versus Crimea and Moscow.

1487 AD

With Mehemmed Amin's mother now married to Mengli Girei, his ally, Ivan now settles on Mehemmed as his candidate for Kazan throne, sends 4 armies who depose Ali and instal Mehemmed again. Ivan agrees for Mehemmed to marry daughter of Nogai chieftan, Musa.


1489 AD

Viatka submits to Moscow.


1490 AD

Great Horde still fighting in Poland after being ejected from Podolia, Ivan sends Kasimov Tatars against them with no contact. Sultan Bayazid trying to get all Tatars into mutual alliance.

1490-91 AD

Mengli Girei demobilizes Crimean army, then Great Horde attacks by surprise, Mengli retaliates against their fortress on Dnieper while Great Horde is fighting Poles, Bayazid sends 1000 Janissaries to help Mengli.

1491 AD

Afash ulan leads Kazan Tatar army attack on Astrakhan.

1491 AD

Poles defeat Great Horde at Zaslavl as Mengli and Ivan applaud from the sidelines. But then Great Horde masses north of Crimea for invasion with aid from Nogai Horde. Ivan sends army south and also sends Kazan Tatars south to aid Crimeans. This forces Great Horde to disperse.

1492 AD

Combined attack on Astrakhan by Siberian Tatar Ivak, his brother, Mamuk, Khan of the Uzbeks, and his brother in law, Musa andYamgurchu of the Nogais, but they fail to take fortress. They continue to pressure Kazan.

1492 AD

With Great Horde impotent, Mengli Girei builds Crimean fortress at Tyaginka, on Dnieper as base for raids into Podolia, Ivan concerned as he has designs on lower Dnieper for himself.


1492 AD

Death of Casimir IV, Moscow- Lithuania again in conflict.


1493 AD

Fire destroys most of Mangup, Turks rebuild.

1493 AD

Mengli begins Crimean campaigns into Lithuania-Poland from Tyaginka. Lithuanians counter attack and destroy that fort. Mengli leads next campaign in person into Podolia and rebuilds Tyaginka .


1494 AD

Ivan III begins campaign against Lithuania - Ivan closes Novgorod to trade with Hanse.


1495 AD

Alexander, Grand Duke of Lithuania, marries Ivan's daughter Elena.


1495-96 AD

Mamuk, Khan of Siberia takes over in Kazan with help from Nogais, Mehemmed flees to Moscow, then population ejects Mamuk.

1496-1502 AD

Abd- al- Latif, Mehemmed's brother, installed by Ivan as new Khan of Kazan, Mehemmed receives lands around Serpukhov, thus Mengli and Nur Sultan were kept happy.


1496 AD

War between Moscow and Sweden. Swedes capture Ivangorod...


1497 AD

Polish-Lithuanian campaign against Ottomans in Modavia. King Stephen victorious against Poles, Ivan and Mengli force Lithuanians out of campaign. Alexander of Lithuania attacks Tyaginka instead but Tatars win.

1498 AD

Nogai and Siberian Tatars again plotting to take Kazan and replace Abd-al-Latif.. Ottomans invade Poland to aid Stephen and Mengli.

1499 AD

Ivan sends riverine army to defend Kazan from Siberians and Nogai. He also agrees with Mengli on division of the steppe Ukraine.


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