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CHRONOLOGY - 16th CENT

 
 

MICHA JELISAVCIC
JOHN SLOAN

 
   

Return to 15th century.

 

1500 AD

Ivan again defending Kazan from Nogai despite being also heavily engaged in war in Lithuania, Battle of Vedrosha River.

1500 AD

Crimean Tatars reach Lvov and Lublin in July. Great Horde again moves west to Don and Medveditsa Riveras under Sheykh and Seyyed, sons of Ahmad Khan, They are planning to help Lithuanians. Mengli Gerei withdraws from Lithuania to guard Crimea from them. Then they shift to attack Moscow. Mengli warns Ivan and Ivan sends army south. Crimeans invade Lithuania again and reach Brest and into Poland across Vistula.

1501 AD

Treaty of Wenden unites Livonian Order and Lithuanians against Ivan III. Alexander now king of Poland plans to get Nogai to attack Kazan while Great Horde and Lithuanians attack Seversk. Ivan on defensive, but defeats Livonians at Helmed.

1502 AD

Great Horde, now much depleted, moves west to Dnieper north of Kyiv but refuses Ottoman order to cross. Mengli Gerei chases Horde and destroys much of it on 6 June. Ivan has Tatar Khans of Kazan and Kasimov with their armies supporting his around Smolensk. In July Mengli sends his sons, Feti and Burnash, with 90,000 troops to support Ivan, but instead they raid far west into Polish Galicia and Volhynia. Their excuse was that area around Smolensk was too wooded. Their raid did force Alexander to shift troops from Smolensk west to Lutsk. But Master von Plettenberg saves Livonia in battle of Lake Smolina.

1502-18 AD

Muhammed Emin (3rd time) Khan of Kazan.

1504 AD

Mengli Girei sends letter to Ivan III informing that Sultan Bayazid II has assigned 1000 men from Kaffa and Mangup to repair fortifications.

1505-33 AD

Vasilii III Ivanovich, Grand Prince of Moscow.

1506 AD

Vasilii launches first campaign against Kazan but is defeated.

1508 AD

Muhammed returns Russian prisoners and signs peace treaty.

 

1510 AD

Vasilii III takes Pskov.

 

1512-20 AD

Selim I, Ottoman Sultan.

1512 AD

Vasilii III sends boyar Alekseyev to Sultan Selim I. Alekseyev returns with Prince Kemalbi of Mangup.

1512 AD

Mengli Gerei switches sides to alliance with Lithuania - due to Vasilii's stingy payments and Muscovite annexation of Severia. This destroys cornerstone of Ivan III's strategic policy and begins continual war between Crimea and Moscow lasting to 1780's.

 

1512 AD

War between Moscow and Lithuania resumes.

 
 

1514 AD

Vasilii captures Smolensk.

 

1515-23 AD

Mukhammed Girei I, Khan of Crimea (Mengli's son).

1515 AD

Crimean Tatars raid Moscow. Moscow begins major fortification program along southern border - Zasechnaya Cherta. Organizes 'shore duty' along Oka.

 

1517 AD

Vasilii aquires Ryazan.

 

1519-21 AD

Mehemmed Amin dies at Kazan, Vasilii sends Shah Ali, Mehemmed's brother, as new Khan of Kazan. Crimeans now interveen against Moscow, send Khan's brother, Sahib to rule Kazan.

 

1519 AD

Poles invade Prussia.

 

1520-66 AD

Suleiman I, Ottoman Sultan.

1521-24 AD

Sahib Girei, Khan of Kazan.

1521 AD

Mehemmed Girei, Khan of Crimea, launches major campaign against Moscow, they reach suburbs with Lithuanian and Cossack help. Moscow annexes Riazan accusing them of aiding Tatars.

1523 AD

Gazi Girei I , Khan of Crimea.

1523-31 AD

Saddat Girei I, Khan of Crimea.

1524-31 AD

Safa Girei, Khan of Kazan.

 

1525 AD

Prussia secularized under Duke Albert (end of Teutonic Order control).

 

1531-33 AD

Jan Ali, Khan of Kazan, protegee of Moscow, he was Khan of Kasimov and brother of Shah Ali.

1532 AD

Islam Girei I, Khan of Crimea.

1532-50 AD

Sakhib Girei I, Khan of Crimea.

1533-46 AD

Safa Girei (2nd time), Khan of Kazan.

1533-84 AD

Ivan IV Vasil'yevich, Tsar of all Russias (his mother, Elena Glinskaya regent until 1538, then Vasilii Shuiskii regent for a year, then Ivan Bel'skii).

1534 AD

Sakhib Girei tries to capture Kazan and Astrakhan but he is murdered.

1538 AD

Kazan Tatars raid Muscovy.

 

1539 AD

Shu'ya founded

 

1540 AD

Safa Girei leads Kazan troops against Muscovy, then Sakhib Girei brings Crimean Tatars and Turkish troops north along Don.

1541 AD

31 July the Crimean army with Turkish artillery reaches Oka. Large Muscovite army defends river line to Tatars retire.

1546-49 AD

Shah Ali, Khan of Kazan.

1548 AD

Ivan IV first campaign against Kazan, many troops lost to river ice thaw.

1549-51 AD

Safa Girei dies, Utemish (regent) in Kazan.

1550 AD

In Feb Ivan's army reaches Kazan. In March reports that Sakhib Girei is advancing from Crimea force Ivan to move troops to Kolomna and Riazan.

1551-77 AD

Devlet Girei I, Khan of Crimea.

1551-52 AD

Shah Ali (3rd time), Khan of Kazan, sent by Ivan when Kazan leaders want peace and throw out the Crimean rulers. He releases 60,000 Russians held prisoner. People revolt against Shah Ali.

1552 AD

Yedigar Muhammed, Khan of Kazan.

1552 AD

Ivan IV conquest of Kazan.

1553 AD

Revolt in Kazan, Ivan sends several armies to crush it. Nogai Tatars ask him to depose Khan of Astrakhan.

1554 AD

Ivan IV sends Russian army down Volga by boat to Astrakhan to depose Yamgurchei and instal Derbysh as Tsar of Astrakhan, Yamgurchei counterattacks with Crimean and other Nogai help, Derbysh flees and Russians take control.

1554 AD

Ivan mounts first attack directly toward Crimea and Muscovite army reaches Perekop. Khan Devlet Girei counterattacks with large army to Tula. Devlet ambushes Ivan Sheremetev.

1556 AD

Ivan sends recon parties to Crimea while he goes with main army to Tula, Ivan forstalls Devlet, who retires again to Crimea. Russian recon raids Ochakov on Black Sea, Prince Vishnevetsky builds Cossack fortress on Khortitsa Island.

1558 AD

Vishevetsky raids Perekop from base on Khortitsa Island.

1558 AD

Devlet Girei launches major offensive against Moscow with 100,000 Tatars including Greater and Lesser Nogai under his son, Mahmet Girei. They attack Tula, Riazan, and Kashira, but are blocked from Moscow - Vishevetsky again raids Perekop.

 

1558 AD

Ivan begins Livonian War in northwest.

 

1559 AD

Devlet Girei starts large offensive with Great Nogai allies, Russians block central route while Vishevetsky shifts his attack east to Donetz toward Kerch and blocks Crimean advance toward Kazan and Nogai move westward. At same time Adashev sails down Dniper to raid Ochakov and then sails to Crimea where he captures Turkish ships and frees many Russian prisoners.

1560 AD

Tatar raids and Russian counter attacks through much of the year, while main Russian army is at war in Livonia.

 

1561 AD

Partition of Livonia.

 

1561 AD

Devlet Gerei warns Ivan that Ottoman Sultan Suleiman plans to dig canal between Don and Volga and fortify it to unite all Tatars as far as Kazan into Muslim war against Russia. Devlet secretly does not like this idea as it would put Crimea further under Ottoman control.

1562 AD

Crimean-Polish coordinated offensive plans fall through, but each attacks Muscovy independently. Devlet Gerei attacks Mtsensk.

 

1563 AD

Muscovites capture Polotsk.

 

1564 AD

With main Muscovite forces engaged in west, Devlet Gerei attacks and burns Riazan.

1566-74 AD

Selim II, Ottoman Sultan.

1566-70 AD

Complex campaigns and shifts of sides between Crimean Tatars, Muscovites and Poles.

1569 AD

Ottoman Sultan Selim mounts his planned offensive to Volga River via Kaffa in Crimea and then Azov fortress on Don. He begins dig of canal between Don and Volga supported by 50,000 Crimean Tatars hot weather forces curtailment of the dig. Turks fail to reach and take Astrakhan.

 

1569 AD

Ivan IV campaign against Novgorod, also burns Tver and Torshk and Beshetskovo Verkh.

 

1571 AD

Devlet Girei finally penetrates Oka 'shore' defense line with 120,000 Tatars. Tatars burn Moscow and take 150,000 prisoners. Nogai support this and also attack Kazan.

1572 AD

Devlet Girei repeats huge campaign against Moscow but this time is decisively defeated in great battle of Molodi near Moscow. Revolt in Kazan requires large Russian army to suppress.

1573-84 AD

Yearly campaigns by and against Crimean Tatars versus Moscow.

1574-95 AD

Murad III, Ottoman Sultan.

 

1575 AD

War between Muscovy and Sweden begins in Estonia.

 
 

1575-86 AD

Stephan Batory elected King of Poland, prepares for war with Moscow.

 

1577-84 AD

Mukhammed Girei II, Khan of Crimea.

 

1578 AD

Russians defeated by Swedes at Wenden.

 
 

1579 AD

Russians loose Polotsk and Velikie Luki.

 

1581 AD

Nogai conduct large scale attacks on right bank of Volga and into Russia proper - Stephan Batory besieges Pskov.

1584-98 AD

Feodor I Ivanovich, Tsar of all Russias.

1584-88 AD

Islam Girei I, Khan of Crimea, second time.

1586 AD

Islam Girei leads 30,000 Crimean Tatars plus others against Moscow.

1588-1608 AD

Gazi (Kazi) Girei II, Khan of Crimea, He is most concerned about power of Nogai so stops campaigns against Moscow to conduct war against Nogais. In most important battle on Don in 1588 the Nogai are defeated.

1591 AD

Gazi Girei attacks Moscow region in summer 1590 - during winter 90-91 plans major new offensive campaign. Deceives Russians into believing he will attack Lithuania. By June Russian scout patrols report huge Tatar invasion. Boris Gudunov (in name of Tsar Feodor) orders mobilization and deployment of the Gulai gorod at Kolomenskoye. 4 July major battle and Russian artillery drives Tatars off.

1592 AD

Another large Tatar campaign, to Riazan, Tula and Kashir. Boris orders expansion of the frontier fortified lines and fortresses.

1593 AD

Ottoman Sultan, Mahomet III, begins major offensive in Balkans along line from Adriatic to Black Seas, Tatar Khan sends 70,000 troops into Poland, Hungary and Moldava. Campaigns continue in following years.

1593 AD

First Cossack attack on Azov fortress, Lesser Nogai and Kaziev Tatars mobilized against Cossacks - Sultan warns Boris about Russian fort on Terek and expanding influence in Georgia and Caucasus, also demands return of Kazan and Astrakhan.

1595-1603 AD

Mohammed III, Ottoman Sultan.

1596-1606 AD

Feti Girei, Khan of Crimea.

1596-1606 AD

Feti Girei leading 15,000 or more Tatars in continual raids in Poland - booty and prisoners so lucrative attacks on Muscovy not worth while.

1596 AD

Dosmahmet leads Azov Tatar raid on Riazan.

1598 - 1605 AD

Boris Feodorovich Gudunov, Tsar of Russia.

1598 AD

Tatar campaign to Oka. Boris leads army in person, but assigns command of major units to his Tatar Tsarevichi - Arslan Kaybulich, Uraz-Mahmet, and Mahmet Kul. - Boris starts new fortified line south of Oka, through Mtsensk, Novosil and Orel plus Belgorod, Oskol and Tsarev-Borisov.

 

Go to 17th century.

 

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