{short description of image}  

SERINDIA - MAPS - STEIN

List of Stein's map sheets

{short description of image}
 
This set of maps was published as one volume of Serindia - the report on the Second Expedition, the maps were compiled from the surveys conducted during the first and second of the expeditions and carefully corrected at the Survey of India to correct discrepencies. There are some areas surveyed during the third expedition that are not included. Note the gaps between map sheets 23 and 34 - and between 14 and 24 - and north of 74 - and between 53 and 65 - and north of 83 and 85 - and the area east of 90 and north of 93. We have compiled a comparison of these map sheets with those in Innermostasia here. A very valuable discussion of the whole topographic survey and creation of the maps was published in Memoir on Maps of Chinese Turkistan and Kansu: From the surveys made during Sir Aurel Stein's Exploaions 1900-1, 1906-8, 1913-15. published by Trigonometrical Survey Office, Dehra Dun, India 1923.
The maps are not numbered in the sequence in which they might be used to follow his narration in Serindia. Rather, they are numbered from west to east in columns and from north to south in each column.
Thus the first column with numbers 1-4 is the western most column at the border of China with then Russia (now Tajikistan and Kirghizistan) and including the important city, Kashgar.
The second column with maps 5-8 that are in the next column parallel with 1-4.
Then maps 9-13 are the next (3rd) column with 9-12 parallel their adjoining maps and 13 one row below.
The next (4th) column has 14 and 15 to the east and parallel with 9 and 10; and 16-17 parallel with 12 -13 and 18 below, in the Kunlun mountains.
Then the 5th column has map 19 north and to the east of 14 - blanks for the desert east of 14-15 and 11; 20-21-22 parallel with and east of 16,17-18.
The 6th column is complete with 23 east of 19, 24-25-26 east of open desert, 27-28-29 east and parallel with 20-21-22.
The 7th column has maps 30-31-32-22 east and parallel with 26-27-28-29.
The 8th column shows 34-35-36 in column on the north side of the Tarim basin (no map to their west) and 37-38 parallel with 31-32 in the mountains south of the basin.
The 9th column has 39 east of and parallel with 34 - a long break to the south, and then 40-41 east and parallel with 37-38.
The 10th column has only 42 parallel with 39 in the northern montains and 43 parallel and east of 40 in the southern mountains.
In column 11 map 44 in far north, 45 is parallel with 43, 46 is on desert edge and 47 is east and parallel with 43.
In column 12 map 48 is parallel with 44, 49 with 45, 50 with 40.
In column 13 map 51 parallels 48, 52 - 49, 53 - 50, with the expanse of desert between 52 and 53.
Column 14 is complete starting with 54 at the north parallel with 51, then 55-56-57 in sequence going south.
Column 15 starts with 58 in far north, 59 parallel with 54, a gap then 60 parallel with 56 and 61 parallel with 57.
Column 16 has 62 parallel with 58 and 63 with 59 - then a gap and 64 parallel with 61 and 65 at the south in the mountains.
Column 17 has only 66 at the far north parallel with 62, then a gap to 67 and 68 parallel with 64.
Column 18 shows map 69 parallel with 66, 70 with 67 and 71 with 68.
In column 19 72 parallels 69 then to the south is 73, then a gap and 74 parallel with 70 and 75 with 71.
Column 20 has 76 parallel with 73 then 77-78-79 in sequence south to the mountains.
Column 21 starts with 80 parallel to 77, 81 to 78 and 82 with 79.
Column 22 has only 83 next to 81 and 84 next to 82 as this covers the narrow corridor between the Nin-shan mountains on the south and highlands on the north.
Column 23 shows map 85 east of 83, 86 east of 84 and 87 the furthest south again in the eastern edge of the Nin-Shan.
Column 24 has 88 next to 86 and 89 next to 87.
Then comes column 25 with 90 by itself in the northern hills, 91 south of it next to 88 and 92 next to 89.
Finally the eastern most column, 26 has two maps, 93 next to 91 and 94 next to 92.
A listing of the photos made of each map sheet is here.
Each map is of a rectangle one degree west to east and one degree south to north.
The detailed descriptions of each map sheet below show that many include details in only a small part of the entire map sheet. Looking at all these maps laid out together one can see Stein's objective and itinerary during his second expedition was to circumnavigate the Taklamakan desert and create complete coverage of the western and eastern ends. The Su-chou corridor from eastern China to the desert is included fully. Plus the map column 6 - maps 23 to 29 was made during Stein's journey directly across the desert on the Keriya river valley. Maps 60-61 are of the important Lou-lan area (naturally missing from this original edition).
Looking at the maps from west to east one sees that maps 19-23-34-39-42-44-48-51-54-58-62-66-69-72-76 cover the northern border mostly in the T'ien-shan mountains. And maps 18-22-29-33-38-41-43-47-50-53-65-87-89-92-94 cover most of the southern line in the Kun lun and Nin-shan mountains.
Looking at the maps over all they form an oval with long axis west to east with the maps forming the edge and a line of maps north to south across the center - plus then an 'tail' sticking out to the east that includes the Kansu corridor as far as Ku-chou.
During his third expedition Stein filled in several gaps and also extended the topographic survey further south in the Nan-shan mountains and further north in the T'ien-shan mountains. By including here in the map descriptions much of Stein's material I hope to enable readers to key the appropriate map to the text.
 
Number Name Location Photos of each map sheet Comment  
1 Turug-art Dawan 75-76E - 40-41N {short description of image} Shows the mountains northwest of Kashgar, the Chakmak River, Chakmak Karaul fort and pass at 11,400 ft - map is due West of #5 and North of #2.  
2 Kashgar 75-76E 39-40N {short description of image} South of #1, West of #6, North of #3 - It includes Kashgar city and Chakmak River valley split into Artush and Astin-Artujsh Rivers - shows Islak, Karaul fort north of Kashgar  
3 Kara-tash River 75-76E - 38-39N {short description of image} South of #2, West of #7, North of #4 - It shows route to Kashgar in far northeast corner - high mountains in southern half. Buss-msal pass at 14,900 ft, headwaters of Kara-tash River flowing north then appears again in NE corner.  
4 Tash-Kurgan River 75-76E - 37-38N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #2, West of #7, North of #4 - Shows mountains in north 1/3 of map but shows heights of peaks issolated throughout some at 18,240 - 18,711, 20,722 feet. Tashkurgan at 10,225 feet is main town on the river which bends eastward.  
5 Terek Dawan 76-77 E - 40-41N {short description of image} East of #1, North of $6, West of #9 - Shows mountains in south quarter, rest is blank - shows Kok-Kiya fort south of Terek Dawan (pass) 12,100 feet.  
6 Khan-arik 76-77E - 39-40N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 2, West of # 10, South of #4, North of #7. The main town is Yangi-Shahr, shows the narrow cultivated valleys SE of Yangi-Shahr and NE the road over pass - shows Terek River valley NW to SE is east of Kashgar - shows main road toward Yarkand in the valley and road to Turfan in NE  
7 Yangi Hissar 76-77 E - 38-39N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of #3, South of #6, North of #8, West of #11 - Shows Yangi Hissar fort SE of Kashgar - mountains to south - road SE toward Yarkand via Kelpin - Road SW toward Tash Kurghan.  
8 Tiznaf River 76-77E - 37-38N - {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #7, East of #4, West of #12 - shows only small mountain areas in NW corner and SE corner - rest blank  
9 Oi-bulak 77-78E - 40-41N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of #5, West of #14, North of #10 - the northern most map in this area. Shows only the road from Kashgar NE towrd Turfan and valley with mouontains on each side. Oi-bulka is oasis at center of road with Stein's camp 394. The pass at Beloti is 11,400 feet. The Taushkan River is at NE corner.  
10 Abad 77-78E - 39-40N {short description of image} South of #9, North of #11, East of #6, West of #15 - Shows only the Yarkand River in SE quadrant with road along it from Khan Arikan on west toward Maral-bushi on the east edge. Abad Charshamba-Bazar at center along the southern edge by the river.  
11 Yarkand 77-78E - 38-39N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of #7, South of #10, North of #12, shows nothing east. Shows Yarkand River from South to North with cultivation along both sides. Yarkand in the south center and also Yangi Shahar. Shows road southward along the river to Kharghalik and river north toward Maral-bashi. Shows ruins of Tatar and Uigur places in desert east and west.  
12 Karghalik 77-78E - 37-38N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #11, East of#8, West of #16, North of #13 - Shows rivers flowing south to north - Karghalik at the northern edge - East-west roads between Kilian River and Tirnaf River on south edge toward Shahidulla  
13 Sarigant 77-78E - 36-37N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #12, West of #17 - Shows Sarigart Pass at 13,800 feet - mountains along the NE quadrant but rest is bare - not mapped. Passes to south at Kokyart shows headwaters of streams flowing northward- made in effort to reach the watershed between Taklamahan and India.  
14 Kelpin 78-79E - 40-41N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of #9, North of #15 - Shows Tushkan River across northern side flowing East - SW quadrant of map is bare - shows dry river bed South to North on East side flowing SE - shows many ruins and ancient fort at 78 degree 59' East - 40 degree 8' North- Munjak ruin - watershed at 78 degree 55' 40 degree 47' North - Sjhaitkak at 7631 feet elevation  
15 Maral-bashi 78-79E - 39-40N {short description of image} South of #14, East of #10 - At limit of Stein's survey into desert - Shows branch of Yarkand River in NW quadrant flowing NE - Marak-Bashi at 78 degree 25' and 39 Degree 46'N - important fort ruins in NE secton of map - Topa shahr-shrine and monastery - Tumshak-tagh-shahri ruined fort - shows road to Yarkand on west side going SW.  
16 Sanju 78-79E - 37-38N {short description of image} East of #12, North of #17, West of #20 - nothing in northern section - Shows in southern half the Kilian River at far SW corner and again on West side to Guma Bazar - other rivers flowing from southern edge northward disappear into desert - shows one ruin stupa at 78 degrees 14/ E, 37 degree 15/ N. Sanju is on the River in south center - also called Saidulla.  
17 Shah i dulla 78-79E 36-37N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #16, North of #18, East of # 13, West of #21 - Stein's mapping into the high mountains toward India and his search for head waters of rivers flowing north to Khotan - shows Karaksch River SE to NW - mountains to 23,757 feet. Shows many glaciers - his camps above 10,000 feet. Hindutash pass at 17,750 feet by glaciers - passes over 11,000 feet. Headqwaters of the Sanju River and others flowing north - Kilian pass at 17,910. Roat to Karakoram on south border - Shah i dulla Mahar on Kuraksch river on west side of map at 78 degree 3' E 36 degree 24' N - route crosses Sanju pass at 16,650 feet - shows many others E to W and W to E. Shah i dulla was Stein's key rendesvous with his baggage train on way back to Kashmir  
18 Karakorum pass 77-78E - 35-36N {short description of image} South of # 17, East of # 22. Only the NW quadrant is mapped - rest of blank - this shows the road over the 18,687 foot high pass south from Shah i dulla that Stein took on return trip from second expedition to Leh and Kashmir - as invalid from frostbite.Was not up to doing topograhic surveys at this point.  
19 Uch-Turfan 79-80E - 41-42N {short description of image} West of #23, - shows nothing in northern part - this is his northernmost limit during 2nd expedition - southern half shows Uch-Turfan at 79 degrees 10' E - 41 degrees 6' North in a cultivated area south of Tushkan Darya (river) flowing west to east. It is a road junction from SW to NE toward mountains - road E toward Aksu - road west to Kashgar.  
20 Khotan 79-80E - 37-38N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of#16, West of# 27, North of #21 - Shows Khotan city in SE corner Kara Kash river in SE corner flowing north into desert and Yurung Kash flowing parallel before confluence. The West-east road in southern 1/3 of map. the northern section of map is empty - shows several forts and cultivated area -shows abrupt edge to desert - ruin of ancient Yurkhan - road East toward Keriya.  
21 Nissa 79-80E - 36-37N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #20, North of # 22, East of #17, West of # 28 - Shows mountains along west and south borders - NE quarter blank - Yurung Kash river flows from southern edge into desert - glaciers on south edge to 12,500 and 13,350 feet. Nissa is village at 79 degrees 34' East and 36 degrees 15' North on west edge of Karakash river with moutains over 11,000 feet  
22 Khitai Dawan 79-80 E - 35-36N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #21, East of #18, West of #29 - Stein made this survey in his effort to reach the watershed between India and Takla Makan desert - shows an inland basin -salt lake and streams flowing into it - Khitai pass at 16,505 feet - NW quadrant has Karakash river flowing northwest toward Shah i dulla - mountains over 22,000 - 23,000 feet. Sten's route shows SE to NW over these passes as he went around impassable gorges to reach the headwaters.  
23 Ak-su 80-81 E - 41-42 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 19, North of # 24 - shows Angi-shchr (Aksu) at SW corner - trail northward into mountains - east side blank - Terang Darya flowing southward.  
24 Ak-su Yarkand River 80-81E - 40-41N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 23, North of # 25 - Shows Khotan River flowing from southern edge north along east side and Aksu River flow SE from west north corner meeting flow toward Tarim River - The Khotan River has impressive flow only during late spring from the melting snows in the Kun-lun, then dries up into pools by fall - then freezes over winter. The Aksu has flow from the nearby T'ien shan - the Tarim River then flows eastward along the northen edge of the desert to reach the Lop Nor salt sea bed. The agriculture along the northern part of the Aksu is indicated.  
25 Mazar Tagh 80-81E - 38-39N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 24, North of # 26 - Shows the Kara Kash River flow from SE edge becoming the Khotan River flowing off northern edge toward map sheet 24. Mazar Tagh is the ruined fortress on a bluff on west side of the river at 80 degree 40'E, 38 degree 27' North. The desert both east and west of the river valley encroaches closely. Mazar Tagh was an important objective of Stein's explorations. See Mazar Tagh.  
26 Khotan River 80-81E - 39-40N   This is one of the four key map sheets missing from the 5th volume of "Serindia" - whoever took them indeed knew what is important. However I did manage to find a PDF version on the Internet thanks to the Silk Road Foundation project. Khotan  
27 Sampula 80-81 E - 38-39N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 26, North of # 28, East of # 20, West of # 31 - Shows the Yurung-Kash River on western edge flowing into the Kara Kash to become the Khotan River - shows road SW to Khotan along the river and another road N to Aksu. - Along the southern edge is the road from Khotan east to Keriya. The northeast quadrant is bare - desert. The many streams along the southern edge flow north. The Rawak Stupa is at 80 degrees 81' E, 37 degree 21' N plus more ruins. Ariksh Bazar is in the SW corner. Sampula Bazar is at 80 degrees E, 37 degrees 2'N. Shows the Arka Kuduk ruin - more ruins in SE area including Ulugh Mazar fort, a village and another Rawak.  
28 Chakar 80-81E - 36-37N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of #21, West of # 32, South of # 27, North of # 29 - Shows Chakar area in SE part on river, shows the mountain range and river SW off to north - southern area blank - Chira River flows NE to Karanghi Tagh - in SW many streams flow north into desert  
29 Zailik 80-81 E - 34 degree 40' to 36 degree N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #28, East of # 22, West of # 33 - Stein here was again trying to reach the watershed. To do this he had to start south from a position well east of this map column to get around impassible gorges and then turn west in the inland basin. His path to Shah i dulla on the western edge - His E-W path is on the south side of the glacier covered mountain range - from glaciers streams flow south into this basin - on north side of the range streams flow north - the watershed peaks are for instance at 21,380 - 20,980, 21,160 feet and similar - along the south side of the basin on south edge of map the mountain range there also has elevations of 21,190 and more - The Yurhung Kash river flows east to west along the northern edge of the basin - eventually it will cut through the mountains - small locations where prospectors look for gold in pits are described in NE corner and the impassible gorge that Stein originally tried in on north edge of map. He describes this effort briefly in "Serindia" Volume III.  
30 Kara Dong 81-82 E - 38-39 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 26, North of # 31 - there is no map in this column north of #30. - this sheet is on edge of desert - Shows the Keriya river flowing north from its south edge on the east side of map. The entire west side is blank - the river route is very narrow and Stein only surveyed directly as he traveled south - up the river. At north edge of this map the river flows north east onto maps 36 and 35. He actually had a difficult time finding the shifting delta of the Keriya river as it was west of the route south he initially took The ruins of Kara Dong are at 81 degree 55 ' E and 38 degree 31' N - Stein was traveling rapidly across the desert from Shahyar and had no water to spare.  
31 Domoko 81-82 E - 37-38 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 30, North of # 32, East of # 27, West of # 37. This map was made during Stein's rapid journey south - see map 30 above - The river is very narrow with desert on both sides, but he as able to contiune south once the river delta was located. He moved SW in the SW corner of the map to the many ruins at Khadalik 81 degree 11' E - 37 Degree 5' N. The road to Keriya is on the south map edge. Keriya River flows north and off the map northern border onto map 30. Stein traveled north to south and then west from the Keriya river to Domoko, which he had visited previously. But his 'scouts' found more ruins to investigate. "Old Domoko" is at 81 degree 5' E and 37 degree 11' N in south west corner on Domoko river.  
32 Keriya 81-82 E - 36-37 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 31, North of # 33, East of # 28, West of # 38 - this sheet is in center of a group of maps along the southern border of Takla Mahan and northern edge of Kun-lun mountains. It shows the upper Keriya River and others flowing north from the southern edge. Keriya town is at 81 degrees 42' E - 36 degrees 51' N near the northern edge of the map - the road from Khotan is at the NW corner near Domoko.  
33 Yurung-Kash source 81-82 E - 35-36 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
 South of # 32, East of # 29 - This sheet should be examined with sheet 29 described above. Together they show one of the most spectacular efforts in mountain climbing that Stein accomplished. It shows how Stein went around the impassable gorges shown on sheet 28 by first going east and then south and back west across the interior basin. Shows many huge glaciers in montains on western side. The SE quadrant is bare as Stein did not survey further east of his chosen path. He entered this map sheet from the center of the northern edge going south across a plateau, then turned west into the mountains at a 17,000 foot pass then south again across passes at 17,137 at Mandarko pass and more. Then he turned SE again for miles along the southern edge of the basin over many more passes, then south again and reached the Keriya River, turned SW up the river, crossed again at 17,559 into drainage of the Keriya source, then up over another pass at 17,986 into the interior basin at 81 degrees 12' E 35 degrees 32' N - then crossed the upper Yurung Kash to a glacier, then turned NE and then E again along the tributaries into the Yurung Kash. His trail shows on the SW edge toward Shah i dulla. Then he crossed again over the basin to map #29 skirting the range that was watershed for Yurung Kash, which flows out of the west side of this map onto #29. A large lake Lighten was on SW side - same lake as on SE side of map 29. Stein's route was along the northern side of this lake - Map 29 then shows the same range as #33 across its northern side with the river also on the northern side. It was during this part of the expedition that Stein suffered from frost bite that took the toes of his right foot.  
34 Kuchar 82-83 E 41-42 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
North of # 35, West of # 39 - It is along the north side of theTarim basin and southern foot hills of the T'ien Shan mountains. The West side of the map is bare. At the southern edge the Tarim River flowing east meets the Keriya River dry delta which is in map sheet #35. The Shahyar River flows east - the Shahyar fort is at 82 degrees 37' E - 41 degrees 11' north. The road from Shahyar goes north to Kuchar at 82 degree 41' E and 41 degree 43' north. Shahyar is where Stein prepared to cross the desert going south expecting to find the dry delta of the Keriya river. Around Kuchar on the Kuchar River there were many cave temples and ruins along the Muzart River valley -Stein studied the cultivation between Kuchar and Shahyar. The Musart River flows into many channels and becomes the Shahyar river. In this area Stein heard many tales from locals about mysterious cities in the desert guarded by demons.  
35 Desert south of Shahyar 82-83 E - 40-41 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #24, North of # 36 - This sheet is second of the set recording Stein's trek south across the Takla Mahan to find and then follow the Keriya River. Note there are no map sheets east or west of it. And the map itself shows blank on both east and west sides. Shahyar is the last village on southern border of Tarim drainage and where Stein made final preparations for his trek. The local workers he recruited were afraid of the desert and nearly mutinied after a few days when the Keriya had not been found. At first they were able to find water by digging wells to 5 feet depth but this later gave out. The map shows camp sites 313 to 318 at least 50 miles after the end of cultivation. The route crossed sand dunes 50-60 feet high.  
36 Delta of Keriya River 82-83 E - 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 35 - no maps east, west or south. At south-west corner Stein shifted west onto map sheet #30. He was crossing pure desert, the map shows blank on both sides outside the bed of the Keriya River itself. He reached the remains of the Keriya delta at about 82 degrees 5' E and 39 degrees 10' N. There were many more miles to go. Camp sites 319 to 324 were where they found water by digging 4 feet or so.  
37 Niya 82-83 E - 37-38 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 31, West of # 40 North of #38 - Here Stein regained civilization on the southern border of the Takla Mahan - but still in the desert. The west side of the map is blank. The map shows the Keriya river flowing from south to north from Keriya to Niya ruin in the desert. Niya Bazar is at 82 degrees 45' E and 37 degrees 4' North, but the ruin was far north of the small oasis - at 82 degrees 35' E and 37 degrees 50' N. The ruin occupied a very large area with many ruined houses, a stupa and more. This was one of the first archeological places Stein found during his first expedition and he was eager to return to accomplish more, which he did. There is a road south to Surghak.  
38 Surghak 82-83 E - 36-37 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 37, East of # 32, West of # 41. This sheet is at the southern edge of Stein's exploration between two that show a main west to east route. The high mounains are on the southern edge. The streams flow north. The very south side of map is blank, outside Stein's survey route.  
39 Inchike River 83-83 E - 41-42 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of #34, West of #42 - Here we are back at the northern limit of Stein's surveying on the north side of the Takla Mahan at the Terim basin. It shows two rivers flowing west to east - the Inchike Darya on the southern edge of the map from Shahyar toward Korla and a green area on the northern side with desert between. The road from Kucha to Bugur crosses. There are several ruined forts that Stein describes and watch towers on the main road.  
40 Endere 83-84 E - 37-38 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 37, West of # 43 and north of # 41. - Here we jump again across the desert to the southern border. But the southern half of the map is also blank, outside Stein's west to east route. In the northern half are the Yartung and Endere Rivers flowing north into the desert. Several ruined forts are shown. The west - east route at Endere is at 83 degrees 57' E and 37 degrees 45' N. The location was one of Stein's archeological sites. The road to Charchan leads east.  
41 Kara Sai 83-84 E - 36-37 N {short description of image} South of # 40, East of # 38 - This shows the edge of the mountains on the south side of basin with many streams from these flowing north into the desert. It shows the route E-W from Polur toward Kapa and also the southern part of the Endere River in the NE corner.  
42 Bugur 84-85 E - 41-42 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
Jumping again back north across the empty space of the desert. It shows the Inchike River flowing west to east and the Kizil River in the NW part. Bugur is also in the NW part at 84 degrees 1' E and 41 degrees 45' N. The road from Kuchar goes SE to the Inchike Rikver, then East to Korla, There is not much to see on this map sheet.  
43 Kapa 84-85 E - 36d 40' - 38N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 40, West of # 47 - Along the southern half it shows the route across the hills west to east from Surghak toward map #47 - there are goldfields in the streams, desert across the center - northern 1/3 has route from Niya to Charchan through cultivated areas - it is blank between. This shows that there are two west- east routes separated by desert and hills.  
44 Kara Shahr River 85-86 E - 42-43 N {short description of image} North of# 45, West of # 48. Back north again, this is in the tier of northernmost Stein survey routes. The SE corner shows the Kara Shar River and a few hills.  
45 Kinche River 85-86 E- 41-42 N {short description of image} East of # 42, West of # 49, South of # 44. The southern border is already into the desert. The southern half shows the belt of the Inchike River and Charchak dry river bed from map # 42 toward Konche Darya at the eastern border. The west- east route from Shahyar toward Korla across the steppe and some ruins appear.  
46 Charchan 85-86 E - 38-39 N {short description of image} This important map showing Stein's work around the Charchan oasis is missing from this copy of the printed edition. It would be west of # 50 and north of # 47 - it forms the link in the west - to east travel route But we do have some maps from "Innermostasia" Stein's report from his third expedition  
47 Achchan 85-86 E - 37-38 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 43, South of # 46. - This shows the foothills along the southern side and the headwaters of the Charchan River. Charchan is north of this map - there are some ruins on the west side - the southern part is blank  
48 Kara Shahr 86-87 E - 41-42 N {short description of image} North of # 49, East of # 44, West of # 51 - The northern half is blank - the southern shows Kara shar River and Kara Shahr town fort with roads from Korla go the south - road to Turfan - a ruin on the east side. A temple ruin is at Khora on the western edge.  
49 Korla 86-87 E - 41-42 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 48, East of # 45, West of # 52. The southern half is blank, into the desert - Map shows Korla Bazar in NW quarter at 86 degrees 12' E - 41 degrees 45' N, with some ruins - more ruins at Ming-oi at 86 degree 25' E, 41 degree 55' N. This was an extensive site Stein excavated with many Buddhist artifacts. The road of the east border is to Turfan, road west is to Shahyar. Korla is on Konche Darya flowing west.  
50 Charchan River 86-87 E - 38-39 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of #46, West of # 53 - it is on the south edge of the desert and northern edge of southern mountain foot hills - the streams flow north into desert. They road to Charchan is west to east. In the northern 1/3 the Charchan River is lined with marshs and caravan route follows it. But map #46 is missing.  
51 Ushak Tal 87-88 E - 42-43N {short description of image} East of # 48, West of # 54, North of # 52 - The northern 1/3 is empty, outside the survey areas. the southern part shows the road west to east from Karashahr toward Turfan with a few ruins on the steppe. Ushak tal is on the west side at 81 degrees 10' E - 42 degrees 12' N.  
52 Altun Dawan 87-88 E - 41-42 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 51, East of# 49, West of # 55. Both north and south sides are bare - the map shows only the crossing in the center - the west to east route from Korla to Singer along the hill line. The Altun Dawan (pass) is near the center and is 6,050 feet above sea level, whereas much of the Tarim basin is below sea level. The ridge is a watershed for streams flowing north or south.  
53 Vash-Shahri 87-88 E - 38-39 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 51, East of # 50 - This is part of the connecting link of the caravan route south of the desert. To the south the streams flow north from the hills into the desert. The west- east road is along the march - Vash-Shahri is a ruin in the map center on the route north-east to Charklik.  
54 Toksun 88-89 E - 42-43 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 51, West of # 59, North of # 55. - It shows mostly only the eastern half - NW is a desert road from Kara-shahr - the west-east route goes NE toward the eastern border toward Turfan. The road from Turfan N-S to Singer is off the southern edge. The n-s watershed ridge is mostly around 5,840 feet above sea level. The NE quarter shows agriculture and an ancient fort, Oi-tan, Toksun fort and temple and town.  
55 Singer 88-89 E - 412-42 N {short description of image}
South of # 54, East of # 52, North of # 56 - Stein made only a brief excursion to the tiny Singer oasis during his 2nd expedition, but a more extensive visit there and through the surrounding area during the 3rd expedition. The south half of this map is blank, the west-esst road is Kora Turfan - the map shows only the immediate area around Singer in its valley.  
56 Merdelk kol 88-89 E - 40-41 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of #55, West of # 60, North of # 57 - Shows the small oasis of Merdek kol on southern edge - northern 3/4 is blank desert, explored during Stein's 3rd expedition. Shows the road from Charklik to east on lower right SE corner. Merdek is ruin in the Ilek River - the Tarim river flows south next to the small Ilek River, This is west of the Lop - Lou lan site on the missing map # 60. But we have some maps from the 3rd expedition.  
57 Charklik 88-89 E - 38 d.45' to 40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 56, West of missing # 61. A link showing the caravan route west to east around the SE corner of the desert. It shows the river complex delta in desert with Charchan river flowing from the west and the Tarim River from the north into the Lop salt sea dry basin. They flow still a bit off the east side off this map. On the eastern edge is Abdal at 89 E - 39 d 31' N and Miran at 88 d 57' E - 39 d 15' N. Charklik village is at 88 d 14' E - 39 d 1' N on the Charklik River flowing north east to join the Charchan River in the desert near 88 d 12' E - 39 d 20' N. This is an excellent map to study. The road to Charchan from the west across east to Miran and road from Charklik north to Lop goes off the northern edge. The entire area is practrically flat. There is a stupa at Charklik and wall. Miran fort is SE of the town. Abdal on the Tarim River was then a small but important place for establishing a supply depot and preparing for work in the desert.  
58 Ortang-Aghzi 89-90 E 43-33 N {short description of image} North of # 59, West of # 62. - it is the north-west corner of Stein's exploration in the eastern end of the T'ien shan - the northern 3/4 are bare - shows streams flowing off southern edge - a ruin at 89 d 1' E 43 d. 1' N - Shows the foothills of the mountain range north of Turfan.  
59 Turfan 89-90 E - 42-43 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 58, East of # 54, West of # 63 - the southern half is blank - shows Turfan area along the northern side - the road from Singer enters half way on the western side. Chang hassar and Kichik Hassar ruins are at 89 d 34' E - 42 d 36' N - the road from Toksun on the west into Turfan goes east toward Pichan and Hami. There are many ruined forts and towers on this map. Stein described them in detail  
60 Lou-lan 89-90 E - 40-41 N {short description of image} The map is missing from the Serindia volume - we have some maps from the 3rd expedition. It is in map 29 of Innermostasia. Of course this is probably the most important map in the series as it shows the fascinating Lou lan area that Stein spent weeks excavating.  
61 Lop-nor 89-90 E - 39-40 N {short description of image} South of # 60 - missing also - would be East of # 57 and West of # 64. - It is in map 30 of Innermostasia. It is an important link between these showing the caravan route west to east.  
62 Chik tam 90-91 E - 43-44 N {short description of image} East of # 58, West of # 66, North of # 63 - the northern half is blank. This is in the northern tier of Stein's exploration. The southern half shows streams from the northern foot hills flowing south toward Turfan - the road from Turfan SW to Hami NE shows - one ruined site at Langer.  
63 Pichan 90-91 E - 42-43 N {short description of image} South of # 62, East of # 59 - this is part of Stein's brief exploration north east of the Takla Makan - Only the NW corner has survey - the remainder of map is blank but it shows the river and road from Turfan west to NE toward Hami and one watch tower.Stein explored this area more extensively during his 3rd expedition.  
64 Lowaza 90-91 E 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 61, West of # 68, North of # 65 - We are again on the southern caravan route - Most of the sheet is blank. the southern edge has foot hills and streams with the caravan route from Charklik to Tun-huang.  
65 Bash-kurghan 90-91 E - 38-39 N {short description of image} South of # 64, - it sticks out into the southern area,with southern 3/4 blank. the northern edge has foot hills and streams flowing north into map # 64. It is crossed west to east by the southern route between Charklik and Tun-huang. This and maps 61-63 show there were two west-east routes between Charklik and Tun-huang - one through the desert and then along the Su-lo Ho and the other as this shows through the foothills. The modern road follows close to this one. Bash -kurgan was pass at 90 d. 7' E - 38 d. 57' N. The Bash Kugan pass in the cener is at 11,260 elevation showing how high the foothills already are in the southern mountains.  
66 Chi--ku-ching 91-92 E - 43-45 N {short description of image} East of# 62, West of # 69 - this sheet connects completing Stein's northern tier. The northern and southern quarters are blank - it shows only the road West to East between Turfan and Hami across the center with nearby streams.  
67 Achchik-Kuduk 91-92 EW - 40-41 N {short description of image} West of # 70, North of # 68 - the northern half is blank - the southern half shows the northern road (caravan route) from Charklik to Tun huang through a salt plain. The foothills of the Kuruk Tagh are west to east across the middle. The gap between maps #60 and 67 was unexplored until Stein's 3rd expedition. Achchik-Kuduk is a camp near the middle of the caravan route.  
68 Panja 91-92 E 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 64, West of # 71, South of # 67 - Most of the map is blank - across the southern part the southern road from west to east Charklik to Tun-huang crosses the foot hills - streams flow north into the desert - in the NW corner is part of the northern road between maps # 64 and 67.  
69 Kara- dobe 92-93 E - 43-44 N {short description of image} East of # 66, West of # 72. - At the center of Stein's northernmost survey line - the northern half is blank - it shows the route west to east from Turfan to Hami that goes slightly NW to SE - shows the foothills and streams flowing south in the SE area - ruins of temples and springs such as Kichik, Toghucha, Tozgan-chuk  
70 Besh-Toghrak 92-93 E - 40-41 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 67, West of # 74, North of # 71 - the northern 1/3 is blank - the southern 1/4 nearly blank - it shows the northern caravan route west to east Charklkik to Tun-huang in Kumish steppe. Besh Toghrak is a spring on this route on the south side of the Kuruk Tagh hills where they are south east part Besh Toghrak is where travel from the northern Lou-lan hit this west-east caravan route.  
71 Elgban-Bulak 92-93 E - 39-40 N {short description of image} South of # 70, ast of # 68, West of # 75. The northern half is blank. The southern quarter shows the west-east southern route between Charklik and Tun-huang along the foothills with streams flowing north and NW. Four springs on this route enable travel. Elgban Bulak is a spring on the road near the west edge. There are passes at 8,230 and 10,330 through which the route crosses. This shows the heights to which travelers would resort to avoid the desert route.  
72 Bar-kul Dawan 93-94 E - 43-44 N {short description of image} East of # 69, North of # 73 - this is the northeast corner of Stein's northern survey. During the 3rd expedition he traveled further north to Lake Barkul across this ridge. The Barkul pass is at 9,200 feet - the northern 3/4 of the map is blank and the southern 1/4 shows foothills with streams flowing south - Khowar Pass is on the east edge at 9,500 feet. the route south to Hami is on the edge of the survey  
73 Kumul 93-94 E - 42-43 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 72, West of # 76 - The southern 3/4 is blank - map shows in NE corner the route west to east Turfan Anhsi. Kumul fort is in the northern center  
74 Toghrak-bulak 93-94 E - 40-41 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 70, West of # 78, North of # 75 - the northern half is blank - the southern half shows the ending basin of the Su-lo Ho river and the west end of the Han dynasty wall that Stein found. The northern west-east caravan route from Charklik comes in over the sand dunes toward Tun-huang and goes out the east side. In between it goes along the south side of the Han wall. Stein marked the towers not in geographical sequence but in the order (more or less) in which he visited them. On the map are towers from west to east - T vid (a detached watch tower on SW side ) - Tvib next on a ridge) - vid on ridge - ? on another ridge - then iva at west end of wall itself - ivc behind the wall - ivb on the wall - iii on wall - i, ii, iia detached north of the wall as watch towers on the caravan route on a ridge north of Toghrak Bulak spring in the marsh area - then going on east vii,viii, ixa north of the wall, ix on the wall, x, xii, xiia, then a break in the wall between ? and xii - then xix and a ruined fort with cross wall - then xiva on ridge and wall - xxb, xvi, xvii, xviia on edge of a marsh - then north on other side of the Su-lo Ho - the elevation along here is 3,100 to 3,670 feet.  
75 Khan-Ambal 93-94 E - 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 75, East of # 71, West of # 79 - Most of this sheet is blank - it shows to south the west-east southern route between Charklik and Tun huang coming from SW toward NE through the foothills with passes to 10,500 feet. Khan Ambal is at 9,680 on a stream at 93 d.15' E and 39 d. 16' N .  
76 Khotum-Tam 94-95 E - 42-43 N {short description of image} NE corner of survey here - most is blank - Shows on route south SW to south Hami to An-hsi through desert - in NW corner section of foothills the streams flow SW toward map 73.  
77 Sha-chuan-Tzu 94-95 E - 41-42 N {short description of image} South of # 76, West of # 80 - Almost all is blank, only the NE corner shows road Hami to An-hsi going NW to SE - the name is Stein's camp at 4,080 feet  
78 Tun-huang 94-95 E - 40-41 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 77, North of # 79, East of # 74, West of # 81 - The northern half is blank - the southern half shows the Su-lo Ho flowing west with Khara nor lake in it. South of the river is the Han wall. Towers from west to east include - xviii a large ruin - xix, xxi, xxii, xxiib, xxiicx, all isolated along the swamp - then xxid, xxiii, xxiiic, on the caravan route. Tun-huang sein is fortified town at 94 d. 47' E - 40 d. 8' N - in a cultivated area by the Tang Ho which flows north into the Su-lo Ho. The old city is to the west on a dry bed. Chien fo tung caves are SE of the town - the road to Nan hu goes to SW. In SW corner towers xviiia and xviiib are deserted farms and temples are on the route from Nan hu north to the Han wall. In the NE the Tang ho confluence is near towers xxiv, xxv, the wall east of town was not yet surveyed. The road to An-hsi goes out the east side of the map.  
79 Nan-hu 94-95 W - 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 78, East of # 75, West of # 82 - The southern half is blank - The southern road west -east from Charklik to Tun-huang comes here, Nan-hu is at 94 d. 15' E, 39 d. 55' N - the ruin old town is next to it. The route north to the Han wall from town enters desert which is all around this oasis.  
80 Ma-lien-ching-tzu 95-96 E 41-42N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 77, North of # 81 - along the north-east line of Stein's survey - It is part of the northern edge of Stein's survey of the narrow corridor from Tun-huang east to Su-chou. This sheet is mostly blank but shows the road S to N from An-hsi toward Hami via a series of oases - Ma-lien-ching-tsu is in the center with a well and stream - not much but the immediate area around the road appears on the map.  
81 An-hsi 95-96 E - 40-41 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 80, East of # 78, West of # 83, North of # 82. - An-hsi is at 95 d. 57' E - 40 d. 31' N - next to the Su-lo Ho where the main route north toward Hami crosses the river. The ruined town is south of the current town - a fort. the road west to east from Tun huang enters on the western edge going NE to An-hsi. in the SE are cave temples at Hsiao-ch-ien-fang and ruins at T'a-shih In the center along the south side of the Su-lo Ho are more Han wall towers - xxx, xxix, xxviii, xxvii, xxxi, xxxiii, xxxv, xxxiv. The road NW toward Hamsi is through desert to the map west edge. There are 3 isolated watch towers shown NW of An-hsi. An-hsi is still the main town and this is the main road to Hami today.  
82 Kashkar pass 95-96 E -39-40N {short description of image} South of # 81, East of # 79, West of # 84. - 3/4 of the map is blank - the NE corner foothills of the southern mountain range (part of the Nan Shan range) show the Kashkar pass about 17,000 feet with streams flowing NE toward the Su-lo Ho and An-hsi. Stein liked to work in the desert during winter and in the mountains in the summer.  
83 Ch'-iao-tzu 96-97 E - 40-41 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 81, West of # 85, North of # 84. The north side is blank. This is the northern side of the east-west corridor from Su chou. The Su-lo Ho flows west across the middle, here are many ruined forts and wells -Ch'iao- tzu fort is just north of these at a spring oasis.. The wall south of the river from the west to 96 d 10' to North of river from 96 d. 24' E to 96 d. 44' E. Bulinjir fort at 96 d.36' E 40 d. 32' N is near the river. another ruin is at Pa tao on the road east toward Tung Ho which flows from south into the Su-lo Ho. There are towers along the wall and detached towers not numbered here. There is another ruin at Pei-shan-tzu.  
84 Ch'ang-ma 96-97 E - 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 83, East of # 82, West of # 86. This is on the south side of the corridor. The foothills of the Nan-shan shows streams flowing north toward the Su-lo Ho and peaks at18,900 to 20,371 and 9,800. Stein noted that this huge mountain range protected the corridor from major attack from the south. The Ch'ang-ma fort at 96 d. 53' E - 39 d. 52' N at the Su-lo Ho is where the river is still flowing north before turning sharply west. His survey route took him into the mountains to west and east to find the head waters. There were small forts in the narrow passes.  
85 Yu-men Hsien 97-98 E - 40-41 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
North of # 86, east of # 83. This is on the north side of the corridor - the NE section is blank - It shows the road NW to SE from An-hsi to Su chou and on the west shows the Su-lo Ho flowing north and then sharply west. The Yu-men Hsien fort is at 97 d. 10' E - 40 d. 21' N. Iti s near the river where the caravan route crosses and there are 8 towers north of the Su-lo Ho where it bends west.  
86 T'u'-ta-fan 97-98 E - 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 85, North of # 87, East of # 84 and West of # 88 - The SW corner is blank. the NE shows the road An-hsi to Su-chou. This map is the south side of the corridor. Also the road from Ch'ang-ma pao- tzu to Su-chou shows. the moutains in the Richtofen range go up to 17,000 and 18,000 feet elevation with streams flowing north. There are two ruins and deserted towns near the An-hsi road and a fort on the south side to guard the pass. On the west edge a part of the Su-lo Ho flows N into map 84.  
87 Suess Range 97-98 E - 38-39 N {short description of image} South of # 86,West of # 91, North of # 89. - Only the NE quarter shows mountain ranges to a crest of 18,900 to 20,000 feet. The streams flow north into the Su-lo Ho which is flowing NW. Stein's survey was only to complete the picture of the corridor up to the crest of the southern mountain range.  
88 Su-chou 98-99 E - 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 86, West of # 91, North of # 89 - Shows the road from NW to SE from An-hsi to Su-chou and on to Kan-chou. Su chou is at 98 d. 35' E -39 d 45' N. It was walled and near the Pe ta Ho - a section of the Great Wall runs N to S across the road and corridor at 98 d. 15' E apparently to connect with the Great Wall going east. The fortress Chia-yu-kuan is at the wall and has the main gate with entrance road. Stein spent a lot of time and effort studying the wall in this area. He surveyed towers NE and SE from Su-chou forts along the road to Kan-chou. He went into the mountains South and SW to 17,900 and 19,400 feet in the Richthofen Range which runs NW to SE. It is the north-eastern of the three ranges - Richthofen, Alexander III and Suess that have broad plateau valleys between them.
Is Chia-yu-kuan (which Stein identified as medieval - not Han) the same as the fortress today that tourists visit? Stein noted that the N-S wall closes the gap between Pe'ta Ho on the south and the range and ridges on the north and then there is more wall east along the river.
 
89 Su-lo Ho sources 98-99 E - 38-39 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 88, East of # 87, West of # 89. This map completes Stein's survey along the mountain ranges to find the sources of the Su-lo Ho in the valley between the three ranges to 27,000 feet. The river flows NW into map 87. He did much more surveying in the Nan-shan during his 3rd expedition. On the north side of the Alexander III Range the Pei tan Ho flows NW into map 88 before turning back east. The Alexander III range also has peaks of 18,000 feet. Maps 87-88 and 89 form a continous picure of the SE mountain border of the Su-lo corridor.  
90 Chin-t'a 99-100 E 40-41 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
North of 91, This is the north east corner of the corridor survey. Chin-t'a is at 99 d. 02' E - 40 d. 02' N a fort at 5,880 feet elevation north of the wall on the edge of the desert steppe going into Mongolia. The Pei tan HO flows NE . There are some watch towers out into the steppe.  
91 Ma-Yang 99-100 E - 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
This is the center of the corridor South of # 90 and North of # 92. East of # 88 and West of # 93. It shows the mountain range at 17,000 feet on the south with streams flowing North, The Kan-chou River is on the NE corner flowing off north to map 90 but it does not show there. The road Su-chou to Kan-chou is across the southern part with forts all along the road. On the northern edge - the ridge wall west to east in sections and towers alongthe road Su-chou to Kan- chou to the river.  
92 T'o-Lai-Shan 99-100 E - 38-39 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
South of # 91,East of # 89, West of # 94- This continues the Richtofen Range - To-Lai shan range - Kan-chou river is between these and all flow NW to SE south of To'lai shan  
93 Sha-Ho Kou 100-101 E 39-40 N {short description of image}
{short description of image}
{short description of image}
East of # 91,North of # 94 - This completes the survey at NE side. The NE quarter is blank - It shows Kan-chou River flowing SE-NW and road Su chou- Kan-chou along the river. there are forts like Kao-tian-hsien. and others all along the route  
94 Kan-chou 100-101 E 38-39 N {short description of image}{short description of image} South side is blank. It show show the Kan-chou river flows in on the west side of the map from 92 the survey along and across the ridges show -Stein found small forts guarding passes and the river. Kan-chou fort also has a ruined fort NW of town.  

Return to Xenophon.