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AUREL STEIN - OTHER MAPS

 
   
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In addition to the full sets of map sheets published in Serindia and Innermostasia, Stein produced a special map of the Han Dynasty section north of Tun-hung for Serindia. Another map is of Chinese Turkestan and part of Kansu from Aurel Stein's book The Ruins of Desert Cathay on his second expedition, which he published to augment Serindia. Another map is from the area around Khotan from his book Ancient Khotan about his first expedition. And there is an excellent map from Sand-buried ruins of Khotan. Hopefully these maps will enhance the reader's ability to place the relationships between the various places mentioned in the books.
Detailed photos of the maps follow. The general maps for the first and second expedtion show the course of the expeditions. One shows the route during the second expedition in the red lines. He traveled first north in northern India (Pakistan) into the Wakhan valley of Afghanistan (shown on far left) then turned east into Sarikol and then north through the foothills to Kashgar. From Kashgar he traveled south-east along the border of the Takla Makan Yarkand and then to Khotan. Then he traveled south into the K'un-lun attempting to reach the headwaters of the Yurung-kash river but was blocked by gorges. Returning to Khotan he moved east to revisit Niya and Endere, at both places expanded excavations. Then he traveled along the southeast quarter of the desert to Charchan. From there is stopped briefly at Miran and Abdal before walking north along the western side of the Lop-nor salt dry sea to Lou-lan. Finishing excavation at Lou-lan, he returned to Miran to excavate a fort and temple. From Miran he again traveled east along the south side of the Su-lo Ho where he found remains of Han Dynasty wall and towers. He turned south to Tun-huang and the 'caves of the Thousand Buddhas'. He returned to the Han wall and then back to Tun-huang where he acquired a massive quantity of priceless manuscripts and paintings. From there he again went east to An-hsi and then south into the Nan-shan mountains. Leaving the mountains he stopped at Su-chou and then went into the eastern side of the Nan-shan to find headwaters of the Su-lo Ho and Kan-chou Ho. From Kan-chou city he returned via the main caravan route through Su-chou to An-hsi and then went north- west to Hami and to the Turfan basin. After exploring in the T'ien Shan mountains and valleys he boldly crossed south across the Taklamakan to find the Keriya river and continue to Keriya and Domoko. Back at Khotan he again crossed the Taklamakan - south to north to Aksu. Then he returned to Yarkand. His final travel was east from Yarkand around the K'un-lun and then south to get behind the front range and then west again through the high plateaus and passes shown in the southernmost area of the map. Regaining the main caravan route from Yarkand to Leh he crossed the Karakorum pass shown in the narrow appendage to the south west.

 
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A larger view of the map of Chinese Turkestan and Kansu

 
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A larger view of the western side of the map of Chinese Turkestan and Kansu - The red lines showing Stein's routes are more clear - on the far left we see his route north through NW India and through the Wakhan Valley and Sarikol to Kashgar. To the north west is his route into the mountains and back. Then his route south-east to Yokand and then south-east to Khotan. We will look at more detailed maps to see the locations he visited around Khotan and his attempt to go directly south. Due north of Khotan is Stein's route from there to An-hsi and the fort at Mazar-tagh is seen. From Khotan Stein traveled east to revisit Niya and Endere and Keriya. From Keriya due north the red line shows Stein's route coming south looking for the end of the Keriya River. To the east is Stein's route from Endere to Charchan and then Miran and Lou-lan. In the upper north-east corner is his route back from An-hsi to Hami and Khara-shahr. In the north center is his visit to Kucha. Insets above show the area around Tun-huang and Domoko.

 
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The central section of Stein's map of the Takla Makan shows his routes east from Keriya to Charchan and west from Hami to Kuchar and his route south from Kuchar across the desert back to Keriya. - The map also shows the Charchan River flowing east out of the foothills of the K'un-lun on the south side of the desert meeting the Tarim River flowing east from the Pamirs and T'ien-shan on the north side of the desert. They eventually dry up at the Lop-nor salt flat.

 
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A more detailed view of the far western portion of the Takla Makan and surrounding mountains with Stein's routes in this area.

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing Takla Makan and mountain ranges

 
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Detail of Stein's map of the Takla Makan an insets showing Tun-huang and Domoko

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing the western side of the Takla Makan and the Pamirs to the west.

 
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A more detailed view of the east central section of Stein's map. On the south it shows his route east from Niya and Endere to Charchan and then to Miran. It shows his route from Miran to Lou-lan and back. It shows his two routes from Miran-Abdal east - one along the edge of the Lop-nor salt flat north of the K'un-tagh desert and the other through the foothills of the Altin Tagh. Both routes reach Tun-huang. North of Tun-huang is the Han wall along the south side of the Su-lo Ho. From Tun-huang his route goes east to An-hsi and then shows his complex exploration of the eastern Nan-shan south of Su-chou and west of Kan-chou. On the north side it shows his route west from An-hsi to Hami to Khara-shahr and then to Kucha. Stein's method was to explore the desert sites between late November and March and the high mountains between June and October.

 
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A detailed view of the south-west section of Stein's map showing his explorations into the highest mountains, plateaus and passes of western Tibet. He was searching for the head waters of the rivers that flow north out of the mountains to Khotan and Keriya - among them the Yurung-kash.

 
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Detail of Stein's map of south-west area in K'un-lun with his routes to the Karakorum pass at bottom

 
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Detail of Stein's map of the Richthofen Range and Kan-chou River - Kan-chou town and the sharp bend in the river to the north-west are shown.

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing the Kan-chou river flowing north-west north of the Richthofen Range - note there is a continental divide just west of where the Kan-chou crosses the Gansu corridor - all the streams west of this flow eventually into the desert.

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing both the Kan-chou and Pei-ta Ho from their headwaters between the Richthofen Range and the To-Lai Shah Range flowing in opposite directions - with the Su-lo Ho on the other side of the Alexander III range also flowing north-west - Then in the corridor north of the mountains the Kan-chou and Pei-ta Ho come near each other, but on either side of the continental divide. Note Chin-yu-kuan west of Su-chou - it is the main gate in the Ming Great Wall - note several sections of the Great Wall north of Su-chou

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing the Pei-ta Ho flowing north out of the mountains past Su-chou - Chin-yu-kuan - the gate in the Ming Wall is just west of Su-chou

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing his routes across the Alexander III range and To-Lai Shan over high passes and across the Pei-ta Ho and Su-lo Ho rivers

 
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A section of Stein's map of the K'un-lun showing his route from the east behind the main range to find the sources of the Kara-kash and Yurung-kash. Here we see his winding route along river valleys and over high passes.

 
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Here we have a narrow strip from Stein's map to show the route over the Karakorum pass. R. B. Lal Singh made a rapid plane table survey of the route as he was also commanding the huge caravan carrying the recovered relics to India. The middle section shows the location where Stein, coming from the east joined the caravan route coming from the north.

 
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This is the section of Stein's map showing the area west of Kan-chou in the To-Lai-shan and Richthofen Ranges. Interesting is that the Pei-lo Ho south of the ranges flows north-west and then north into the interior, while the Kan-chou River between the ranges flows south-east out of the mountains and then turns sharply north at Kan-chou city. The red line shows Stein's route out of the mountains where he could not follow the river valley and had to cross numerous ridges as he headed north-east

 
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The section of Stein's map north of the previous section showing the area north of the Richthofen Range where the steep mountains border on the narrow Kansu corridor leading west into Central Asia. Note the several forts and watch towers along the road.

 
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Detail from Stein's map on Chinese Turkestan showing the area around the Lop salt sea where the Tarim river from the north west and the Charchan river from the south west merge and disappear into the sands in marsh delta. Charckilk is in lower left center and Miran is in lower center with Lou-lan above it in the desert. During the second expedition Stein moved from Lou-lan back to Miran and then eastward as his track shows along the southern 'shore' of the Lop salt sea. But in the Third Expedition he found the ancient caravan route from Lou-lan directly across the salt to reach the other route south of the Kuruk Tagh. The northern edge of the map shows the main route from the east along the mountains to Karashahr which Stein followed on his way back.

 
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A section of Stein's map giving a full view of the western half of the Takla Makan with the half circle of mountains around it. The Khotan River flows north to meet the Yarkand River also flowing north - and the Kashgar River flowing east - and the Aksu River flowing south - together they form the Tarim River flowing east. In the far west side Stein shows the Tagumdash Pamir and his routes to Kashgar. This map shows well the locations of Mazar Tagh and Maral-bashi. Stein wanted to take a 'short cut' and explore directly across the desert between Maral-bashi and Mazar Tagh during his third expedition but was forced to turn back and follow the Yarkand river east and then the Khotan River south.

 
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A section of Stein's map showing the eastern half of the Takla Makan and further east. This shows along the southern edge the route from Charklik past Miran to Tun-huang and the route from An-hsi northwest (the modern highway) to Hami and then west to Karashahr. During the Third Expedition Stein and the Indian surveyors filled in much of the blank section between Lou-lan and Kara-shahr.

 
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The entire map Stein had the Survey of India publish for his book Sand Buried Ruins of Desert Cathay. While blurry it does give the best total view of Stein's work during his Second Expedition and can be compared with the index map to the 94 individual sheets published in Serindia

 
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A section of Stein's map showing the northwest corner of the Takla Makan and mountains in the Pamirs and T'ien-shan. We see the Yarkand River flowing out of the Pamirs past Yarkand city and on to form the Tarim Riveer. Stein's route from the Pamir's to Kashgar is in red and that of his assisants to angi-Hissar and Yarkand as well. The route from Marl- bashi along the Yarkand river is there. And also there is Lal Singh's route through the T'ien-shan to Kashgar. Several ruins are shown in red.

 
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A section of Stein's map showing the eastern side of his survey in the Second Expedition into China proper. He went further in the 3rd. An-hsi is the cross roads of the east-west highway and that leading north to Hami and Turfan. To the south-west of An-hsi is Tun-huang and further west are the two routes from Khotan, one through the desert and the other across the foothills. Some of the Han Dynasty wall towers are market. To the east is the Nan-shan and then the four ranges, Suess, Alexander III, To-Lai-Shah and Richthofen that Stein explored in detail. The Su-lo HO and Pei-ta Ho flow north west out of the mountains. The Kan-chou flows south east and then turns north around the mountains. Just north of Su-chou is the famous Ming fortress at Chia-yu-kuan with a part of the Ming wall shown next to it.

 
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A detail from Stein's map showing the area from Niya to beyond Endere. Stein used the northern route in red and his assistants surveyed through the mountains on the southern red line.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing the area south and east of Kuchar with many ruins in red. Along the southern side is theTarim River with the Innchike River.

 
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A larger look at Stein's map of his routes through the mountains south and south-west of Khotan - at the far left edge is the route across the Karakorum pass back into India. In the map center follow his route south from Gosringa as he sought to break through the gorges of the Yurung Kash climbing up two glaciers but was forced to turn back by recalcitrant local hired workers. He then cross the Yurung-kash on a makeshift bridge and returned to Khotan by a different route. This effort was early in the expedition. The following year he circumvented the mountain range by traveling far east and round the gorges via Keriya and then as the map shows came west over the high plateaus south of the mountains to the headwaters of the Kara Kash. He then made several circles through the mountains before reaching the caravan route over the Karakorum.

 
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This detail of Stein's map shows from the north his effort to reach the headwaters of the Yurung Kash by going south from Khotan early in his expedition. This was blocked (at the end of the two red lines) by impassable gorge and local reluctance at the two places shown. He then crossed the Yurung Kash on a 'bridge' (shown in photos and returned to Khotan via Pisha. The following year he went east around the front range and then west as shown by the red line at bottom of the map

 
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Part of Stein's map of the Khotan area - It shows how narrow is the cultivated area between the mountains and desert

 
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Another section of Stein's map showing the narrow area from Khotan to Keriya within the strip of cultivated land between mountains to south and desert to north - Aksipil and Rawak are north of Khotan and Domoko is west of Keriya

 
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A section of Stein's map showing the narrow cultivated strip between Khotan and Keriya and his two routes between them - one through the foothills and the other along the desert.

 
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Another section of Stein's map - on the north is Su-chou in the narrow valley next to the Pei-tan Ho - east of it is the Kan-chou. But the Pei-tan flows into inner Asia while the Kan-chou flows ultimately to the Pacific. Toward the south we see the successive Richthofen, To Lai Shah and Alexander III Ranges

 
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A section from the eastern side of Stein's map showing Su-chou and the mountains to the south. It shows the Su-lo Ho and the Pei-ta Ho flowing north and north-west and cross the To Lai Shan range north of these is the headwaters of the Ku-chou river flowing in the opposite direction.

 
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Details of Stein's map showing his movements in the mountains west of Kan-chou finding the head waters of the Kan-chou, Pei-ta Ho and Su-lo Ho - the Kan-chou flows east into the Pacific and the other two flow west into the Tarim Basin.

 
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Detail from map in Desert Cathay showing Stein's routes through the Alexander III Range and mountains south of Su-chou - He found the headwaters of the Su-lo Ho and Pei-ta Ho flowing north-west into the Tarim basin and then moved east to Kan-chou.

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing his routes through the Alexander III Range, To Lai Shan Range and Richthofen Range searching for the Pei-ta Ho that flows north-west and the Kan-chou River that flows south-east. He was proud of having found the continental divide between drainage to the Tarim and the Pacific Ocean. The northern map edge shows how steep is the elevation between the mountains and the Gansu corridor.

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing Kan-chou city and the mountain ranges to the west. It shows how the Kan-chou River flows south-east out of the mountains, then turns sharply north to flow into the Yellow River and the Pacific. From Kan-chou he returned along the caravan route next to the river to Su-chou - note the numerous watch towers and small forts along this route. Note at the center bottom of the map where Stein could not continue down the Kan-chou river valley through gorges but had to turn north-east and cross several ridges and passes

 
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Part of Stein's map showing the area south of Khotan and Keriya - the mountains from which flow the Kara-tash and Hulung and Keriya rivers

 
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The section of Stein's map showing the area north of Keriya - along the Keriya river -Dandan-uiliq and the smaller Rawak are at center north side - But the larger Rawak-Vihara is north of Aksipil - north of Khotan - on the west site - Domoko is a bit west of Keriya

 
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The legend and south-east section of Stein's map of Khotan area made from his first expedition in 1900-1901 which was limited to the south-west section of the Tarim Basin.

 
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The center section of Stein's map of Khotan area - shows Niya river and to the north beyond the river the ancient Niya site he excavated on first and second expeditions. - It shows the Yartungaz river in the center and the Endere River on the east with the Endere ruin. After the second expedition Stein made much more detailed topographic maps.

 
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The section of Stein's map showing the area north of Keriya and east to the Niya river and the ancient Niya excavation site.

 
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Detail from map in Ancient Khotan showing the region around the oasis and the Yurung-Kash and Kara-Kash Rivers- they join north of the city as they flow into the desert.

 
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Detail from map in Ancient Khotan showing area between Yurung-Kash River and Endere River with Endere ruin

 
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Detain from map in Ancient Khotan showing Keriya and the Keriya River flowing north into the desert

 
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Detail from map in Ancient Khotan showing Keriya and Keriya river with area west to Gulakhma and Domoko - in the desert to the north is Dandan-uiliq

 
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Section of Stein's map of Khotan area showing the Borazan and Tosalla tracts.

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing the K'un-lun Mountains south of Khotan and his routes south in which he was blocked from reaching the sources of the Yurung-Kash River.

 
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The section of Stein's map of Khotan area showing Keriya and the Keriya river flowing north into the desert -Dandan-uiliq is at north-west edge.

 
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The south west corner of the Takla Makan bordered on south by the K'un-lun and west by the Pamirs - This shows Stein's routes from Yarkand through Kargahlik and Guma to Khotan along the edge of the desert and also his route between Yarkand and Khotan through the mountains. South of Khotan it shows Stein's multiple routes through, around and over passes while searching for the river headwaters. At the lower left side is the caravan route to the Karakorum Dawan (pass). North of Khotan Mazar Tagh appears on the Khotan River. Stein's routes between Khotan and Keriya are both along the desert and through the foothills. North of Keriya is Karadong on the Keriya River. Between the rivers is Dandan-uiliq. Rawak Stupa is north of Khotan

 
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The south central section of Stein's map showing his routes through the highest mountains. Lake Lightan appears. His route begins at the far right upper corner near the Keriya River as he bypassed the front ranges from the east. One sees he moved south, then west, then south, then east to the sources of the Keriya River and south again and finally west and north-west. He found the sources of the Yurung-kash River, one of his main objectives . Note in the upper left corner the two red lines that indicate his efforts to reach the sources directly south from Khotan which were blocked 2 years earlier when the local laborers refused to continue south to the Chumaha valley. (See photos).

 
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The south-west section of Stein's map of the K'un-lun with routes during his second expedition in 1906-08. The details are shown better on the several more detailed photographs. On the upper right edge we see his route through the foothills from Khotan to Keriya as well as the direct between them along the desert. Then his route south from Keriya goes off the right edge and the back onto the map 1/3 distance down the edge. The route then is as shown on a detailed photo as he found the sources of the Yurung-kash and Keriya Rivers, then traveled around ranges via Lake Lightan and north west to the high glacier on which he lost several toes before finally intersecting the caravan route south to the Karakorum Pass.

 
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A section of Stein's map showing his route past Lake Lightan after he reached the sources of the Keriya and Yurung Kash Rivers.

 
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Detail of the area south of Khotan where Stein attempted to go south directly to the sources of the Yurung-kash but was blocked at glaciers twice, then turned east and crossed the Yurung-kash on a makeshift 'bridge' and returned to Khotan - Gosringa ruin is near Khotan - south of the mountains the map shows Stein's route 2 years later from east to west behind the mountain ranges.

 
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Another look at the mountains south-west of Khotan to the Karakorum Pass - Here it is apparent why the caravan route to the Karakorum starts at Yarkand and not Khotan - it can follow river valleys and has only one major pass to cross.

 
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The south-central section of Stein's map showing part of his route through the high mountains from Keriya to the Karakorum pass.

 
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North-east quarter of Stein's map showing Western and Central Nan-shan mountains from his exploration in 1907 - This shows Kan-chou and Su-chou towns and the road between them with many watch-towers and forts. It shows the Richthofen , To Lai Shan and Alexander III mountain ranges - It shows the Kan-chou river flowing east, then north, and the Pei-ta Ho flowing north-west and north - It shows the very steep elevation increase between the valley and mountains.

 
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A detail of Stein's map showing the river and road between Kan-chou and Su-chou.

 
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Section of Stein's map showing the route through the foothills to Tun-huang via the Altun Dawan.

 
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A section of Stein's map showing the route to Tun-huang along the desert

 
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Detail from Stein's map of Turkestan showing the area around Tun-huang and the Han wall along the Su-lo Ho

 
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a detail section of Stein's map showing the area between Tun -huang and the Su-lo Ho with Stein's routes to the Han wall towers.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing the area west of Kuchar to Aksu and Kashgar along the northern rim of the Takla Makan with the Tarim River flowing east.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing area on western edge of the Takla Makan from Yarkand to Kashgar to Aksu - and crossing the desert is the Khotan River - The Tibetan fort at Mazar-tagh is next to the river toward the south. The ruins at Kelpin are west of Aksu. Maral-bashi is near the Kashgar and Yarkand Rivers - Stein went there in hopes of moving directly across the desert east to the Khotan river but was forced to turn back by high dunes.

 
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A detailed section from Stein's map showing the area between Karghalik, Khotan and Keriya. The excavation sites at Niya, Endere, Rawak, Karadong, and Mazar-tagh are shown.

 
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Detail from Stein's maps showing the two routes across the Takla Makan - via the Khotan and Keriya rivers. The sites at Endere, Niya, Karadong, Mazar-tagh, Rawak stupa are shown.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing the eastern part of the Takla Makan from Keriya river on west to Lop-nor on east

 
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Detail from Stein map showing the area north of the Kum Tagh desert and Lop Nor salt sea to foothills between Kara Shahr and Hami - On south side the two caravan routes between Miran and Tun-huang are shown.

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing general view of the Takla Makan and surrounding mountains

 
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Detail of Stein's map of the area north-east of the Tarim River and Kara Shahr and north of the Kuruk Tagh - Stein skirted this desert section.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing the area around Domoko and Gulakhma including several ancient sites.

 
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Detail of Stein's map of the area north of the Tarim River between Aksu and Yangi-shahr to Kuchar - South of Kuchar just north of the Tarim River is Shahyar, the village in which Stein recruited laborers for his journey across the Takla Makan to the Keriya River. - Kelpin is west of Aksu.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing the area between Kara-shahr and Lake Baghrash on the north-west - The Lop-nor and Kuruk tagh on the south - and the route between An-hsi and Hami on the north-east

 
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Detail of Stein's map of the eastern Nan-shan - the Suess, Alexander III, To Lai-shah and Richthofen Ranges and the corridor between Kan-chou and Su-chou and An-hsi. Note the Ming 'Great Wall' shown north and north-east of Su-chou and a few of the Han wall towers around An-hsi

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing Tun-huang and Nan-hu - An-hsi and the route across the desert north-west toward Hami. So-yang-ch'eng, Wang-fo-hsia, and Ch'uao-wan-ch'eng appear. Some of the Han towers along the Su-lo-Ho are shown.

 
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Detail of Stein's map from the second expedition showing the area from Charklik to Besh-toghrak along the Lop-nor salt sea and part of the caravan route through the foothills south of the Kum-Tagh Desert. Miran and Abdal appear. The delta of the Tarim river is shown. Lou-lan is north of Abdal across the Lop-Nor. Red lines show Stein's routes - from Abdal direct to Lou-lan and then by the western route from Lou-lan to Merdek-kol and Charklik. The corridor between the Nan-shan and Kuruk Tagh is narrow. On his third expedition Stein crossed directly east-south-east across the salt bed to find the ancient caravan route between Tun-huang and Lou-lan.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing the north-east corner of the Takla Makan with the Inchike and Tarim Rivers flowing east out of the T'ien Shan. Korla, Kara shahr, Lake Baghrash, Khan-khora, and Ming-oi appear.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing Charchan on the Charchan river and the two caravan routes north-east to Charklik.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing the Niya and Endere areas - also the caravan routes to the east through the desert and along the foothills.

 
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Detail from map in Stein's book - Sands - this shows the area from Khotan south as far as Stein could go up the Yurung-kash River - and the ruins between Khotan and Keriya into the desert

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing the Han wall and towers between Tun-huang and the Su-lo Ho - shows also Besh-toghrak, Nan-hu and So-yang-ch'eng

 
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This map from Stein's book, Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan shows the first stage of his travel upon leaving India over the Kilik Pass into Sarikol. He did no survey of course while still in India. The red line depicts the route. Note the short side trip west into Afghanistan that Stein indulged himself in to have a look down the Wakhan Corridor. The capital of Sarikol is at Tashkurghan. Rather than take the easier route from Tashkurghan down into the plain and then to Kashgar, Stein wanted to try to climb Muzagh-Ata, as Sven Hedin had done. Once north of the mountain he again chose a more difficult route to Kashgar. The map also shows the first stage of his subsequent travel from Kashgar to Yarkand -via a detour east into the desert to see Ordam-Padshah. The other red line shows his return route back to Kashgar via Yangi Hissar.

 
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A more detailed look at Stein's map from Sands showing the route from the India border at the Kilik Pass through the locations described in the text to Tashkurghan and then around and partway up Muztagh-Ata from the north side. The route through and around the Gez defile stands out as well.

 
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Detail from Stein's map in -Sands - shows his routes from India across Pamirs - his detour to attempt to climb Muztagh Ata - he reached 20,000 of the 24,000 peak from the north, then continued through Gez Defile - not the frequent moves across ridges where the defile was impassable. It shows his visits to three ruin sites north of Kashgar. Also shows his route to Yokand - He went through desert to see Ordan-Padshah. Then on return trip following year he used the main caravan route through Yangi Hissar.

 
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This section of Stein's map in Sands shows the route from Yarkand to Khotan- the route north-east to Dandan-uiliq via Tawakkel - the route from Dandan-uiliq to the Keriya River and up it to Keriya town - the route to Karadong and the route back from Keriya to Khotan via Domoko. The red lines in the southern mountains show Steins route in search of the source of the Yurung-kash which was blocked and his return on the western side through valleys and over passes. East of the Yurung-kash the red line shows Ram Singh's survey route later from the river eastward through mountains to Keriya. The later visits to Aksipl and Rawak Vihara are shown.

 
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This is a more detailed look at Stein's efforts to reach the source of the Yurung-kash and his subsequent route north-west to the Kara-kash River and back to Khotan. It shows also Ram Singh's route from Karanghu east and then north-eastward from Pisha to Keriya.

 
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A more detailed look at Stein's effort on the Yurung-kash blocked south of Karanghu Tagh and then his return travel northwest via Nissa and the Chash valley and over Kunat Dawan

 
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Map inset of the Khotan Oasis from Stein's book - Sands - shows the various places he mentions in his text such as Urungkash, Tam-oghil - Somiya, Yotkan, Nar-bagh, Ak-sipil, Kighillik and the two rivers. Red line is trace of his travels.

 
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Detail from Stein's map in Sands - It shows the area from Khotan to the Niya river and from that line north to beyond Dandan-uiliq and Niya ruin - Domoko, Aksipil, Rawak Vihara, Iman Jafar Sadik Mazar and other locations mentioned by Stein plus his routes appear.

 
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Detail from Stein's map in Sands - It shows the area from Khotan to the Niya river and from that line north to beyond Dandan-uiliq and Niya ruin - Domoko, Aksipil, Rawak Vihara, Iman Jafar Sadik Mazar and other locations mentioned by Stein plus his routes appear.

 
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Detail from Stein's map in Sands showing the Keriya River as far north as Karadong and the area as far east as the Endere River and Endere ruin. Keriya is at lower left.

 
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A section of Stein's map showing the eastern end of the Kanchou corridor north of the Richthofen Range with the Kan-chou river flowing north. The survey line Stein made crosses close to the foothills and the main caravan route crosses to the north - note the series of watch towers Stein surveyed.

 
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A section of Stein's map showing the area east of the Takla-makan between the southern route from Charchan to An-hsi and the northern route from An-hsi to Khara-shahr. Stein during his Third Expedition then surveyed the ancient central routefrom Tun-huang across the Lop salt sea to Lou-lan and then on west along the Tarim River, which he determined flowed further east before turning south..

 
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A detail from Stein's map showing the inset for Chira, Gulakhma and Domoko oases which are on the southern side of the desert.

 
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A central section of Stein's map showing in the south his route across the ranges and valleys behind the K'un-lun from Lake Kighten north as Khotan and Keriya with the oases between them. In left center see his routes south from Khotan to Karanghu-tag, Busant valley and Otrughal glacier in his unsuccessful effort to penetrate through the K'un-lun - then on the east side see his routes though Chakar and Khan-Langar around the highest ranges. He first found the sources of the Yurung-kash far east of its eventual exit from the mountains. Then he found the headwaters of the Keriya River before crossing the watershed into the interior drainage of Lake Lighten. From there he passed west out of this map section. cOther red lines trace survey routes north of the mountains.

 
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Detail view of part of Stein's map showing the area between the K'un-lun range and the desert west of Keriya. Various ruins and survey routes are in red.

 
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Detail of Stein's map showing the area north of the K'un-lun to the desert east of Khotan. It adjoins the previous map on the west.

 
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Detail from Stein's map showing the K'un-lun mountains south of Khotan - at the south side is the red line showing Stein's travel from east to west at the end of the second expedition. But what I want to show in this detail is the red lines showing his attempt to penetrate the mountains from the north seeking the sources of the Yurung-kash. See near Karanghu-tagh where the mountain men refused further work there are two red lines into the gorges. Both were blocked. Then there is the red line going north east - that is the route R. B. Lal Singh took to survey mountains east of Khotan. Above the Yurung-kash river is the massive peak Mustagh. The red line on the east center border shows Stein's route from the east during which he did find the sources of the Yurung-kash far to the east of where it leaves the mountains at Khotan. Note that since he did not physically trace the center part of the river he shows that with dotted lines.

 
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A section of the map in Stein's book showing the Chinese side of the Karakorum pass.

 
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Detail from Stein's map of the K'un-lun southwest of Khotan. On the east side the red lines show Stein's unsuccessful effort to reach the source of the Yurung-kash at Karangu-tagh, the Busal valley and Ocrughul glacier. From there it shows his route back through the Chash valley and along the ridge to the Uguhal pass above the Kara-kash river. Note how the Kara-kash river flows northwest behind a crest in the K'un-lun and then makes a sharp U turn near Kilian Kurghan and flows back east and then north to reach Khotan near where the Yurung-kash passes the city. Along the west side of the map the red line traces the caravan route from Yarkand to the Karakorum Pass.

 
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Section from Stein's maps in Innermostasiashowing the area from Charkhlik to Miran south of the Lop salt sea.

 
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Section from a map in Innermostasia showing the detail plane table survey of the area at and northwest of Lou-lan with the dry bed of the ancient Kuruk-darya that reached this area around 100 AD. North is the small oasis at Astin-bulak where Stein sent his camels during the extended archeological work at Lou-lan

 
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Detailed plane table survey map around Singer made by Lal Singh and published in Innermostasia.

 

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