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CHRONOLOGY 13th CENT

 
 

MICHA JELISAVCIC
JOHN SLOAN

 
   

Return to 12th century.

 
 

1200's AD

The main struggle over Kyiv is now three-sided, between the family (descendents) of Rostislav Mstislavich (Rostislavichi) of Smolensk, Oleg Svyatoslavich (Ol'govichi) of Chernigiv, and Roman Mstislavich of Volynia and Galich. And the Monomachichi clan of Yurii Dolgoruki at Suzdal are involved as well. But Rurik Rostislavich rules in Kyiv from 1207 - 1211.

 
 

1200-03 AD

Roman Mstislavich, prince of Galich and Volynia, holds Kyiv also. He conducts successful raid on Polovtsi.

 
 

1200 AD

Lithuanians invade Novgorod lands.

 
 

1200 AD

Bishop Albert establishes the see of Riga and Order of Sword-Brothers.

 
 

1200-09 AD

Bishop Albert, using crusaders, conquers Livs and Letts.

 
 

1201 AD

Vladimir Svyatoslavich dies at Chernigiv and is succeeded by his brother, Gleb.

 
 

1201 AD

Swedes invade Novgorod lands.

 
 

1201 AD

Foundation of Riga.

 

1201 AD

Volga Bolgar campaign against Rus - Vladimir Suzdal.

 

1202 AD

Igor Svyatoslavich, ruler of Chernigiv, (an Ol'govichi) dies. He is succeeded by Rostislav Igor'yevich, who moves up from Novgorod-seversk.

 
 

1202 AD

Bishop Albert of Buxtehude concludes an alliance with the Semigallians ( a Latvian tribe) against the Livs, (a Finnish tribe with family ties to the Est). He also creates the see of Semigallia and invests the Abbot Bernard zu Lippe as vicar.

 
 

1202 AD

German Order of the Swordbearers is established in Livonia

 
 

1202 AD

Some references date these first events a few years earlier. Important changes take place in South-western Rus'. Vladimir Yaroslavich of Galich dies. Roman Mstislavich renews his pretentions and with the aid of the Poles is able to take over Galich. This has immediate repercussions on the political system of Southern Rus'. The Ol'govichi seek a reprochment with Roman's enemy, Rurik Rostislavich. They plan a campaign, however Roman attacks Kyiv first, whereupon the Kyivan population sides with Roman. They open the lower city (Podol) gates and admit Roman. Rurik and the Ol'govichi are confined to the upper city fortress. Roman is joined by Chernye Klobuki. Rurik and the Ol'govichi surrender and are sent off. Roman puts his cousin, Ingvar Yaroslavich, of Lutsk in Volynia on Kyiv throne. Rurik is unpopular because he invited Polovtsi into Russia several times, whereas Roman is the son of the popular Mstislav II Izyaslavich (who had ruled as grand prince there 1167-1169. While Roman never ruled Kyiv as grand prince, he had ruled Novgorod for his father and then became the most powerful prince in Galich until his death. ) Vsyevolod III Yur'yevich, ruler of Vladimir, sends his 12 year old son, Yaroslav, to Periaslavl. He persuades Ol'govichi to break with Roman. Igor Svyatoslavich is to rule Chernigiv.

 
 

1202-41 AD

Valdemar II, King of Denmark, begins to lead crusades into Livonia and Estonia.

 

1203-04 AD

Isaac II, restored as emperor.

1203-04 AD

Alexius IV and V, emperors.

 

1203 AD

The end result in Kyiv is that in January the Polovtsi counterattack sack Kyiv as allies of Rurik Rostislavich of Smolensk to oust Roman Mstislavich of Galich. A large part of the population is herded away to slave market. This is the second sack of the city, following Andrei's assault in 1169. In Feb. Roman goes to Rurik at Ovruchi to break alliance. Roman gets Vsyevolod III to give Rurik Kyiv separately from Chernigiv. Roman keps Volynia and Galicia.

 
 

1204 AD

All the Rus princes except the Ol'govichi ally for campaign against the Polovtsi. On the way back Roman captures Rurik and has him and his family made monk and nuns. Roman takes Rurik's sons, Rostislav and Vladimir, as prisoner to Galicia. Vsyevolod III is furious and sends agents to free Rostislav and Vladimir. After all, Rostislav is Vsyevolod's son-in-law. He puts Rostislav on Kyivan throne.

 
 

1203 AD

The rulers of Polotsk are concerned about the German actions against the Livs, who were tribute payers of Polotsk. Polotsk troops campaign for the first time against Riga. At the same time the Lithuanian prince Vissival'd calls for assistance against the approaching Teutonic knights.

 

1204 AD

Fourth Crusade takes Constantinople - establish Frankish empire - Venice by alliance receives major share of spoils, merchants favored in Black Sea trade, Venice controls Dardanelles and Adriatic and Crete.

1204 AD

At least from this time Trebizond controls southern Crimea, receives annual tribute.

 

1204 AD

Revel founded.

 

1204-05 AD

Baldwin I, Latin emperor at Byzantium.

1204-61 AD

Italian colonies increase role in Black Sea trade - Roman Catholic church missionaries and bishops accompany merchants.

 

1204 AD

Vsyevolod Svyatoslavich Chermniy (an Ol'govichi) succeeds his brother, Gleb, at Chernigiv.

 
 

1205 AD

Vsyevolod III Yur'yevich of Vladimir sends his son, Konstantin, to Novgorod to replace the younger Svyatoslav.

 
 

1205 AD

Ryazan princes defeat Polovtsi - Third campaign of Vsyevolod III against Bolgars, Mordvi and Cheremish.

 
 

1205 AD

Battle of Zavikhost on the banks of the Vistula River. Prince Roman Mstislavich of Volynia is killed while campaigning against the king of Lesser Poland, Leshka the White of Krakow, (1202-1227) and his brother, Conrad of Mazovia. Daniil Romanovich, then 4 years old pushed out with his mother from Galich. This opens Galicia to Poles and Hungarians and others and renews the struggle between Rostislavichi and Ol'govichi.

 
 

1205 - 1212 AD

Practically every year there are battles between Rostislavichi and Ol'govichi over Kyiv. The city is taken and retaken over and over. Vsyevolod and Rurik in the main dislodge each other.

 
 

1205 AD

Battle of Andkhui, Muhammad Shah of Khwarezm defeats Muhammad of Ghor and expands rule into Afghanistan.

 
 

1205 AD

Battle of Adrianople. The Polovtsi come to the aid of the Bulgarian King Kaloyan and defeat the crusaders.

 

1205-16 AD

Henry, Latin emperor at Byzantium.

 

1205 AD

Vsyevolod III and Rurik ally to invade Galicia but fail.

 
 

1206 AD

Rurik II Rostislavich leads Polovtsi and Torki against Hungarians in Galicia and defeats them on River Seret. Hungarians and Poles in major war and Poles and Rostislavichi have the worst of it. The Ol'govichi clan (Igoryevichi) gain in Galician war capturing Vladimir and Galich, Roman takes Zvenigorod and Svyatoslav takes Vladimir in Volynia. They manage to hold the region for 5 years but are hanged in 1211. Meanwhile Vsyevolod Svyatoslavich Chermnyy returns and takes Kyiv and demands that Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich leave Periaslavl. Yaroslav complies and Vsyevolod Svyatoslavich puts his son, Mikhail, on throne at Periaslavl. But in this Vsyevolod has over-reached. Rurik quickly takes Uruchi fortress and sends son, Rostislav, to Vysegorod, and his nephew, Mstislav-Boris Romanovich Starii, to Belgorod fortress with another nephew, Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloy to Torchesk fortress. These fortresses control access to Kyiv. They then push Vsyevolod out of Kyiv and his son out of Periaslavl. During winter 1206-7 Vsyevolod tries to retake Kyiv but fails after 3-week siege.

 
 

1206 AD

Quriltai in Mongolia proclaims Temujin as Chingiz Khan, Mongols launch first campaign into Western Hsia.

 

1206 AD

Venetians quickly consolidate their power in Constantinople and use it to gain control of Black Sea trade. Trade agreement between Petr Ferragut and Zakhari Stagiorio mentions Sudak as trading point.

 

1206-10 AD

The Polotsk druzhina campaigns a second time coming to the aid of the Livs. But they are late, meanwhile the Bishop of Riga's knights and landsknetcht defeat the Polotsk troops laying siege to their outposts in Livonia at Koknes and Yersika, which they capture in 1207.

 
 

1207 AD

Vsyevolod Chermnyy retakes Kyiv by bringing all troops from Galicia, Turov and the Polovtsi. This time he first takes each fortress one by one and has the city by August.. But he is ousted again at end of year. Rurik flees again to Uruchi. But in August Vsyevolod III at Suzdal plans counterattack on Chernigiv to help Rurik. He starts but is diverted to Ryazan by threat of pro-Ol'govichi princes there. From assembly point at Moscow, his army goes south-east to Ryazan where they arrest all the Ryazan princes and bishop. At this Rurik is able to react again and push Vsyevolod Chermnyy out of Kyiv. So Rurik regains the throne for the seventh time and holds it for 3 years. Meanwhile, Konstantin Vsyevolodovich is ordered to bring Novgorod - Pskov - Ladoga - Torzhok troops on same campaign. He marches as far as Pronsk where he is wounded and then he goes to Vladimir to recover. Svyatoslav is sent back to Novgorod in early 1208.

 
 

1208 AD

Ol'govichi attack Kyiv again. Vsyevolod Chermnyy used diplomacy. Rurik's nephew, Mstislav Mstislavich, is moved to Toropets in northern part of Smolensk land and then, while Vsyevolod III is busy with Ryazan, he takes Torzhok a key Novgorodian border fortress. There he arrests the agents of Vsyevolod III and his son, Svyatoslav, in Novgorod. Mstislav marches on Novgorod and ejects Svyatoslav Vsyevolodovich.

 
 

1208 AD

Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich is sent by his father to rule Ryazan, but there is a city rebellion and the town is burned.

 
 

1208-16 AD

Eric X Knutsson, King of Sweden .

 
 

1208 AD

Battle of Irtysh, Naiman Mongol's leader, Kushluk, defeated and flees to Qara Khitai Tatars.

 
 

1209 AD

Mongols invade Hsi-Hsia.

 
 

1209 AD

First mention of Tver' in chronicles in connection with unsuccessful campaign of Vsyevolod III against Novgorod in which his son, Konstantin, leads the army. Konstantin gets his brother, Svyatoslav, released. Mstislav strengthens the Novgorod border defenses. Gradually Tver' becomes an important outpost of the Vladimir princes on the west.

 
 

1209-16 AD

Kushluk overthrows Kara Khitai Tatars with help of Mohammed Shah of Khwarezm.

 
 

1210 AD

Ol'govichi propose to Vsyevolod III to let him back to Kyiv.

 
 

1210 AD

Last attack of Polovtsi against Peryeyaslavl.

 
 

1210-39 AD

Hermann von Salza, first Great grand master of the Teutonic Knights, shifts operations from Palestine into Hungary.

 
 

1211 AD

The Poles and Hungarians support the Guelfs against Pope Innocent III. The Galich Rus pay dearly at Hungarian hands. They invite the Chernigovtsi (Ol'govichi) to rule. The boyars fight the Ol'govichi who seek aid from Hungarians. The boyars win and execute the Ol'govichi, but Galich is divided between Hungarians and Poles in 1214.

 
 

1211 AD

Vsyevolod Chermnyy's daughter, Agafia, marries Yurii II Vsyevolodovich of Suzdal.

 
 

1211-15 AD

Mongols begin invasion of Chin empire, north China.

 
 

1212 AD

On death of Vsyevolod III Yur'yevich in April, Tver is joined into the domain of Periaslavl-Zaleski prince Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich.

 
 

1212 AD

Daniil Romanovich regains throne as appanage prince of Galich.

 
 

1212 AD

Early in the year Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi at the head of a combined Novgorod-Pskov-Polotsk-Toropets army of 15,000 campaigns successfully against the Chud and Livonian knights as far as Baltic at Tallinin. (First of at least 5 campaigns against Chud). He raids the support bases of the Knights of the Cross in Livonia. He levies tribute. But the Germans manage to break up the alliance, first forcing Polotsk to come to terms and then by a second treaty compel Novgorod to come to terms with Treiden. Mstislav prepares for southern campaign.

 

1212-16, 1219-38 AD

Yurii II Vsyevolodovich, Grand Prince of Vladimir. Struggle between six remaining sons of Vsyevolod III: Konstantin, Yurii, Yaroslav, Vladimir, Svyatoslav and Ivan; Boris had died in 1188 and Gleb in 1189. He grants amnesty to the Ryazan princes. Immediately Konstantin and Svyatoslav allied and raised an army against Yurii and Yaroslav who marched on Rostov. Brothers make truce.

 

1212 AD

Vsyevolod Chermnyy is removed from Kyiv. During the summer the Rostislavichi - Mstislav Mstislavich -brings whole Novgorodian and Northwestern Rus army to Smolensk where they join the senior prince, Mstislav-Boris Romanovich Starii (Smolensk house), and two of Rurik's sons, and two of David's sons and others. Exceptionally the Novgorod troops agree to march outside their lands. The army marches down the Dniper into Chernigiv and Kyiv. Vsyevolod Chermnyy flees from Kyiv to Chernigiv where he is besieged. Then Mstislav Romanovich Starii takes Kyivian throne. When Vsyevolod dies that year (or is it 1215?) the Ol'govichi are out and Rostislavichi in at Kyiv which they hold for 13 years.

 
 

1213-17-19 AD

Mstislav III Romanovich three times sends Polovtsi against Hungarians who were disturbing Russians on the Dniester.

 
 

1213 AD

Vladimir and Svyatoslav Vsyevolodich change sides in second clash against their brother, Konstantin, at Kostroma, but no battle.

 
 

1213-15 AD

Vladimir Vsyevolodovich rules Periaslavl.

 
 

1214 AD

By Treaty of Spisz the Hungarians and Poles attempt to divide Galicia and Volynia and put Hungarian king's son, Karloman, on Galich throne.

 
 

1214 AD

Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich marries as his second wife, Mstislav Mstislavich's daughter, Rostislava-Feodosia. Her mother, Mstislav's wife, is Maria, daughter of Polovtsi Khan Kotyan. She is future mother of Alexander Nevski and his brothers.

 
 

1215 AD

Rurik dies as a prisoner in Chernigiv. But Mstislav Mstislavich (Rostoslavichi) holds on to Novgorod. But over winter 1214-1215 he makes recon trip to Galicia via Kyiv where he visits Mstislav Romanovich.While Mstislav is in Galicia, Yaroslav goes to take Novgorod from his father-in-law, but when Mstislav returns in Feb 1215, Yaroslav retreats to Torzhok and starts blockade of Novgorod grain supply. Conflict between Yurii and Yaroslav Vsyevolodovichi intensifies. Polovtsi raid Periaslavl and capture Vladimir Vsyevolodovich. He is released in 1217 and given Starodub to rule.

 
 

1215 AD

Hungarians capture western Galicia area given to Leszek at Spisz.

 
 

1215 AD

Pope Innocent III consecrates Christian bishop of the Prussians.

 
 

1216 AD

Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich captures Novii Torg and organizes a blocade of grain delivery to Novgorod. In answer the Novgorodians call in prince Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, who currently is based at Toropetsk. In this campaign is first mention of Rzhev under Mstislav's control and of Zubtsov taken by the Periaslavl -Zaleski troops. Mstislav gains victory over the Vladimirian troops but only briefly, it does not change overall situation. In face of German threat Novgorod has to return the throne to prince of Vladimir.

 
 

1216 AD

In third clash of the Vsyevolodichi for control of Vladimir. Konstantin has Rostislavichi and Novgorod allies. Yurii and Yaroslav and Svyatoslav have troops from Murom and the Brodniki. Battle of Lipitsa River near Yur'yev-Pol'ski on 21 April. In this bloody battle regiments from Novgorod fight those from Suzdal. One contains 13 styagi and the other 17. (A styag was a banner, signifying a company under the command of a junior boyar or prince) A "kop'ya" or lance was the smallest unit composed of a commander and a small number of retainers. (Both these nomenclatures are similar to corresponding west European organizations). The Novgorodian contingent is commanded by Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi. Konstantin and the Rostoslavichi win full victory. Yurii flees to Vladimir. Yaroslav flees to Periaslavl Zaleski. Yurii surrenders when Rostoslavichi (Smolensk) troops reach Vladimir. Mstislav sends him to Gorodets. Yaroslav surrenders but looses wife (Mstislav's daughter). Following the battle Konstantin Vsyevolodovich unites Rostov and Vladimir principalities under his rule as Grand prince of Vladimir. Konstantin's sons - Vasil'ko to Rostov and Vsyevolod to Yaroslavl. Then Yurii gets Suzdal back.

 
 

1216 AD

The same year Mstislav Mstislavich leads Novgorod troops into Livonia as far as Riga.

 
 

1216-22 AD

John Sverkersson, King of Sweden

 

1216-17 AD

Peter of Courtenay, Latin emperor at Byzantium

 

1216-17 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich visits Kyiv to see Mstislav-Boris Romanovich Stari, then grand prince at Kyiv.

 
 

1217 AD

The Knights of the Cross build a fortress at Odenpa in eastern Estonia. They attack Russian villages on the Feast of Epiphany, 16 January.

 
 

1217 AD

The combined armies of Novgorod (led by Mstislav Mstislavich) and Estonia campaign successfully in southern Estonia. Heinrick the Lithuanian in the "Chronicle of Livonia" writes "In 1217 the Novgorodians gathered a force headed by the Pskov king Vladimir and his subjects. They gathered strength throughout Estonia, leading the Est in siege against the Knights of the Cross."

 
 

1217 AD

Svyatoslav Vsyevolodovich rules Yur'ev-Pol'ski (1212-13 - 1237). Gleb Vladimirovich and Konstantin Vladimirovich , princes of Ryazan, are murdered. Ingvar and Yurii Igor'yevich survive in Ryazan.

 
 

1217 AD

Chepe leads two Mongol toumans to conquer Qara Khitai.

 

1217-19 AD

Yolande, Latin ruler at Byzantium.

 

1218 AD

Chingiz Khan conquers Qara-Khitan Empire, He begins campaign against Mohammed Shah (Ala-al-Din Mohammed).

 
 

1218 or 19? AD

Volga Bolgars raid Sukhoma River, capture Ustyug fortress and are defeated at the Unzha river..

 
 

1218 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich campaigns into Galicia. He has his cousin, Vladimir Rurikovich, and the Polotsk army. Kaloman is arrested.

 

1218 AD

Konstantin Vsyevolodovich, grand prince of Vladimir, dies and Yurii II Vsyevolodich becomes Grand prince. Yaroslav remains at Periaslavl-Zaleski.

 

1218 AD

The Novgorodian-Pskov army reaches and besieges Venden, the citadel of the Livonian Order.

 
 

1218-19 AD

Another daughter of Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, Anna, weds Daniil Romanovich, prince (later king) of Galicia. She is the mother of Roman, Lev, Msitslav and Shvarin (kings of Galicia). This makes Mstislav and Maria the ancestors of the two main houses in Russia.
Bishop Albert makes his brother, Engelbert, prior of Saint Mary's and marries his brother, Theodoric, to a daughter of the Prince of Pskov, Vladimir Mstislavich. This last does not meet the approval of the Pskov veche, so they chase Vladimir out of town.

 
 

1219 AD

Volga Bolgar campaign against Vladimir- Suzdal.

 
 

1219 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, the politically adept one, attempts to expel the Hungarian heir, Koloman, from Galich with Polovtsi aid. Mstislav's father-in-law is Khan Kotyan, but even the Polovtsi with other princes can not dislodge the Hungarians. Mstislav is driven out by Poles and Hungarians and Kaloman is back.

 
 

1219 AD

Valdemar II, King of Denmark, conquers Estonia. The Danish army captures the Est village, Lindanis; and founds a "Danish" city, Tallinn - Revel. The bishop of Riga issues an edict establishing a bishopric for the Danish lands.

 

1219 AD

Sudak campaign

 

1219 AD

Chingiz Khan invades Khwarazm Empire of 'Ala' al-Din Mohammad II, Battle of Jand, one of the four Mongol armies draws Mohammed's forces into a drawn battle in Ferghana Valley

 

1219-28 AD

Robert of Courtnay, Latin emperor at Byzantium

 

1219-1263 AD

Mindaugas, ruler of Lithuania, king from 1253

 
 

1220 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich returns to Galicia with larger army of Mstislav Romanovich Starii, Grand Prince of Kyiv. Campaign is indecisive.

 

1220 AD

Eastern campaign of Prince Yurii II Vsyevolodovich. He sends druzhina of four princes (Svyatoslav Vsyevolodovich of Suzdal, Vasil'ko Konstantinovich of Rostov, and two Murom princes, Svyatoslav Davidovich and Oleg Yur'yevich (son if Yurii Igoryevich, prince of Ryazan) against Volga Bolgar. They sail down the Volga to Oshel (Ashla) and capture it after siege. Three Bolgar embassies sue for peace.

 

1220 AD

Yurii II Vsyevolodovich replaces the Rostislavichi prince in Novgorod with his own son.

 
 

1220 AD

The Teutonic Knights capture much of the western Polotsk lands.

 
 

1220 AD

Four Mongol armies advance from different directions to overwhelm Khwarezm, Mohammed flees. Mongols conplete conquest of Central Asia.

 
 

1221-22 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi decides to go make a career in Galicia and so informs the people of Novgorod. (was this in 1218?) He takes large army to Galicia including units of Mstislav-Boris Romanovich of Kyiv and other Rostislavichi and Ol'govichi from Turov, Lutsk and Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich of Suzdal and Peryeyaslavl Zaleski. Polovtsi troops also included. They fight two battles, one on Seret river east of Galich and the other nearer to the city. The Hungarians and Poles are defeated. Galich is taken after 17-day siege. Kaloman again a prisoner. In 1218 Mstislav Mstislavich is replaced at Novgorod by Mstislav-Boris Romanovich's second son, Vsyevolod, but Novgorodians tell Vsyevolod to leave in 1221. One result is that Daniil Romanovich now gains throne of Volynia.

 
 

1221-22 AD

Troops from Smolensk capture Polotsk.

 
 

1221 AD

Rus-Bulgar 6 year truce sign at Gorodetz-na-Oka near Kasimov by Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, Yurii II Vsyevolodovich, and a Bulgar ambassador- this is the border of two principalities - they agree to exchange prisoners. Yurii establishes frontier fortress town at Nizhni-Novgorod at confluence of Oka and Volga.

 
 

1221 AD

The Seljuk sultan, ala ad-Din Keikebad, acting in response to a complaint from a merchant who had been ambushed in the "Khazar Pass", sends an army (and navy?) to Crimea where it defeats a Rus-Polovtsi force. The Seljuks want to divert Crimean trade from Trebizond to their port at Sinope. When Mstislav Mstislavich brings reenforcements, he is prevented from attacking because the Seljuks hold hostages.

 
 

1221 AD

Battle of Pirvan: Mohammed's son, Jellaluddin, attempts to stem Mongol advance and defeats their advance guard in Hindu Kush; Battle of Indus: Chingis Khan leads major forces to drive Jellaluddin across the Indus and ravage parts of Punjab. Conquest of Ghazni consolidated to 1224. Chepe and Subodai lead Mongol detachment into Caucasus.

 

1222-54 AD

John III, Byzantine emperor at Nicea.

 

1222 AD

The Ests aid the Novgorodian-Pskovite army to wipe out Livonian knight garrisons at Ezel, Fellin and Odenp. The Novgorodian prince, Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich brings 20,000 troops to grab all Livonia up to Revel. Yaroslav sends Prince Vyachko with a Rus druzhina to Yur'yev.

 
 

1222 AD

In support of Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, the combined forces of Kyivan Prince Mstislav III Romanovich the Old (who died in 1223), Vladimir Rurikovich ( of Smolensk, who succeeded to Kyiv in 1223), Rostislav Davydovich ??, Rostislav Mstislavich (the son of Mstislav the Old), and the Polovtsi of Khan Khotyan succeed in defeating the Hungarians and Poles at Galich.

 
 

1222 AD

First Mongol attack, they attack Georgia, cross Caucasus, attack Alans and Kypchak( Polovtsi).

 
 

1223 AD

The Rostislavichi now hold most of southern Rus and Smolensk.

 
 

1223 AD

Vladimir III Rurikovich Grand Prince of Kyiv: Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich elected prince of Novgorod. Yaroslav unsuccessfully besieges Revel fortress.

 

1223 or 4? AD

Mongols continue and destroy Russian-Kypchak army on Kalka River. The Rus army is commanded by the three Mstislavs: Mstislav Mstislavich (The Galician) Udaloi, who is son-in-law of Polovtsi Khan Khotyan, Mstislav Svyatoslavich Chormnyi of Chernigiv and Mstislav-Boris Romanovich the Old of Kyiv. But no Ryazantsi princes participate. They decide to move east into steppe to confront the unknown Tatar menace. They move down the Dniper and meet two Mongol delegations along the way but dismiss them. At Periaslavl they are reenforced from Smolensk, Chernigiv and Galicia and continue to Protolochi. Mstislav's lack of forsight in assessing the Mongols and his tenuous ties with the leader of the "Brodniki" who populated the Don region and replenished the Mongols, results in Mstislav surrendering to the Mongols. About half the Rus princes including Mstislav Romanovich of Kyiv, Svyatoslav of Konev, Mstislav Svyatoslavich of Chernigiv, Dmitri Mstislavich of Chernigiv (Kozel) , Izyaslav Ingvar'yevich (of Lutsk) , Syyatoslav of Shumsk, Alexandr Dubrovtsa, Yuri Nesvezh and Andrei, son in law of Mstislavich are killed. Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi escapes. The sack of Sudak, is described by Ibn- al-Athir.

1223 AD

Tribute ship from Chersonesus to Trebizond captured at Sinope by Seljuk Turks, recovered by campaign from Trebizond.

 

1224 AD

The Battle on the river Imer. The year following Yaroslav's siege of Revel, after the Tatar victory over the Russians, the Teutonic knights defeated the army of Est on the river Imer. The Est had rebelled, and Yaroslav sent to Yur'yev, prince Vyachko with a Russian druzhina. The capture by the Danes of Yur'yev in 1224 led to a peace with boundaries of the Lake Chud' and along the river Narov. Northern Estonia in German hands. The Livonian knights capture Yur'yev. The Talavy area, south east Lithuania around Yur'yev, is divided between the Bishop of Riga and the Teutonic Order. An independent bishopric is founded at Derpt- Yur'yev. The Est are nearly wiped out and the Russians chased out of Estonia.

 
 

1224 AD

Vladimir III Ryurikovich assumes the throne of Kyiv.

 
 

1225 AD

Battle of Torzhok. Following a period of political infighting among the Novgorod boyars on the one hand and the Vsyevolodovich brothers on the other, the Novgorod boyars gain enough political clout to bring in their own prince, Svytoslav Mstislavich of Smolensk, and then his brother, Vsyevolod Mstislavich.

 

1225 AD

Possible naval landing or land campaign via Caucasus by Seljuk Turks from Sinope commanded by Husam-al-Din Chupan to capture Sudak and divert trade from Trebizond. They establish a protectorate.

 

1225 AD

Khan Khotyan, who also escaped death at Kalka river, helps his son-in-law, Mstislav Mstislavich, campaign in Galicia.

 
 

1226 AD

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II issues new bull of Rimini that raises status of the Teutonic Knights in the HRE and grants them Prussia.

 
 

1226 AD

Battle of the Yellow River, Mongols invade Hsia in winter along frozen rivers. Tanguts attempt defense but are overthrown.

 
 

1226-28 AD

Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich again elected prince of Novgorod.

 
 

1226 AD

Yelena Mstislavna, daughter of Novgorod (then Galicia) Prince Mstislav Udaloi, marries the Hungarian heir and future king Andrew III. This is the third house into which Mstislav's daughters have married.

 
 

1226 AD

The campaign against the neighbors of the Korelians, the "En or Yen" leads to a revanche in 1228 in which the inhabitants around Lake Ladoga led by their posadnik defeat the attackers.

 
 

1226 AD

Battle of Toropets. The Lithuanians are defeated by the Novgorodian druzhina of Prince Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich and the city's prince, David Mstislavich, brother of Mstislav Udaloi.

 
 

1227 AD

The Knights of the Sword besiege the Est citadel at Muhu.

 
 

1227 AD

Yuri II Vsyevolodich sends Vsyevolod Konstantinovich to rule Periaslavl.

 
 

1227 AD

Mongols defeat Hsia and Chin: Chingiz Khan dies.

 
 

1227-79 AD

Boleslav V, King of Poland

 

1228-61 AD

Baldwin II, Latin emperor at Byzantium

 

1228 AD

Death of Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi.

 
 

1228 AD

Rostislav Mikhailovich is prince at Novgorod for a year. He then moves to Galich

 
 

1228 AD

Conflict begins between Vladimir Ryurikovich, grand prince of Kyiv, and Daniil Romanovich, now prince of Galich and Volinya, because Vladimir's brother, Rostislav was upset that Daniil had taken the appanage of Chertoryisk and that Vladimir's father, Ryurik, had been forced to become a monk by Daniil's father, Roman. The opponents are the grandsons of the brothers, Izyaslav and Rostislav. Vladimir joins into the fight against Daniil. The new prince of Chernigiv, Mikhail Vsyevolodovich, and Khotyan with all the Polovtsi warriors and those of the Turov and Pinsk princes campaign against Daniil's appanages. This coalition poses a real threat to the Hungarian heir and the Hungarian presence in Galich and thus is a real political threat to Daniil. He turns for help to the Poles and simultaneously enters into talks with Khotyan to sway him over to his side. Instead of joining Vladimir, Khotyan's Polovtsi troops raid the countryside. The military actions of the allies begin with an assault on Kamenets on the Sluch River, which are beaten off, so they return home. Meanwhile the Polish forces reach Daniil and he advances against Kyiv. Vladimir and Mikhail do not expect this turn of affairs. They conclude a peace with Daniil.

 
 

1229 AD

Daniil Romanovich of Galich uses his Polovtsi allies against Hungary that was threatening his new kingdom of Galicia.

 
 

1229 AD

Peace treaty of 6 years between Vladimir-Suzdal and Bolgars at border - Karenev on Volga - Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, Yurii II Vsyevolodovich and Bulgar ambassadors - agree to free prisoners and open free trade and fishing rights

 
 

1229 AD

Conrad of Masovia, Duke of Poland, calls for aid and Teutonic Knights are sent into Prussia to crusade against pagans in Baltic region.

 
 

1229 -41 AD

Ogodei, Great Khan of Mongol empire.

 
 

1230 AD

Pope Gregory IX authorises the Teutonic Order to conquer the Prussians.

 
 

1230 AD

King Henry III of England grants special privileges to Gotland merchants and pension to the Teutonic knights to encourage trade between Baltic and England.

 
 

1230 AD

By now the various Rus princes have realigned their forces. Vladimir joins Daniil because his relations with the Ol'govich turn sour. The new Chernigiv Prince, Mikhail Vsyevolodovich ( the former prince having died at the Kalka) grabs the throne from his uncle the prince of Kursk, Oleg Igorevich ( ?? ). Vladimir sides with Mikhail and sends the metropolitan, Kiril, to restore peace between the opponents.

 
 

1230-36 AD

Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich again elected prince of Novgorod.

 
 

1230-39 AD

Hermann Balk, Provincial Master of Teutonic Knights in Prussia. Knights begin conquest of western Prussians - to 1240.

 
 

1230-53 AD

Wenceslas I, King of Bohemia.

 
 

1231 AD

Mozhaisk founded.

 
 

1231-34 AD

Mongols ally with Sung to complete destruction of Chin state. Kaifeng falls after siege by Subotai.

 
 

1231-36

Mongols complete conquest of Persia, Georgia, Armenia et cetera.

 
 

1234 AD

Last battle between Rus princes and Polovtsi, Polovtsi capture Grand Prince Vladimir III Rurikovich who is then ransomed.

 
 

1234 AD

Battle of Yemaiyigi (Embakh) River. Prince Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich and his fourteen year old son, Aleksandr (later Nevski), force the Order knights onto the ice of the Omovzha River where many are drowned and others manage to reach Yur'yev. The Grossmeister of the Teutonic knights, Volquin von Vingershtein, concluds a peace with Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich which is observed for four years.

 
 

1234 AD

Battle of Derpt, Yur'yev. Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich receives the appanage of the cities of Pereyaslavl Zaleski, Dmitrov, and Tver. The Novgorodians invited prince Yaroslav to rule in 1215 and in 1226 and 1230. In this battle he mets the knights outside Yur'yev. Many knights of the Sword are drowned. The same year the Lithuanians attacked the knights of the Sword and drove east to Torshok, near Tver, where they are repulsed by Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich's druzhina and chased clear to Toropets.

 
 

1235 AD

Mongol leaders under Khan Ogodei hold kuriltay to plan conquest of the world. They decide on four simultaneous campaigns: against Korea, against Sung south China, against Iraq (Abbasid Caliph), Syria and Transcaucasia, and against Europe.

 
 

1235 AD

Oblivious to the coming storm from the East, Prince Michael Chernigovskii, (that is Mikhail Vsyevolodovich) under the banner of Izyaslav Vladimirovich, prince of Putlivl, the grandson of the famous Prince Igor, captures and sacks Kyiv. Both he and his opponent, Daniil Romanovich Volynskii rely on Polovtsi weapons and troops. Their loyalties are swayed by intermarriages of Russian princes and Polovetsian beauties. Izyaslav sits on the throne in Kyiv. Michael chases Daniil out of Galich into Hungary. Izyaslav is grand prince at Kyiv (1234- 1236)

 
 

1235 AD

The battle at Mogil'no. The western princes unite against the main Lithuanian force led by Prince Ringol'd. The battle taks place where the Ditva river falls into the Neiman in modern Belarus. The Rus are led by the prince of Drutsk, Dmitrii, the druzhina of the prince of Volynsk, Prince Lev Daniilovich (10 yrs old?) and the brother of the great prince, Yuri II Vsyevolodovich, Svyatoslav of Starodub (or Yur'yev). The Rus suffer a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Lithuanians

 
 

1236 AD

Battle of the Shaulya (Saule) River on 21 September. Also known as the battle of Kamenka, a small village on the boundary between Latvia and Lithuania. The site is disputed. Under the leadership of Mindovg the Lithuanians unite their lands. At the Shaulya Prince Ringol'd defeats the Teutonic knights led by the Grossmeister, with Count Dannenberg and Count Hazel'dorf of the German knights of the Cross. Also participating are princes of Volynia; with their companies of Galicians. The heavily armed knights are annihilatred. The Grossmeister of the Teutonic knights, Volquin von Vingerstein, Dannenberg and Hazel'dorf are killed. Also killed are 48 company commanders and the entire command of the knights of the Cross. Pope Gregory calls for days of grieving. Ringold changes allegiance to Latvia.

 
 

1236 AD

Mikhail Vsyevolodovich takes over as Grand Prince of Kyiv. (some say 1238 -1240)

 
 

1236-7 AD

Batu and Subudei lead Mongol army against Volga Bolgars, Mongka leads another army against the Polovtsi (Kypchaks).

 
 

1236-40 AD

Aleksandr Yaroslavich (Nevski) elected prince of Novgorod.

 
 

1237 AD

The battle of Dorogichin. The druzhina of Prince Daniil Romanovich of Galicia, grandson of Kyivan Grand Prince Mstislav Izyaslavich and son of Roman Mstislavich who had crearted the powerful Volyni-Galicia principality, defeats the Livonian knights lead by Magistrate Bruno.

 
 

1237 AD

Battle of the River Memel'. The river is a tributary of the Neiman on its lower course near where it empties into Konigsberg bay. A powerful Teutonic fortress was located here. In a bloody battle the Lithuanians defeated the combined forces of the Teutonic and Livonian knights plus units from western Europe and Pskov.

 
 

1237 AD

Hermann Balk now provincial master in Livonia also after the Teutonic Knights unite with the Livonian Brothers: They capture Courland and spread control along entire south Baltic coast.

 

1237-8 AD

Batu leads second Mongol invasion to conquer Rus, Cumans (Polovtsi, or Kypchaks) and Crimea -Yurii II Vsyevolodovich , Grand Prince of Vladimir, killed in battle with Mongols as are his two sons. Ryazan captured on 12 Dec 1237, then Moscow, then Vladimir on 8 Feb. 1238 after week-long siege. Yuri II killed on 4 March on Siti River. One Mongol detachment takes Rostov, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, and Vologda. Another Mongol detachment attacks Peryeyaslavl, Tver, Uglich, Kashin and Torshok. At Tver the son of prince of Novgorod and Peryeyaslavl is killed. Torshok is heavily fortified city and holds out for 2 weeks until 5 March, disrupting the Mongol time table. Kashin is first mentioned in chronicles in this campaign. Mongols spend rest of 1238 regrouping and obtaining more horses in steppe region.

1238-46 AD

Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich, prince of Peryeyaslavl, and sometime elected prince of Novgorod, who luckily was in Lithuania when the Mongols arrived, elected Grand Prince of Vladimir after death of his brother, Yuri II, at Siti River, in Sonkovski rayon. He dies in Mongolia in 1246.

 

1238-42, and 1244-6 AD

Dietrich v Gruningen, provincial master of Teutonic Knights for Livonia

 
 

1239-44 AD

Heinrich v Weide, provincial master of Teutonic Knights for Prussia

 

1239 AD

Monka leads Mongol detachment to conquer Alans and Circassians in north Caucasus region. Batu completes subjugation of Kypchaks except for 40,000 who flee to Hungary. Mongols conquer Tibet. Mongols plunder Sudak, also devastate Theodoro (capital at Mangup-kale) and impose tribute, Tatar capital at Solkhat (Eski-krim), Mongols sack Chernigiv and Pereiaslavl. Chernigiv is defended by Mstislav Glebovich.

 

1239 AD

The Lithuanians capture Smolensk but are then chased out by Yaroslav.

 
 

1239 AD

Yaroslav Ingvarevich, who in 1229 had received from Daniil the appanages of Mezhibozh'e and Peremil', campaigns to Kamenets, captures the city and many people including Michael's wife. Daniil Romanovich steps in and frees the princess.

 
 

1239 AD

Aleksandr Yaroslavich (later Nevski) builds wooden palisade fortress on the Shelon' river near Novgorod. Following his marriage to Aleksandra Praskov'ya, daughter of the Polotsk prince Bryachislav at Toropets, Aleksandr returns to Novgorod. He then founds the city, Porkhov on the Shelon' and builds more palisaded fortresses in the region. But Mindovg chases Bryachislav out of Polotsk and places his own son-in-law, Tovtivila, on the throne, thereby taking control of the entire Polotsk region.

 

1240 AD

Batu's cousin, Mengu, who had already secretly entered the city on reconaissance, sends emissaries to Mikhail Vsyevolodovich who is ruling Kyiv, offering terms. Instead Mikhail has the ambassadors killed, then he and Daniil Romanovich flee the city. Mongol campaign sacks Kyiv in the fall. The Mongol army is spread thin over winter from Caucasus and Crimea to Carpathians. Many Kypchak flee to Hungary where they settle.

 

1240 AD

Aleksandr Yaroslavich defeats Swedish force led by Earl Birger, who is attempting to block Novgorod's access to the sea, on Neva River, receives name "Nevski". Livonian Knights move to capture Pskov but their allies in the Teutonic Order are diverted by the call from the Duke of Silesia to aid Poland against the Mongols.

 
 

1240 AD

The knights of the Order with detachments from the Dutch king and Bishop of Derpt defeat the Pskovian army led by the voyevode Gavrilya Gorislavich and capture the fortress at Izborsk, killing all the local inhabitants. On 16 Sept the German knights aided by Germanophile Pskovian boyars capture the city. Aleksandr Yaroslavich's army is too weak for him to assist. Aleksandr flees Novgorod to Peryeyaslavl. The Novgorodians receive help from Andrei, another son of Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich, but he is unable to stop the German advance.

 

1240 AD

Document mentions Alans live near Chersonesus and Theodoro. There is a Bishop of Alania.

 

1240 AD

Mindovg, Lithuanian chieftan, converts to Christianity and is given crown by Innocent IV.

 
 

1241 AD

Mongols resume offensive. Mongol detachment wins battle at Liegnitz (April 9th) over Germans lead by Henrick the Good, where many Teutonic Knights are killed, and main army of Batu and Subudai destroy Hungarians led by King Bela IV at confluence of Tisa and Sajo Rivers on 11 April. Northern detachment turns south from Silesia to move rapidly throught Bohemia and Moravia. Bohemian king Vaclav wins minor skirmish over one Mongol band near Kladsko, but the Mongols are in a hurry to reach Hungary and don't take time to bother with Bohemians. Hungarian king Bela rallies support in Croatia. Emperor Frederick II, Pope Gregory IX, and various western rulers all issue appeals to each other to move against the Mongols, but no one makes a move.

 
 

1241 AD

Livonian Knights with support from remaining Teutonic Order begin campaign against Novgorod and capture Pskov. With support of mercenary Lithuanians, Ests and the always-ready-for-a-fight, Livs, they take Kopor'ye and Tesov on the Oredezh River and approach Novgorod. Aleksandr moves around this force and retakes Kopor'ye, hanging traitors amongst the Chud and Vod clans.

 
 

1241 AD

In December Mongols cross frozen Danube and invade Croatia to capture Zagreb and overrun Dalmatian coast. Another Mongol detachment reaches Klosterneuburg near Vienna. Batu prepares campaign into Austria and Central Europe.

 
 

1241 AD

Death of Ogodei on 11 December.

 
 

1241-55 AD

Aleksandr Nevski returns to Novgorod in March and is again elected prince.

 

1242 AD

Batu receives word of Ogodei's death and starts back toward Mongolia in order to influence next election. Tatar-Mongols again sack Crimea.

 

1242 AD

Batu establishes khanate of Ulus of Jochi (Great or Kypchak khanate) at Sarai on Volga.

 
 

1242 AD

Livonian and Teutonic Knights march against Novgorod. Andrei Yaroslavich is sent by the new grand prince, of Vladimir, Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich to assist Aleksandr at Novgorod. After liberating Pskov, they meet the Germans at the "Uzmen" at the Vorontei stone and defeat them on 5 April at frozen Lake Peipus (lake Chud). 500 knights are killed and 50 taken prisoner. (estimates vary greatly) At this Prussians revolt.

 
 

1243 AD

Batu confirms Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich as Grand Prince of Vladimir and the yarlik for Kyiv. Yaroslav sends his son, Konstantin, to Sarai where he remained 2 years. Yaroslav is then summoned to the Mongol capital for the election of the new great Khan.

 
 

1243-44 AD

Rostislav Mikhailovich of Chernigiv, who had married Anna, the daughter of Bela IV of Hungary, brings the Little Poland king Boleslav the Shameful into the fight for Galich. Daniil Romanovich combines forces with Conrad of Mazovia and the Lithuanian prince Mindovg and wins victory over Rostislav.

 
 

1244-46 AD

Poppo v Osternach, provincial master of Teutonic Knights in Prussia.