{short description of image}  
 

CHRONOLOGY 13th CENT

 
 

MICHA JELISAVCIC
JOHN SLOAN

 
   

Return to 12th century.

 
 

1200's AD

The main struggle over Kyiv is now three-sided, between the family (descendents) of Rostislav Mstislavich (Rostislavichi) of Smolensk, Oleg Svyatoslavich (Ol'govichi) of Chernigiv, and Roman Mstislavich of Volynia and Galich. And the Monomachichi clan of Yurii Dolgoruki at Suzdal are involved as well. But Rurik Rostislavich rules in Kyiv from 1207 - 1211.

 
 

1200-03 AD

Roman Mstislavich, prince of Galich and Volynia, holds Kyiv also. He conducts successful raid on Polovtsi.

 
 

1200 AD

Lithuanians invade Novgorod lands.

 
 

1200 AD

Bishop Albert establishes the see of Riga and Order of Sword-Brothers.

 
 

1200-09 AD

Bishop Albert, using crusaders, conquers Livs and Letts.

 
 

1201 AD

Vladimir Svyatoslavich dies at Chernigiv and is succeeded by his brother, Gleb.

 
 

1201 AD

Swedes invade Novgorod lands.

 
 

1201 AD

Foundation of Riga.

 

1201 AD

Volga Bolgar campaign against Rus - Vladimir Suzdal.

 

1202 AD

Igor Svyatoslavich, ruler of Chernigiv, (an Ol'govichi) dies. He is succeeded by Rostislav Igor'yevich, who moves up from Novgorod-seversk.

 
 

1202 AD

Bishop Albert of Buxtehude concludes an alliance with the Semigallians ( a Latvian tribe) against the Livs, (a Finnish tribe with family ties to the Est). He also creates the see of Semigallia and invests the Abbot Bernard zu Lippe as vicar.

 
 

1202 AD

German Order of the Swordbearers is established in Livonia

 
 

1202 AD

Some references date these first events a few years earlier. Important changes take place in South-western Rus'. Vladimir Yaroslavich of Galich dies. Roman Mstislavich renews his pretentions and with the aid of the Poles is able to take over Galich. This has immediate repercussions on the political system of Southern Rus'. The Ol'govichi seek a reprochment with Roman's enemy, Rurik Rostislavich. They plan a campaign, however Roman attacks Kyiv first, whereupon the Kyivan population sides with Roman. They open the lower city (Podol) gates and admit Roman. Rurik and the Ol'govichi are confined to the upper city fortress. Roman is joined by Chernye Klobuki. Rurik and the Ol'govichi surrender and are sent off. Roman puts his cousin, Ingvar Yaroslavich, of Lutsk in Volynia on Kyiv throne. Rurik is unpopular because he invited Polovtsi into Russia several times, whereas Roman is the son of the popular Mstislav II Izyaslavich (who had ruled as grand prince there 1167-1169. While Roman never ruled Kyiv as grand prince, he had ruled Novgorod for his father and then became the most powerful prince in Galich until his death. ) Vsyevolod III Yur'yevich, ruler of Vladimir, sends his 12 year old son, Yaroslav, to Periaslavl. He persuades Ol'govichi to break with Roman. Igor Svyatoslavich is to rule Chernigiv.

 
 

1202-41 AD

Valdemar II, King of Denmark, begins to lead crusades into Livonia and Estonia.

 

1203-04 AD

Isaac II, restored as emperor.

1203-04 AD

Alexius IV and V, emperors.

 

1203 AD

The end result in Kyiv is that in January the Polovtsi counterattack sack Kyiv as allies of Rurik Rostislavich of Smolensk to oust Roman Mstislavich of Galich. A large part of the population is herded away to slave market. This is the second sack of the city, following Andrei's assault in 1169. In Feb. Roman goes to Rurik at Ovruchi to break alliance. Roman gets Vsyevolod III to give Rurik Kyiv separately from Chernigiv. Roman keps Volynia and Galicia.

 
 

1204 AD

All the Rus princes except the Ol'govichi ally for campaign against the Polovtsi. On the way back Roman captures Rurik and has him and his family made monk and nuns. Roman takes Rurik's sons, Rostislav and Vladimir, as prisoner to Galicia. Vsyevolod III is furious and sends agents to free Rostislav and Vladimir. After all, Rostislav is Vsyevolod's son-in-law. He puts Rostislav on Kyivan throne.

 
 

1203 AD

The rulers of Polotsk are concerned about the German actions against the Livs, who were tribute payers of Polotsk. Polotsk troops campaign for the first time against Riga. At the same time the Lithuanian prince Vissival'd calls for assistance against the approaching Teutonic knights.

 

1204 AD

Fourth Crusade takes Constantinople - establish Frankish empire - Venice by alliance receives major share of spoils, merchants favored in Black Sea trade, Venice controls Dardanelles and Adriatic and Crete.

1204 AD

At least from this time Trebizond controls southern Crimea, receives annual tribute.

 

1204 AD

Revel founded.

 

1204-05 AD

Baldwin I, Latin emperor at Byzantium.

1204-61 AD

Italian colonies increase role in Black Sea trade - Roman Catholic church missionaries and bishops accompany merchants.

 

1204 AD

Vsyevolod Svyatoslavich Chermniy (an Ol'govichi) succeeds his brother, Gleb, at Chernigiv.

 
 

1205 AD

Vsyevolod III Yur'yevich of Vladimir sends his son, Konstantin, to Novgorod to replace the younger Svyatoslav.

 
 

1205 AD

Ryazan princes defeat Polovtsi - Third campaign of Vsyevolod III against Bolgars, Mordvi and Cheremish.

 
 

1205 AD

Battle of Zavikhost on the banks of the Vistula River. Prince Roman Mstislavich of Volynia is killed while campaigning against the king of Lesser Poland, Leshka the White of Krakow, (1202-1227) and his brother, Conrad of Mazovia. Daniil Romanovich, then 4 years old pushed out with his mother from Galich. This opens Galicia to Poles and Hungarians and others and renews the struggle between Rostislavichi and Ol'govichi.

 
 

1205 - 1212 AD

Practically every year there are battles between Rostislavichi and Ol'govichi over Kyiv. The city is taken and retaken over and over. Vsyevolod and Rurik in the main dislodge each other.

 
 

1205 AD

Battle of Andkhui, Muhammad Shah of Khwarezm defeats Muhammad of Ghor and expands rule into Afghanistan.

 
 

1205 AD

Battle of Adrianople. The Polovtsi come to the aid of the Bulgarian King Kaloyan and defeat the crusaders.

 

1205-16 AD

Henry, Latin emperor at Byzantium.

 

1205 AD

Vsyevolod III and Rurik ally to invade Galicia but fail.

 
 

1206 AD

Rurik II Rostislavich leads Polovtsi and Torki against Hungarians in Galicia and defeats them on River Seret. Hungarians and Poles in major war and Poles and Rostislavichi have the worst of it. The Ol'govichi clan (Igoryevichi) gain in Galician war capturing Vladimir and Galich, Roman takes Zvenigorod and Svyatoslav takes Vladimir in Volynia. They manage to hold the region for 5 years but are hanged in 1211. Meanwhile Vsyevolod Svyatoslavich Chermnyy returns and takes Kyiv and demands that Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich leave Periaslavl. Yaroslav complies and Vsyevolod Svyatoslavich puts his son, Mikhail, on throne at Periaslavl. But in this Vsyevolod has over-reached. Rurik quickly takes Uruchi fortress and sends son, Rostislav, to Vysegorod, and his nephew, Mstislav-Boris Romanovich Starii, to Belgorod fortress with another nephew, Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloy to Torchesk fortress. These fortresses control access to Kyiv. They then push Vsyevolod out of Kyiv and his son out of Periaslavl. During winter 1206-7 Vsyevolod tries to retake Kyiv but fails after 3-week siege.

 
 

1206 AD

Quriltai in Mongolia proclaims Temujin as Chingiz Khan, Mongols launch first campaign into Western Hsia.

 

1206 AD

Venetians quickly consolidate their power in Constantinople and use it to gain control of Black Sea trade. Trade agreement between Petr Ferragut and Zakhari Stagiorio mentions Sudak as trading point.

 

1206-10 AD

The Polotsk druzhina campaigns a second time coming to the aid of the Livs. But they are late, meanwhile the Bishop of Riga's knights and landsknetcht defeat the Polotsk troops laying siege to their outposts in Livonia at Koknes and Yersika, which they capture in 1207.

 
 

1207 AD

Vsyevolod Chermnyy retakes Kyiv by bringing all troops from Galicia, Turov and the Polovtsi. This time he first takes each fortress one by one and has the city by August.. But he is ousted again at end of year. Rurik flees again to Uruchi. But in August Vsyevolod III at Suzdal plans counterattack on Chernigiv to help Rurik. He starts but is diverted to Ryazan by threat of pro-Ol'govichi princes there. From assembly point at Moscow, his army goes south-east to Ryazan where they arrest all the Ryazan princes and bishop. At this Rurik is able to react again and push Vsyevolod Chermnyy out of Kyiv. So Rurik regains the throne for the seventh time and holds it for 3 years. Meanwhile, Konstantin Vsyevolodovich is ordered to bring Novgorod - Pskov - Ladoga - Torzhok troops on same campaign. He marches as far as Pronsk where he is wounded and then he goes to Vladimir to recover. Svyatoslav is sent back to Novgorod in early 1208.

 
 

1208 AD

Ol'govichi attack Kyiv again. Vsyevolod Chermnyy used diplomacy. Rurik's nephew, Mstislav Mstislavich, is moved to Toropets in northern part of Smolensk land and then, while Vsyevolod III is busy with Ryazan, he takes Torzhok a key Novgorodian border fortress. There he arrests the agents of Vsyevolod III and his son, Svyatoslav, in Novgorod. Mstislav marches on Novgorod and ejects Svyatoslav Vsyevolodovich.

 
 

1208 AD

Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich is sent by his father to rule Ryazan, but there is a city rebellion and the town is burned.

 
 

1208-16 AD

Eric X Knutsson, King of Sweden .

 
 

1208 AD

Battle of Irtysh, Naiman Mongol's leader, Kushluk, defeated and flees to Qara Khitai Tatars.

 
 

1209 AD

Mongols invade Hsi-Hsia.

 
 

1209 AD

First mention of Tver' in chronicles in connection with unsuccessful campaign of Vsyevolod III against Novgorod in which his son, Konstantin, leads the army. Konstantin gets his brother, Svyatoslav, released. Mstislav strengthens the Novgorod border defenses. Gradually Tver' becomes an important outpost of the Vladimir princes on the west.

 
 

1209-16 AD

Kushluk overthrows Kara Khitai Tatars with help of Mohammed Shah of Khwarezm.

 
 

1210 AD

Ol'govichi propose to Vsyevolod III to let him back to Kyiv.

 
 

1210 AD

Last attack of Polovtsi against Peryeyaslavl.

 
 

1210-39 AD

Hermann von Salza, first Great grand master of the Teutonic Knights, shifts operations from Palestine into Hungary.

 
 

1211 AD

The Poles and Hungarians support the Guelfs against Pope Innocent III. The Galich Rus pay dearly at Hungarian hands. They invite the Chernigovtsi (Ol'govichi) to rule. The boyars fight the Ol'govichi who seek aid from Hungarians. The boyars win and execute the Ol'govichi, but Galich is divided between Hungarians and Poles in 1214.

 
 

1211 AD

Vsyevolod Chermnyy's daughter, Agafia, marries Yurii II Vsyevolodovich of Suzdal.

 
 

1211-15 AD

Mongols begin invasion of Chin empire, north China.

 
 

1212 AD

On death of Vsyevolod III Yur'yevich in April, Tver is joined into the domain of Periaslavl-Zaleski prince Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich.

 
 

1212 AD

Daniil Romanovich regains throne as appanage prince of Galich.

 
 

1212 AD

Early in the year Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi at the head of a combined Novgorod-Pskov-Polotsk-Toropets army of 15,000 campaigns successfully against the Chud and Livonian knights as far as Baltic at Tallinin. (First of at least 5 campaigns against Chud). He raids the support bases of the Knights of the Cross in Livonia. He levies tribute. But the Germans manage to break up the alliance, first forcing Polotsk to come to terms and then by a second treaty compel Novgorod to come to terms with Treiden. Mstislav prepares for southern campaign.

 

1212-16, 1219-38 AD

Yurii II Vsyevolodovich, Grand Prince of Vladimir. Struggle between six remaining sons of Vsyevolod III: Konstantin, Yurii, Yaroslav, Vladimir, Svyatoslav and Ivan; Boris had died in 1188 and Gleb in 1189. He grants amnesty to the Ryazan princes. Immediately Konstantin and Svyatoslav allied and raised an army against Yurii and Yaroslav who marched on Rostov. Brothers make truce.

 

1212 AD

Vsyevolod Chermnyy is removed from Kyiv. During the summer the Rostislavichi - Mstislav Mstislavich -brings whole Novgorodian and Northwestern Rus army to Smolensk where they join the senior prince, Mstislav-Boris Romanovich Starii (Smolensk house), and two of Rurik's sons, and two of David's sons and others. Exceptionally the Novgorod troops agree to march outside their lands. The army marches down the Dniper into Chernigiv and Kyiv. Vsyevolod Chermnyy flees from Kyiv to Chernigiv where he is besieged. Then Mstislav Romanovich Starii takes Kyivian throne. When Vsyevolod dies that year (or is it 1215?) the Ol'govichi are out and Rostislavichi in at Kyiv which they hold for 13 years.

 
 

1213-17-19 AD

Mstislav III Romanovich three times sends Polovtsi against Hungarians who were disturbing Russians on the Dniester.

 
 

1213 AD

Vladimir and Svyatoslav Vsyevolodich change sides in second clash against their brother, Konstantin, at Kostroma, but no battle.

 
 

1213-15 AD

Vladimir Vsyevolodovich rules Periaslavl.

 
 

1214 AD

By Treaty of Spisz the Hungarians and Poles attempt to divide Galicia and Volynia and put Hungarian king's son, Karloman, on Galich throne.

 
 

1214 AD

Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich marries as his second wife, Mstislav Mstislavich's daughter, Rostislava-Feodosia. Her mother, Mstislav's wife, is Maria, daughter of Polovtsi Khan Kotyan. She is future mother of Alexander Nevski and his brothers.

 
 

1215 AD

Rurik dies as a prisoner in Chernigiv. But Mstislav Mstislavich (Rostoslavichi) holds on to Novgorod. But over winter 1214-1215 he makes recon trip to Galicia via Kyiv where he visits Mstislav Romanovich.While Mstislav is in Galicia, Yaroslav goes to take Novgorod from his father-in-law, but when Mstislav returns in Feb 1215, Yaroslav retreats to Torzhok and starts blockade of Novgorod grain supply. Conflict between Yurii and Yaroslav Vsyevolodovichi intensifies. Polovtsi raid Periaslavl and capture Vladimir Vsyevolodovich. He is released in 1217 and given Starodub to rule.

 
 

1215 AD

Hungarians capture western Galicia area given to Leszek at Spisz.

 
 

1215 AD

Pope Innocent III consecrates Christian bishop of the Prussians.

 
 

1216 AD

Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich captures Novii Torg and organizes a blocade of grain delivery to Novgorod. In answer the Novgorodians call in prince Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, who currently is based at Toropetsk. In this campaign is first mention of Rzhev under Mstislav's control and of Zubtsov taken by the Periaslavl -Zaleski troops. Mstislav gains victory over the Vladimirian troops but only briefly, it does not change overall situation. In face of German threat Novgorod has to return the throne to prince of Vladimir.

 
 

1216 AD

In third clash of the Vsyevolodichi for control of Vladimir. Konstantin has Rostislavichi and Novgorod allies. Yurii and Yaroslav and Svyatoslav have troops from Murom and the Brodniki. Battle of Lipitsa River near Yur'yev-Pol'ski on 21 April. In this bloody battle regiments from Novgorod fight those from Suzdal. One contains 13 styagi and the other 17. (A styag was a banner, signifying a company under the command of a junior boyar or prince) A "kop'ya" or lance was the smallest unit composed of a commander and a small number of retainers. (Both these nomenclatures are similar to corresponding west European organizations). The Novgorodian contingent is commanded by Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi. Konstantin and the Rostoslavichi win full victory. Yurii flees to Vladimir. Yaroslav flees to Periaslavl Zaleski. Yurii surrenders when Rostoslavichi (Smolensk) troops reach Vladimir. Mstislav sends him to Gorodets. Yaroslav surrenders but looses wife (Mstislav's daughter). Following the battle Konstantin Vsyevolodovich unites Rostov and Vladimir principalities under his rule as Grand prince of Vladimir. Konstantin's sons - Vasil'ko to Rostov and Vsyevolod to Yaroslavl. Then Yurii gets Suzdal back.

 
 

1216 AD

The same year Mstislav Mstislavich leads Novgorod troops into Livonia as far as Riga.

 
 

1216-22 AD

John Sverkersson, King of Sweden

 

1216-17 AD

Peter of Courtenay, Latin emperor at Byzantium

 

1216-17 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich visits Kyiv to see Mstislav-Boris Romanovich Stari, then grand prince at Kyiv.

 
 

1217 AD

The Knights of the Cross build a fortress at Odenpa in eastern Estonia. They attack Russian villages on the Feast of Epiphany, 16 January.

 
 

1217 AD

The combined armies of Novgorod (led by Mstislav Mstislavich) and Estonia campaign successfully in southern Estonia. Heinrick the Lithuanian in the "Chronicle of Livonia" writes "In 1217 the Novgorodians gathered a force headed by the Pskov king Vladimir and his subjects. They gathered strength throughout Estonia, leading the Est in siege against the Knights of the Cross."

 
 

1217 AD

Svyatoslav Vsyevolodovich rules Yur'ev-Pol'ski (1212-13 - 1237). Gleb Vladimirovich and Konstantin Vladimirovich , princes of Ryazan, are murdered. Ingvar and Yurii Igor'yevich survive in Ryazan.

 
 

1217 AD

Chepe leads two Mongol toumans to conquer Qara Khitai.

 

1217-19 AD

Yolande, Latin ruler at Byzantium.

 

1218 AD

Chingiz Khan conquers Qara-Khitan Empire, He begins campaign against Mohammed Shah (Ala-al-Din Mohammed).

 
 

1218 or 19? AD

Volga Bolgars raid Sukhoma River, capture Ustyug fortress and are defeated at the Unzha river..

 
 

1218 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich campaigns into Galicia. He has his cousin, Vladimir Rurikovich, and the Polotsk army. Kaloman is arrested.

 

1218 AD

Konstantin Vsyevolodovich, grand prince of Vladimir, dies and Yurii II Vsyevolodich becomes Grand prince. Yaroslav remains at Periaslavl-Zaleski.

 

1218 AD

The Novgorodian-Pskov army reaches and besieges Venden, the citadel of the Livonian Order.

 
 

1218-19 AD

Another daughter of Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, Anna, weds Daniil Romanovich, prince (later king) of Galicia. She is the mother of Roman, Lev, Msitslav and Shvarin (kings of Galicia). This makes Mstislav and Maria the ancestors of the two main houses in Russia.
Bishop Albert makes his brother, Engelbert, prior of Saint Mary's and marries his brother, Theodoric, to a daughter of the Prince of Pskov, Vladimir Mstislavich. This last does not meet the approval of the Pskov veche, so they chase Vladimir out of town.

 
 

1219 AD

Volga Bolgar campaign against Vladimir- Suzdal.

 
 

1219 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, the politically adept one, attempts to expel the Hungarian heir, Koloman, from Galich with Polovtsi aid. Mstislav's father-in-law is Khan Kotyan, but even the Polovtsi with other princes can not dislodge the Hungarians. Mstislav is driven out by Poles and Hungarians and Kaloman is back.

 
 

1219 AD

Valdemar II, King of Denmark, conquers Estonia. The Danish army captures the Est village, Lindanis; and founds a "Danish" city, Tallinn - Revel. The bishop of Riga issues an edict establishing a bishopric for the Danish lands.

 

1219 AD

Sudak campaign

 

1219 AD

Chingiz Khan invades Khwarazm Empire of 'Ala' al-Din Mohammad II, Battle of Jand, one of the four Mongol armies draws Mohammed's forces into a drawn battle in Ferghana Valley

 

1219-28 AD

Robert of Courtnay, Latin emperor at Byzantium

 

1219-1263 AD

Mindaugas, ruler of Lithuania, king from 1253

 
 

1220 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich returns to Galicia with larger army of Mstislav Romanovich Starii, Grand Prince of Kyiv. Campaign is indecisive.

 

1220 AD

Eastern campaign of Prince Yurii II Vsyevolodovich. He sends druzhina of four princes (Svyatoslav Vsyevolodovich of Suzdal, Vasil'ko Konstantinovich of Rostov, and two Murom princes, Svyatoslav Davidovich and Oleg Yur'yevich (son if Yurii Igoryevich, prince of Ryazan) against Volga Bolgar. They sail down the Volga to Oshel (Ashla) and capture it after siege. Three Bolgar embassies sue for peace.

 

1220 AD

Yurii II Vsyevolodovich replaces the Rostislavichi prince in Novgorod with his own son.

 
 

1220 AD

The Teutonic Knights capture much of the western Polotsk lands.

 
 

1220 AD

Four Mongol armies advance from different directions to overwhelm Khwarezm, Mohammed flees. Mongols conplete conquest of Central Asia.

 
 

1221-22 AD

Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi decides to go make a career in Galicia and so informs the people of Novgorod. (was this in 1218?) He takes large army to Galicia including units of Mstislav-Boris Romanovich of Kyiv and other Rostislavichi and Ol'govichi from Turov, Lutsk and Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich of Suzdal and Peryeyaslavl Zaleski. Polovtsi troops also included. They fight two battles, one on Seret river east of Galich and the other nearer to the city. The Hungarians and Poles are defeated. Galich is taken after 17-day siege. Kaloman again a prisoner. In 1218 Mstislav Mstislavich is replaced at Novgorod by Mstislav-Boris Romanovich's second son, Vsyevolod, but Novgorodians tell Vsyevolod to leave in 1221. One result is that Daniil Romanovich now gains throne of Volynia.

 
 

1221-22 AD

Troops from Smolensk capture Polotsk.

 
 

1221 AD

Rus-Bulgar 6 year truce sign at Gorodetz-na-Oka near Kasimov by Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, Yurii II Vsyevolodovich, and a Bulgar ambassador- this is the border of two principalities - they agree to exchange prisoners. Yurii establishes frontier fortress town at Nizhni-Novgorod at confluence of Oka and Volga.

 
 

1221 AD

The Seljuk sultan, ala ad-Din Keikebad, acting in response to a complaint from a merchant who had been ambushed in the "Khazar Pass", sends an army (and navy?) to Crimea where it defeats a Rus-Polovtsi force. The Seljuks want to divert Crimean trade from Trebizond to their port at Sinope. When Mstislav Mstislavich brings reenforcements, he is prevented from attacking because the Seljuks hold hostages.

 
 

1221 AD

Battle of Pirvan: Mohammed's son, Jellaluddin, attempts to stem Mongol advance and defeats their advance guard in Hindu Kush; Battle of Indus: Chingis Khan leads major forces to drive Jellaluddin across the Indus and ravage parts of Punjab. Conquest of Ghazni consolidated to 1224. Chepe and Subodai lead Mongol detachment into Caucasus.

 

1222-54 AD

John III, Byzantine emperor at Nicea.

 

1222 AD

The Ests aid the Novgorodian-Pskovite army to wipe out Livonian knight garrisons at Ezel, Fellin and Odenp. The Novgorodian prince, Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich brings 20,000 troops to grab all Livonia up to Revel. Yaroslav sends Prince Vyachko with a Rus druzhina to Yur'yev.

 
 

1222 AD

In support of Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, the combined forces of Kyivan Prince Mstislav III Romanovich the Old (who died in 1223), Vladimir Rurikovich ( of Smolensk, who succeeded to Kyiv in 1223), Rostislav Davydovich ??, Rostislav Mstislavich (the son of Mstislav the Old), and the Polovtsi of Khan Khotyan succeed in defeating the Hungarians and Poles at Galich.

 
 

1222 AD

First Mongol attack, they attack Georgia, cross Caucasus, attack Alans and Kypchak( Polovtsi).

 
 

1223 AD

The Rostislavichi now hold most of southern Rus and Smolensk.

 
 

1223 AD

Vladimir III Rurikovich Grand Prince of Kyiv: Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich elected prince of Novgorod. Yaroslav unsuccessfully besieges Revel fortress.

 

1223 or 4? AD

Mongols continue and destroy Russian-Kypchak army on Kalka River. The Rus army is commanded by the three Mstislavs: Mstislav Mstislavich (The Galician) Udaloi, who is son-in-law of Polovtsi Khan Khotyan, Mstislav Svyatoslavich Chormnyi of Chernigiv and Mstislav-Boris Romanovich the Old of Kyiv. But no Ryazantsi princes participate. They decide to move east into steppe to confront the unknown Tatar menace. They move down the Dniper and meet two Mongol delegations along the way but dismiss them. At Periaslavl they are reenforced from Smolensk, Chernigiv and Galicia and continue to Protolochi. Mstislav's lack of forsight in assessing the Mongols and his tenuous ties with the leader of the "Brodniki" who populated the Don region and replenished the Mongols, results in Mstislav surrendering to the Mongols. About half the Rus princes including Mstislav Romanovich of Kyiv, Svyatoslav of Konev, Mstislav Svyatoslavich of Chernigiv, Dmitri Mstislavich of Chernigiv (Kozel) , Izyaslav Ingvar'yevich (of Lutsk) , Syyatoslav of Shumsk, Alexandr Dubrovtsa, Yuri Nesvezh and Andrei, son in law of Mstislavich are killed. Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi escapes. The sack of Sudak, is described by Ibn- al-Athir.

1223 AD

Tribute ship from Chersonesus to Trebizond captured at Sinope by Seljuk Turks, recovered by campaign from Trebizond.

 

1224 AD

The Battle on the river Imer. The year following Yaroslav's siege of Revel, after the Tatar victory over the Russians, the Teutonic knights defeated the army of Est on the river Imer. The Est had rebelled, and Yaroslav sent to Yur'yev, prince Vyachko with a Russian druzhina. The capture by the Danes of Yur'yev in 1224 led to a peace with boundaries of the Lake Chud' and along the river Narov. Northern Estonia in German hands. The Livonian knights capture Yur'yev. The Talavy area, south east Lithuania around Yur'yev, is divided between the Bishop of Riga and the Teutonic Order. An independent bishopric is founded at Derpt- Yur'yev. The Est are nearly wiped out and the Russians chased out of Estonia.

 
 

1224 AD

Vladimir III Ryurikovich assumes the throne of Kyiv.

 
 

1225 AD

Battle of Torzhok. Following a period of political infighting among the Novgorod boyars on the one hand and the Vsyevolodovich brothers on the other, the Novgorod boyars gain enough political clout to bring in their own prince, Svytoslav Mstislavich of Smolensk, and then his brother, Vsyevolod Mstislavich.

 

1225 AD

Possible naval landing or land campaign via Caucasus by Seljuk Turks from Sinope commanded by Husam-al-Din Chupan to capture Sudak and divert trade from Trebizond. They establish a protectorate.

 

1225 AD

Khan Khotyan, who also escaped death at Kalka river, helps his son-in-law, Mstislav Mstislavich, campaign in Galicia.

 
 

1226 AD

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II issues new bull of Rimini that raises status of the Teutonic Knights in the HRE and grants them Prussia.

 
 

1226 AD

Battle of the Yellow River, Mongols invade Hsia in winter along frozen rivers. Tanguts attempt defense but are overthrown.

 
 

1226-28 AD

Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich again elected prince of Novgorod.

 
 

1226 AD

Yelena Mstislavna, daughter of Novgorod (then Galicia) Prince Mstislav Udaloi, marries the Hungarian heir and future king Andrew III. This is the third house into which Mstislav's daughters have married.

 
 

1226 AD

The campaign against the neighbors of the Korelians, the "En or Yen" leads to a revanche in 1228 in which the inhabitants around Lake Ladoga led by their posadnik defeat the attackers.

 
 

1226 AD

Battle of Toropets. The Lithuanians are defeated by the Novgorodian druzhina of Prince Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich and the city's prince, David Mstislavich, brother of Mstislav Udaloi.

 
 

1227 AD

The Knights of the Sword besiege the Est citadel at Muhu.

 
 

1227 AD

Yuri II Vsyevolodich sends Vsyevolod Konstantinovich to rule Periaslavl.

 
 

1227 AD

Mongols defeat Hsia and Chin: Chingiz Khan dies.

 
 

1227-79 AD

Boleslav V, King of Poland

 

1228-61 AD

Baldwin II, Latin emperor at Byzantium

 

1228 AD

Death of Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi.

 
 

1228 AD

Rostislav Mikhailovich is prince at Novgorod for a year. He then moves to Galich

 
 

1228 AD

Conflict begins between Vladimir Ryurikovich, grand prince of Kyiv, and Daniil Romanovich, now prince of Galich and Volinya, because Vladimir's brother, Rostislav was upset that Daniil had taken the appanage of Chertoryisk and that Vladimir's father, Ryurik, had been forced to become a monk by Daniil's father, Roman. The opponents are the grandsons of the brothers, Izyaslav and Rostislav. Vladimir joins into the fight against Daniil. The new prince of Chernigiv, Mikhail Vsyevolodovich, and Khotyan with all the Polovtsi warriors and those of the Turov and Pinsk princes campaign against Daniil's appanages. This coalition poses a real threat to the Hungarian heir and the Hungarian presence in Galich and thus is a real political threat to Daniil. He turns for help to the Poles and simultaneously enters into talks with Khotyan to sway him over to his side. Instead of joining Vladimir, Khotyan's Polovtsi troops raid the countryside. The military actions of the allies begin with an assault on Kamenets on the Sluch River, which are beaten off, so they return home. Meanwhile the Polish forces reach Daniil and he advances against Kyiv. Vladimir and Mikhail do not expect this turn of affairs. They conclude a peace with Daniil.

 
 

1229 AD

Daniil Romanovich of Galich uses his Polovtsi allies against Hungary that was threatening his new kingdom of Galicia.

 
 

1229 AD

Peace treaty of 6 years between Vladimir-Suzdal and Bolgars at border - Karenev on Volga - Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, Yurii II Vsyevolodovich and Bulgar ambassadors - agree to free prisoners and open free trade and fishing rights

 
 

1229 AD

Conrad of Masovia, Duke of Poland, calls for aid and Teutonic Knights are sent into Prussia to crusade against pagans in Baltic region.

 
 

1229 -41 AD

Ogodei, Great Khan of Mongol empire.

 
 

1230 AD

Pope Gregory IX authorises the Teutonic Order to conquer the Prussians.

 
 

1230 AD

King Henry III of England grants special privileges to Gotland merchants and pension to the Teutonic knights to encourage trade between Baltic and England.

 
 

1230 AD

By now the various Rus princes have realigned their forces. Vladimir joins Daniil because his relations with the Ol'govich turn sour. The new Chernigiv Prince, Mikhail Vsyevolodovich ( the former prince having died at the Kalka) grabs the throne from his uncle the prince of Kursk, Oleg Igorevich ( ?? ). Vladimir sides with Mikhail and sends the metropolitan, Kiril, to restore peace between the opponents.

 
 

1230-36 AD

Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich again elected prince of Novgorod.

 
 

1230-39 AD

Hermann Balk, Provincial Master of Teutonic Knights in Prussia. Knights begin conquest of western Prussians - to 1240.

 
 

1230-53 AD

Wenceslas I, King of Bohemia.

 
 

1231 AD

Mozhaisk founded.

 
 

1231-34 AD

Mongols ally with Sung to complete destruction of Chin state. Kaifeng falls after siege by Subotai.

 
 

1231-36

Mongols complete conquest of Persia, Georgia, Armenia et cetera.

 
 

1234 AD

Last battle between Rus princes and Polovtsi, Polovtsi capture Grand Prince Vladimir III Rurikovich who is then ransomed.

 
 

1234 AD

Battle of Yemaiyigi (Embakh) River. Prince Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich and his fourteen year old son, Aleksandr (later Nevski), force the Order knights onto the ice of the Omovzha River where many are drowned and others manage to reach Yur'yev. The Grossmeister of the Teutonic knights, Volquin von Vingershtein, concluds a peace with Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich which is observed for four years.

 
 

1234 AD

Battle of Derpt, Yur'yev. Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich receives the appanage of the cities of Pereyaslavl Zaleski, Dmitrov, and Tver. The Novgorodians invited prince Yaroslav to rule in 1215 and in 1226 and 1230. In this battle he mets the knights outside Yur'yev. Many knights of the Sword are drowned. The same year the Lithuanians attacked the knights of the Sword and drove east to Torshok, near Tver, where they are repulsed by Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich's druzhina and chased clear to Toropets.

 
 

1235 AD

Mongol leaders under Khan Ogodei hold kuriltay to plan conquest of the world. They decide on four simultaneous campaigns: against Korea, against Sung south China, against Iraq (Abbasid Caliph), Syria and Transcaucasia, and against Europe.

 
 

1235 AD

Oblivious to the coming storm from the East, Prince Michael Chernigovskii, (that is Mikhail Vsyevolodovich) under the banner of Izyaslav Vladimirovich, prince of Putlivl, the grandson of the famous Prince Igor, captures and sacks Kyiv. Both he and his opponent, Daniil Romanovich Volynskii rely on Polovtsi weapons and troops. Their loyalties are swayed by intermarriages of Russian princes and Polovetsian beauties. Izyaslav sits on the throne in Kyiv. Michael chases Daniil out of Galich into Hungary. Izyaslav is grand prince at Kyiv (1234- 1236)

 
 

1235 AD

The battle at Mogil'no. The western princes unite against the main Lithuanian force led by Prince Ringol'd. The battle taks place where the Ditva river falls into the Neiman in modern Belarus. The Rus are led by the prince of Drutsk, Dmitrii, the druzhina of the prince of Volynsk, Prince Lev Daniilovich (10 yrs old?) and the brother of the great prince, Yuri II Vsyevolodovich, Svyatoslav of Starodub (or Yur'yev). The Rus suffer a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Lithuanians

 
 

1236 AD

Battle of the Shaulya (Saule) River on 21 September. Also known as the battle of Kamenka, a small village on the boundary between Latvia and Lithuania. The site is disputed. Under the leadership of Mindovg the Lithuanians unite their lands. At the Shaulya Prince Ringol'd defeats the Teutonic knights led by the Grossmeister, with Count Dannenberg and Count Hazel'dorf of the German knights of the Cross. Also participating are princes of Volynia; with their companies of Galicians. The heavily armed knights are annihilatred. The Grossmeister of the Teutonic knights, Volquin von Vingerstein, Dannenberg and Hazel'dorf are killed. Also killed are 48 company commanders and the entire command of the knights of the Cross. Pope Gregory calls for days of grieving. Ringold changes allegiance to Latvia.

 
 

1236 AD

Mikhail Vsyevolodovich takes over as Grand Prince of Kyiv. (some say 1238 -1240)

 
 

1236-7 AD

Batu and Subudei lead Mongol army against Volga Bolgars, Mongka leads another army against the Polovtsi (Kypchaks).

 
 

1236-40 AD

Aleksandr Yaroslavich (Nevski) elected prince of Novgorod.

 
 

1237 AD

The battle of Dorogichin. The druzhina of Prince Daniil Romanovich of Galicia, grandson of Kyivan Grand Prince Mstislav Izyaslavich and son of Roman Mstislavich who had crearted the powerful Volyni-Galicia principality, defeats the Livonian knights lead by Magistrate Bruno.

 
 

1237 AD

Battle of the River Memel'. The river is a tributary of the Neiman on its lower course near where it empties into Konigsberg bay. A powerful Teutonic fortress was located here. In a bloody battle the Lithuanians defeated the combined forces of the Teutonic and Livonian knights plus units from western Europe and Pskov.

 
 

1237 AD

Hermann Balk now provincial master in Livonia also after the Teutonic Knights unite with the Livonian Brothers: They capture Courland and spread control along entire south Baltic coast.

 

1237-8 AD

Batu leads second Mongol invasion to conquer Rus, Cumans (Polovtsi, or Kypchaks) and Crimea -Yurii II Vsyevolodovich , Grand Prince of Vladimir, killed in battle with Mongols as are his two sons. Ryazan captured on 12 Dec 1237, then Moscow, then Vladimir on 8 Feb. 1238 after week-long siege. Yuri II killed on 4 March on Siti River. One Mongol detachment takes Rostov, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, and Vologda. Another Mongol detachment attacks Peryeyaslavl, Tver, Uglich, Kashin and Torshok. At Tver the son of prince of Novgorod and Peryeyaslavl is killed. Torshok is heavily fortified city and holds out for 2 weeks until 5 March, disrupting the Mongol time table. Kashin is first mentioned in chronicles in this campaign. Mongols spend rest of 1238 regrouping and obtaining more horses in steppe region.

1238-46 AD

Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich, prince of Peryeyaslavl, and sometime elected prince of Novgorod, who luckily was in Lithuania when the Mongols arrived, elected Grand Prince of Vladimir after death of his brother, Yuri II, at Siti River, in Sonkovski rayon. He dies in Mongolia in 1246.

 

1238-42, and 1244-6 AD

Dietrich v Gruningen, provincial master of Teutonic Knights for Livonia

 
 

1239-44 AD

Heinrich v Weide, provincial master of Teutonic Knights for Prussia

 

1239 AD

Monka leads Mongol detachment to conquer Alans and Circassians in north Caucasus region. Batu completes subjugation of Kypchaks except for 40,000 who flee to Hungary. Mongols conquer Tibet. Mongols plunder Sudak, also devastate Theodoro (capital at Mangup-kale) and impose tribute, Tatar capital at Solkhat (Eski-krim), Mongols sack Chernigiv and Pereiaslavl. Chernigiv is defended by Mstislav Glebovich.

 

1239 AD

The Lithuanians capture Smolensk but are then chased out by Yaroslav.

 
 

1239 AD

Yaroslav Ingvarevich, who in 1229 had received from Daniil the appanages of Mezhibozh'e and Peremil', campaigns to Kamenets, captures the city and many people including Michael's wife. Daniil Romanovich steps in and frees the princess.

 
 

1239 AD

Aleksandr Yaroslavich (later Nevski) builds wooden palisade fortress on the Shelon' river near Novgorod. Following his marriage to Aleksandra Praskov'ya, daughter of the Polotsk prince Bryachislav at Toropets, Aleksandr returns to Novgorod. He then founds the city, Porkhov on the Shelon' and builds more palisaded fortresses in the region. But Mindovg chases Bryachislav out of Polotsk and places his own son-in-law, Tovtivila, on the throne, thereby taking control of the entire Polotsk region.

 

1240 AD

Batu's cousin, Mengu, who had already secretly entered the city on reconaissance, sends emissaries to Mikhail Vsyevolodovich who is ruling Kyiv, offering terms. Instead Mikhail has the ambassadors killed, then he and Daniil Romanovich flee the city. Mongol campaign sacks Kyiv in the fall. The Mongol army is spread thin over winter from Caucasus and Crimea to Carpathians. Many Kypchak flee to Hungary where they settle.

 

1240 AD

Aleksandr Yaroslavich defeats Swedish force led by Earl Birger, who is attempting to block Novgorod's access to the sea, on Neva River, receives name "Nevski". Livonian Knights move to capture Pskov but their allies in the Teutonic Order are diverted by the call from the Duke of Silesia to aid Poland against the Mongols.

 
 

1240 AD

The knights of the Order with detachments from the Dutch king and Bishop of Derpt defeat the Pskovian army led by the voyevode Gavrilya Gorislavich and capture the fortress at Izborsk, killing all the local inhabitants. On 16 Sept the German knights aided by Germanophile Pskovian boyars capture the city. Aleksandr Yaroslavich's army is too weak for him to assist. Aleksandr flees Novgorod to Peryeyaslavl. The Novgorodians receive help from Andrei, another son of Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich, but he is unable to stop the German advance.

 

1240 AD

Document mentions Alans live near Chersonesus and Theodoro. There is a Bishop of Alania.

 

1240 AD

Mindovg, Lithuanian chieftan, converts to Christianity and is given crown by Innocent IV.

 
 

1241 AD

Mongols resume offensive. Mongol detachment wins battle at Liegnitz (April 9th) over Germans lead by Henrick the Good, where many Teutonic Knights are killed, and main army of Batu and Subudai destroy Hungarians led by King Bela IV at confluence of Tisa and Sajo Rivers on 11 April. Northern detachment turns south from Silesia to move rapidly throught Bohemia and Moravia. Bohemian king Vaclav wins minor skirmish over one Mongol band near Kladsko, but the Mongols are in a hurry to reach Hungary and don't take time to bother with Bohemians. Hungarian king Bela rallies support in Croatia. Emperor Frederick II, Pope Gregory IX, and various western rulers all issue appeals to each other to move against the Mongols, but no one makes a move.

 
 

1241 AD

Livonian Knights with support from remaining Teutonic Order begin campaign against Novgorod and capture Pskov. With support of mercenary Lithuanians, Ests and the always-ready-for-a-fight, Livs, they take Kopor'ye and Tesov on the Oredezh River and approach Novgorod. Aleksandr moves around this force and retakes Kopor'ye, hanging traitors amongst the Chud and Vod clans.

 
 

1241 AD

In December Mongols cross frozen Danube and invade Croatia to capture Zagreb and overrun Dalmatian coast. Another Mongol detachment reaches Klosterneuburg near Vienna. Batu prepares campaign into Austria and Central Europe.

 
 

1241 AD

Death of Ogodei on 11 December.

 
 

1241-55 AD

Aleksandr Nevski returns to Novgorod in March and is again elected prince.

 

1242 AD

Batu receives word of Ogodei's death and starts back toward Mongolia in order to influence next election. Tatar-Mongols again sack Crimea.

 

1242 AD

Batu establishes khanate of Ulus of Jochi (Great or Kypchak khanate) at Sarai on Volga.

 
 

1242 AD

Livonian and Teutonic Knights march against Novgorod. Andrei Yaroslavich is sent by the new grand prince, of Vladimir, Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich to assist Aleksandr at Novgorod. After liberating Pskov, they meet the Germans at the "Uzmen" at the Vorontei stone and defeat them on 5 April at frozen Lake Peipus (lake Chud). 500 knights are killed and 50 taken prisoner. (estimates vary greatly) At this Prussians revolt.

 
 

1243 AD

Batu confirms Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich as Grand Prince of Vladimir and the yarlik for Kyiv. Yaroslav sends his son, Konstantin, to Sarai where he remained 2 years. Yaroslav is then summoned to the Mongol capital for the election of the new great Khan.

 
 

1243-44 AD

Rostislav Mikhailovich of Chernigiv, who had married Anna, the daughter of Bela IV of Hungary, brings the Little Poland king Boleslav the Shameful into the fight for Galich. Daniil Romanovich combines forces with Conrad of Mazovia and the Lithuanian prince Mindovg and wins victory over Rostislav.

 
 

1244-46 AD

Poppo v Osternach, provincial master of Teutonic Knights in Prussia.

 
 

1244 AD

Egyptian sultan encourages Khorezmians (Turcomans), defeated by Mongols, to move to Iraq and Syria and in July they capture Jerusalem.

 
 

1245 AD

Princes Daniil of Galicia and Vasilko of Volynia defeat Prince Rostislav of Chernigiv (despite his support by Poles and Hungarians).

 
 

1245 AD

John of Plano Carpini begins journey as Papal envoy to Mongol khan at Qaraqorum - Daniil of Galicia goes to Sarai to obtain yarlik and avoid a Mongol governor going to Galicia. Batu confirms Daniil Romanovich as Prince of Galicia and Volynia.

 
 

1245 AD

Pope Innocent IV preaches Seventh Crusade at Council of Lyon, King Louis IX of France takes leadership of this crusade.

 
 

1246 AD

Daniil aquieses to Khan's demand for tribute. Mikhail Vsyevolodovich, Grand Prince of Kyiv and Prince of Chernigiv, also goes to see Batu but refuses to kowtow and is executed. This strengthens Daniil's position.

 
 

1246-48 AD

Kuriltay electes Guyuk, Great Khan of Mongols; Yaroslav II, Grand prince of Vladimir: Kilij-Arslan IV, Seljuk sultan: David V, King of Georgia, are among the attendees along with the envoy of Pope Innocent. Guyuk decides to concentrate Mongol effort against Egypt in cooperation with Christians in Palestine. Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich dies in Mongolia (poisoned?).

 

1246-48 AD

Svyatoslav III, Vsyevolodovich, prince of Suzdal, becomes Grand Prince of Vladimir.

 

1246 AD

Daniil reorganizes Galician army along Mongol lines and equips it with Mongol arms and armor.

 
 

1246-59 AD

Dietrich v Gruningen, provincial master of Teutonic Knights for Prussia.

 

1246 AD

John de Plano Carpini passes through Ukraine but not Crimea on way to Sarai.

 

1247-1485 AD

Tver independent principality, how and why not clear. As of 1245 it still had a namestnik of Yaroslav, but with his death the area was again divided. The first prince of Tver was Yaroslav III Yaroslavich. Tver principality was formed from parts of the Vladimir Grand Principality, part of Novgorod land and part of Smolensk principality. The chronicles mention Tver, Kashin, Zubtsov, Staritsa, Klin, Kholm, Mikulin, Ksnyatin, Khorvach, and Belii Gorodok. The town soon had a strong kremlin surrounded by a high earthen rampart and water filled ditch and topped by strong wooden stockade wall.

 
 

1248-53 AD

Andreas v Stierland, provincial master of Teutonic Knights for Livonia.

 

1248 AD

Mikhail Yaroslavich Khrabri, briefly Grand prince of Vladimir after chasing Svyatoslav III Vsyevolodovich out of Vladimir, but he dies the following year.

1248-52 AD

Guyuk gives yarlik to Andrei II Yaroslavich, as Grand Prince of Vladimir and appoints his brother, Aleksandr (Nevski), as Prince of Kyiv. Khan Guyuk dies in 1248, Mongol campaign to Palestine put on hold. In 1249 Andrei returns to Vladimir and Aleksandr goes to Novgorod instead of Kyiv.

 

1249 AD

Swedish leader, Birger Jarl, conquers central Finland - Treaty of Christburg.

 
 

1249 AD

Mikhail Yaroslavich is killed during battle of Protva River against Lithuanians.

 

1249 AD

Sudak celebrates "liberation" from Mongol-Tatars, but they pay tribute for the privilege of local self-government. Tatar capital in Crimea is at Solkhat, a one-day trip across the mountains from Sudak, on the caravan route to Perekop. Arab author Ibn-abd-az-Zakhir mentions that at Solkhat there are Alans, Russians, and Kypchaks among the diverse population.

 

1250s AD

Lithuanian tribes under strong leadership of princes such as Mendovg with their druzhina begin offensive movement to south and east into Ukraine and Russia. They gain control of Grodno, Volkovysk, Slonim, Polotsk and Vitebsk. In the process the Lithuanians absorb Russian military skills and culture.

 
 

1250-52 AD

Abel, King of Denmark.

 
 

1250-75 AD

Valdemar, King of Sweden.

 
 

1250 AD

Aleksandr Nevski's second son, Dmitrii I Aleksandrovich is born.

 
 

1250 AD

Mamluks seize power in Egypt.

 
 

1251-59 AD

Mongke, Great Khan of the Mongols, as result of alliance between himself and Batu and over wishes of descendents of Jagatay and Ogodei. Batu's son, Sartak, becomes Christian and is placed in charge of Russian affairs.

 
 

1251 AD

Daniil of Galicia marries daughter of Mendovg of Lithuania as one of a series of dynastic marriages and attempts to acquire an ally against the Mongols.

 
 

1251 AD

On death of Svyatoslav in 1248 AndreiII Yaroslavich of Suzdal is appointed Grand Prince. Aleksandr goes again to Sarai for confirmation by Batu, but Andrei refuses to go. Sartak leads Mongol army to Vladimir in 1252 and defeats Andrei near Peryeyaslavl-in-Suzdalia then devastates region. Andrei flees to Novgorod and then to Sweden to evade Mongol pursuit. Sartak gives yarlik for Vladimir to Aleksandr.

 
 

1252-59 AD

Christopher I, King of Denmark.

 

1252-63 AD

Aleksandr Yaroslavich, Nevski, Grand Prince of Vladimir.

 

1252 AD

Tatar army led by Burundai campaigns against Lithuanian principalities of Aukahtaitiya and Zhemaitiya. Lithuanians harrass Tatars but avoid major battles, thereby maintaining their independence.

 
 

1252 AD

Mongka orders new census and conscription throughout empire in support of campaign in China. This increases Mongol pressure in Russia. Mongols begin conquest of Sung empire, south China.

 

1253, 21 May

Friar William de Rubriquis passes through Sudak on his way from Acre to Sarai and Mongolia. He describes it as major trade center, and discusses Crimea in general. He notes that he met there some of the same merchants he had met in Constantinople. (Did these include Venetians?)

 

1253-6 AD

Anno v Sangershausen, provincial master in Livonia.

 
 

1253-78 AD

Ottokar II, expands territories of Bohemia, opens silver mines.

 

1253-99 AD

War between Genoa and Venice breaks out at Acre, spreads throughout Med. and Black Seas.

1253 AD

Abulfeda mentions Kerker (Qurq-ier - Chufut Kale).

 

1253 AD

Daniil Romanovich of Volynia-Galicia seeks aid from western states (Hungary and Germany) and the Pope to start a crusade against the Mongols, without success. Tatar army of Nevruya attacks Peryeyaslav'-Zaleskii and another of Kurems attacks south Russia. These are driven back by Daniil. Daniil then wages war against Mindovg in Lithuania. Daniil attempts dynastic alliances. He marries sister of Tovtivil of Lithuania while his son, Roman, marries Gertrud, daughter of the Austrian prince Fredrick. Daniil receives title of King of Galicia from Pope in 1254.

 
 

1253 AD

Mongol army of Hulagu, Mongka's brother, prepares for campaign against Persia and Iraq: Another brother, Kubilay, begins campaign in China.

 
 

1255AD

Ottokar II of Bohemia allies with Teutonic Knights against Prussians.

 

1255 AD

Batu Khan dies, succeeded by Sartak: Hulagu reaches Samarkand in September.

 

1255 AD

Aleksandr Nevski and his brother, Andrei in battle for throne of Vladimir, Yaroslav III Yaroslavich of Tver supports Andrei. The Tatars interveen and defeat Andrei on Klyazma river. Yaroslav flees, his wife is killed and his son taken prisoner.

 
 

1256 AD

Sartaq, Khan of the Kipchak Khanate, dies shortly after accession. (maybe poisoned) He is succeeded by his brother, Ulagchi, who calls all Russian princes to Sarai and confirms their yarliks and orders a new census and further conscription.

 
 

1256 AD

Daniil of Galicia begins to defy Mongols by driving their troops out of Podolia and Volynia. Mongols are busy in northern Russia and conductd only small, local punitive raids before withdrawing into steppe. Andrei II returns from Sweden and is given yarlik for Gorodetz and Nizhni Novgorod.

 
 

1256 AD

Hulagu crosses Amu Daria River in January and reinforcements from Kypchak Khanate strengthen his army further.

 
 

1256-7 AD

Mongol armies destroy many Assassin castles in Persia.

 
 

1257 AD

Mongol officials arrive in Riazan, Murom and Vladimir to conduct census. New Mongol administrative apparatus is established to control Russian princes. Vladimir area aquiesses, but Novgorod tries to reject Mongols.

 
 

1257 AD

Mongol armies reach Tongking south of China.

 

1258-1266 AD

Ulagchi dies, then Batu's brother, Berke, a Moslem convert, becomes Khan of Kypchak Horde, Mongol census of Rus begins. Berke supports alliance with Mamlukes in Egypt against his cousin, Hulagu. Berke shifts Mongol attention from northern Russia to Middle East and western Russia.

 

1258-9 AD

Aleksandr Nevski and Andrii go with Mongol officials to Novgorod to impress on people the futility of resistance. Nevertheless Novgorodians start a riot and Aleksandr has to use troops from Vladimir to protect Mongol officials and suppress riot. The census proceeded and Novgorod citizens are conscripted into Mongol army for duty in China. Novgorod avoids stationing of permanent Mongol officials.

 

1258 AD

Venice defeats Genoa in naval war.

 

1258 AD

Yaroslav III Yaroslavich, receives yarlik for Tver principality.

 
 

1258 AD

In February Hulegu sacks Baghdad, last Abbasid Caliph executed, contingents of Kypchak Horde sent by Ulagchi participate. Mongols reorganize and rest in preparation for campaign against Egypt.

 
 

1258 AD

Mendovg changes policy of alliance with Daniil and arrests Daniil's son, Roman, leaving Daniil without an ally against the Mongols.

 
 

1259 AD

Hulagu prepares to invade Syria.

 
 

1259 AD

Mongka dies of dysentery contracted while supervising operations in China. Kubilay concludes truce with Sungs and prepares to contest the Mongol succession. Hulagu returns to Mongolia leaving in Syria a small army consisting of a single Turkish division with Mongol officers under command of the Nestorian Christian general, Kit-Buka.

 
 

1259 AD

Berke replaces Mongol general (Kurumshi) in Podolia with new and more active commander (Burunday) with orders to suppress Daniil's independence and the Lithuanian expansion. Burunday orders Daniil and Russian princes to support his initial campaign against Lithuanians. Combined Mongol-Russian army raids Lithuania and seizes booty, but Lithuanian army avoids battle.

 
 

1259 AD

Conflict between Novgorod and Hanse league over Lubeck trade ends in June with new treaty.

 

1259-61 AD

Michael VIII, Paleologus, Byzantine emperor at Nicea (at Constantinople until 1282) has Englishmen Varangian guard.

 

1260 AD

One quriltai elects Qubilai as khan and another elects Arik-Boke - civil war in center of Mongol empire, Qubilai wins. (Great Khan 1260-94).

 
 

1260 AD

Hulegu invades Syria, between January and March captures Aleppo and Damascus, but withdraws due to struggle over succession to Mongke. On September 3rd Mamlukes including now Kypchak and other Turkish troops defeat Mongol detachment of Kypchaks and Turks left behind at Ayn-Jalut ,Crusaders wondering whom to support.

 
 

1260 AD

Burunday leads Mongol army into Volynia and orders Russian princes to destroy their own town fortifications. Daniil flees to Poland. Russians comply by destroying forts. Mongols establish tax and conscription districts throughout southwest Rus region under supervision of their own officials. Burunday then withdraws Mongol army back to Dnieper steppe.

 
 

1260 AD

Battle of Durben, Lithuanians led by Mindovg defeat Teutonic Order when landsknekht flee the field disrupting the battle order, leading to a new revolt by Prussians. The Livonian Order magistrate, Borkhardt von Hornkhauzen, the Marshall von Botal' and the Swedish Hertzog , Carl all perish. The Danish- Swedish army is severly defeated. 150 titled knights fall and 14 are taken prisoner, of which 8 are burned at the stake to appease Lithuanian pagan gods. Curland defects from Christiandom and Prussia returns to Prussians. Mindovg is stripped of his title as Roman king. But the Baltic region seeks his protection from the Teutonic knights and he also defends the Rus population of Chyornaya Rusi (Ukraine) and Byelorussia, Volynia and Pskov. Mindovg sends ambassadors to Vladimir to unite against the Teutonic Order and Aleksandr accepts. But nothing comes of this.

 
 

1260 AD

Ottokar II of Bohemia defeats Hungarians.

 

1260 AD

According to Marco Polo's account the Polo brothers (Venetians) have a trade post and real estate at Sudak.

 

1260-83 AD

After the above revolt the Teutonic Order finally subjugates the Curonians, southern Letts and Prussians.

 

1261 AD

March, Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus recaptures Constantinople with Genoese help. He already has treaty of Nymphaeam with Genoa favorable to them, that closed Black Sea to all but Genoa and Pisa. Venetian quarter of Constantinople burned. Michael eventually gives one daughter each in marriage to Mongol Khans Abaga and Nogay. At first he blocks trade and communications between Kypchak Horde and Egypt, but later is forced to reopen it.

 

1261-2 AD

Egyptian Mamluk Sultan Baybars ( who is Kypchak ) sends letter to Berke urging his assistance against Hulagu. Warfare begins between Berke and Hulagu over control of northern Iran.

 
 

1261 AD

Orthodox archbishop established at Sarai, capital of Kypchak Horde.

 
 

1262 AD

Revolts in Rus towns against Mongol tax collectors centered in Suzdalia towns, Rostov, Vladimir, Yaroslavl and Suzdal. Aleksandr Nevski goes to Berke to plead forbearance and pardon for his people. Berke agrees.

 
 

1262 AD

Lithuanians raid Volynia.

 
 

1262 AD

Berke orders his Kypchak troops with Hulagu to defect and they go to Egypt to reinforce the Mamlukes. Berke's initial campaign against Hulagu is led by Emir Nogai and is defeated in Derbent area in late 1262.

 

1263-72 AD

Aleksandr dies on return journey at Gorodets on the Volga. Berke gives yarlik of Vladimir to Aleksandr's brother, Yaroslav III of Tver, making Tver the political center of Rus. He is also the appointed prince of Novgorod, but his policy to expand Tver at Novgorod's expense fails. Aleksandr's son, Dmitrii, becomes prince of Peryeyaslavl-Zaleski, the family base holding.

 

1263 AD

Following death of Aleksandr Nevski and assassination of Mindovg in the fall by his opponents, Dovmont of Nal'shenai and Troinat of Zhematiisk, the hopes for a united Russian, Lithuanian block against the Teutonic knights are put to rest forever.

 

1263 AD

Envoy of Sultan Baibars of Egypt arrives to build mosque at Solkat in Crimea for the Mamluk ruler commemorating his birthplace.

 

1263-4 AD

Berke leads Kypchak Horde army into Transcaucasia and defeats Hulagu. Both armies suffer heavy losses in battle seriously weakening Mongol power. Berke levies conscription on Russia for troops for campaigns in Caucasus and TransCaucasus. Kypchak Horde is now firmly allied with Mamluks in Egypt against Il-Khans in Persia. Many Egyptian troops continue to come from Kypchak Horde including Russians and Alans.

 
 

1264 AD

Qubilai defeats Arik-Boke, Qubilai moves capital from Qaraqorum to Beijing.

 

1264 AD

Venice declares war on Genoa and destroys their fleet off Trepani on Sicily. Byzantine emperor abandons Genoa and reestablishes relations with Venice.

 

1264 AD

Berke sends Nogai with army into Thrace to secure assistance of the vassal Bulgarian Tsar, Constantine, against the Byzantines.

 
 

1264 AD

Daniil Romanovich, King of Galicia, and Mendovg of Lithuania die. Andrei II Yaroslavich also dies.

 

1265 AD

Byzantine-Venetian trade treaty reopens Black Sea for Venetian traders.

 

1265 AD

Combined Mongol- Bulgarian armies threaten Constantinople.

 

1265 AD

Khan Berke gives Sudak as appanage to Seljuk Sultan Kai Karnes II as wedding present.

 

1265-66 AD

Khan Berke again campaigns in Transcaucasia with advance guard commanded by Nogai.

 
 

1265-82 AD

On death of Hulagu, Abaqa becomes second khan of Il Khan empire in Iran.

 

1266 AD

Genoese found colony at Kaffa by buying land from a Tatar noble, agreed to by Khan Berke, but city is already ancient from before 10th century, they build mostly new city and provide earthen wall defenses initially.

 

1267 AD

The Novgorod posadnik, Mikhail Fyodorovich, and the veche call for aid from the son of Aleksandr Nevski, Dmitrii Alexandrovich, and his Pereyaslav polki. Upon learning of the call to arms in Novgorod the Germans at Derpt-Yur'yev, the leaders of Riga and the Order representatives send emmisaries to Novgorod to ask why war preparations are being made.

 
 

1267 AD

Ottokar II, of Bohemia, campaigns against Lithuanians.

 
 

1267 AD

Genoese granted trading rights at Galatai by Byzantine Emperor, Michael.

 

1267-80 AD

Berke dies in 1266 in Tbilisi during the campaign and his army retires across the Caucasus. He has no living son. Mangu Temir, grandson of Batu is elected Khan of Kypchak Horde. Mangu-Temir is a Sky worshipper, which greatly reduces Kypchak pressure to support Moslems. He grants yarlik of immunity from taxes and conscription to the Russian Church. Nogai is assigned to command the Mongol armies in the Balkans.

 

1267 AD

Qubilay begins campaign again in South China with assistance of detachments from both Kypchak Horde and the Il-Khans (Including Russian units).

 
 

1267 AD

Hulagu's successor, Abaqa, attempts to organize alliance with Christian Europe against Moslems in Near East.

 
 

1268 AD

Battle of River Kegola. Novgorod is now prepared for war. In January they send army against Danes at Rakovor in Estonia. On 12 February they are ambushed by troops of the very cities in Livonia that had insisted on peace in 1267. Novgorod looses its posadnik, the tysyatskii, and many polk commanders in a bloody battle into the night. By morning the Livonians move on to loot the region around Pskov while Dmitrii retains the battlefield, hence can claim victory.

 
 

1269 AD

Kaidu (grandson of Ogodei) gains control of all Transoxania and Kashgaria.

 
 

1269 AD

Mangu-Temir and Abaqa conclude peace treaty.

 

1270 AD

Emperor Michael allows Venice back into Black Sea.

 

1271 AD

Kaluga founded.

 
 

1271- 1281 AD

on death of Yaroslav III, his son,Svyatoslav Yaroslavich prince of Tver, Tver has bishopric in 1271.

 
 

1271 AD

Emir Nogai starts Mongol offensive against Constantinople to reopen Bosporus to traffic between Egypt and Kypchak Horde.

 

1272-76 AD

Khan Mangu-Temir gives yarlik to Vasilii Yaroslavich, Grand Prince of Vladimir- from Kostroma. He was another son of Yaroslav and Rostislava. Khan sends troops to support Vasilii's claim to the title as prince of Novgorod against Novgorodian opposition.

1274 AD

Official act of Sudak mentions use of "Soldaia asper" -silver coin - in trade. Three official acts mention Genoese at Sudak and two at south Black Sea shore town - Batits - mention payment of visa duties for trade with Sudak.

 

1274 AD

Mongol campaign against Japan is defeated. Kaidu proclaims his independence in Central Asia.

 
 

1275 AD

Qubilay orders new census and conscription in Russia for campaign in south China.

 
 

1276 AD

Kaidu moves against Qubilay's officers in Central Asia but the Great Khan restores his power there.

 

1276-81 AD

Vasilii dies as last of the Yaroslavichi, leaving no brothers. Mangu-temir gives yarlik to Aleksandr's son, Dmitrii I Aleksandrovich, of Peryeyaslavl- Suzdalia as Grand Prince of Vladimir (1st time). He also gives him the title of prince of Novgorod.

 

1277 AD

Kaidu seizes Karakorum briefly but is soon ousted by Qubilay's troops.

 
 

1277 AD

Mangu-temir begins offensive against Alans in north Caucasus and orders Russian princes to bring their druzhina in support. Aleksandr Nevski's third son, Andrei, among others, participates. The Russians capture the main Alan fortified city.

 
 

1278 AD

Ottokar II, defeated and killed by Rudolf Hapsburg at Marchfeld.

 
 

1279 AD

Rus princes join Mongol forces in war against Lithuania.

 

1279 AD

Papal legate Philipp of Fermo, issues orders showing his concern that the Hungarian king, Laslo IV, is living according to the Kypchak manner rather than as a Christian.

 

1279 AD

Qubali gains control of all of China. Khan Mangu-Temir dies and his brother, Tuda-Mangu, is elected Khan of the Kypchak Horde. Nogai proclaims himself khan also (of the Nogai horde).

 
 

1279-88 AD

Leszek II, King of Poland.

 

1280-87 AD

Khan Tudu Mangu, of Kipchak Horde, controlled mostly by Nogai.

 

1280 AD

All Russian princes except Grand Prince Dmitrii I Aleksandrovich go to meet Khan Tuda-Mangu. Dmitrii is busy attacking Novgorod. Tuda-Mangu cancels his yarlik and gives Vladimir to Dmitri's younger brother, Andrei prince of Kostroma and Gorodets, Dmitri refuses to surrender the yarlik and conflict follows. Tuda-Mangu sends Mongol troops to assist Andrei. Mongols pillage Vladimir region and install Andrei on throne.

 
 

1280's AD

Mongols campaign with modest success in Cambodia, Annam and Burma. The second Mongol campaign against Japan fails in 1281.

 

1281 AD

Treaty between Byzantine Mikhail VIII Paleologus and Egyptian Sultan Quallou to protect merchants trading at Sudak (slave trade).

1281-83 AD

Andrei Aleksandrovich, Grand Prince - from Gorodets - He brings Tatar troops in support against Tver and Torzhok.

 

1281 AD

Dmitrii goes to Nogai and receives yarlik for Vladimir and troops for support to regain the throne. Andrei is forced to give up and move to Kostroma. However, Tuda-Mangu continues to consider Andrei the legal Grand Prince. Rostov princes likewise remain loyal to Tuda-Mangu.

 
 

1281-1318 AD

Mikhail Yaroslavich, younger brother of Svyatoslav, is prince of Tver with his mother, Ksyena, as regent at first.

 
 

1282 AD

Nogai sends 4,000 select Mongol (Kypchak) troops to support Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII, but Michael dies before the campaign begins.

 

1282 AD

Orthodox bishopric of Sudak has its own metropolitan. Church accounts mention that by mid 13th century population of Sudak is 8300. (Possibly only males counted). The account lists Greeks, Tatars, Armenians, and others.

1282-1328 AD

Andronicus II, Byzantine emperor.

 

1282-84 AD

Teguder Ahmad, Khan of Il-Khan Dynasty in Iran.

 
 

1283 AD

Tuda-Mangu converts to Islam and becomes a religious mystic.

 

1283-94 AD

Dmitrii I Aleksandrovich, Grand Prince - 2nd time.

 

1284-91 AD

Arghun, Khan of Il Khan Dynasty in Iran.

 
 

1285-6 AD

Nogai leads his own Mongol (Kypchak) troops in offensive into Hungary from the south. Tele-Buga leads the army of the main Kypchak Horde into Slovakia from the north but is stopped by snow in the Carpathian Mountains and forced to retire to Galicia, which he then loots in compensation for missing out in Hungary.

 
 

1286 AD

Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver leads united troops of Tver, Moscow, Novo-torzhok, and Rzhev against Lithuanian invasion. In following two years he shows independence from Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitrii I Aleksandrovich.

 
 

1286 AD

Nogai arrives in Galicia to work together with Tele-Buga to attack Poland. They order Russian princes to join as well. Nogai attacks Krakow and Tele-Buga moves toward Sandomir.

 
 

1287 AD

After looting Poland both Mongol armies return to Galicia and Volynia to complete the destruction there. This destruction reduces the local ability to resist the subsequent advance by Lithuania.

 

1287 AD

Baptism of one of Nogai's wives at Chufut-Kale.

1287 AD

Venetian consul mentioned at Sudak - possibly existed from some time after 1265.

1287-91 AD

Tele Buga, Khan of Kipchak Horde after resignation of Tudu Mangu. He opens new war against Il-Khans in Persia to try to take Azerbaijan, but fails.

1288 AD

Galician chronicles mention presence of merchants from Sudak, Germany, and Novgorod.

 

1289 AD

Rostov people try to use opportunity to rebel against Mongols, but revolt is suppressed by Russian princes with Mongol aid.

 
 

1290 AD

Teutonic Order from Livonia conquers Semigallia.

 

1290's AD

Sudak population is one third Tatar.

1290 AD

Date of earliest surviving official Genoese regulations for local government in Kaffa.

 

1290-96 AD

Przemyslav II, King of Poland.

 
 

1290 AD

Tele-Buga again at war in Azerbaijan. He tries to arrest Mangu-Temir's son, Tokhta, who escapes and finds refuge with Nogai.

 

1291 AD

Mamluks drive last Crusaders out of Palestine, Venice establishes trade with Turks at Acre, Genoa tries to close Dardanelles to Venice.

 

1291 AD

Nogai captures Tele-Buga and has him executed. He then places Tokhta on throne as Khan. Tokhta revitalizes Horde and its army. The Russian princes split with some including Andrei and the Rostov princes going to swear allegiance to Tokhta and others including Dmitrii and Michael of Tver going to swear allegiance to Nogai.

 

1291-1313 AD

Tokhta, Khan of Kypchak Horde.

 

1291-95 AD

Geikhatu, Khan of Il-Khan empire.

 
 

1292 AD

Swedes establish outpost castle at Viborg in Karelia.

 

1292 AD

Metropolitan of Gothia in Crimea, Sophronius, attends Council at Constantinople.

 

1293 AD

Tokhta confirms Andrei as Grand Prince of Vladimir and sends Mongol army to support Andrei in battle against Dmitrii. Result is extensive destruction in entire Vladimir princedom and looting of Vladimir, Moscow and other towns. Tver tries to resist against another Mongol army. Dmitrii flees to Pskov and then dies.

 
 

1293 AD

Mongols are defeated in Java.

 
 

1293 AD

Nogai invades Serbia and forces king to acknowledge him as overlord.

 

1294 AD

Genoa wins naval victory over Venice at Alexandretta, but Venice reopens Dardanelles and sacks Genoese quarter at Galatia.

 

1294-1307 AD

On death of Qubilai, Temur Oljeitu becomes Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty) in China.

 

1294 - 1304 AD

On death of Dmitrii Aleksandrovich, Andrei III Aleksandrovich, again Grand Prince of Vladimir.

 

1295 AD

Baidu and then Ghazan (1295-1304) become Khan of Il-Khan empire, convert to become Muslim.

 
 

1297 AD

Tokhta calls all Russian princes to meeting at Vladimir with his representative and forces them to unite in his support. War between Tokhta and Nogai between the Volga and the Pruth. Nogai brings his army from Bulgaria and Romania to the battle between the Pruth and Dniester Rivers. Nogai wins and drives Tokhta back across the Don River but fails to complete the pursuit and follow up the victory.

 

1297 AD

Venice and Genoa at war in Black Sea with each seeking support from one of the rival Mongol khans. Venice gains temporary control of Evpatoria.

 

1297 AD

Staritsa founded.

 
 

1297 AD

Civil war in Livonia.

 
 

1298 AD

Tatars sack Moscow.

 

1298-1300 AD

Steppe war among Kypchak clans, Nogai, instead of following up against Tokhta, turns into Crimea. He captures Eski-Kerman, Chufut Kale, attacks Kaffa, Chersonesus and Sudak. Acceleration of decline of Chersonesus with Tatars controlling western Crimea.

1299 AD

Genoa wins decisive victory over Venice at Curzole in Adriatic.

 

1299 AD

During steppe war Metropolitan Maksim leaves Kyiv for Vladimir. Kyiv is now too unsafe a location for church headquarters.

 

1299 -1300 AD

Khan Tokhta has new army and returns to the attack. Battle of (Kukanlyk) Kagamly River, near modern Poltava, Khan Tokhta defeats Nogai, who is killed by one of Tokhta's Russian troops. Tokhta executes him for daring to spill the blood of a Mongol emir. Soon the Nogai Horde divides and some move back to steppes north of the Caspian Sea while others remain along the Dnieper. Tokhta sets about restoring order and power after damage caused by the civil war.

End 13th early 14th century

Arab writers and travelers list Sudak among the most important trading cities of the world - call the Black Sea the "Sudak Sea".

 

Go to 14th century.

 

Return to Xenophon. Return to Ruscity. Return to Rushistory. Return to Ukraine.