THE RULING HOUSE OF RUS - RUSSIA
Here we have a listing of the line of rulers in chronological order. By
rulers we mean they were either the prince of Kyiv or later the grand prince of
Vladimir, or finally the prince, Tsar or Emperor of Moscow and all the Russias.
We have pictures for some of them so far and are looking for those that are
still missing. The file loads fairly slowly because of all the thumbnail
pictures. Click on the blue name to jump to a longer biography or discussion of
the reign. These are being expanded as quickly as we can get to them. At
Kyiv princes we have a geneology table showing only
the princes at Kyiv up to the Mongol invasion. And click here to see the first
geneology diagram that includes most of the family
members during the first period - up to 1212. We have the charts for each of
the dynasties that split off from this early period clear to 1917 and are
posting them as they are prepared. We have and are posting charts showing the
members of collateral lines who ruled regions such as Galich, Smolensk,
Polotsk, Ryazan, Novgorod, and Chernigiv. This is the overall organization of
these geneologies. All the family members who were
rated as 'princes' are being listed in this alphabetical table. And we are continually expanding
the general chronological table that includes the
rulers and many of their exploits. Once we have the many princes more or less
in order we will set up descriptions of each of the principalities.
Prince in Novgorod (Norse from Jutland) He has been identified as a real Norse
leader, but his activities in the Rus land are at least partially legendary.
Oleg (879 -912)
Prince in Novgorod and (according to chronicles) from 882 in Kiev. Campaigned
against Byzantium in 907 and 911. He was a relative of Rurik but not in the
line of descent. He moved the throne from Novgorod to Kyiv.
(married Olga, Norse princess from Pskov). It is not clear if he was ofspring
of Rurik or not, but Rus chronicles accept this so the house was called Rurikid
down to Feodor Ivanovich, nearly 700 years. Their son was Sviatoslav I.
She was the wife of Prince Igor and then, after her husband was killed,
regent for their son, Svyatoslav I.
Svyatoslav I ( 964-972), born in 942
(married Malusha, Slavic servant) His sons were Yaropolk I,
Olegand Vladimir I.
Svyatoslavich (972-978) Defeated by Vladimir. He may have been the
father of Svyatopolk I.
Vladimir ISvyatoslavich (978-1015) baptized
(married Rogneda of Polotsk, Norse Princess, had 12 wives including, after his
conversion Anna Porphyrogenita, Byzantine princess and then the daughter of
Cuno, Count of Oeningen) He had 12 sons including Iziaslav (who began the ruling house of Polotsk),
Svyatopolk I, Mstislav, Yaroslav I, Boris,
Svyatoslav, Gleb and Sudislav; and 12 daughters.
Vladimirovich(1015-1019) (Okayanii) (the accursed), born in 980, was
initially prince of Turov, married Polish princess, daughter of Boleslaw I. Was
defeated in battles by Yaroslav. He died without heir. There is some dispute
whether Svyatopolk was the son of Vladimir or of Yaropolk.
the wise (1019-1054), born in 978, baptized Georgi, (married Ingigerd,
daughter of Olaf, King of Sweden) His sons were Elias who was prince of
Novgorod until he died in 1020; Vladimir (also
prince of Novgorod until he died) , Izyaslav I, who
succeeded his father at Kyiv, Svyatoslav II,
Vsyevolod I, Vyacheslav,
and Igor. His daughters - Elizabeth married Harald III
Hadradata, king of Norway, then, when Harold was killed at Stamford Bridge in
1066, she married Sven II, King of Denmark. She died in 1076. - Anna married
Henry I, king of France and after his death Raoul II, Count of Crespy and of
Valois. She died in 1071. - Anastasia married Andrew I, King of Hungary. All
rulers of Rus towns except Polotsk were descended from Yaroslav Vladimirovich.
Mstislav Vladimirovich (d. 1036)
Ruler of Tmutorokan and then also Chernigiv. He divided the land with Yaroslav.
And when he died in 1036 without heir it was reunited. But eventually Chernigiv
became semi-independent under the descendents of Svyatoslav II Yaroslavich, the
Izyaslav IYaroslavich born in 1025 and baptized Dmitri,
(1054-1078) Prince of Turov, then of Kyiv.
His sons were Yaropolk-Peter, prince of Vladimir-in-Volynia;
Mstislav, prince of Kiev; and
Svyatopolk II, prince of Kyiv. (see the house of
Turov.) And his daughter was Yevpraksia-Vishyeslava.
Yaroslavich of Chernigiv (usurper 1073-1076).
His sons were Gleb, David,
Oleg, Roman, and
Yaroslav. (See the house of Chernigiv.) Oleg's sons were Vsyevolod II, Igor II,
Svyatoslav, Gleb, and Ivan and their descendents were the Ol'govichi. David's
sons were Svyatoslav, Vsyevolod, Vladimir, Izyaslav
III, and Rostislav. Yaroslav's sons were Yuri, Rostislav and Svyatoslav.
Rostislav had a son named Gleb who began the ruling dynasty of Riazan.
Svyatoslav's family ruled Murom.
Vsyevolod I Yaroslavich (1078-1093), born in
1030, was prince pf Peryeyaslavl-Rostov-Suzdal
His sons were Vladimir II Monomakh and Rostislav.
His daughter, Joan, was Abbess of Yanchin, and his daughter, Evpraksia, married
first Henry, Margrave of Nordmark, and then the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV,
and she denounced him to Pope Gregory VII. His descendents form the main line
of succession in future generations.
Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich (1093-1113),
baptized as Mikhail, (son of Izyaslav I Yaroslavich) He married daughter of
Turogkhan of Kypchaks. His sons were Mstislav (killed 1099); Yaroslav (k 1123);
Bryacheslav (d 1127) and Izyaslav (d 1128) and his grandson, Yuri Yaroslavich,
founded the house of Turov and Pinsk. (See chart of Izyaslav I above.)
Vladimir II Vsyevolodovich - Monomakh
(1113-1125), born in 1053 and baptized Vasilii,
son of Vsyevolod Yaroslavich, and a Byzantine princess daughter of Konstantin
Monomakh, he had 2 or 3 wives, among them Gytha, daughter of Harald II of
England, an unknown lady, and finally a daughter of Polovtsi (Kypchak) Khan
Aepa. His sons were Mstislav I, prince of Kyiv
(d1132); Isyaslav, prince of Murom (d 1096); Svyatoslav, prince of Pereyaslavl
(d 1114); Yaropolk II, prince of Kyiv (d1139);
Vyacheslav, prince of Kyiv (d1154); Roman, prince of Volynia (d 1119);
Andrei , prince of Volynia and Pereyaslavl (d1142);
and Yuri I Dolgoruki, prince of Kyiv, d1157).
Mstislav's family spread into Galicia, Vladimir in Volynia, Vyaz'ma, Yaroslavl'
and Smolensk as well as Kyiv. Yuri's family became princes of Suzdal, Rostov,
Beloozero, Nizhni-Novgorod, Tver, Starodub, Vladimir on Kliazma and Moscow.
Mstislav I Vladimirovich, Velikii (1125-1132),
born in 1076,
He was eldest son of Vladimir Monomakh. He married Christina, princess of
Sweden, and then a daughter of Novgorod boyar. His sons were Vsyevolod,
Izyaslav II, Svyatopolk, Rostislav (ruler of Smolensk, and prince of Kyiv
1154-1167), Yaropolk and Vladimir (who ruled Kyiv
briefly in 1171).
Yaropolk II Vladimirovich (1132-1139)
He was the fourth son of Vladimir Monomakh. He married an Ossetian princess. He
received Pereyaslavl. He moved to the throne at Kyiv at the death of his
brother, Mstislav. But there was civil war for the succession. His son,
Vyacheslav, did not rule Kyiv.
Vyacheslav Vladimirovich (1139, 1150, 1151-54,
He was the son of Vladimir II Vsyevolodovich. As the dates indicate, he ruled
at Kyiv off and on, depending on the political fortunes of his brothers and
nephews. His last period, 61-67, was a joint rule with Rostislav Mstislavich, who deemed it advisable to
associate his uncle with the rule in order to fend off the pretentions of
another uncle, Yuri Dolgoruki.
Vsyevolod II Ol'govich (1139-1146)
(son of Oleg son of Svyatoslav II). He married a
daughter of Mistislav the Great. His sons were Svyatoslav III, Izyaslav, and Zvenislav. The
Ol'govichi were continual enemies of the Monomashichi and struggled with them
for control of Kyiv. (see chart for the house of Chernigiv.)
Igor IIOl'govich, gained
the throne at Kyiv for 12 days in 1146.
II Mstislavich (13-8-1146 - 1149, 1151-1154) He was the son of
Mstislav I. Thus control of Kyiv reverted to the
Monomashchi. His sons were Mstislav II, Yaroslav
and Yaropolk. (see his family chart.) He and his
brother, Rostislav of Smolensk, fought both the
Ol'govichi, and their uncle, Yuri I, Dolgoruki - Prince
of Suzdal, for the Kievan throne. His son, Mstislav's, descendents were princes
of Vladimir in Volynia and Galich. Izyaslav's second period, 1151-54, was
jointly with his uncle, Vyacheslav.
Vladimirovich Dolgoruki (27-8-1149 - 1151 and
spring 1155 - 1157)
He was seventh son of Vladimir II Vsyevolodovich
Monomakh, prince of Kyiv and his mother's name is not recorded. She was
Vladimir's second wife. He married in 1108 Anna, daughter of the Polovtsi
(Kypchak) Khan Aepa, and then after 1108 a Byzantine princess. His sons were
Rostislav, prince of Pereyaslavl; Andrei Bogolubski, great prince of Vladimir;
Ivan, Svyatoslav, Yaroslav, Boris, Gleb, Mstislav, Vasili, Mikhalko, Vasilko,
and Vsyevolod III. He was sent to rule in Rostov-Suzdal (1125). He became
independent and moved his capital from Rostov to Suzdal. In 1149 he sacked Kiev
and established the grand princedom at Suzdal. During his reign at
Rostov-Suzdal-Vladimir there were several others who occupied the throne at
Kyiv. He died in Kiev in 1157.
RostislavMstislavich (Smolensk 1128-1168 and
Kyiv 8-2-1154 - 1155, and 12-4-1159 - 1161 with Vyacheslav Vladimirovich, and 1161-1167). He was
fourth son of Mstislav I Vladimirovich and nephew
of Yuri Dolgoruki. His sons were Roman, prince of
Smolensk (and Kyiv?); David, prince of Smolensk;
Svyatoslav, prince of Novgorod; Rurik, prince of
Kyiv; Yuri, prince of Smolensk; and Mstislav, prince
of Novgorod. The Rostislavichi held Smolensk and sometimes gained the Kyivan
Izyaslav III Davidovich
( 1154-1155, 21-5-1157 - 1158, 1161). He struggled for Kyiv with
Rostislav Mstislavich and was placed in Kyiv as a part of the larger conflict
between Yuri Vladimirovich's son, Andrei Bogolubski, and the Ol'govichi and
other Monomashchi. When Izyaslav Davidovich, Rostislav Mstislavich, and
Vyacheslav Vladimirovich all died the throne reverted to Mstislav Izyaslavich.
Izyaslavich (14-3-1167 - 1169) He was the son of principal assistant of
his father, Izyaslav II. When he died the throne shifted to his uncle, Vladimir
and to Gleb Yur'yevich.
Vladimir IIMstislavich (prince of Kyiv jointly
1169-1171). He was the son of Mstislav Vladimirovich, prince of Kyiv. He is
omitted from some lists.
Gleb Yur'yevich (prince Kyiv, 20-3-1169 - 1171)
He was the son of Yuri Vladimirovich Dolgoruki. He also is omitted from some
lists perhaps because he was put on the throne as a figurehead.
Mikhail Yur'yevich (prince of Kyiv 30 May 1171),
placed on the throne a brief period. He was grand prince of Vladimir briefly,
Roman Rostislavich (prince of Kyiv 1171-2 and
1175). He was the son of Rostislav Mstislavich, prince of Smolensk.
(brief period in 1172). He also was placed on the throne but could not
Yaroslav Izyaslavich, (1173-75) was the younger
son of Izyaslav II, Mstislavich. He held Kyiv between Roman's two periods.
Svyatoslav Vsyevolodovich, ruled briefly at Kyiv in 1175. Then Yaroslav held
the throne again and then Roman another time.
Andrei Yur'yevich Bogoliubski, born 1091,
(Vladimir 1157-1174), held power in Kyiv several times during 1157-59, moved
the throne to Vladimir in 1169, Grand prince of Vladimir 1169-1174).
He was the third son of Yuri Dolgoruki. His sons were Izyaslav (who died from
campaign against the Bulgars in 1165), Mstislav (who also died from campaign
against the Bulgars, in 1173), Gleb and Yuri (who married the Georgian princess
Tamara but had no heir). He was murdered by his boyars.
Mikhalko Yur'yevich prince of Vladimir
(1174-1176). He was the ninth son of Yuri and brother of Andrei. He ruled
briefly after his brother's death.
Rurik Rostoslavich (prince of Kyiv 1207-1211) He
was the son of Rostislav Mstislavich, prince of Kyiv. While he was ruling in
Kyiv the center of interest in Russia, at least for historians today, was
shifting to Vladimir, so he also is not found in some listings.
Vsyevelod III Yur'yevich Big Nest (1176-1212)
was Grand prince of Vladimir who controlled Kyiv through princes he appointed
He was the 11th son of Yuri Dolgoruki (married first
Maria, Ossetian princess and then Lubov', daughter of Vasil'ko Bryachislavich,
prince of Vitebsk). His sons from the second marriage were Konstantin (who
founded Rostov dynasty), Boris, Gleb, Yuri II, Yaroslav II, Vladimir,
Svyatoslav, and Ivan. His descendents continued the main lines of rulers, see
Vsyevolodovich born in 1187, (ruled 1212-1216, and
the fourth son of Vsyevelod III. He was deposed temporarily (1216-19) by his
brother, Konstantin. He was grand prince of Vladimir. His sons were Vsyevolod,
Mstislav and Vladimir. All four died in battle against the Mongol invaders.
Vsyevolodovich born in 1185, (1212- 1216-1219)
(to Rostov). He was the eldest son and fought his brothers, Yuri and Yaroslav,
to succeed their father. His sons were Vasil'ko of Rostov, Vsyevolod of
Yaroslavl, and Vladimir of Uglich.
Yurii Vsyevolodovich (2nd time) 1219-1238) He
died in battle with Mongols at Siti River. His sons, Mstislav and Vsyevolod
were killed in defense of Vladimir.
Yaroslav II (Feodor)Vsyevolodovich born in
the fifth son of Vsyevolod III. He married first a daughter of Yurii
Konchakovich, Kypchak Khan. Then his second wife was Rostislavna-Feodosia, daughter of
Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, prince of Novgorod. Her mother was also a
Kypchak princess. His sons from the second marriage were Feodor, Andrei II
(founder of the Suzdal-Nishegorod dynasty), Alexander Nevski, Mikhail
Khorobrit, Daniil, Yaroslav III (founder of Tver dynasty), Konstantin, and
Vasilii. Yaroslav proclaimed himself Grand Prince of Vladimir on the death of
his brother, Yurii II, in battle against the Mongols in 1238. But he had to go
to the Mongol Khan, Batu, to receive recognition and the Tatar yarlik,
to rule. From this point forward all the successors shown are those who have
received the yarlik, generally after outright struggle with their
(Gavril)Vsyevolodovich born in 1196, (1246-1248) seventh son of
Vsyevolod Yur'yevich. His son was Dmitri.
Khorobrit (1248) the fourth son of Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich.
Yaroslavich (1249-1252), the third son of Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich.
His sons were Yuri and Mikhail. He founded the family dynasty at Rostov -
Yaroslavl - and eventually the Shuiski princes. He died in 1264.
Alexander Yaroslavich - Nevsky , born in 1220,
the second son of Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich. He was the
ancestor of both Periaslavski and Moskovski princely dynasties. He married
Aleksandra of Polotsk. His sons were Vasilii, Dmitri, Andrei III and
Daniil of Moscow whose wife's name is not known.
Dmitri's sons were Ivan and Aleksandr. Andrei's son was Boris. Daniil had sons;
Yuri III, Afanasi, Ivan I Kalita, Boris and Alexander. (See house of Moscow.)
of Tver. He was the sixth son of Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich. His sons were
Mikhail Starshi, Svyatoslav, Mikhail II, and Vasilii. Mikhail continued the
dynasty as prince of Tver. (see house of Tver).
Yaroslavich, born in 1237, (1272-1276) Kostroma. He was the eighth
son of Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich.
Dmitrii I Aleksandrovich (1276-1281)
Periaslavl-Zaleski. He was the second son of Alexander Nevski. His sons were
Ivan and Aleksandr.
Andrei Aleksandrovich(1281-1283) Gorodyets. He
was the third son of Aleksandr Nevski. His son was Boris.
Dmitrii Aleksandrovich (2nd time) 1283-1294)
(1294-1304) (second time)
(of Tver), born in 1272, (1304-1319)
He was son of Yaroslav III. His sons were Dmitri
Steely Eyed, Aleksandr, Konstantin and Vasilii. The
family ruled Tver through six generations after Mikhail.
Yurii III Danilovich, born in
1238, (Moscow 1303-1325) Grand Prince of Vladimir (1319-1322)
His father was Daniil, son of Aleksandr Nevski. He married first a princess
from Rostov and then Agafya, sister of Tatar Khan Uzbek, He had no heir.
Grozni Ochi, (1322-1325) (Tver) Son of Mikhail Yaroslavich. He followed his
father at grand prince of Tver and Vladimir. He married a daughter of Gedimin,
Lithuanian prince, He had no heirs.
IIMikhailovich, born 1301, (1323-1328, 1337-39) (Tver) Second son of
Mikhail Yaroslavich. He followed his brother, Dmitri. His son was Feodor
Danilovich - Kalitka (1325-1341) Moscow.
He was the son of Alexander Nevski's younger son, Daniil, prince of Moscow who died in 1303. He married
Yelena (Russian ?) His sons were Semyon the Proud,
Ivan II, and Andrei. Semyon
and his family died in the plague of 1353. Andrei had a son, Vladimir, who had
five sons, Ivan, Semyon, Yaroslav, Andrei and Vasilii.
Semyon Ivanovich (Gordii - the proud) 1341-1353)
His family died with him in the plague.
Ivanovich Krasnii, Krotkii (1353-1359)
He married Feodosia of Briansk and then Aleksandra. His sons were Dmitrii
Donskoi and Ivan.
Konstantinovich (1359-1363) Suzdal-Nishigorod)
His father, Konstantin, was grandson of Andrei II. He struggled with Dmitrii
Ivanovich for the yarlik as Grand Prince of Vladimir, but was defeated
eventually. Dmitrii had two brothers, Andrei and
Boris. He had two sons, Vasilii Kirdiapa and Semyon. Vasilii's sons were Ivan
Gorbati and Vasilii Grebionka. These were founders of the two branches of the
Dmitrii Ivanovich - Donskoi (1359-1389)
son of Ivan II Ivanovich. He married Yevdokia, daughter of Dmitrii
Konstantinovich of Suzdal. His sons were Vasilii I,
Yurii IV, Andrei, Peter,
and Ivan. Yuri had three sons, Vasilii Kosoi, Dmitrii Shemiaka, and Dmitrii the
Younger. Andrei had two sons, Ivan and Mikhail.
He married Sophia of Lithuania (daughter of Vitovt). His son was Vasilii II.
Vasilii II Vasil'yevich - the dark (blinded) - (1425-1433)
He married Maria, daughter of Yaroslav
Vladimirovich, appanage prince of Maloyaroslavl, a descendent of Andrei of
Serpukhov. His sons were Ivan III, Yurii Starshi, Yurii Mladshi,
AndreiBol'shoi Goryii, Boris and
Yurii IV Dmitriyevich
(1433-1434) Galitshki brother of Vasilii I. He gained the throne in Moscow by
capturing Vasilii, but could not hold it. His sons were Vasilii Kosovoi, and
Dmitrii Shemyaka, who continued the conflict with Vasilii II.
Vasilii II Vasil'yevich (2nd time) 1434-1462)
Vasil'yevich - the great - (1462-1505)
He married Maria of Tver and then Sophia Paleologus, niece of last Byzantine
emperor. His sons were Ivan, Vasilii III, Yurii of Dmitrov, Dmitrii, Semyon of
Kaluga and Andrei Staritsk. His daughters - Yelena
became grandduchess of Lithuania, Feodosia married Prince Vasilii Kholmsky, and
Evdokia married Petr Ibragimovich, Tatar prince of Kazan. His eldest son, by
Maria, Ivan, married Yelyena of Moldavia. Their son, Dmitri, died in 1509.
Vasilii III Ivanovich
He married Solomona Yur'yevich and then Yelyena Vasil'yevich Glinskaya,
descendent of Lithuanian and Tatar princes. He had two sons, Yurii of Uglich
and Ivan IV.
Yelyena Glinskaya (1533-1538) regent for her son,
He married first, Anastasia Romanova. They had three sons and three daughters,
Anna, Maria and Yevdokia. He killed Ivan, the eldest. The second, Feodor,
became his heir and tsar. The third, Dmitrii, died at age about one year. He
had another son, Vasilii, by his second wife, Maria Temruka, Kabardinian
princess, but Vasilii also died as a baby. And the youngest son, Dmitrii by his
seventh wife, died at Uglich in 1591.
Also called Theodore I. But he was a weak young man and was under the influence
of his brother-in-law, Boris. He married Irene, sister of Boris Gudonov. Their
daughter, Feodosia died as a baby in 1593.
Irene, Tsaritsa from 1 Jan to 21 Feeb 1598 between the death of her husband,
Feodor, and the election to the throne of her brother, Boris.
Gudunov (1598-1605) He was brother-in-law of
Feodor Ivanovich and ruled behind the scenes during Feodor's reign. He then
managed to get himself proclaimed Tsar. His death initiated the "time of
troubles" His son was proclaimed tsar as Feodor II in 1605 but immediately
Feodor IIBorisovich (1605) The unfortunate lad
was murdered during the "Time of Troubles" and replaced by the
Pretender "False Dimitri".
I False Dmitri
(1605-1606) The pretender obtained Polish troops and then led an uprising
against Boris. He also was murdered. He was followed by two more 'false'
Dmitri's who met untimely ends.
Vasilii Ivanovich Shuiski (1606-1610) He reigned
during the "time of troubles" but is not included in some of the
official listings of tsars. He was deposed.
Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (1613-1645)
His father, Feodor, was Patriarch as Philaret. Feodor was son of Nikita
Romanov, who was the brother of Anastasia Romanova, wife of Ivan IV. (See
Romanov family tree) Mikhail married Eudoxia
Streshnev. He was elected tsar in 1613.
Alexis Mikhailovich (1645-1676)
He married first Maria Miloslavski and then Natalia Narishkin. By Maria he had
Sophia, Feodor III and Ivan V. By Natalia he had Peter I. During his reign
there were several wars with Poland over Smolensk and in Ukraine.
Feodor III Alexeivich (1676-1682) He married
twice. His first wife was Agaf'ia Grushetskaia, who died in childbirth in 1681.
He then married Marfa Apraksina, but they had no children as he died only a few
Ivan V Alexeivich
(jointly with Peter 1682-1689)
He was brother of Feodor and half brother of Peter I. His daughters were
Catherine, married to Charles Leopold of Mecklenburg and Anna, married to the
Duke of Courland. Catherine's daugher, Anna, married Anthony of Brunswick and
their son was Ivan VI.
Sophia Alexeivna (regent 1682-1689) She was the elder sister
of Ivan and half sister of Peter I who acted as regent for the two children.
But she wanted to rule in her own right and use the streltzi in an effort to
secure the throne.
Peter Alexeivich(jointly 1682-1689 - alone
He married first Eudoxia and then Martha Skavronska, who became Catherine I. By
Eudoxia he had Alexis, who married Charlotte of Brunswick. Their son was Peter
II. By Catherine he had Anna (wife of Charles Frederick) and Elizabeth. Anna's
son was Peter III.
Catherine I (1725-1727)
Known first as Martha Skavronska, she was Peter's second wife and successor.
She reigned from 1725 until 1727. Catherine was succeeded from 1727 until 1730,
by the child Peter II, son of Peter I's son, Alexis. Her daughter, Elizabeth,
became empress and her grandson, Peter III became emperor.
the son of Alexis and Charlotte of Brunswick. He died suddenly of smallpox as a
teenager. He is the only Romanov after Peter I burried in the Kremlin instead
of Peter and Paul fortress.
Anna Ivanovna (1730-1740) She was the daughter of
Ivan V and Praskovia Saltykova. Her husband, Frederick, Duke of Courland, died
right after the marriage. There was no heir. She was called to the Russian
throne in 1730 by a clique of senior court functionaries and required to sign a
protocol giving the nobility power. She tore it up right away and ruled until
Ivan VI (1740-1741)
He was a baby. He was the grandson of Empress Anna's sister, Catherine of
Mecklenburg-Schwerin, hence a granddaughter of Ivan V. His mother, also Anna,
married to Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel, was regent. He was deposed
in a palace coup led by Elizabeth. He lived in prison as an insane derelict
until murdered by guards in 1762.
Elizabeth Petrovna (1741-1762) She was Peter's
daughter by Catherine I. She staged an army coup against Ivan VI and ruled from
1741 until 1762. She secretly married Count Razumovski. She had no direct heir
but selected Peter III.
Peter III (1762)
the son of Empress Elizabeth's sister, Anna Petrovna, and Charles Frederick.
Elizabeth selected him as heir and also selected his wife. He married Sophia of
Anhalt Zerbst, who became Catherine II. Their son was Paul I. He was deposed by
his wife, then murdered.
Catherine II (1762-1796)
former Sophia, wife of Peter III. She managed to gain the name "The
Great". She was the minor princess, Sophia of Anhalt-Zerbst, who was
selected by Elizabeth as Peter III's wife. She staged a coup against her
husband with the help of guards regiments whose leaders hated Peter.
Paul I (1796-1801)
son theoretically of Peter III and Catherine II. He married Sophia Dorthea of
Wurttemburg. Their sons were Alexander I, Constantine and Nicholas I. Their
daughters were Helena, Maria, Catherine, and Anna. He was murdered in a palace
Aleksander I Pavlovich (1801-1825) was Paul's son by Sophia Dorothea
of Wurttenburg. He married Marie of Hesse - Darmstadt. He came to the throne on
the death of his father and prosecuted the several wars against Napoleon
culminating in Russian and Allied victory and the Congress of Vienna, in which
he played a prominent part. He died without heir and was succeeded by his
Nicholas I Pavlovich (1825-1855)
He married Charlotte of Prussia. Their sons were Alexander II, Constantine,
Nicholas and Michael. Their daughters were Maria, Olga, and Alexandra. Their
sons were Alexander II, Vladimir, Alexis and Sergius. He was brother of
Alexander I. He came to the throne on the death of his brother, the middle
brother, Constantine having renounced the throne. Nicholas was a martinet who
had visions of taking Constantinople from the Ottomans, whom he dubed "the
sick man of Europe." However, this so disturbed the French and British
that they interveened in the Great Eastern War (Crimean War) with Turkey and
Sardinia to defeat Russia.
Aleksander II Nikoliavich (1855-1881) -
He was the son of Nicholas I by Charlotte of Prussia. He married Maria of
Hesse- Darmstadt. Their sons were Nicholas, Alexander III, Sergius, Paul and
Vladimir. Their daughter was Maria. Alexander married Ekaterina Dolgorukova
later and they already had four illegitimate children. He is known as the
"tsar reformer" because he emancipated the serfs and instituted a
series of other major social and political reforms. He was killed by
revolutionaries who threw a bomb at his carriage in St. Petersburg in 1891.
Aleksander III Alexandrovich (1881-1894) -
He was the son of Alexander II by Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt. He married Dagmar
of Denmark. Their sons were Nicholas II and Michael. Their daughters were Xenia
and Olga. He took revenge for his father's death by instituting major
repression of revolutionary movements and other political elements.
Nicholas II Alexandrovich (1894-1917)
was the son of Alexander III by Dagmar of Denmark. His wife was Alexandra of
Hesse-Darmstadt, a descendent of Victoria of England. They had four daughters
and a son, Alexis, whose hemophilia played a very important disturbing role in
the family's ability to govern effectively. Their daughters were Olga, Tatiana,
Maria and Anastasia. Nicholas was overthrown in the February Revolution in
1917. They were all killed by Bolsheviks at Ekaterinburg.
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